Atypical antipsychotics have become indispensable in the treatment of a variety of symptoms in autism. They are frequently used to treat irritability and associated behaviors including aggression and self injury. They may also be efficacious for hyperactivity and stereotyped behavior. This review presents the rationale for the use of this drug class in autism and reviews the most important studies published on this topic to date. Significant adverse effects, including weight gain and the possibility of tardive dyskinesia, are reviewed. Future research directions are discussed.
David J. Posey, Kimberly A. Stigler, Craig A. Erickson, Christopher J. McDougle
The two modes of self-destruction at the cellular level — apoptosis (self-killing) and autophagy (self-eating) — are thought to be tumor suppressive. In particular, germline loss of function of genes involved in autophagy has been associated with tumorigenesis. However, recent studies, including the one by Maclean et al. reported in this issue of the JCI, indicate that autophagy can provide a means for cell survival when nutrients are limiting, such that inhibition of autophagy by the antimalarial drug chloroquine can inhibit tumorigenesis, specifically Myc-induced lymphoma in mice (see the related article beginning on page 79). These findings suggest that a new use of an old drug for cancer prevention may profoundly affect disease outcome.
Chi V. Dang
Hypertensive encephalopathy is a life-threatening condition due to elevation of cerebral perfusion pressure beyond the limits of autoregulation. Breakdown of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) leads to cerebral edema and reduced blood flow. In this issue of the JCI, Mochly-Rosen and colleagues demonstrate a novel molecular strategy for preserving the BBB in a model of hypertension-induced encephalopathy (see the related article beginning on page 173). Using a rationally designed peptide inhibitor of δPKC, they stabilized the BBB and improved mortality in hypertensive rats. This study highlights the therapeutic potential of δPKC inhibitors in hypertensive encephalopathy and provides incentive to elucidate δPKC signaling pathways that mediate BBB dysfunction in other disease states.
Wen-Hai Chou, Robert O. Messing
X chromosome inactivation involves a random choice to silence either X chromosome early in mammalian female development. Once silenced the inactive X is stably inherited through subsequent somatic cell divisions, and thus, females are generally mosaics, having a mixture of cells with one or the other parental X active. While in most females the number of cells with either X being active is roughly equal, skewing of X chromosome inactivation is observed in a percentage of women. In this issue of the JCI, Bolduc and colleagues address whether skewing of X chromosome inactivation in humans is influenced by an X-linked locus that can alter this initial random inactivation (see the related article beginning on page 333). Their data indicate that most of the skewing observed in humans results from secondary events rather than being due to an inherited tendency to inactivate a particular X chromosome.
Jakub Minks, Wendy P. Robinson, Carolyn J. Brown
Growth of blood and lymphatic vessels is essential in the developing embryo and in the pathogenesis of human diseases such as cancer, but the signaling pathways that regulate vessel growth and function are not yet well characterized. In this issue of the JCI, studies by Fritz-Six et al. and Ichikawa-Shindo et al. demonstrate that loss of signaling by the adrenomedullin peptide results in embryonic edema and death (see the related articles beginning on pages 40 and 29, respectively). Remarkably, this phenotype is attributed to defects in lymphatic vessels by one group and to defects in blood vessels by the other. In addition to defining what I believe to be a novel angiogenic signaling pathway, these studies demonstrate the intricate molecular, genetic, and physiologic relationships between blood and lymphatic vessels that must be considered by investigators of vascular biology.
Mark L. Kahn
Secreted from adipose tissue at levels proportional to fat stores, the hormone leptin is a critical regulator of the hypothalamic machinery that controls feeding and energy metabolism. Despite the critical role of leptin in the maintenance of energy homeostasis, no leptin-based therapeutic approaches have emerged to combat metabolic disorders such as obesity or diabetes. In this issue of the JCI, Xu et al. report a robust influence of leptin, beyond its role in metabolism, on hippocampal neuronal processes implicated in the etiology of epileptic seizures, learning, and memory (see the related article beginning on page 272). They show, in two rodent seizure models, that leptin administered directly to the brain or nasal epithelium suppresses seizures via direct effects on glutamate neurotransmission in the hippocampus. These observations suggest that leptin may have therapeutic potential in the treatment of epilepsy and strengthen the notion that peripheral metabolic hormones such as leptin play important roles in the regulation of higher brain functions.
Sabrina Diano , Tamas L. Horvath
Adrenomedullin (AM) is a peptide involved both in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases and in circulatory homeostasis. The high-affinity AM receptor is composed of receptor activity–modifying protein 2 or 3 (RAMP2 or -3) and the GPCR calcitonin receptor–like receptor. Testing our hypothesis that RAMP2 is a key determinant of the effects of AM on the vasculature, we generated and analyzed mice lacking RAMP2. Similar to AM–/– embryos, RAMP2–/– embryos died in utero at midgestation due to vascular fragility that led to severe edema and hemorrhage. Vascular ECs in RAMP2–/– embryos were severely deformed and detached from the basement membrane. In addition, the abnormally thin arterial walls of these mice had a severe disruption of their typically multilayer structure. Expression of tight junction, adherence junction, and basement membrane molecules by ECs was diminished in RAMP2–/– embryos, leading to paracellular leakage and likely contributing to the severe edema observed. In adult RAMP2+/– mice, reduced RAMP2 expression led to vascular hyperpermeability and impaired neovascularization. Conversely, ECs overexpressing RAMP2 had enhanced capillary formation, firmer tight junctions, and reduced vascular permeability. Our findings in human cells and in mice demonstrate that RAMP2 is a key determinant of the effects of AM on the vasculature and is essential for angiogenesis and vascular integrity.
Yuka Ichikawa-Shindo, Takayuki Sakurai, Akiko Kamiyoshi, Hisaka Kawate, Nobuyoshi Iinuma, Takahiro Yoshizawa, Teruhide Koyama, Junichi Fukuchi, Satoshi Iimuro, Nobuo Moriyama, Hayato Kawakami, Toshinori Murata, Kenji Kangawa, Ryozo Nagai, Takayuki Shindo
The lymphatic vascular system mediates fluid homeostasis, immune defense, and tumor metastasis. Only a handful of genes are known to affect the development of the lymphatic vasculature, and even fewer represent therapeutic targets for lymphatic diseases. Adrenomedullin (AM) is a multifunctional peptide vasodilator that transduces its effects through the calcitonin receptor–like receptor (calcrl) when the receptor is associated with a receptor activity–modifying protein (RAMP2). Here we report on the involvement of these genes in lymphangiogenesis. AM-, calcrl-, or RAMP2-null mice died mid-gestation after development of interstitial lymphedema. This conserved phenotype provided in vivo evidence that these components were required for AM signaling during embryogenesis. A conditional knockout line with loss of calcrl in endothelial cells confirmed an essential role for AM signaling in vascular development. Loss of AM signaling resulted in abnormal jugular lymphatic vessels due to reduction in lymphatic endothelial cell proliferation. Furthermore, AM caused enhanced activation of ERK signaling in human lymphatic versus blood endothelial cells, likely due to induction of CALCRL gene expression by the lymphatic transcriptional regulator Prox1. Collectively, our studies identify a class of genes involved in lymphangiogenesis that represent a pharmacologically tractable system for the treatment of lymphedema or inhibition of tumor metastasis.
Kimberly L. Fritz-Six, William P. Dunworth, Manyu Li, Kathleen M. Caron
Breast cancers frequently progress or relapse during targeted therapy, but the molecular mechanisms that enable escape remain poorly understood. We elucidated genetic determinants underlying tumor escape in a transgenic mouse model of Wnt pathway–driven breast cancer, wherein targeted therapy is simulated by abrogating doxycycline-dependent Wnt1 transgene expression within established tumors. In mice with intact tumor suppressor pathways, tumors typically circumvented doxycycline withdrawal by reactivating Wnt signaling, either via aberrant (doxycycline-independent) Wnt1 transgene expression or via acquired somatic mutations in the gene encoding β-catenin. Germline introduction of mutant tumor suppressor alleles into the model altered the timing and mode of tumor escape. Relapses occurring in the context of null Ink4a/Arf alleles (disrupting both the p16Ink4a and p19Arf tumor suppressors) arose quickly and rarely reactivated the Wnt pathway. In addition, Ink4a/Arf-deficient relapses resembled p53-deficient relapses in that both displayed morphologic and molecular hallmarks of an epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Notably, Ink4a/Arf deficiency promoted relapse in the absence of gross genomic instability. Moreover, Ink4a/Arf-encoded proteins differed in their capacity to suppress oncogene independence. Isolated p19Arf deficiency mirrored p53 deficiency in that both promoted rapid, EMT-associated mammary tumor escape, whereas isolated p16Ink4a deficiency failed to accelerate relapse. Thus, p19Arf/p53 pathway lesions may promote mammary cancer relapse even when inhibition of a targeted oncogenic signaling pathway remains in force.
Michael T. Debies, Shelley A. Gestl, Jessica L. Mathers, Oliver R. Mikse, Travis L. Leonard, Susan E. Moody, Lewis A. Chodosh, Robert D. Cardiff, Edward J. Gunther
Overexpression of the receptor tyrosine kinase EPH receptor A2 (EphA2) is commonly observed in aggressive breast cancer and correlates with a poor prognosis. However, while EphA2 has been reported to enhance tumorigenesis, proliferation, and MAPK activation in several model systems, other studies suggest that EphA2 activation diminishes these processes and inhibits the activity of MAPK upon ligand stimulation. In this study, we eliminated EphA2 expression in 2 transgenic mouse models of mammary carcinoma. EphA2 deficiency impaired tumor initiation and metastatic progression in mice overexpressing ErbB2 (also known as Neu) in the mammary epithelium (MMTV-Neu mice), but not in mice overexpressing the polyomavirus middle T antigen in mammary epithelium (MMTV–PyV-mT mice). Histologic and ex vivo analyses of MMTV-Neu mouse mammary epithelium indicated that EphA2 enhanced tumor proliferation and motility. Biochemical analyses revealed that EphA2 formed a complex with ErbB2 in human and murine breast carcinoma cells, resulting in enhanced activation of Ras-MAPK signaling and RhoA GTPase. Additionally, MMTV-Neu, but not MMTV–PyV-mT, tumors were sensitive to therapeutic inhibition of EphA2. These data suggest that EphA2 cooperates with ErbB2 to promote tumor progression in mice and may provide a novel therapeutic target for ErbB2-dependent tumors in humans. Moreover, EphA2 function in tumor progression appeared to depend on oncogene context, an important consideration for the application of therapies targeting EphA2.
Dana M. Brantley-Sieders, Guanglei Zhuang, Donna Hicks, Wei Bin Fang, Yoonha Hwang, Justin M.M. Cates, Karen Coffman, Dowdy Jackson, Elizabeth Bruckheimer, Rebecca S. Muraoka-Cook, Jin Chen
Despite great interest in cancer chemoprevention, effective agents are few. Here we show that chloroquine, a drug that activates the stress-responsive Atm-p53 tumor-suppressor pathway, preferentially enhances the death of Myc oncogene–overexpressing primary mouse B cells and mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) and impairs Myc-induced lymphomagenesis in a transgenic mouse model of human Burkitt lymphoma. Chloroquine-induced cell death in primary MEFs and human colorectal cancer cells was dependent upon p53, but not upon the p53 modulators Atm or Arf. Accordingly, chloroquine impaired spontaneous lymphoma development in Atm-deficient mice, a mouse model of ataxia telangiectasia, but not in p53-deficient mice. Chloroquine treatment enhanced markers of both macroautophagy and apoptosis in MEFs but ultimately impaired lysosomal protein degradation. Interestingly, chloroquine-induced cell death was not dependent on caspase-mediated apoptosis, as neither overexpression of the antiapoptotic protein Bcl-2 nor deletion of the proapoptotic Bax and Bak affected chloroquine-induced MEF death. However, when both apoptotic and autophagic pathways were blocked simultaneously, chloroquine-induced killing of Myc-overexpressing cells was blunted. Thus chloroquine induces lysosomal stress and provokes a p53-dependent cell death that does not require caspase-mediated apoptosis. These findings specifically demonstrate that intermittent chloroquine use effectively prevents cancer in mouse models of 2 genetically distinct human cancer syndromes, Burkitt lymphoma and ataxia telangiectasia, suggesting that agents targeting lysosome-mediated degradation may be effective in cancer prevention.
Kirsteen H. Maclean, Frank C. Dorsey, John L. Cleveland, Michael B. Kastan
Cells isolated from many types of human cancers express heparin-binding growth factors (HBGFs) that drive tumor growth, metastasis, and angiogenesis. The heparan sulfate proteoglycan glypican-1 (GPC1) is a coreceptor for HBGFs. Here we show that both cancer cell–derived and host-derived GPC1 are crucial for efficient growth, metastasis, and angiogenesis of human and mouse cancer cells. Thus downregulation of GPC1 in the human pancreatic cancer cell line PANC-1, using antisense approaches, resulted in prolonged doubling times and decreased anchorage-independent growth in vitro as well as attenuated tumor growth, angiogenesis, and metastasis when these cells were transplanted into athymic mice. Moreover, athymic mice that lacked GPC1 exhibited decreased tumor angiogenesis and metastasis following intrapancreatic implantation with either PANC-1 or T3M4 human pancreatic cancer cells and fewer pulmonary metastases following intravenous injection of murine B16-F10 melanoma cells. In addition, hepatic endothelial cells isolated from these mice exhibited an attenuated mitogenic response to VEGF-A. These data indicate that cancer cell– and host-derived GPC1 are crucial for full mitogenic, angiogenic, and metastatic potential of cancer cells. Thus targeting GPC1 might provide new avenues for cancer therapy and for the prevention of cancer metastasis.
Takuma Aikawa, Chery A. Whipple, Martha E. Lopez, Jason Gunn, Alison Young, Arthur D. Lander, Murray Korc
TRAIL is a promising anticancer agent due to its ability to selectively induce apoptosis in established tumor cell lines but not nontransformed cells. Herein, we demonstrate a role for the apoptosis-inducing TRAIL receptor (TRAIL-R) as a metastasis suppressor. Although mouse models employing tumor transplantation have shown that TRAIL can reduce tumor growth, autochthonous tumor models have generated conflicting results with respect to the physiological role of the TRAIL system during tumorigenesis. We used a multistage model of squamous cell carcinoma to examine the role of TRAIL-R throughout all steps of tumor development. DMBA/TPA-treated TRAIL-R–deficient mice showed neither an increase in number or growth rate of benign papillomas nor an increase in the rate of progression to squamous cell carcinoma. However, metastasis to lymph nodes was significantly enhanced, indicating a role for TRAIL-R specifically in the suppression of metastasis. We also found that adherent TRAIL-R–expressing skin carcinoma cells were TRAIL resistant in vitro but were sensitized to TRAIL upon detachment by inactivation of the ERK signaling pathway. As detachment from the primary tumor is an obligatory step in metastasis, this provides a possible mechanism by which TRAIL-R could inhibit metastasis. Hence, treatment of cancer patients with agonists of the apoptosis-inducing receptors for TRAIL may prove useful in reducing the incidence of metastasis.
Anne Grosse-Wilde, Oksana Voloshanenko, S. Lawrence Bailey, Gary M. Longton, Uta Schaefer, Andreea I. Csernok, Günther Schütz, Erich F. Greiner, Christopher J. Kemp, Henning Walczak
Preclinical data support the potential of the death-signaling receptors for TRAIL as targets for cancer therapy. However, it is unclear whether these death-signaling receptors suppress the emergence and growth of malignant tumors in vivo. Herein we show that TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand receptor (TRAIL-R), the only proapoptotic death-signaling receptor for TRAIL in the mouse, suppresses inflammation and tumorigenesis. Loss of a single TRAIL-R allele on the lymphoma-prone Eμ-myc genetic background significantly reduced median lymphoma-free survival. TRAIL-R–deficient lymphomas developed with equal frequency irrespective of mono- or biallelic loss of TRAIL-R, had increased metastatic potential, and showed apoptotic defects relative to WT littermates. In addition, TRAIL-R–/– mice showed decreased long-term survival following a sublethal dose of ionizing radiation. Histological evaluation of moribund irradiated TRAIL-R–/– animals showed hallmarks of bronchopneumonia as well as tumor formation with increased NF-κB p65 expression. TRAIL-R also suppressed diethylnitrosamine-induced (DEN-induced) hepatocarcinogenesis, as an increased number of large tumors with apoptotic defects developed in the livers of DEN-treated TRAIL-R–/– mice. Thus TRAIL-R may function as an inflammation and tumor suppressor in multiple tissues in vivo.
Niklas Finnberg, Andres J.P. Klein-Szanto, Wafik S. El-Deiry
The adult heart responds to excessive neurohumoral signaling and workload by a pathological growth response characterized by hypertrophy of cardiomyocytes and activation of a fetal program of cardiac gene expression. These responses culminate in diminished pump function, ventricular dilatation, wall thinning, and fibrosis, and can result in sudden death. Myocyte enhancer factor–2 (MEF2) transcription factors serve as targets of the signaling pathways that drive pathological cardiac remodeling, but the requirement for MEF2 factors in the progression of heart disease in vivo has not been determined. MEF2A and MEF2D are the primary MEF2 factors expressed in the adult heart. To specifically determine the role of MEF2D in pathological cardiac remodeling, we generated mice with a conditional MEF2D allele. MEF2D-null mice were viable, but were resistant to cardiac hypertrophy, fetal gene activation, and fibrosis in response to pressure overload and β-chronic adrenergic stimulation. Furthermore, we show in a transgenic mouse model that forced overexpression of MEF2D was sufficient to drive the fetal gene program and pathological remodeling of the heart. These results reveal a unique and important function for MEF2D in stress-dependent cardiac growth and reprogramming of gene expression in the adult heart.
Yuri Kim, Dillon Phan, Eva van Rooij, Da-Zhi Wang, John McAnally, Xiaoxia Qi, James A. Richardson, Joseph A. Hill, Rhonda Bassel-Duby, Eric N. Olson
Secretoneurin (SN), a neuropeptide derived from secretogranin II, promotes neurite outgrowth of immature cerebellar granule cells. SN also aids in the growth and repair of neuronal tissue, although the precise mechanisms underlying the promotion of brain tissue neuroprotection and plasticity by SN are not understood. Here, in a rat model of stroke and in ischemic human brain tissue, SN was markedly upregulated in both neurons and endothelial cells. SN-mediated neuroprotection rescued primary cortical cell cultures from oxygen/glucose deprivation. SN also induced expression of the antiapoptotic proteins Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL through the Jak2/Stat3 pathway and inhibited apoptosis by blocking caspase-3 activation. In addition, rats with occluded right middle cerebral arteries showed less cerebral infarction, improved motor performance, and increased brain metabolic activity following i.v. administration of SN. Furthermore, SN injection enhanced stem cell targeting to the injured brain in mice and promoted the formation of new blood vessels to increase local cortical blood flow in the ischemic hemisphere. Both in vitro and in vivo, SN not only promoted neuroprotection, but also enhanced neurogenesis and angiogenesis. Our results demonstrate that SN acts directly on neurons after hypoxia and ischemic insult to further their survival by activating the Jak2/Stat3 pathway.
Woei-Cherng Shyu, Shinn-Zong Lin, Ming-Fu Chiang, Der-Cherng Chen, Ching-Yuan Su, Hsiao-Jung Wang, Ren-Shyan Liu, Chang-Hai Tsai, Hung Li
Dopamine (DA) cell replacement therapy in Parkinson disease (PD) can be achieved using human fetal mesencephalic tissue; however, limited tissue availability has hindered further developments. Embryonic stem cells provide a promising alternative, but poor survival and risk of teratoma formation have prevented their clinical application. We present here a method for generating large numbers of DA neurons based on expanding and differentiating ventral midbrain (VM) neural stem cells/progenitors in the presence of key signals necessary for VM DA neuron development. Mouse VM neurospheres (VMNs) expanded with FGF2, differentiated with sonic hedgehog and FGF8, and transfected with Wnt5a (VMN-Wnt5a) generated 10-fold more DA neurons than did conventional FGF2-treated VMNs. VMN-Wnt5a cells exhibited the transcriptional and biochemical profiles and intrinsic electrophysiological properties of midbrain DA cells. Transplantation of these cells into parkinsonian mice resulted in significant cellular and functional recovery. Importantly, no tumors were detected and only a few transplanted grafts contained sporadic nestin-expressing progenitors. Our findings show that Wnt5a improves the differentiation and functional integration of stem cell–derived DA neurons in vivo and define Wnt5a-treated neural stem cells as an efficient and safe source of DA neurons for cell replacement therapy in PD.
Clare L. Parish, Gonçalo Castelo-Branco, Nina Rawal, Jan Tonnesen, Andreas Toft Sorensen, Carmen Salto, Merab Kokaia, Olle Lindvall, Ernest Arenas
Injury to the peripheral nervous system (PNS) initiates a response controlled by multiple extracellular mediators, many of which contribute to the development of neuropathic pain. Schwann cells in an injured nerve demonstrate increased expression of LDL receptor–related protein–1 (LRP1), an endocytic receptor for diverse ligands and a cell survival factor. Here we report that a fragment of LRP1, in which a soluble or shed form of LRP1 with an intact α-chain (sLRP-α), was shed by Schwann cells in vitro and in the PNS after injury. Injection of purified sLRP-α into mouse sciatic nerves prior to chronic constriction injury (CCI) inhibited p38 MAPK activation (P-p38) and decreased expression of TNF-α and IL-1β locally. sLRP-α also inhibited CCI-induced spontaneous neuropathic pain and decreased inflammatory cytokine expression in the spinal dorsal horn, where neuropathic pain processing occurs. In cultures of Schwann cells, astrocytes, and microglia, sLRP-α inhibited TNF-α–induced activation of p38 MAPK and ERK/MAPK. The activity of sLRP-α did not involve TNF-α binding, but rather glial cell preconditioning, so that the subsequent response to TNF-α was inhibited. Our results show that sLRP-α is biologically active and may attenuate neuropathic pain. In the PNS, the function of LRP1 may reflect the integrated activities of the membrane-anchored and shed forms of LRP1.
Alban Gaultier, Sanja Arandjelovic, Xiaoqing Li, Julie Janes, Nikola Dragojlovic, George P. Zhou, Jenny Dolkas, Robert R. Myers, Steven L. Gonias, W. Marie Campana
Hypertensive encephalopathy is a potentially fatal condition associated with cerebral edema and the breakdown of the blood-brain barrier (BBB). The molecular pathways leading to this condition, however, are unknown. We determined the role of δPKC, which is thought to regulate microvascular permeability, in the development of hypertensive encephalopathy using δV1-1 — a selective peptide inhibitor of δPKC. As a model of hypertensive encephalopathy, Dahl salt-sensitive rats were fed an 8% high-salt diet from 6 weeks of age and then were infused s.c. with saline, control TAT peptide, or δV1-1 using osmotic minipumps. The mortality rate and the behavioral symptoms of hypertensive encephalopathy decreased significantly in the δV1-1–treated group relative to the control-treated group, and BBB permeability was reduced by more than 60%. Treatment with δV1-1 was also associated with decreased δPKC accumulation in capillary endothelial cells and in the endfeet of capillary astrocytes, which suggests decreased microvasculature disruption. Treatment with δV1-1 prevented hypertension-induced tight junction disruption associated with BBB breakdown, which suggests that δPKC may specifically act to dysregulate tight junction components. Together, these results suggest that δPKC plays a role in the development of hypertension-induced encephalopathy and may be a therapeutic target for the prevention of BBB disruption.
Xin Qi, Koichi Inagaki, Raymond A. Sobel, Daria Mochly-Rosen
Endothelial dysfunction is a key triggering event in atherosclerosis. Following the entry of lipoproteins into the vessel wall, their rapid modification results in the generation of advanced glycation endproduct epitopes and subsequent infiltration of inflammatory cells. These inflammatory cells release receptor for advanced glycation endproduct (RAGE) ligands, specifically S100/calgranulins and high-mobility group box 1, which sustain vascular injury. Here, we demonstrate critical roles for RAGE and its ligands in vascular inflammation, endothelial dysfunction, and atherosclerotic plaque development in a mouse model of atherosclerosis, apoE–/– mice. Experiments in primary aortic endothelial cells isolated from mice and in cultured human aortic endothelial cells revealed the central role of JNK signaling in transducing the impact of RAGE ligands on inflammation. These data highlight unifying mechanisms whereby endothelial RAGE and its ligands mediate vascular and inflammatory stresses that culminate in atherosclerosis in the vulnerable vessel wall.
Evis Harja, De-xiu Bu, Barry I. Hudson, Jong Sun Chang, Xiaoping Shen, Kellie Hallam, Anastasia Z. Kalea, Yan Lu, Rosa H. Rosario, Sai Oruganti, Zana Nikolla, Dmitri Belov, Evanthia Lalla, Ravichandran Ramasamy, Shi Fang Yan, Ann Marie Schmidt
Atherosclerosis is an inflammatory disease that is associated with monocyte recruitment and subsequent differentiation into lipid-laden macrophages at sites of arterial lesions, leading to the development of atherosclerotic plaques. PLC is a key member of signaling pathways initiated by G protein–coupled ligands in macrophages. However, the role of this enzyme in the regulation of macrophage function is not known. Here, we studied macrophages from mice lacking PLC β2, PLC β3, or both PLC isoforms and found that PLC β3 is the major functional PLC β isoform in murine macrophages. Although PLC β3 deficiency did not affect macrophage migration, adhesion, or phagocytosis, it resulted in macrophage hypersensitivity to multiple inducers of apoptosis. PLC β3 appeared to regulate this sensitivity via PKC-dependent upregulation of Bcl-XL. The significance of PLC β signaling in vivo was examined using the apoE-deficient mouse model of atherosclerosis. Mice lacking both PLC β3 and apoE exhibited fewer total macrophages and increased macrophage apoptosis in atherosclerotic lesions, as well as reduced atherosclerotic lesion size when compared with mice lacking only apoE. These results demonstrate what we believe to be a novel role for PLC activity in promoting macrophage survival in atherosclerotic plaques and identify PLC β3 as a potential target for treatment of atherosclerosis.
Zhenglong Wang, Bei Liu, Ping Wang, Xuemei Dong, Carlos Fernandez-Hernando, Zhong Li, Timothy Hla, Zihai Li, Kevin Claffey, Jonathan D. Smith, Dianqing Wu
TLRs may contribute to the progression of rheumatoid arthritis through recognition of microbial or host-derived ligands found in arthritic joints. Here, we show that TLR2 and TLR4, but not TLR9, are involved in the pathogenesis of autoimmune arthritis and play distinct roles in the regulation of T cells and cytokines. We investigated the involvement of TLR2, TLR4, and TLR9 in the progression of arthritis using IL-1 receptor antagonist–knockout (IL1rn–/–) mice, which spontaneously develop an autoimmune T cell–mediated arthritis. Spontaneous onset of arthritis was dependent on TLR activation by microbial flora, as germ-free mice did not develop arthritis. Clinical and histopathological evaluation of IL1rn–/–Tlr2–/– mice revealed more severe arthritis, characterized by reduced suppressive function of Tregs and substantially increased IFN-γ production by T cells. IL1rn–/–Tlr4–/– mice were, in contrast, protected against severe arthritis and had markedly lower numbers of Th17 cells and a reduced capacity to produce IL-17. A lack of Tlr9 did not affect the progression of arthritis. While any therapeutic intervention targeting TLR2 still seems complicated, the strict position of TLR4 upstream of a number of pathogenic cytokines including IL-17 provides an interesting potential therapeutic target for rheumatoid arthritis.
Shahla Abdollahi-Roodsaz, Leo A.B. Joosten, Marije I. Koenders, Isabel Devesa, Mieke F. Roelofs, Timothy R.D.J. Radstake, Marleen Heuvelmans-Jacobs, Shizuo Akira, Martin J.H. Nicklin, Fátima Ribeiro-Dias, Wim B. van den Berg
Loss of the tumor suppressor gene von Hippel–Lindau (VHL) plays a key role in the oncogenesis of clear cell renal cell carcinoma (CCRCC). The loss leads to stabilization of the HIF transcription complex, which induces angiogenic and mitogenic pathways essential for tumor formation. Nonetheless, additional oncogenic events have been postulated to be required for the formation of CCRCC tumors. Here, we show that the Notch signaling cascade is constitutively active in human CCRCC cell lines independently of the VHL/HIF pathway. Blocking Notch signaling resulted in attenuation of proliferation and restrained anchorage-independent growth of CCRCC cell lines. Using siRNA targeting the different Notch receptors established that the growth-promoting effects of the Notch signaling pathway were attributable to Notch-1 and that Notch-1 knockdown was accompanied by elevated levels of the negative cell-cycle regulators p21Cip1 and/or p27Kip1. Treatment of nude mice with an inhibitor of Notch signaling potently inhibited growth of xenotransplanted CCRCC cells. Moreover, Notch-1 and the Notch ligand Jagged-1 were expressed at significantly higher levels in CCRCC tumors than in normal human renal tissue, and the growth of primary CCRCC cells was attenuated upon inhibition of Notch signaling. These findings indicate that the Notch cascade may represent a novel and therapeutically accessible pathway in CCRCC.
Jonas Sjölund, Martin Johansson, Sugata Manna, Carl Norin, Alexander Pietras, Siv Beckman, Elise Nilsson, Börje Ljungberg, Håkan Axelson
Patients with protein-losing enteropathy (PLE) fail to maintain intestinal epithelial barrier function and develop an excessive and potentially fatal efflux of plasma proteins. PLE occurs in ostensibly unrelated diseases, but emerging commonalities in clinical observations recently led us to identify key players in PLE pathogenesis. These include elevated IFN-γ, TNF-α, venous hypertension, and the specific loss of heparan sulfate proteoglycans from the basolateral surface of intestinal epithelial cells during PLE episodes. Here we show that heparan sulfate and syndecan-1, the predominant intestinal epithelial heparan sulfate proteoglycan, are essential in maintaining intestinal epithelial barrier function. Heparan sulfate– or syndecan-1–deficient mice and mice with intestinal-specific loss of heparan sulfate had increased basal protein leakage and were far more susceptible to protein loss induced by combinations of IFN-γ, TNF-α, and increased venous pressure. Similarly, knockdown of syndecan-1 in human epithelial cells resulted in increased basal and cytokine-induced protein leakage. Clinical application of heparin has been known to alleviate PLE in some patients but its unknown mechanism and severe side effects due to its anticoagulant activity limit its usefulness. We demonstrate here that non-anticoagulant 2,3-de-O-sulfated heparin could prevent intestinal protein leakage in syndecan-deficient mice, suggesting that this may be a safe and effective therapy for PLE patients.
Lars Bode, Camilla Salvestrini, Pyong Woo Park, Jin-Ping Li, Jeffrey D. Esko, Yu Yamaguchi, Simon Murch, Hudson H. Freeze
Sepsis is characterized by a systemic response to severe infection. Although the inflammatory phase of sepsis helps eradicate the infection, it can have detrimental consequences if left unchecked. Therapy directed against inflammatory mediators of sepsis has shown little success and has the potential to impair innate antimicrobial defenses. Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and the product of its enzymatic reaction, CO, have beneficial antiinflammatory properties, but little is known about their effects on microbial sepsis. Here, we have demonstrated that during microbial sepsis, HO-1–derived CO plays an important role in the antimicrobial process without inhibiting the inflammatory response. HO-1–deficient mice suffered exaggerated lethality from polymicrobial sepsis. Targeting HO-1 to SMCs and myofibroblasts of blood vessels and bowel ameliorated sepsis-induced death associated with Enterococcus faecalis, but not Escherichia coli, infection. The increase in HO-1 expression did not suppress circulating inflammatory cells or their accumulation at the site of injury but did enhance bacterial clearance by increasing phagocytosis and the endogenous antimicrobial response. Furthermore, injection of a CO-releasing molecule into WT mice increased phagocytosis and rescued HO-1–deficient mice from sepsis-induced lethality. These data advocate HO-1–derived CO as an important mediator of the host defense response to sepsis and suggest CO administration as a possible treatment for the disease.
Su Wol Chung, Xiaoli Liu, Alvaro A. Macias, Rebecca M. Baron, Mark A. Perrella
Sickle-cell disease (SCD) and β thalassemia constitute worldwide public health problems. New therapies, including hydroxyurea, have attempted to augment the synthesis of fetal hemoglobin (HbF) and improve current treatment. Lenalidomide and pomalidomide are members of a class of immunomodulators used as anticancer agents. Because clinical trials have demonstrated that lenalidomide reduces or eliminates the need for transfusions in some patients with disrupted blood cell production, we investigated the effects of lenalidomide and pomalidomide on erythropoiesis and hemoglobin synthesis. We used an in vitro erythropoiesis model derived from human CD34+ progenitor cells from normal and SCD donors. We found that both compounds slowed erythroid maturation, increased proliferation of immature erythroid cells, and regulated hemoglobin transcription, resulting in potent induction of HbF without the cytotoxicity associated with other HbF inducers. When combined with hydroxyurea, pomalidomide and, to a lesser extent, lenalidomide were found to have synergistic effects on HbF upregulation. Our results elucidate what we believe to be a new mechanism of action of pomalidomide and lenalidomide and support the hypothesis that pomalidomide, used alone or in combination with hydroxyurea, may improve erythropoiesis and increase the ratio of fetal to adult hemoglobin. These findings support the evaluation of pomalidomide as an innovative new therapy for β-hemoglobinopathies.
Laure A. Moutouh-de Parseval, Dominique Verhelle, Emilia Glezer, Kristen Jensen-Pergakes, Gregory D. Ferguson, Laura G. Corral, Christopher L. Morris, George Muller, Helen Brady, Kyle Chan
Parasympathetic stimulation of the heart, which provides protection from arrhythmias and sudden death, involves activation of the G protein–coupled inward rectifying K+ channel GIRK1/4 and results in an acetylcholine-sensitive K+ current, IKACh. We describe a unique relationship between lipid homeostasis, the lipid-sensitive transcription factor SREBP-1, regulation of the cardiac parasympathetic response, and the development of ventricular arrhythmia. In embryonic chick atrial myocytes, lipid lowering by culture in lipoprotein-depleted serum increased SREBP-1 levels, GIRK1 expression, and IKACh activation. Regulation of the GIRK1 promoter by SREBP-1 and lipid lowering was dependent on interaction with 2 tandem sterol response elements and an upstream E-box motif. Expression of dominant negative SREBP-1 (DN–SREBP-1) reversed the effect of lipid lowering on IKACh and GIRK1. In SREBP-1 knockout mice, both the response of the heart to parasympathetic stimulation and the expression of GIRK1 were reduced compared with WT. IKACh, attenuated in atrial myocytes from SREBP-1 knockout mice, was stimulated by SREBP-1 expression. Following myocardial infarction, SREBP-1 knockout mice were twice as likely as WT mice to develop ventricular tachycardia in response to programmed ventricular stimulation. These results demonstrate a relationship between lipid metabolism and parasympathetic response that may play a role in arrhythmogenesis.
Ho-Jin Park, Serban P. Georgescu, Chuang Du, Christopher Madias, Mark J. Aronovitz, C. Michael Welzig, Bo Wang, Ulrike Begley, Yali Zhang, Robert O. Blaustein, Richard D. Patten, Richard H. Karas, Herbert H. Van Tol, Timothy F. Osborne, Hitoshi Shimano, Ronglih Liao, Mark S. Link, Jonas B. Galper
Leptin is a hormone that reduces excitability in some hypothalamic neurons via leptin receptor activation of the JAK2 and PI3K intracellular signaling pathways. We hypothesized that leptin receptor activation in other neuronal subtypes would have anticonvulsant activity and that intranasal leptin delivery would be an effective route of administration. We tested leptin’s anticonvulsant action in 2 rodent seizure models by directly injecting it into the cortex or by administering it intranasally. Focal seizures in rats were induced by neocortical injections of 4-aminopyridine, an inhibitor of voltage-gated K+ channels. These seizures were briefer and less frequent upon coinjection of 4-aminopyridine and leptin. In mice, intranasal administration of leptin produced elevated brain and serum leptin levels and delayed the onset of chemical convulsant pentylenetetrazole-induced generalized convulsive seizures. Leptin also reduced neuronal spiking in an in vitro seizure model. Leptin inhibited α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole proprionic acid (AMPA) receptor–mediated synaptic transmission in mouse hippocampal slices but failed to inhibit synaptic responses in slices from leptin receptor–deficient db/db mice. JAK2 and PI3K antagonists prevented leptin inhibition of AMPAergic synaptic transmission. We conclude that leptin receptor activation and JAK2/PI3K signaling may be novel targets for anticonvulsant treatments. Intranasal leptin administration may have potential as an acute abortive treatment for convulsive seizures in emergency situations.
Lin Xu, Nicholas Rensing, Xiao-Feng Yang, Hai Xia Zhang, Liu Lin Thio, Steven M. Rothman, Aryan E. Weisenfeld, Michael Wong, Kelvin A. Yamada
Intraepithelial lymphocytes (IELs) bearing the γδ TCR are more abundant in the small intestinal mucosa of patients with celiac disease (CD) compared with healthy individuals. However, their role in disease pathogenesis is not well understood. Here, we investigated the functional attributes of TCRγδ+ IELs isolated from intestinal biopsies of patients with either active celiac disease (ACD) or those on a gluten-free diet (GFD). We found that compared with individuals with ACD, individuals on GFD have a higher frequency of CD8+TCRγδ+ IELs that express the inhibitory NK receptor NKG2A and intracellular TGF-β1. TCR triggering as well as cross-linking of NKG2A increased both TGF-β1 intracellular expression and secretion in vitro. Coculture of sorted TCRγδ+NKG2A+ IELs, IL-15–stimulated TCRαβ+ IELs, and HLA-E+ enterocytes resulted in a decreased percentage of cytotoxic CD8+TCRαβ+ IELs expressing intracellular IFN-γ and granzyme-B and surface NKG2D. This inhibition was partially abrogated by blocking either TGF-β alone or both NKG2A and HLA-E. Thus, our data indicate that suppression was at least partially mediated by TGF-β secretion as a result of engagement of NKG2A with its ligand, HLA-E, on enterocytes and/or TCRαβ+ IELs. These findings demonstrate that human small intestinal CD8+TCRγδ+ IELs may have regulatory potential in celiac disease.
Govind Bhagat, Afzal J. Naiyer, Jayesh G. Shah, Jason Harper, Bana Jabri, Timothy C. Wang, Peter H.R. Green, John S. Manavalan
The adoptive transfer of antigen-specific T cells that have been expanded ex vivo is being actively pursued to treat infections and malignancy in humans. The T cell populations that are available for adoptive immunotherapy include both effector memory and central memory cells, and these differ in phenotype, function, and homing. The efficacy of adoptive immunotherapy requires that transferred T cells persist in vivo, but identifying T cells that can reproducibly survive in vivo after they have been numerically expanded by in vitro culture has proven difficult. Here we show that in macaques, antigen-specific CD8+ T cell clones derived from central memory T cells, but not effector memory T cells, persisted long-term in vivo, reacquired phenotypic and functional properties of memory T cells, and occupied memory T cell niches. These results demonstrate that clonally derived CD8+ T cells isolated from central memory T cells are distinct from those derived from effector memory T cells and retain an intrinsic capacity that enables them to survive after adoptive transfer and revert to the memory cell pool. These results could have significant implications for the selection of T cells to expand or to engineer for adoptive immunotherapy of human infections or malignancy.
Carolina Berger, Michael C. Jensen, Peter M. Lansdorp, Mike Gough, Carole Elliott, Stanley R. Riddell
Survival of patients with B cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (B-CLL) can be predicted by analysis of mutations in the immunoglobulin heavy chain variable gene (IGHV). Patients without mutations (unmutated [UM]) are at greater risk for disease progression and death than patients with mutations (M). Despite this broad prognostic difference, there remains wide intragroup variation in the clinical outcome of UM patients, especially those with low/intermediate Rai risk disease. We evaluated UM B-CLL patients with low/intermediate Rai risk to determine the relationship between IGHV, IGH diversity (IGHD), and IGH joining (IGHJ) gene usage and time to treatment (TTT). Irrespective of IGHV usage, UM patients whose B-CLL cells expressed the IGHD3-3 gene had a significantly shorter TTT than other UM B-CLL patients, and specifically, use of the IGHD3-3 gene in reading frame 2 (RF2) predicted shorter TTT. As expected, Rai risk was the best single prognostic factor for TTT; however, IGHD usage was also a significant variable for TTT. Therefore, both IGHD gene and IGHD RF usage have prognostic relevance in UM B-CLL patients with low/intermediate Rai risk disease. In addition, these data support the concept that antigen-driven selection of specific Ig receptors plays a role in the clinical course of B-CLL.
Renee C. Tschumper, Susan M. Geyer, Megan E. Campbell, Neil E. Kay, Tait D. Shanafelt, Clive S. Zent, Grzegorz S. Nowakowski, Timothy G. Call, Gordon W. Dewald, Diane F. Jelinek
ER stress can cause hepatic insulin resistance and steatosis. Increased VLDL secretion could protect the liver from ER stress–induced steatosis, but the effect of lipid-induced ER stress on the secretion of VLDL is unknown. To determine the effect of lipids on hepatic ER stress and VLDL secretion, we treated McA-RH7777 liver cells with free fatty acids. Prolonged exposure increased cell triglycerides, induced steatosis, and increased ER stress. Effects on apoB100 secretion, which is required for VLDL assembly, were parabolic, with moderate free fatty acid exposure increasing apoB100 secretion, while greater lipid loading inhibited apoB100 secretion. This decreased secretion at higher lipid levels was due to increased protein degradation through both proteasomal and nonproteasomal pathways and was dependent on the induction of ER stress. These findings were supported in vivo, where intravenous infusion of oleic acid (OA) in mice increased ER stress in a duration-dependent manner. apoB secretion was again parabolic, stimulated by moderate, but not prolonged, OA infusion. Inhibition of ER stress was able to restore OA-stimulated apoB secretion after prolonged OA infusion. These results suggest that excessive ER stress in response to increased hepatic lipids may decrease the ability of the liver to secrete triglycerides by limiting apoB secretion, potentially worsening steatosis.
Tsuguhito Ota, Constance Gayet, Henry N. Ginsberg
Skewing of X chromosome inactivation (XCI) can occur in normal females and increases in tissues with age. The mechanisms underlying skewing in normal females, however, remain controversial. To better understand the phenomenon of XCI in nondisease states, we evaluated XCI patterns in epithelial and hematopoietic cells of over 500 healthy female mother-neonate pairs. The incidence of skewing observed in mothers was twice that observed in neonates, and in both cohorts, the incidence of XCI was lower in epithelial cells than hematopoietic cells. These results suggest that XCI incidence varies by tissue type and that age-dependent mechanisms can influence skewing in both epithelial and hematopoietic cells. In both cohorts, a correlation was identified in the direction of skewing in epithelial and hematopoietic cells, suggesting common underlying skewing mechanisms across tissues. However, there was no correlation between the XCI patterns of mothers and their respective neonates, and skewed mothers gave birth to skewed neonates at the same frequency as nonskewed mothers. Taken together, our data suggest that in humans, the XCI pattern observed at birth does not reflect a single heritable genetic locus, but rather corresponds to a complex trait determined, at least in part, by selection biases occurring after XCI.
Véronique Bolduc, Pierre Chagnon, Sylvie Provost, Marie-Pierre Dubé, Claude Belisle, Marianne Gingras, Luigina Mollica, Lambert Busque
Antibodies that inhibit Plasmodium falciparum invasion of erythrocytes are believed to be an important component of immunity against malaria. During blood-stage infection, P. falciparum can use different pathways for erythrocyte invasion by varying the expression and/or utilization of members of 2 invasion ligand families: the erythrocyte-binding antigens (EBAs) and reticulocyte-binding homologs (PfRhs). Invasion pathways can be broadly classified into 2 groups based on the use of sialic acid (SA) on the erythrocyte surface by parasite ligands. We found that inhibitory antibodies are acquired by malaria-exposed Kenyan children and adults against ligands of SA-dependent and SA-independent invasion pathways, and the ability of antibodies to inhibit erythrocyte invasion depended on the pathway used by P. falciparum isolates. Differential inhibition of P. falciparum lines that varied in their use of specific EBA and PfRh proteins pointed to these ligand families as major targets of inhibitory antibodies. Antibodies against recombinant EBA and PfRh proteins were acquired in an age-associated manner, and inhibitory antibodies against EBA175 appeared prominent among some individuals. These findings suggest that variation in invasion phenotype might have evolved as a mechanism that facilitates immune evasion by P. falciparum and that a broad inhibitory response against multiple ligands may be required for effective immunity.
Kristina E.M. Persson, Fiona J. McCallum, Linda Reiling, Nicole A. Lister, Janine Stubbs, Alan F. Cowman, Kevin Marsh, James G. Beeson
The proprotein convertases (PCs) are implicated in the activation of various precursor proteins that play an important role in tumor cell metastasis. Here, we report their involvement in the regulation of the metastatic potential of colorectal tumor cells. PC function in the human and murine colon carcinoma cell lines HT-29 and CT-26, respectively, was inhibited using siRNA targeting the PCs furin, PACE4, PC5, and PC7 or by overexpression of the general PC inhibitor α1-antitrypsin Portland (α1-PDX). We found that overexpression of α1-PDX and knockdown of furin expression inhibited processing of IGF-1 receptor and its subsequent activation by IGF-1 to induce IRS-1 and Akt phosphorylation, all important in colon carcinoma metastasis. These data suggest that the PC furin is a major IGF-1 receptor convertase. Expression of α1-PDX reduced the production of TNF-α and IL-1α by human colon carcinoma cells, and incubation of murine liver endothelial cells with conditioned media derived from these cells failed to induce tumor cell adhesion to activated murine endothelial cells, a critical step in metastatic invasion. Furthermore, colon carcinoma cells in which PC activity was inhibited by overexpression of α1-PDX when injected into the portal vein of mice showed a significantly reduced ability to form liver metastases. This suggests that inhibition of PCs is a potentially promising strategy for the prevention of colorectal liver metastasis.
Nathalie Scamuffa, Geraldine Siegfried, Yannick Bontemps, Liming Ma, Ajoy Basak, Ghislaine Cherel, Fabien Calvo, Nabil G. Seidah, Abdel-Majid Khatib
Septic shock results from an uncontrolled inflammatory response, mediated primarily by LPS. Cholesterol transport plays an important role in the host response to LPS, as LPS is neutralized by lipoproteins and adrenal cholesterol uptake is required for antiinflammatory glucocorticoid synthesis. In this study, we show that scavenger receptor B-I (SR-BI), an HDL receptor that mediates HDL cholesterol ester uptake into cells, is required for the normal antiinflammatory response to LPS-induced endotoxic shock. Despite elevated plasma HDL levels, SR-BI–null mice displayed an uncontrollable inflammatory cytokine response and a markedly higher lethality rate than control mice in response to LPS. In addition, SR-BI–null mice showed a lack of inducible glucocorticoid synthesis in response to LPS, bacterial infection, stress, or ACTH. Glucocorticoid insufficiency in SR-BI–null mice was due to primary adrenal malfunction resulting from deficient cholesterol delivery from HDL. Furthermore, corticosterone supplementation decreased the sensitivity of SR-BI–null mice to LPS. Plasma from control and SR-BI–null mice exhibited a similar ability to neutralize LPS, whereas SR-BI–null mice showed decreased plasma clearance of LPS into the liver and hepatocytes compared with normal mice. We conclude that SR-BI in mice is required for the antiinflammatory response to LPS-induced endotoxic shock, likely through its essential role in facilitating glucocorticoid production and LPS hepatic clearance.
Lei Cai, Ailing Ji, Frederick C. de Beer, Lisa R. Tannock, Deneys R. van der Westhuyzen
4-1BB is a major costimulatory receptor that promotes the survival and expansion of activated T cells. Administration of agonistic anti–4-1BB Abs has been previously shown to enhance tumor immunity in mice. Abs are cell-based products posing significant cost, manufacturing, and regulatory challenges. Aptamers are oligonucleotide-based ligands that exhibit specificity and avidity comparable to, or exceeding, that of Abs. To date, various aptamers have been shown to inhibit the function of their cognate target. Here, we have described the development of an aptamer that binds 4-1BB expressed on the surface of activated mouse T cells and shown that multivalent configurations of the aptamer costimulated T cell activation in vitro and mediated tumor rejection in mice. Because aptamers can be chemically synthesized, manufacturing and the regulatory approval process should be substantially simpler and less costly than for Abs. Agonistic aptamers could therefore represent a superior alternative to Abs for the therapeutic manipulation of the immune system.
James O. McNamara II, Despina Kolonias, Fernando Pastor, Robert S. Mittler, Lieping Chen, Paloma H. Giangrande, Bruce Sullenger, Eli Gilboa
Joerg Heineke, Mannix Auger-Messier, Jian Xu, Toru Oka, Michelle A. Sargent, Allen York, Raisa Klevitsky, Sachin Vaikunth, Stephen A. Duncan, Bruce J. Aronow, Jeffrey Robbins, Timothy M. Crombleholme, Jeffery D. Molkentin
Joerg Heineke, Mannix Auger-Messier, Jian Xu, Toru Oka, Michelle A. Sargent, Allen York, Raisa Klevitsky, Sachin Vaikunth, Stephen A. Duncan, Bruce J. Aronow, Jeffrey Robbins, Timothy M. Crombleholme, Jeffery D. Molkentin
Edward J. Weinman, Rajat S. Biswas, Quihong Peng, Lily Shen, Christina L. Turner, Xiaofei E, Deborah Steplock, Shirish Shenolikar, Rochelle Cunningham