G Apodaca, M Bomsel, J Arden, P P Breitfeld, K Tang, K E Mostov
Thrombospondin (TSP) is a trimeric glycoprotein which is synthesized and incorporated into the extracellular matrix by a wide variety of cells. TSP is involved in a number of cellular processes which govern tumor cell behavior including mitogenesis, attachment, migration, and differentiation. To directly assess the role of TSP in tumor cell growth and spread, a human squamous carcinoma cell line, with high TSP production and an invasive phenotype, was transfected with a TSP cDNA antisense expression vector. Five unique transfected clones were obtained with reduced TSP production. Expression of the transfected antisense sequence in these clones was verified by a ribonuclease protection assay. These clones demonstrated reduced growth rates in vitro when compared with a vector transfected control. After subcutaneous inoculation into athymic mice, the antisense clones formed either no tumors or tumors that were slow growing and highly differentiated. This contrasted with the vector-transfected clone which produced poorly differentiated, rapidly growing, invasive tumors. Our results argue in favor of a direct role for TSP in determining the malignant phenotype of certain human tumors.
V Castle, J Varani, S Fligiel, E V Prochownik, V Dixit
We examined the effects of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3(1,25-(OH)2D3) on the proliferation of vascular smooth muscle (VSM) cells. Receptors for 1,25-(OH)2D3 were demonstrated in fresh rabbit aortic tissue and in cultured rat VSM using binding of [3H]-1,25-(OH)2D3 in sucrose density gradients of the tissue or cell homogenates. The receptor sedimented at 3.6 S, the sedimentation velocity of 1,25-(OH)2D3 receptors from other sources. 1,25-(OH)2D3 dramatically altered the growth of VSM, but this effect depended importantly on the basal conditions in which the cells were grown. In quiescent VSM deprived of serum for 72 h, 1,25-(OH)2D3 (0.1-10 nM), but not 25-(OH)D3 (up to 100 nM) increased thymidine incorporation up to 12-fold and cell number up to 2.6-fold compared with controls. The maximal effect of 1,25-(OH)2D3 on thymidine incorporation was similar to the maximal effect of the growth factors alpha-thrombin or PDGF. Furthermore, the effects of 1,25-(OH)2D3 and thrombin on thymidine incorporation in quiescent cells were markedly synergistic, yielding a 78-fold increase in thymidine incorporation when both agents were added simultaneously. In "nonquiescent cells" which were exposed to serum-free medium for only 24 h, 1,25-(OH)2D3 (10 nM) also increased DNA synthesis 10-fold compared with controls. However, in striking contrast to what was observed in quiescent cells, 1,25-(OH)2D3 diminished the mitogenic response to thrombin by as much as 50% in nonquiescent cells. 1,25-(OH)2D3 also modulated the transcription of c-myc in response to thrombin. In quiescent cells, transcription was enhanced by 1,25-(OH)2D3, whereas in nonquiescent cells, thrombin-induced c-myc transcription was blunted. Thus, 1,25-(OH)2D3 is a potent modulator of the growth of cultured VSM. The direction of this modulation depends strongly on the conditions under which the cells are cultured.
T Mitsuhashi, R C Morris Jr, H E Ives
Hematogenous infection with the yeast Candida albicans now occurs with increasing frequency in the neonate, the immunocompromised patient, and the hyperglycemic or hyperalimented host. Yeast-phase C. albicans expresses a protein that is antigenically and structurally related to CD11b/CD18, a member of the beta 2 integrins and a well-characterized adhesin for mammalian neutrophils. Both the neutrophil protein and its analogue in C. albicans have an identical affinity for the C3 ligand iC3b, and both proteins are significantly increased in expression at 37 degrees C. Given these several similarities, we therefore studied the role of the integrin analogue on C. albicans in the adhesion of the yeast to human umbilical vein endothelium (HUVE). After growth of C. albicans in 20 mM D-glucose, as opposed to 20 mM L-glutamate, flow cytometric analysis with monoclonal antibodies recognizing the alpha-subunit of CD11b/CD18 demonstrated a 25.0% increase in mean channel fluorescence (range 18.4-31.8%), as well as an increased percentage of yeasts fluorescing (P less than 0.02). This increased intensity of fluorescence, which corresponds to increased expression of the integrin analogue, also correlated with a significant increase of 30-80% in adhesion of glucose-grown C. albicans to HUVE (P less than 0.02). Blockade of the integrin analogue on C. albicans by monoclonal antibodies recognizing adhesive epitopes on neutrophil CD11b/CD18 inhibited glucose-enhanced adhesion of C. albicans to HUVE. Incubation of glucose-grown C. albicans with saturating concentrations of purified human iC3b, the ligand for CD11b/CD18, reduced adhesion of the yeast to HUVE by 49.7%, whereas BSA in equimolar concentration had no effect (P less than 0.001). These results identify a glucose-responsive integrin analogue on C. albicans as one of possibly several cellular structures that mediate adhesion of the yeast to human endothelium.
K S Gustafson, G M Vercellotti, C M Bendel, M K Hostetter
T84 cells, a human intestinal epithelial cell line, serve as a model of electrogenic Cl- secretion. We find that cAMP-elicited Cl- secretion in T84 cells is accompanied by a marked redistribution of F-actin in the basolateral portion of the cell. To prevent this F-actin redistribution and thereby assess its importance to Cl- secretion, we have defined simple conditions under which this model epithelium can be loaded with nitrobenzoxadiazole (NBD)-phallicidin. This reagent binds F-actin with high affinity thus stabilizing the F-actin cytoskeleton by preventing depolymerization, an event necessary for dynamic reordering of actin microfilaments. NBD-phallicidin loading is not cytotoxic as assessed by lactic dehydrogenase release, protein synthesis, transepithelial resistance, and the ability of the loaded cells to pump Na+ in an absorptive direction in response to the apical addition of a Na+ ionophore. However, cAMP-elicited redistribution of F-actin and the cAMP-elicited Cl- secretory response are both markedly impaired in NBD-phallicidin preloaded T84 cells. In contrast, the carbachol-elicited Cl- secretory response (Ca++ mediated) is not attenuated by NBD-phallicidin preloading nor is it accompanied by redistribution of F-actin. These findings suggest that the cAMP-elicited cytoskeletal redistribution we describe is an integral part of cAMP-elicited Cl- secretion in T84 cells.
M Shapiro, J Matthews, G Hecht, C Delp, J L Madara
Glycation, oxidation, and nonenzymatic browning of protein have all been implicated in the development of diabetic complications. The initial product of glycation of protein, fructoselysine (FL), undergoes further reactions, yielding a complex mixture of browning products, including the fluorescent lysine-arginine cross-link, pentosidine. Alternatively, FL may be cleaved oxidatively to form N(epsilon)-(carboxymethyl)lysine (CML), while glycated hydroxylysine, an amino-acid unique to collagen, may yield N(epsilon)-(carboxymethyl)hydroxylysine (CMhL). We have measured FL, pentosidine, fluorescence (excitation = 328 nm, emission = 378 nm), CML, and CMhL in insoluble skin collagen from 14 insulin-dependent diabetic patients before and after a 4-mo period of intensive therapy to improve glycemic control. Mean home blood glucose fell from 8.7 +/- 2.5 (mean +/- 1 SD) to 6.8 +/- 1.4 mM (P less than 0.005), and mean glycated hemoglobin (HbA1) from 11.6 +/- 2.3% to 8.3 +/- 1.1% (P less than 0.001). These changes were accompanied by a significant decrease in glycation of skin collagen, from 13.2 +/- 4.3 to 10.6 +/- 2.3 mmol FL/mol lysine (P less than 0.002). However, levels of browning and oxidation products (pentosidine, CML, and CMhL) and fluorescence were unchanged. These results show that the glycation of long-lived proteins can be decreased by improved glycemic control, but suggest that once cumulative damage to collagen by browning and oxidation reactions has occurred, it may not be readily reversed. Thus, in diabetic patients, institution and maintenance of good glycemic control at any time could potentially limit the extent of subsequent long-term damage to proteins by glycation and oxidation reactions.
T J Lyons, K E Bailie, D G Dyer, J A Dunn, J W Baynes
Immune functions were evaluated in vitro for PBMC isolated from healthy donors and cultured with the antiviral agents, 3'-azido-3'-deoxythymidine (AZT), ribavirin, ganciclovir, 2'3'-dideoxyinosine (ddI), or acyclovir. To identify methods for assessing the effects of antiviral drugs on immune cells, the PBMC response to mitogens, Con A, or phytohemagglutinin was evaluated from measurements of [3H]thymidine and [14C]-leucine incorporation, cell growth, cellular RNA, DNA, and protein levels, and the PBMC proliferative cycle (i.e., progression from G0----G1----S----G2 + M). At clinically relevant concentrations, AZT, ribavirin, or ganciclovir diminished PBMC responsiveness to mitogen. The numbers of proliferating cells in G1, S, and G2 + M phases of the cell cycle, DNA content, and [3H]thymidine uptake were decreased in cultures treated with AZT, ribavirin, or ganciclovir. AZT or ribavirin but not ganciclovir reduced RNA and protein in the cultures and inhibited cell growth. Whereas AZT, ribavirin, or ganciclovir were antiproliferative, ddI or acyclovir had little, if any, effect on PBMC mitogenesis. The inhibitory effects of antivirals on immune cells may contribute to the immune deterioration observed in patients following prolonged use of the drugs.
W Heagy, C Crumpacker, P A Lopez, R W Finberg
Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and IL-1 are thought to mediate many of the pathophysiologic changes of endotoxemia and Gram-negative bacteremia. In these studies, heat-killed Staphylococcus epidermidis were infused into rabbits to determine whether an endotoxin (LPS)-free microorganism also elicits cytokinemia and the physiologic abnormalities seen in Gram-negative bacteremia. S. epidermidis induced complement activation, circulating TNF and IL-1, and hypotension to the same degree as did one-twentieth the number of heat-killed Escherichia coli. Circulating IL-1 beta levels had a greater correlation coefficient (r = 0.81, P less than 0.001) with the degree of hypotension than TNF levels (r = 0.48, P less than 0.02). Leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, diffuse pulmonary capillary aggregation of neutrophils, and hepatic necrosis with neutrophil infiltration were observed to the same extent after either S. epidermidis or E. coli infusion. However, S. epidermidis infusion did not induce significant (less than 60 pg/ml) endotoxemia, whereas E. coli infusion resulted in high (11,000 pg/ml) serum endotoxin levels. S. epidermidis, E. coli, LPS, or S. epidermidis-derived lipoteichoic acid (LTA) induced TNF and IL-1 from blood mononuclear cells in vitro. E. coli organisms and LPS were at least 100-fold more potent than S. epidermidis or LTA. Thus, a shock-like state with similar levels of complement activation as well as circulating levels of IL-1 and TNF were observed following either S. epidermidis or E. coli. These data provide further evidence that host factors such as IL-1 and TNF are common mediators of the septic shock syndrome regardless of the organism.
G Wakabayashi, J A Gelfand, W K Jung, R J Connolly, J F Burke, C A Dinarello
Bronchoconstriction (BC) is the main feature of anaphylaxis in the guinea pig. Since LPS induces lung inflammation and antigen-induced BC depends on the endogenous formation of histamine and arachidonate metabolites, we studied whether LPS might modulate antigen-induced BC. Guinea pigs were sensitized subcutaneously with 10 micrograms ovalbumin (OA) on days 0 and 14. LPS (100 micrograms/kg) was injected intravenously on day 21, and daily injections of LPS were continued before the antigenic challenge on day 22, 23, 24, or 25. Intratracheal injection of 100 micrograms OA induced an abrupt and reversible BC. Single or repetitive injections of LPS reduced BC. LPS is likely to reduce the OA-induced BC by affecting the histamine-dependent component of BC, since (a) LPS induced a partial degranulation of lung mast cells; (b) BC is reduced by mepyramine, an histamine receptor antagonist; (c) LPS did not affect BC in mepyramine-treated guinea pigs; (d) LPS reduced histamine release by OA-stimulated guinea pig lungs in vitro. Moreover, the in vitro OA-induced production of arachidonate metabolites was also reduced by LPS. The decreased formation of TXB2 was not only secondary to a reduced release of histamine, since LPS inhibited TXB2 formation in the presence of mepyramine. Finally, the FMLP-induced BC and mediator release were inhibited by LPS, whereas the platelet activating factor-induced pulmonary responses were not. Thus, the protective effect of LPS is not antigen-specific and does not result from a general desensitization. These studies indicate that a single dose of LPS reduces the antigen-induced BC by reducing histamine release from lung mast cells, although a decreased formation of eicosanoids may contribute to the protective effect of LPS.
E Vannier, J Lefort, A Lellouch-Tubiana, B Terlain, B B Vargaftig
The Dra antigen belongs to the Cromer-related blood group system, a series of antigens on decay accelerating factor (DAF), a glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol-anchored membrane protein that protects host cells from complement-mediated damage. We studied the rare inherited Dr(a-) phenotype to ascertain the associated biochemical and functional changes in DAF and to characterize the basis for this polymorphism. Radioimmunoassay assay and flow cytometric analysis of Dr(a-) erythrocytes demonstrated 40% of normal surface expression of DAF but normal levels of several other glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol-anchored proteins, distinguishing this phenotype from that of paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria. Western blots confirmed this reduced DAF expression and indicated a slightly faster mobility of the molecule on SDS-PAGE. Despite the reduced DAF expression, Dr(a-) erythrocytes functioned normally in the complement lysis sensitivity assay. Utilization of the polymerase chain reaction to amplify mononuclear cell genomic DNA from three unrelated Dr(a-) individuals demonstrated that a point mutation underlies the Dr(a-) phenotype: a C to T change in nucleotide 649 resulting in a serine165 to leucine change. This defines the Drb allele of DAF, which can be distinguished from Dra by a Taq I restriction fragment length polymorphism. We created transfected Chinese hamster ovary cell lines expressing either the Dra or the Drb allelic form of DAF. These allele-specific transfectants were tested by inhibition of hemagglutination or flow cytometry and confirmed the specificity of anti-Dra alloantisera. The allele-specific transfectants could form the basis of a new serological approach to immunohematology.
D M Lublin, E S Thompson, A M Green, C Levene, M J Telen
Animal studies have demonstrated that activation of the baroreflex by increases in arterial pressure inhibits cardiovascular and ventilatory responses to activation of peripheral chemoreceptors (PC) with hypoxia. In this study, we examined the influences of baroreflex activation on the sympathetic response to stimulation of PC and central chemoreceptors in humans. PC were stimulated by hypoxia (10% O2/90% N2) (n = 6) and central chemoreceptors by hypercapnia (7% CO2/93% O2) (n = 6). Responses to a cold pressor stimulus were also obtained as an internal reflex control to determine the selectivity of the interactive influence of baroreflex activation. Baroreflex activation was achieved by raising mean blood pressure by greater than 10 mmHg with intravenous infusion of phenylephrine (PE). Sympathetic nerve activity (SNA) to muscle was recorded from a peroneal nerve (microneurography). During hypoxia alone, SNA increased from 255 +/- 92 to 354 +/- 107 U/min (P less than 0.05). During PE alone, mean blood pressure increased and SNA decreased to 87 +/- 45 U/min (P less than 0.05). With hypoxia during baroreflex activation with PE, SNA did not increase (50 +/- 23 U/min). During hypercapnia alone, SNA increased from 116 +/- 39 to 234 +/- 72 U/min (P less than 0.01). Hypercapnia during baroreflex activation with PE increased SNA from 32 +/- 25 U/min during PE alone to 61 +/- 26 U/min during hypercapnia and PE (P less than 0.05). Like hypercapnia (but unlike hypoxia) the cold pressor test also increased SNA during PE. We conclude that baroreflex activation selectively abolishes the SNA response to hypoxia but not to hypercapnia or the cold pressor test. The inhibitory interaction of the baroreflex and the peripheral chemoreflex may be explained by convergence of baroreceptor and peripheral chemoreceptor afferents on neurons in the medulla.
V K Somers, A L Mark, F M Abboud
Normodense eosinophils failed to generate leukotriene C4 (LTC4) in response to incremental concentrations of FMLP but did produce LTC4 when stimulated with calcium ionophore A23187. Normodense eosinophils, maintained in culture with 10(-11) M granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) in the presence of 3T3 fibroblasts, became responsive to transmembrane stimulation with FMLP by day 4 with a maximal effect by day 7. After 7 d of culture, hypodense eosinophils stimulated with 2 x 10(-7) M FMLP generated 26 ng LTC4/10(6) cells, and LTC4 biosynthesis was blocked by N-tertbutoxy-carbonyl-L-methionyl-L-leucyl-L-phenylalanine (N-t-BOC-MLP). Neither calcium ionophore stimulation of LTC4 from endogenous arachidonic acid nor substrate-initiated production of LTC4 from incorporated LTA4 changed when eosinophils were cocultured with GM-CSF and 3T3 fibroblasts. Furthermore, when incubated with 10(-6) M FMLP, normodense eosinophils generated no net superoxide measured by the reduction of cytochrome c, whereas replicate eosinophils cultured for 7 d with 10(-11) M GM-CSF and 3T3 fibroblasts reduced a net of 17 nmol of cytochrome c/10(6) cells. These studies suggest that primed and phenotypically altered eosinophils present at an extravascular site may exert pathobiologic effects by responding to soluble ligands in the tissues.
W F Owen Jr, J Petersen, K F Austen
The role of nitric oxide in basal vasomotor tone and stimulated endothelium-dependent dilations in the coronary arteries in chronically instrumented awake dogs was studied by examining the consequences of inhibiting endogenous nitric oxide formation with the specific inhibitor of nitric oxide formation, NG-monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA). In four awake dogs, coronary dimension crystals were chronically implanted on the circumflex artery for the measurement of epicardial coronary diameter, and Doppler flow probes were implanted for quantitation of phasic coronary blood flow (vasomotion of distal regulatory resistance vessels). Basal epicardial coronary diameter, acetylcholine-stimulated endothelium-dependent dilation, and flow-induced endothelium-dependent dilation of the epicardial arteries and phasic blood flow were recorded before, and after 5, 15, 50, and 120 mg/kg of L-NMMA. L-NMMA induced a dose-related increase in basal epicardial coronary vasomotor tone. There was an accompanying increase in aortic pressure and a decrease in heart rate. At doses greater than or equal to 50 mg/kg, rest phasic coronary blood flow was also decreased. Left ventricular end-diastolic pressure and contractility were not significantly changed. In contrast, the flow-induced or acetylcholine-stimulated endothelium-dependent responses were attenuated only after infusion of the highest does of L-NMMA (120 mg/kg). The changes in the basal vasomotor tone and acetylcholine-stimulated endothelium-dependent responses returned towards the control states in the presence of L-arginine (660 mg/kg). These data support the view that nitric oxide plays a significant role in modulating basal vasomotion and endothelial-dependent dilation stimulated by acetylcholine or increase in blood flow in epicardial coronary arteries and also influence the regulation of coronary blood flow during physiologic conditions.
A Chu, D E Chambers, C C Lin, W D Kuehl, R M Palmer, S Moncada, F R Cobb
The effect of a bacteriolytic enzyme, the endo-beta-N-acetylglucosaminidase excreted by Staphylococcus aureus (SaG) on the response of human lymphocytes to mitogens and on the immune response in mice has been studied. SaG inhibited incorporation of [3H]thymidine into TCA-precipitable material by human peripheral lymphocytes stimulated either by phytohemagglutinin or by concanavalin A, as well as formation of cytoplasmic immunoglobulin-containing cells by B lymphocytes treated with pokeweed mitogen. In all cases the level of inhibition first increased with the SaG concentrations reaching values of over 80% at an enzyme concentration of 100 micrograms/ml, and then decreased. Heat-inactivated SaG as well as SaG treated with both polyclonal and monoclonal specific antibodies or enzyme inhibitors such as chitotriose or hydrolyzed peptidoglycan had no effect on lymphocyte response to mitogens. In mice, SaG at a dose of 300 micrograms per mouse was found to cause a fourfold decrease in the anti-BSA antibody titer and an approximately 70-75% reduction in the immunoglobulin-containing cells in the spleens of mice injected with sheep red blood cells. SaG also completely abolished the enhancing effect of adjuvants such as muramyldipeptide, Freund's complete adjuvant, and Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide. When SaG was injected into mice together with S. aureus peptidoglycan hydrolyzed either by SaG or by human lysozyme, the inhibitory effect on both production of anti-BSA circulating antibodies and appearance of Igc cells in the spleens of mice injected with sheep red blood cells was enhanced. As we know that (a) human tissues contain endo-beta-N-acetylglucosaminidases; (b) other human hexosaminidases (lysozymes) have previously been shown to interfere with the functions of immunocompetent cells; and (c) products of hexosaminidase hydrolysis of peptidoglycan (muropeptides) known to modulate immune response are ordinarily found in the urine of healthy persons, the possibility that hexosaminidases play a major role in the regulation of the immune response is raised and discussed.
S Valisena, P E Varaldo, G Satta
Thyroid hormone (T3) resistance is inherited in most cases in an autosomal dominant manner. The disorder is characterized by elevated free thyroid hormone levels and partial resistance to thyroid hormone at the cellular level. Distinct single amino acid substitutions in the ligand binding domain of the beta form of the thyroid hormone receptor have been described in two kindreds with this disorder. We used transient expression assays to characterize the functional properties of these receptor mutants, one containing a Gly to Arg change at amino acid 340 (G340R) and the other a Pro to His change at amino acid 448 (P448H). A nine amino acid carboxy terminal deletion (delta 448-456), analogous to an alteration that occurs in v-erbA, was also studied for comparison with the mutations that occur in the T3 resistance syndrome. None of the receptor mutants were able to mediate thyroid hormone dependent activation (TreTKCAT) or repression (TSH alpha CAT) of reporter genes when compared with the wild type receptor. In addition, the mutants inhibited the activity of normal alpha and beta receptor isoforms when examined in coexpression assays. This activity, referred to as dominant negative inhibition, was manifest with respect to both the positively and negatively regulated reporter genes. Although mutant receptor binding to DNA was unaffected, ligand binding studies showed that the G340R and delta 448-456 mutants failed to bind T3, whereas the P448H mutant bound hormone with reduced affinity (approximately 10% of normal) compared to the wild type receptor. Consistent with this finding, the P448H mutant receptor was partially active at higher T3 concentrations. Furthermore, the dominant negative inhibition elicited by the P448H receptor mutant at higher T3 concentrations was reversed in the presence of high doses of T3. These findings indicate that mutant beta receptors in patients with thyroid hormone resistance have reduced affinity for T3 and are functionally deficient, but impair the activity of normal receptors, thereby providing a mechanism for the dominant mode of inheritance in this disorder.
V K Chatterjee, T Nagaya, L D Madison, S Datta, A Rentoumis, J L Jameson
Rats of the Wistar Furth (WF) strain have hereditary macrothrombocytopenia (large mean platelet volume [MPV] with increased platelet size heterogeneity and reduced platelet count). Ultrastructural studies suggest that this anomaly results from erratic subdivision of megakaryocyte cytoplasm into platelets. In this study, we have examined protein profiles of platelets of WF rats for biochemical abnormalities associated with this anomaly. Marked decreases in protein bands with an Mr of 185, 57, 53, 16, 13, and 8 kd were observed in one-dimensional reduced SDS-PAGE gels in WF platelets compared with platelets of Wistar, Long Evans, and Sprague-Dawley rats. These proteins were released into the supernatant when washed platelets were treated with thrombin suggesting that they were alpha-granule proteins. These abnormalities were not present in offspring of crosses between Wistar Furth and Wistar rats; however, they were present in platelets of offspring with large MPV derived from backcrosses of (WF X Wistar) F1 males to WF females, but not in backcross offspring with normal platelet size. Immunoblotting confirmed decreased levels of thrombospondin, fibrinogen, and platelet factor 4 in WF platelets. Electron microscopic examination revealed that platelet alpha granules were usually smaller in Wistar Furth than in Wistar rats. In addition, immunogold electron microscopy demonstrated that the surface connected canalicular system of the large Wistar Furth platelets, contained dense material composed of alpha-granule proteins, not present in Wistar platelets. From these results, we conclude that the Wistar Furth rat platelet phenotype of large mean platelet volume and decreased levels of alpha-granule proteins represents an animal model resembling gray platelet syndrome. The autosomal recessive pattern of inheritance of the large MPV phenotype and platelet alpha-granule protein deficiencies suggests that a component common to both formation of platelet alpha granules, and subdivision of megakaryocyte cytoplasm into platelets, is quantitatively or qualitatively abnormal in Wistar Furth rat megakaryocytes and platelets.
C W Jackson, N K Hutson, S A Steward, N Saito, E M Cramer
The mechanism by which prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) inhibits sodium absorption (JNa) in the rabbit cortical collecting duct (CCD) was explored. PGE2 activates at least three signaling mechanisms in the CCD: (a) by itself PGE2 increases cAMP generation (b) PGE2 also inhibits vasopressin-stimulated cAMP accumulation, and (c) PGE2 raises intracellular calcium([Ca++]i). We tested the contribution of these signaling pathways to PGE2's effect on Na+ absorption, measuring 22Na flux (JNa) and [Ca++]i (using fura-2) in microperfused rabbit CCDs. In control studies PGE2 reduced JNa from 28.2 +/- 3.4 to 15.6 +/- 2.6 pmol.mm-1.min-1. Lowering bath calcium from 2.4 to 45 nM did not by itself alter JNa but in this setting PGE2 failed to inhibit JNa (28.6 +/- 5.4 to 38.5 +/- 4.0). In separate tubules, PGE2 raised [Ca++]i in a spike-like fashion followed by a sustained elevation. However, in 45 nM bath Ca++, PGE2 failed to produce a sustained [Ca++]i elevation. While pretreatment of CCDs with pertussis toxin blocked PGE2 inhibition of vasopressin-stimulated water permeability, it did not block the effect of PGE2 on JNa. To see if cAMP generation contributes to the effect of PGE2 on JNa, we tested the effect of exogenous cAMP, (8-chlorophenylthio(CPT)cAMP) on JNa. 0.1 mM 8-CPTcAMP reduced JNa from 35.75 +/- 2.3 to 21.6 +/- 2.2. However, the addition of PGE2 further blunted JNa to 15.9 +/- 1.3. In CCDs pretreated with indomethacin, 8-CPTcAMP did not significantly decrease JNa 33.6 +/- 2.8 vs. 28.4 +/- 2. However, superimposed PGE2 reduced JNa to 19.0 +/- 3.0. We conclude that PGE2 inhibits sodium transport predominantly by increasing intracellular calcium. This action is not mediated by a pertussis toxin-sensitive G protein. Finally, cAMP, through a cyclooxygenase-dependent mechanism, also inhibits CCD JNa and may contribute to the effects of PGE2 on JNa in the rabbit CCD.
R L Hébert, H R Jacobson, M D Breyer
We examined the inhibition by atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) and brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) of endothelin-1 secretion stimulated by angiotensin II (ANGII) and thrombin using cultured human umbilical-vein endothelial cells. ANGII and thrombin dose-dependently stimulated immunoreactive (ir) endothelin-1 secretion. Human ANP(1-28) and human BNP-32 both inhibited such secretion in a dose-dependent way. Inhibition of this secretion by ANP and BNP was paralleled by an increase in the level of cyclic guanosine 5'-monophosphate (GMP). The addition of a cyclic GMP analogue, 8-bromo cyclic GMP, reduced this stimulated secretion. Rat ANP(5-25) was weaker than human ANP(1-28) at inhibiting ir-endothelin-1 secretion and increasing cyclic GMP in the cells. ir-Endothelin-1 in the medium consisted of two components separated by high pressure liquid chromatography; the major one corresponded to endothelin-1(1-21) and the minor one corresponded to big endothelin-1(1-38). Treatment with ANP and BNP did not affect this profile. These findings suggest that human ANP and BNP inhibit endothelin-1 secretion stimulated by ANGII and thrombin in these cells through a cyclic GMP-dependent process. Taken together with endothelin stimulation of ANP and BNP secretion from the heart, our results suggest the existence of a cardiac-endothelium feedback.
M Kohno, K Yasunari, K Yokokawa, K Murakawa, T Horio, T Takeda
Studies on the molecular biology of lipoprotein lipase (LPL) deficiency have been facilitated by the availability of LPL gene probes and the recent characterization of gene mutations underlying human LPL deficiency. Typically, missense mutations have predominated and show a preferential localization to exons 4 and 5. This distribution supports earlier studies attributing functional significance to residues encoded by these exons. We now report a further missense mutation within exon 5 of the LPL gene in three unrelated patients. Amplification of individual exons by the polymerase chain reaction and direct sequencing revealed a T----C transition at codon 194 of the LPL cDNA which results in a substitution of threonine for isoleucine at this residue. The catalytic abnormality induced by this mutation was confirmed through in vitro mutagenesis studies in COS-1 cells. Transfection with a LPL cDNA containing the codon 194 transition resulted in the synthesis and secretion of a catalytically defective protein. The Thr194 substitution was associated with two different DNA haplotypes, consistent with a multicentric origin for this mutation.
H E Henderson, Y Ma, M F Hassan, M V Monsalve, A D Marais, F Winkler, K Gubernator, J Peterson, J D Brunzell, M R Hayden
Essentially pure preparations of normal density eosinophils obtained from patients with hypereosinophilic syndrome (HES) were stimulated with complement factor 5a (C5a), platelet-activating factor (PAF), FMLP and neutrophil-activating peptide (NAP-1/IL-8). Three responses were studied, the transient rise in cytosolic free calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) (derived from indo-1 fluorescence), shape changes (measured by laser turbidimetry), and exocytosis of eosinophil peroxidase (EPO) (assessed by H2O2/luminol-dependent chemiluminescence). Responses were obtained with all four agonists, but C5a and PAF were by far more potent than FMLP and NAP-1/IL-8, which induced only minor effects. Pretreatment of the cells with pertussis toxin attenuated [Ca2+]i changes, EPO release and, to a lesser extent, shape changes, indicating that GTP-binding proteins of Gi-type are involved in receptor-dependent signal transduction processes leading to these responses. A clear dissociation was observed in the control of the shape change response and EPO exocytosis. The shape change was not affected by Ca2+ depletion or treatment with the protein kinase inhibitor staurosporine, but exocytosis was prevented by Ca2+ depletion and markedly enhanced by staurosporine. The activation of the contractile system, leading to shape changes and motility, thus appears to be independent of the classical signal transduction pathway involving phospholipase C, a [Ca2+]i rise and protein kinase C activation. Exocytosis is, as expected, Ca2+ dependent and appears to be under a negative control involving protein phosphorylations.
P Kernen, M P Wymann, V von Tscharner, D A Deranleau, P C Tai, C J Spry, C A Dahinden, M Baggiolini
Human nasal polyps in outgrowth culture were used to study the Pseudomonas aeruginosa adhesion to respiratory cells. By scanning electron microscopy, P. aeruginosa were seen associated with ciliated cells, but by transmission electron microscopy, bacteria were never seen at the interciliary spaces or attached along cilia, but were identified trapped at the extremities of cilia, usually as bacterial aggregates. A fibronectin-containing fibrillar material was seen associated with aggregated bacteria. By time-lapse video microscopy, bacteria were seen to aggregate in the culture medium following their addition to the culture wells. Progressively, these aggregates were trapped by cilia or attached to migrating cells of a lower cell layer that protruded beneath the upper layer cells, at the outgrowth periphery. P. aeruginosa adhesion to these lower cell layer migrating cells was significantly higher than to ciliated or nonciliated cells of the upper cell layer. Migrating cells were intensely labeled by the complexes Con A and arachis hypogea agglutinin (PNA)-FITC, in contrast to the other cells. The percentage of PNA-labeled cells with attached bacteria was significantly higher than that without bacteria. These results suggest that changes of cell surface glycoconjugates related with cell migration may favor P. aeruginosa adhesion to respiratory cells.
M C Plotkowski, M Chevillard, D Pierrot, D Altemayer, J M Zahm, G Colliot, E Puchelle
Normal and aberrant immune receptor gene assembly each produce site-specific DNA rearrangements in leukemic lymphoblasts. In either case, these rearrangements provide useful clonal markers for the leukemias in question. In the t(1;14)(p34;q11) translocation associated with T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL), the breakpoints on chromosome 1 interrupt the tal-1 gene. A site-specific deletion interrupts the same gene in an additional 26% of T-ALL. Thus, nearly one-third of these leukemias contain clustered rearrangements of the tal-1 locus. To test whether these rearrangements can serve as markers for residual disease, we monitored four patients with T-ALL; three of the leukemias contained a deleted (tald) and one a translocated (talt) tal-1 allele. These alleles were recognized by a sensitive amplification/hybridization assay. tald alleles were found in the blood of one patient during the 4th mo of treatment but not thereafter. Using a quantitative assay to measure the fraction of tald alleles in DNA extracts, we estimated that this month 4 sample contained 150 tald copies per 10(6) genome copies. The patient with t(1;14)(p34;q11) (talt) leukemia developed a positive assay during the 20th mo of treatment. By standard criteria, all four patients remain in complete remission 11-20 mo into treatment. We conclude that tal-1 rearrangements provide useful clonal markers for approximately 30% of T-ALLs.
O G Jonsson, R L Kitchens, R J Baer, G R Buchanan, R G Smith
Leukotriene (LT)B4 promotes leukocyte chemotaxis and adhesion to the endothelium of postcapillary venules. The cysteinyl leukotrienes, LTC4, LTD4, and LTE4, elicit macromolecular leakage from this vessel segment. Both leukocyte adhesion to the endothelium and macromolecular leakage from postcapillary venules hallmark the microcirculatory failure after ischemia-reperfusion, suggesting a role of leukotrienes as mediators of ischemia-reperfusion injury. Using the dorsal skinfold chamber model for intravital fluorescence microscopy of the microcirculation in striated muscle in awake hamsters and sequential RP-HPLC and RIA for leukotrienes, we demonstrate in this study that (a) the leukotrienes (LT)B4 and LTD4 elicit leukocyte/endothelium interaction and macromolecular leakage from postcapillary venules, respectively, that (b) leukotrienes accumulate in the tissue after ischemia and reperfusion, and that (c) selective inhibition of leukotriene biosynthesis (by MK-886) prevents both postischemic leukotriene accumulation and the microcirculatory changes after ischemia-reperfusion, while blocking of LTD4/E4 receptors (by MK-571) inhibits postischemic macromolecular leakage. These results demonstrate a key role of leukotrienes in ischemia-reperfusion injury in striated muscle in vivo.
H A Lehr, A Guhlmann, D Nolte, D Keppler, K Messmer
DNA from 135 patients with chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) at various clinical stages and Philadelphia (Ph1) chromosome positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia was investigated for alterations in a variety of proto-oncogenes which have been implicated in the evolution of CML from its chronic phase to blast crisis. The most common genetic change found in the evolution of typical Ph1 chromosome positive CML to blast crisis was an alteration of the p53 gene involving either a rearrangement, a deletion, or a point mutation in the coding sequence of the gene. Alterations of the p53 gene were found in the myeloid and the rare megakaryocytic variant of blast crisis but were absent in the lymphoid leukemic transformants. Gross structural alterations were seen in 11 of 54 (20%) of myeloid or unknown phenotypes of blast crisis and in only 1 of 44 chronic phase cases. Eight examples of mutations in the open reading frame of the p53 gene at codons 49, 53, 60, 140, 202, 204, 238, and 239 were observed in blast crisis patients. Mutations in the N-RAS gene were rare in typical blast crisis (2 of 27 cases) but were found in megakaryocytic and Ph1 negative myeloid blast crisis. We concluded that heterogeneous alterations in the p53 gene and occasionally in the N-RAS genes accompany the evolution of chronic phase CML to blast crisis.
H Ahuja, M Bar-Eli, Z Arlin, S Advani, S L Allen, J Goldman, D Snyder, A Foti, M Cline
Adherent cells from human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected subjects but not from normal blood donors, patients with Gram-positive or -negative bacteremia, active tuberculosis, toxoplasmosis, pulmonary aspergillosis, and cytomegalovirus infection produce spontaneously an activity which inhibits alpha chain of interleukin-2 (Tac) expression and interleukin 2 (IL-2) production by normal activated T cells and IL-2 production by these cells. A similar biologic activity was detected in culture supernatants of in vitro HIV-I-infected normal adherent and leukemic U937 cells. Tac-inhibitory activity is not cytotoxic and it could be detected in serum-free conditioned media. Recombinant granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor and phorbol myristate acetate stimulation of patients' and normal adherent cells did not enhance specifically the production of the Tac inhibitor. Biologically active conditioned media did not contain infectious virus as well as secreted p24, gp120 viral proteins; the biologic activity could not be abolished by anti-p24, anti-gp120, and anti-nef monoclonal antibodies or human purified polyclonal anti-HIV IgG. Gel filtration of conditioned media followed by anion exchange chromatography resulted in a 1,200-fold degree of purification and revealed that the biologically active molecule was cationic. Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of this fraction and gel elution of the proteins showed that the biologic activity was associated with a 29-kD protein which was distinct from alpha- or gamma-interferon, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and prostaglandin E2. The above findings demonstrate the production of inhibitory factor(s) during HIV infection, which might be involved in the pathogenesis of the patients' immune defect.
A Ammar, C Cibert, A M Bertoli, V Tsilivakos, C Jasmin, V Georgoulias
To test whether generation of oxygen radicals during postischemic reperfusion might promote peroxidation of cardiac membrane lipids, four groups of Langendorff-perfused rabbit hearts were processed at the end of (a) control perfusion, (b) 30 min of total global ischemia at 37 degrees C without reperfusion, (c) 30 min of ischemia followed by reperfusion with standard perfusate, (d) 30 min of ischemia followed by reperfusion with the oxygen radical scavenger human recombinant superoxide dismutase (h-SOD). The left ventricle was homogenized and tissue content of malonyldialdehyde (MDA), an end product of lipid peroxidation, was measured on the whole homogenate as well as on various subcellular fractions. Reperfusion was accompanied by a significant increase in MDA content of the whole homogenate and of the fraction enriched in mitochondria and lysosomes. This phenomenon was not observed in hearts subjected to ischemia but not reperfused, and was similarly absent in those hearts which received h-SOD at reflow. Reperfused hearts also had significantly greater levels of conjugated dienes (another marker of lipid peroxidation) in the mitochondrial-lysosomal fraction. Again, this phenomenon did not occur in ischemic hearts or in reperfused hearts treated with h-SOD. Unlike the effect on tissue MDA and conjugated dienes, reperfusion did not significantly stimulate release of MDA in the cardiac effluent. Treatment with h-SOD was also associated with significant improvement in the recovery of cardiac function. In conclusion, these data directly demonstrate that postischemic reperfusion results in enhanced lipid peroxidation of cardiac membranes, which can be blocked by h-SOD, and therefore is most likely secondary to oxygen radical generation at reflow.
G Ambrosio, J T Flaherty, C Duilio, I Tritto, G Santoro, P P Elia, M Condorelli, M Chiariello
The development of the Na/H antiporter was studied in renal brush border membrane vesicles (BBMV) from fetal and adult rabbits using isotopic and fluorescent techniques. The kinetics of the antiporter studied by 22Na+ uptake revealed that the Vmax was only 25% of that in the adult; however, the Km's for Na+ were not significantly different. These data were confirmed by a fluorescent assay using the pH-sensitive probe, acridine orange: the Vmax was significantly lower in the fetal BBMV. Conductive Na+ movement was estimated from amiloride-insensitive 22Na+ uptake and the rate of alkalinization induced by K+, an ion whose relative conductance was found to be similar to that of Na+. Although relative Na+ conductance was significantly greater in fetal BBMV, the lower Vmax in fetal vesicles could not be ascribed to this factor. Maternal administration of betamethasone (50 micrograms/kg intramuscularly) for 2 d before delivery significantly increased the Vmax of the antiporter to levels observed in the adult; Km was unaffected. Na/K ATPase activity increased fourfold after betamethasone, but the specific activities of four brush border marker enzymes and the kinetics of Na(+)-glucose cotransport were unchanged. These data indicate that there is a developmental increase in brush border Na/H exchange which is the result of an increase in the number and/or the turnover number of the carriers. Further, these data suggest that the postnatal increase in antiporter activity may be related to the surge in glucocorticoid concentration that occurs perinatally.
J C Beck, M S Lipkowitz, R G Abramson
It is known that long-standing volume overload on the left ventricle due to mitral regurgitation eventually leads to contractile dysfunction. However, it is unknown whether or not correction of the volume overload can lead to recovery of contractility. In this study we tested the hypothesis that depressed contractile function due to volume overload in mitral regurgitation could return toward normal after mitral valve replacement. Using a canine model of mitral regurgitation which is known to produce contractile dysfunction, we examined contractile function longitudinally in seven dogs at baseline, after 3 mo of mitral regurgitation, 1 mo after mitral valve replacement, and 3 mo after mitral valve replacement. After 3 mo of mitral regurgitation (regurgitant fraction 0.62 +/- 0.04), end-diastolic volume had nearly doubled from 68 +/- 6.8 to 123 +/- 12.1 ml (P less than 0.05). All five indices of contractile function which we examined were depressed. For instance, maximum fiber elastance (EmaxF) obtained by assessment of time-varying elastance decreased from 5.95 +/- 0.71 to 2.25 +/- 0.18 (P less than 0.05). The end-systolic stiffness constant (k) was also depressed from 4.2 +/- 0.4 to 2.1 +/- 0.3. 3 mo after mitral valve replacement all indexes of contractile function had returned to or toward normal (e.g., EmaxF 3.65 +/- 0.21 and k 4.2 +/- 0.3). We conclude that previously depressed contractile function due to volume overload can improve after correction of the overload.
K Nakano, M M Swindle, F Spinale, K Ishihara, S Kanazawa, A Smith, R W Biederman, L Clamp, Y Hamada, M R Zile
We examined human tonsillar B cells for expression of autoantibody heavy-chain or kappa light-chain cross-reactive idiotypes (CRIs), respectively defined by murine MAbs G6 or 17.109. We find 17.109 or G6 each specifically binds a subpopulation of B cells, respectively reacting with 3.8 +/- 3% (mean +/- SD) or 2.0 +/- 1.2% of all tonsillar lymphocytes. Cells reactive with both 17.109 and G6 comprise only 0.4 +/- 0.3% of tonsillar lymphocytes. Although each tested specimen had 17.109-positive cells, 2 of 19 tonsils (11%) did not have any G6-reactive cells. We find that CRI-positive cells and CD5 B cells both co-express slgD but fail to bind peanut agglutinin or MAbs specific for CD10, indicating that both cell types reside in the mantle zones of secondary B cell follicles. However, less than half of the B cells bearing one or both of these CRIs express detectable levels of CD5. Nevertheless, we find that G6-reactive lymphocytes constitute a multiclonal population of cells that express homologous heavy chain variable region genes, each rearranged to one of several distinct and apparently nonmutated D and JH gene segments. Collectively, these studies indicate that expression of nondiversified autoantibody-encoding variable region genes may not be an exclusive property of B cells that bear detectable levels of the CD5 surface antigen.
T J Kipps, S F Duffy
In anesthetized rats we tested the hypothesis that amphotericin B (AmB) reduces glomerular filtration rate (GFR) by activating the tubuloglomerular feedback (TGF) mechanism. Infusion of 1 mg/kg AmB over 50 min was followed by a reduction in kidney GFR (from 0.47 +/- 0.03 to 0.39 +/- 0.02 ml/min per 100 g body wt during the second hour after infusion; P less than 0.05) and by an increase in urine flow and urinary chloride excretion. Single-nephron GFR (SNGFR) measured in proximal (TGF interrupted) or distal tubules (TGF intact) decreased to a similar degree from 33.4 +/- 1.8 and 30.6 +/- 1.2 nl/min in the control period to 19.7 +/- 1.9 and 21.2 +/- 1.6 nl/min during the second hour after AmB infusion (P less than 0.05). Distal chloride concentrations and TGF responses to changes in loop of Henle flow rate were not significantly altered by AmB. AmB at 10(-5) M reduced the diameter of isolated perfused afferent arterioles from rabbit kidneys. In isometrically contracting rings of rabbit aorta and renal artery in vitro AmB produced endothelium-independent constriction, with half-maximal contraction (EC50) being achieved by 1.8 x 10(-6) and 2.6 x 10(-6) M in intact vessels and 1.3 x 10(-6) and 1.7 x 10(-6) M in endothelium-denuded vessels respectively. Tension development did not occur in Ca-free media or in the presence of Ca channel blockers. Pretreatment with ouabain or Bay K 8644 potentiated the effect of AmB. The vasoconstrictive effect of AmB was counteracted by aminophylline and atrial natriuretic peptide. We conclude that the AmB-induced reduction in GFR is not caused by TGF activation and that AmB has a direct vasoconstrictor effect that is probably initiated by depolarization-induced opening of Ca channels. This effect may be an important component of the nephrotoxic actions of AmB.
B P Sawaya, H Weihprecht, W R Campbell, J N Lorenz, R C Webb, J P Briggs, J Schnermann
Doxorubicin (DXR) is an effective antitumor agent in a wide spectrum of neoplasms. Chronic treatment is associated with cardiomyopathy and characteristic myocardial ultrastructural changes, which include swelling of the t tubules. Accordingly, we investigated excitation-contraction coupling in cardiomyopathic rat heart resulting from chronic DXR treatment. Using the whole-cell patch clamp technique, we studied the L-type calcium channel in single cells enzymatically isolated from normal (CTRL) and DXR rat hearts. Despite similar cell dimensions, the total membrane capacitance was significantly smaller in the DXR cells (138 +/- 9 pF) than in the CTRL cells (169 +/- 11 pF) (mean +/- SEM, n = 9, P less than 0.05). The mean current and the current density-voltage relationships of the CTRL and the DXR cells were significantly different (n = 9, P less than 0.001) with the maximal peak L-type calcium current (ICa) density increased from 6.4 +/- 0.9 in CTRL cells to 10.5 +/- 2.4 microA/cm2 in the DXR cells (P less than 0.05). There was no shift either in the current-voltage relationship or the steady-state inactivation curve in the two cell groups. However, the fast time constant of inactivation was increased at a membrane voltage of -10 to 10 mV. Calcium channel antagonist equilibrium binding assays using [3H]-PN200-110 revealed no difference in the maximal receptor binding capacity (CTRL, 194 +/- 27 and DXR 211 +/- 24 fmol/mg protein; P greater than 0.05, n = 6) and in receptor affinity (CTRL, 0.15 +/- 0.05 and DXR 0.13 +/- 0.03 nM; P less than 0.05). These data suggest that a decrease in effective capacitance might be associated with t-tubular damage. Despite this decrease, ICa was increased in the DXR cells. Such an increase may result from an alteration in the properties of the calcium channels and/or recruitment of "hibernating" channels in the remaining surface and t-tubular membranes.
E C Keung, L Toll, M Ellis, R A Jensen
Most biologic responses to IL-2 have been attributed to interaction of IL-2 with a high affinity receptor which consists of a heterodimer composed of two distinct IL-2-binding proteins (IL-2R alpha/IL-2R beta). However, both low affinity IL-2R alpha (55 kD) and intermediate affinity IL-2R beta (70-75 kD) also appear to be expressed independently on the cell surface. We investigated the receptor-specific regulatory effects of IL-2 on cytokine production in unstimulated and activated T cells. T cells were activated by stimulation of the antigen receptor complex with anti-CD3 mAb. IL-2 (10(2) U/ml, 1 nM) stimulation of resting cells resulted in a fivefold increase in GM-CSF release but in only minimal IFN-gamma release. IL-2 markedly augmented mRNA expression of GM-CSF but not IFN-gamma in unstimulated T cells. IL-2R beta mAb but not IL-2R alpha mAb decreased IL-2-induced GM-CSF release and mRNA expression from unstimulated T cells. IL-2 concentrations required for GM-CSF release from resting cells suggested ligand binding to an intermediate affinity receptor. GM-CSF and IFN-gamma release from activated T cells increased four- to fivefold in response to 1 nM IL-2 and IL-2 augmented both GM-CSF and IFN-gamma mRNA. IL-2R beta mAb but not IL-2R alpha mAb reduced GM-CSF release and mRNA expression in activated T cells stimulated with 1 nM IL-2. IL-2R alpha blockade markedly decreased IL-2-induced IFN-gamma release and mRNA expression from activated cells, while IL-2R beta blockade had little effect on IFN-gamma production in activated cells. IL-2R alpha blockade altered the affinity of the receptor mediating activated cell GM-CSF release from a high affinity to an intermediate affinity state. These studies indicate an independent role for IL-2R beta in mediating GM-CSF production from T cells. They also suggest that unstimulated and activated T cells, which express distinct IL-2 receptor moieties, mediate release of separate lymphokines and that different subunits of the IL-2 receptor may play an important role in the regulation of cytokine production.
S Burdach, N Zessack, D Dilloo, M Shatsky, D Thompson, L Levitt
Studies were performed to identify the receptor that mediates AVP-stimulated phosphoinositide (PI) hydrolysis in cultured rat inner medullary collecting tubule (RIMCT) cells. While the selective V1 receptor agonist [Ho1, Phe2, Orn8] VT has no effect on inositol trisphosphate (IP3) production over the range of 10(-13)-10(-7) M, the selective V2 receptor agonist VDAVP stimulates IP3 production in dose-dependent fashion. Oxytocin stimulates IP3 production in dose-dependent fashion as well. AVP-stimulated phospholipase C activity is not inhibited by the V1 receptor antagonist d(CH2)5Tyr(Me)AVP(10(-7) M) but is eliminated by the V2 receptor antagonist d(CH2)5DTyr(Et)VAVP (10(-7) M). Similarly, the response to oxytocin is eliminated by the V2 receptor antagonist. The selective oxytocin receptor agonist [Thr4, Gly7] oxytocin does not stimulate cAMP production in RIMCT cells but does promote PI hydrolysis. The selective oxytocin receptor antagonist desGlyNH2d(CH2)5[Tyr(Me)-Thr4]OVT (10(-7) M) does not inhibit AVP-stimulated cAMP production but eliminates IP3 production in response to AVP or the V2 receptor agonist VDAVP. These studies demonstrate that AVP or a V2 receptor agonist stimulate PI hydrolysis in cultured RIMCT cells via occupancy of the oxytocin receptor.
Recent molecular studies have shown that in a patient with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) Kobe, the size of exon 19 of the dystrophin gene was reduced to 36 bp due to the deletion of 52 bp out of 88 bp of the exon. The consensus sequences at the 5' and 3' splice sites of exon 19 were unaltered (Matsuo, M., et al. 1990. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 170:963-967). To further elucidate the molecular nature of the defect, we examined the primary structure of cytoplasmic dystrophin mRNA of the DMD Kobe patient across the junctions of exons 18, 19, and 20 by gel electrophoresis and sequencing of polymerase chain reaction-amplified cDNA. The mRNA coding for dystrophin was reverse transcribed using random primers, and the cDNA was then enzymatically amplified in vitro. The targeted fragment was smaller than expected from the genomic DNA analysis. By sequencing of the amplified product, we found that exon 18 was joined directly to exon 20, so that exon 19 was completely absent, suggesting that this exon was skipped during processing of the dystrophin mRNA precursor. All other bases in the amplified product were unaltered. Therefore, the data strongly suggest that the internal exon deletion generates an abnormally spliced mRNA in which the sequence of exon 18 is joined to the sequence of exon 20. We propose that the deletion is responsible for abnormal processing of the DMD Kobe allele. This finding has important implications regarding the determinants of a functional splice site.
M Matsuo, T Masumura, H Nishio, T Nakajima, Y Kitoh, T Takumi, J Koga, H Nakamura
The role of human papillomavirus (HPV) proteins in the pathogenesis of cervical intra-epithelial neoplasia (CIN) and invasive cervical cancer is poorly understood. To characterize E4 protein expression in 49 paraffin-embedded cervical biopsies representing different histopathologic grades of disease, antibodies were elicited to a synthetic peptide corresponding to amino acids 20-34 of a protein predicted to be encoded by the HPV 16 E4 open reading frame. The E4 protein was detected throughout the spectrum of CIN, from CIN1 to CIN3. Expression was localized to the cell nucleus, primarily in the superficial layers of the squamous cervical epithelium. Ultrastructural studies showed that the E4 protein was organized into compact, intranuclear arrays 25-35 nm in diameter. E4 protein expression was also demonstrated in some histologically normal tissues containing HPV 16 DNA, but not in any of five cervical cancers containing HPV 16 DNA. These results suggest that E4 protein expression may precede development of light microscopic tissue abnormalities, that it may continue through the spectrum of CIN, and that expression of this protein may be reduced or terminated in invasive cancer. The function of this protein remains unknown, but its nuclear localization may be consistent with a role in viral maturation.
J M Palefsky, B Winkler, J P Rabanus, C Clark, S Chan, V Nizet, G K Schoolnik
In addition to local sequence elements the regulation of the high-level, development- and tissue-specific expression of the human beta globin gene cluster appears to require distant regulatory sequences which have been termed locus control region. In the chromatin of erythroid cells the locus control region is characterized by four DNaseI hypersensitive sites that are located 6-18 kb 5' of the epsilon globin gene. The definition of the sequences minimally required for locus control region activity is likely to further the understanding of its physiology and will be of interest for the development of somatic gene therapy strategies of the hemoglobinopathies. We present here the analysis of a family with a 3,030-bp deletion of sequences upstream of the epsilon globin gene including the most 3' locus control region element and cosegregating beta(0) thalassemia. The deletion is linked in cis to a structurally and functionally normal beta globin gene. The proximal element of the locus control region does not therefore appear to be necessary for beta globin gene activity in vivo.
A E Kulozik, S Bail, A Bellan-Koch, C R Bartram, E Kohne, E Kleihauer
Interleukin-4 is a T lymphocyte- and mast cell-derived cytokine with pleiotropic properties with biological effects on a variety of target cells including B and T lymphocytes, macrophages, hematopoietic cells, mast cells, and fibroblasts. In addition to the proliferation effect of IL-4 on fibroblasts, which has been previously described, in this report the chemotactic properties of IL-4 for fibroblasts is described. Human recombinant IL-4 induced the chemotactic migration of dermal fibroblasts in vitro in modified Boyden-type chambers at concentrations between 10(-12) and 10(-11) M. The chemotactic activity of IL-4 was neutralized by anti-human recombinant IL-4 IgG antibodies. Oligopeptides representing the complete deduced amino acid sequence of human IL-4 were synthesized by the Merrifield technique and tested for their ability to induce fibroblast chemotaxis. Two peptides representing residues 70-88 and 89-122 induced fibroblast migration. Peptide 70-88 was the more potent of the two causing chemotaxis of fibroblasts at 10(-8)-10(-6) M while peptide 89-129 induced migration at 10(-7)-10(-5) M. Although the mechanism by which IL-4 and these two peptides induce fibroblast chemotaxis is unknown, each of these three compounds were able to chemotactically desensitize fibroblasts to the chemotactic effects of the other two but not to a structurally unrelated chemotactic cytokine, transforming growth factor beta-1. These studies suggest that IL-4 might function in vivo to induce the accumulation of fibroblasts at sites of tissue injury, inflammatory and immune reactions in which T lymphocytes and mast cells participate.
A E Postlethwaite, J M Seyer
Lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] is a cholesterol-rich lipoprotein that is distinguished by its content of a glycoprotein called apolipoprotein(a) [apo(a)]. Apo(a) varies in size among individuals owing to different numbers of cysteine-rich sequences that are homologous to kringle 4 of plasminogen. The genetic basis for this variation is not understood at the genomic level. In this study we used pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and genomic blotting to identify a highly polymorphic restriction fragment from the apo(a) gene. The fragment contains multiple tandem repeats of a kringle 4-encoding sequence and varies in length from 48 to 190 kb depending on the number of kringle 4-encoding sequences. A total of 19 different alleles were identified among 102 unrelated Caucasian Americans. 94% of individuals studied had two different alleles which could be distinguished by size on pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. The degree of size heterogeneity was much greater than had been previously appreciated based on the analysis of the apparent molecular mass of the protein. The size of the apo(a) gene correlated directly with the size of the apo(a) protein, and inversely with the concentration of Lp(a) in plasma. Segregation analysis of the apo(a) gene was performed in families; siblings with identical apo(a) genotypes had similar plasma levels of Lp(a). These results suggest that in the normal population, the level of plasma Lp(a) is largely determined by alleles at the apo(a) locus.
C Lackner, E Boerwinkle, C C Leffert, T Rahmig, H H Hobbs
To test the hypothesis that increases in lung superoxide dismutase can cause tolerance to pulmonary oxygen toxicity, we studied transgenic mice which constitutively express elevated levels of the human copper-zinc SOD (CuZnSOD). Upon exposure to hyperoxia (greater than 99% O2, 630 torr) the transgenic CuZnSOD mice showed increased survival, decreased morphologic evidence of lung damage such as edema and hyaline membrane formation, and reduction in the number of lung neutrophils. During continuous exposure to oxygen, both control and transgenic animals who successfully adapted to hyperoxia showed increased activity of lung antioxidant enzymes such as glutathione peroxidase (GPX), glutathione reductase (GR), and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD), whereas superoxide dismutase activity remained unchanged. The results show that expression of elevated levels of CuZnSOD decreases pulmonary oxygen toxicity and associated histologic damage and mortality.
C W White, K B Avraham, P F Shanley, Y Groner
Spectrin alpha-chain mutants associated with hereditary elliptocytosis are highly variable in their level of expression. It has been assumed that the degree of elliptocytosis can be increased when the spectrin alpha chain, encoded by the alpha gene in trans to the variant, is expressed at a low level. We now provide strong evidence for the existence of low-level expression of spectrin alpha chains. This condition is referred to as the alpha V/41 polymorphism. It has been observed in 15 different families or individuals of French, North African, and African ancestry in which seven distinct elliptocytogenic alpha-spectrin variants were co-inherited. Whenever the alpha V/41 polymorphism was present, the severity of the biochemical, morphological, and, sometimes, the clinical phenotype of elliptocytosis was increased. The alpha V/41 polymorphism was also frequently encountered among 36 unrelated control subjects in the heterozygous or homozygous states, and was entirely asymptomatic in both cases. The main biochemical feature was an increased susceptibility to proteolysis of the alpha IV-alpha V domain junction. Alteration of the facing beta IV domain of spectrin was demonstrated by in vitro spectrin dimer reconstitution experiments. It appears that the alpha V/41 polymorphism is often required for alpha-spectrin elliptocytogenic variants to become manifest in the heterozygous state. Thus, alpha-spectrin-related elliptocytosis may be viewed as a bifactorial condition.
N Alloisio, L Morlé, J Maréchal, A F Roux, M T Ducluzeau, D Guetarni, B Pothier, F Baklouti, A Ghanem, R Kastally, J Delaunay
To determine whether pancreatic B cells show a constant secretion pattern during repeated stimulations, we have used a sequential hemolytic plaque assay to monitor their individual insulin release during several successive 30-min incubations in the presence of 16.7 mM glucose. We have found that the total B cell secretion did not vary significantly in these successive glucose stimulations and that, under these conditions, the majority of B cells that were stimulated to release insulin during the first incubation also secreted during the second, third, and, when this was tested, during the fourth incubation. Similarly, most of the B cells that did not release detectable amounts of insulin during the first incubation did not secrete also during the two (or three) subsequent secretion tests. Together, the two groups of B cells that showed a constant secretory pattern, represented approximately 75% of the entire B cell population. The remaining 25% of B cells shifted from a secreting to a non-secreting state, or vice versa, from one incubation to another. These observations were made under three different time frames in which we tested single B cells as well as B cell clusters at rather different intervals. These findings support the existence of distinct B cell subpopulations differing lastingly in their ability to secrete insulin in response to glucose.
E Giordano, D Bosco, V Cirulli, P Meda
That structural abnormalities may be responsible for nonamyloid immunoglobulin (Ig) light chain deposition disease (LCDD) is suggested by previous results of Ig biosynthesis studies, but this hypothesis was not documented at the molecular level. We report on the first complete primary sequence deduced from cDNA analysis of a kappa light chain responsible for LCDD associated with an apparently nonsecretory myeloma. Bone marrow myeloma cells contained intracellular kappa chains and no heavy chains by immunofluorescence. Kidney biopsy showed typical nonamyloid PAS-positive kappa chain deposits. SDS-PAGE analysis of material extracted from a kidney biopsy specimen and of Ig produced by the myeloma cells revealed kappa chains of abnormally high apparent molecular mass (30,000). Comparison of the NH2-terminal aminoacid sequence of the kappa chain deposited in the kidney and of the complete sequence of several identical kappa cDNA clones from bone marrow cells showed the identity of the tissue deposited and plasma cell kappa chain. The kappa mRNA had an overall normal structure and corresponded to the V kappa IV gene rearranged to J kappa 1 and followed by a normal constant exon of the Km(3) allotype. The variable sequence differed from the V kappa IV germline gene by nine point mutations, including an Asp----Asn substitution at position +70 resulting in a potential N-glycosylation site. In vitro biosynthesis experiments and treatment with N-glycosidase provided evidence for the intracellular glycosylation of the monoclonal kappa chain. The peculiar sequence and the glycosylation of a kappa chain of the rare V kappa IV subgroup might be responsible for structural abnormalities leading to tissue deposition.
M Cogné, J L Preud'homme, M Bauwens, G Touchard, P Aucouturier
Myasthenia gravis (MG) is strongly associated with antibodies to acetylcholine receptor (AChR), whereas the extent of T cell involvement is not settled. The number of cells secreting interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) in response to AChR during 48 h culture of blood mononuclear cells (PBL) may reflect AChR-reactive T cells. Using an immunospot assay, we detected such cells in 23 of 30 patients with MG at a mean number of 1 per 33.333 PBL. AChR-reactive T cells were also found in patients with other neurological diseases (OND) and in healthy subjects but at lower frequencies and numbers. The T cell response to purified protein derivative and to PHA, and also to two major myelin proteins (basic protein and proteolipid protein) did not differ between MG and the two control groups, underlining the specificity of an augmented T cell reactivity to AChR in MG. Evaluation of the B cell response by enumerating anti-AChR IgG antibody secreting cells revealed such cells in 27 of 28 patients with MG at a mean value of 1 per 14,085 PBL. Cells secreting anti-AChR antibodies of the IgA and IgM isotypes were also detected in MG, but less frequently, at lower numbers, and only in conjunction with IgG antibody secreting cells. Anti-AChR antibody secreting cells were also found among patient with OND and in healthy controls, but at lower frequencies and numbers. These data confirm that AChR is a major target for autoimmune response in MG.
H Link, O Olsson, J Sun, W Z Wang, G Andersson, H P Ekre, T Brenner, O Abramsky, T Olsson
This study was designed to determine whether altered glucose transporter expression is essential for the in vivo insulin-resistant glucose uptake characteristic of streptozocin-induced diabetes. Immunofluorescence in rat skeletal muscle colocalizes GLUT4 with dystrophin, both intrinsic to muscle fibers. In contrast, GLUT1 is extrinsic to muscle fibers, probably in perineurial sheath. Immunoblotting shows that levels of GLUT1 and GLUT4 protein per DNA in hindlimb muscle are unaltered from control levels at 7 d of diabetes but decrease to approximately 20% of control at 14 d of diabetes. This decrease is prevented by insulin treatment. In adipose cells of 7 d diabetic rats, GLUT4 levels are depressed. Thus, GLUT4 undergoes tissue-specific regulation in response to diabetes. GLUT4 and GLUT1 mRNA levels in muscle are decreased 62-70% at both 7 and 14 d of diabetes and are restored by insulin treatment. At 7 d of diabetes, when GLUT4 protein levels in muscle are unaltered, in vivo insulin-stimulated glucose uptake measured by euglycemic clamp is 54% of control. This reflects impairment in both glycogen synthesis and glycolysis and the substrate common to these two pathways, glucose-6-phosphate, is decreased approximately 30% in muscle of diabetic rats. These findings suggest a defect early in the pathway of glucose utilization, probably at the step of glucose transport. Because GLUT1 and GLUT4 levels are unaltered at 7 d of diabetes, reduced glucose uptake in muscle probably reflects impaired glucose transporter translocation or intrinsic activity. Later, at 14 d of diabetes, GLUT1 and GLUT4 protein levels are reduced, suggesting that sequential defects may contribute to the insulin-resistant glucose transport characteristic of diabetes.
B B Kahn, L Rossetti, H F Lodish, M J Charron
The secretory leukoprotease inhibitor (SLPI) gene codes for a 12-kD protein that within the lung protects the airway epithelium from neutrophil elastase. Screening of 228 alleles in 114 individuals for sequence differences by RNase protection of genomic DNA revealed no detectable polymorphisms in SLPI gene exons II-IV. SLPI gene expression in the lung was demonstrated by identifying SLPI mRNA transcripts in bronchial epithelial cells freshly isolated from normals. Cell lines derived from mucosal surfaces (HS-24 bronchial squamous cell carcinoma, HeLa cervical carcinoma) actively transcribe the SLPI gene and contain SLPI mRNA transcripts, while lung fibroblasts demonstrate no evidence of SLPI gene expression. SLPI mRNA transcripts appear to be relatively stable, with mRNA levels only mildly affected by inhibition of RNA synthesis. Chromatin DNA of HS-24 cells demonstrates two DNase I hypersensitivity sites within the 5' flanking region of exon I of the SLPI gene, whereas fibroblast chromatin has no DNase I accessible sites in the same region. Further analysis of the 5' flanking region demonstrated two contiguous transcription start sites, CAAT and TATA boxes, and several potential regions of known DNA binding proteins. Overall, the SLPI gene appears to be a relatively nonpolymorphic, stable gene that is constitutively expressed at specific tissue sites, but has the potential to be modulated at both the transcriptional and posttranscriptional levels.
T Abe, N Kobayashi, K Yoshimura, B C Trapnell, H Kim, R C Hubbard, M T Brewer, R C Thompson, R G Crystal
Autocrine and paracrine modulation of transforming growth factor expression was assessed in rat intestinal epithelial cell lines designated IEC-6 and IEC-7. Addition of the transforming growth factor alpha (TGF alpha) homologue epidermal growth factor (EGF) to media of subconfluent IEC-6 cells led to autocrine stimulation of TGF alpha expression as well as increased expression of the transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF beta 1). Increased expression of TGF alpha was maximal between 3 and 6 h after addition of EGF and subsequently declined coincident with increasing level of expression of TGF beta 1, which achieved maximal levels 6 h after addition of EGF and was sustained for more than 12 h. Addition of TGF beta 1 also led to autocrine induction of its own expression coincident with suppression of TGF alpha expression. Addition of TGF beta 1 was associated with increased expression of beta-actin when standardized to a constitutive transcript (GAPDH). Similar responses to addition of EGF and TGF beta 1, were observed in another intestinal epithelial cell line, designated IEC-17. Modulation of expression of TGFs was attenuated when cells were grown on the complex extracellular matrix produced by the Engelbreth-Holm-Swarm tumor (Matrigel), reflecting the baseline induction of TGF beta 1 expression when compared to IEC-6 and IEC-17 cells maintained on plastic. These observations suggest that expression of TGFs is controlled by autocrine mechanisms in intestinal epithelial cell lines and proliferation stimulated by TGF alpha may be initially self-reinforcing but ultimately downregulated by induction of TGF beta 1.
S Suemori, C Ciacci, D K Podolsky
To assess the relationship between insulin receptor (IR) kinase activity and insulin action in vivo in humans, we measured glucose disposal rates (GDR) during a series of euglycemic clamp studies. Simultaneously, we measured IR kinase activity in IRs extracted from skeletal muscle obtained by needle biopsy at the end of each clamp. By preserving the phosphorylation state of the receptors as it existed in vivo at the time of biopsy, we could correlate GDR and IR kinase in skeletal muscle. Eight nondiabetic, nonobese male subjects underwent studies at insulin infusion rates of 0, 40, 120, and 1,200 mU/m2 per min. Kinase activity, determined with receptors immobilized on insulin agarose beads, was measured at 0.5 microM ATP, with 1 mg/ml histone, followed by SDS-PAGE. Insulin increased GDR approximately sevenfold with a half-maximal effect at approximately 100 microU/ml insulin and a maximal effect by approximately 400 microU/ml. Insulin also increased IR kinase activity; the half-maximal effect occurred at approximately 500-600 microU/ml insulin with a maximal 10-fold stimulation over basal. Within the physiologic range of insulin concentrations, GDR increased linearly with kinase activation (P less than 0.0006); at supraphysiologic insulin levels, this relationship became curvilinear. Half-maximal and maximal insulin-stimulated GDR occurred at approximately 20 and approximately 50% maximal kinase activation, respectively. These results are consistent with a role of the kinase in insulin action in vivo. Furthermore, they demonstrate the presence of a large amount of "spare kinase" for glucose disposal.
G R Freidenberg, S L Suter, R R Henry, D Reichart, J M Olefsky
Ascorbic acid stimulates collagen gene transcription in cultured fibroblasts, and this effect is mediated through the induction of lipid peroxidation by ascorbic acid. Quiescent cultured fibroblasts in the absence of ascorbic acid have a high constitutive level of collagen production, but the mechanisms of collagen gene regulation in this unstimulated state are not known. Because lipid peroxidation also occurs in normal cells, we wondered if lipid peroxidation plays a role in the regulation of basal collagen gene expression. Inhibition of lipid peroxidation in cultured human fibroblasts with d-alpha-tocopherol or methylene blue decreased the synthesis of collagen, the steady-state levels of procollagen alpha 1(I) mRNA and the transcription of the procollagen alpha 1(I) gene. This effect on collagen gene expression was selective and not associated with cellular toxicity. Thus, these experiments suggest a role for lipid peroxidation in the modulation of constitutive collagen gene expression.
K Houglum, D A Brenner, M Chojkier
The propensity of Staphylococcus aureus to cause acute endovascular infections during transient bacteremia is poorly understood. To examine the events leading to the attachment of staphylococci to endothelium, adherence assays were developed to study the role of blood factors in the mediation of staphylococcal adherence to cultured human umbilical vein endothelium in vitro. Results indicate that the preferential attachment of S. aureus to endothelial cells is mediated by fibrinogen adsorbed from plasma onto the endothelial surface. The binding is apparently specific because it could be blocked by goat anti-human fibrinogen antibody in a dose-dependent fashion while nonimmune goat IgG, mouse MAb against AG-1 (a platelet antigen found on the endothelial cell surface), nonspecific mouse MAb and rabbit antibodies to human vitronectin and fibronectin were not inhibitory. Our data also indicate that fibrinogen is a necessary but not the only blood constituent in the mediation of binding of S. aureus to endothelium. This was supported by the finding that fibrinogen alone, at a concentration equivalent to that in plasma, did not potentiate staphylococcal adherence as much as plasma while afibrinogenemic plasma reconstituted with fibrinogen did. Because fibrinogen is known to bind to endothelial cells, our data is consistent with the hypothesis that fibrinogen and additional plasma factor(s), possibly activated during inflammation, promote staphylococcal adherence to endothelium. In addition, the role of the fibrinogen binding receptor of S. aureus as an adherence factor to native endothelium is also suggested.
A L Cheung, M Krishnan, E A Jaffe, V A Fischetti
Hyperinsulinemia may contribute to hypertension by increasing sympathetic activity and vascular resistance. We sought to determine if insulin increases central sympathetic neural outflow and vascular resistance in humans. We recorded muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA; microneurography, peroneal nerve), forearm blood flow (plethysmography), heart rate, and blood pressure in 14 normotensive males during 1-h infusions of low (38 mU/m2/min) and high (76 mU/m2/min) doses of insulin while holding blood glucose constant. Plasma insulin rose from 8 +/- 1 microU/ml during control, to 72 +/- 8 and 144 +/- 13 microU/ml during the low and high insulin doses, respectively, and fell to 15 +/- 6 microU/ml 1 h after insulin infusion was stopped. MSNA, which averaged 21.5 +/- 1.5 bursts/min in control, increased significantly (P less than 0.001) during both the low and high doses of insulin (+/- 5.4 and +/- 9.3 bursts/min, respectively) and further increased during 1-h recovery (+15.2 bursts/min). Plasma norepinephrine levels (119 +/- 19 pg/ml during control) rose during both low (258 +/- 25; P less than 0.02) and high (285 +/- 95; P less than 0.01) doses of insulin and recovery (316 +/- 23; P less than 0.01). Plasma epinephrine levels did not change during insulin infusion. Despite the increased MSNA and plasma norepinephrine, there were significant (P less than 0.001) increases in forearm blood flow and decreases in forearm vascular resistance during both doses of insulin. Systolic pressure did not change significantly during infusion of insulin and diastolic pressure fell approximately 4-5 mmHg (P less than 0.01). This study suggests that acute increases in plasma insulin within the physiological range elevate sympathetic neural outflow but produce forearm vasodilation and do not elevate arterial pressure in normal humans.
E A Anderson, R P Hoffman, T W Balon, C A Sinkey, A L Mark
Minimally modified low density lipoprotein (MM-LDL), derived by mild iron oxidation or prolonged storage at 4 degrees C, has been shown to induce certain inflammatory responses in vascular cells in tissue culture. These include induction of monocyte (but not neutrophil) adherence to endothelial cells (EC), induction of EC production of colony stimulating factors (CSF), and induction of EC and smooth muscle cell production of monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP-1). To test for biologic activity in vivo, microgram quantities of MM-LDL were injected into mice, sera were assayed for CSF activity, and tissues were subjected to Northern analysis. After injection of MM-LDL, CSF activity increased approximately 7-26-fold but remained near control levels after injection of native LDL. Essentially all of the induced CSF activity was due to macrophage CSF as judged by antibody inhibition. Injection of MM-LDL into a mouse strain (C3H/HeJ) that is resistant to bacterial LPS gave similar results, indicating that the induction of CSF was not due to contaminating LPS and suggesting that there are differences in the pathways by which LPS and MM-LDL trigger cytokine production. In addition, after injection of MM-LDL, mRNA for JE, the mouse homologue of MCP-1, was markedly induced in various tissues, but was not induced after injection of native LDL. We conclude, therefore, that MM-LDL is biologically active in vivo and may contribute to the early stages of atherosclerosis by acting as an inflammatory agent.
F Liao, J A Berliner, M Mehrabian, M Navab, L L Demer, A J Lusis, A M Fogelman
Human endothelial cells treated with either interleukin-1 beta, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, or phorbol myristate acetate secreted a metalloproteinase that hydrolyzed and inactivated the two major serine proteinase inhibitors (Serpins) found in plasma, alpha 1-proteinase inhibitor and alpha 1-antichymotrypsin. Surprisingly, the responsible metalloproteinase was identified as human interstitial collagenase (matrix metalloproteinase-1), an enzyme whose only known physiologic substrate has heretofore been believed to be the extracellular matrix molecule, collagen. The metalloproteinase inactivated the Serpins by cleaving peptide bonds at sites unrelated to those hydrolyzed in collagenous macromolecules. NH2-terminal sequence analysis localized the cleavage sites in the Serpins to regions near their respective reactive site centers at three distinct peptide bonds on the amino-terminal side of bulky, hydrophobic residues. Together, these data indicate that matrix metalloproteinase-1 displays an expanded substrate repertoire that supports the existence of a new interface between connective tissue turnover and Serpin function.
P E Desrochers, J J Jeffrey, S J Weiss