The differential expression of Ia antigens was studied in freshly isolated rheumatoid nonlymphoid synovial lining cells (SLC) and rheumatoid synovial fibroblast cell lines cultured in the presence of Interferon-gamma, using a large panel of anti-Ia reagents with monomorphic or polymorphic specificities. All the HLA-DR or -DQ specificities detectable on the corresponding peripheral blood B cells were also expressed in freshly isolated SLC. However, in all instances, the number of DR-positive SLC exceeded the percentage of cells expressing DQ antigens. In addition, the epitope expression of Ia antigens varied within the DR or DQ populations of Ia molecules as revealed by polymorphic reagents. Double-label experiments or using the ingestion of Latex particles as a marker demonstrated that the synovial macrophages (type I SLC) primarily bear the DR+DQ+ phenotype, while there is an additional population of nonphagocytic SLC (previously termed type II SLC) that has a DR+ and monocyte marker negative phenotype but did not have detectable levels of DQ antigens as analyzed by both fluorescence microscopy and cell sorter analysis. This latter population frequently had a morphology showing dendritic processes and rapidly lost the expression of Ia antigens upon culture. Cells with a similar, primarily DR+ phenotype were readily obtained in synovial fibroblast cultures after treatment with Interferon-gamma. These data suggest that there are two populations of Ia+ synovial lining cells: the synovial macrophages (type I cells) with the DR+DQ+ phenotype, and cells probably related to fibroblasts with a DR+ phenotype without detectable DQ antigens (type II cells). The fact that the latter phenotype could be induced by Interferon-gamma treatment of cultured synovial fibroblasts suggests that this mediator may have a similar role in vivo in the activation of certain synovial cell populations.
G R Burmester, B Jahn, P Rohwer, J Zacher, R J Winchester, J R Kalden
Lipid X, a precursor of lipid A (the toxic moiety of endotoxin), has been shown to protect animals from the lethal effects of endotoxin challenge. We investigated the mechanism of action of lipid X and 3-aza-lipid X, a diamino-analogue, in vitro, using the ability of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to prime neutrophils for an enhanced release of toxic oxygen radicals. Lipid X and 3-aza-lipid X inhibited LPS-induced neutrophil priming in a concentration-dependent manner. At high concentrations, 3-aza-lipid X was a partial agonist of priming. Lipid X was found to inhibit LPS-induced priming by directly interacting with the neutrophil in contrast to polymyxin B, which neutralized LPS by binding to it. Increasing concentrations of lipid X shifted the LPS dose response curve of neutrophils rightward but did not prevent maximum priming at higher LPS concentrations, a finding consistent with competitive inhibition. These results suggest that lipid X, a compound structurally related to lipid A, may block neutrophil priming by competing with LPS for cellular binding sites. Lipid X appears to have a novel mechanism of inhibiting LPS effect and may have efficacy in the treatment of gram-negative sepsis.
R L Danner, K A Joiner, J E Parrillo
Because catecholamines and digitalis have different effects on the time course of myocardial intracellular calcium concentration, their effects on the time course of left ventricular contraction and relaxation may also be different. To study this question, dogs were instrumented to measure left ventricular pressure and determine left ventricular volume from three ultrasonic dimensions. After full recovery from the instrumentation, the effects of dobutamine (2-10 micrograms/kg), ouabain (0.5 mg i.v.) alone, and ouabain given after propranolol (2 mg/kg i.v.), or phentolamine (5 mg i.v.) and incremental doses of ouabain (0.25-0.75 mg i.v.) were assessed on different days. Left ventricular pressure and volume were varied by caval occlusions. Dobutamine significantly increased the slope of the left ventricular end-systolic pressure-volume relation (Emax) and the slope of the dP/dtmax-end-diastolic volume relation (dE/dtmax), while significantly decreasing the time from end-diastole to end-systole (tmax) and the time constant (T) of the isovolumic fall in left ventricular pressure. Ouabain also increased Emax and dE/dtmax but did not alter tmax or T. Dobutamine produced a greater increase in dE/dtmax than in Emax, whereas ouabain produced similar increases in both. These effects of ouabain were not altered by pretreatment with propranolol or phentolamine. We conclude that although dobutamine and ouabain are both positive inotropes that increase Emax, dobutamine speeds the rate of left ventricular contraction (tmax) and relaxation (T), whereas ouabain does not. These effects of ouabain and dobutamine on global parameters of left ventricular chamber performance mirror their influence on intracellular calcium availability. Furthermore, these observations are consistent with the predictions of the time-varying elastance model of the left ventricle and support its usefulness as a conceptual framework to understand and link events occurring during isovolumic contraction, end-systole, and isovolumic relaxation.
W C Little, A Rassi Jr, G L Freeman
Paired micropuncture experiments were carried out in plasma-replete volume-expanded rats to examine the acute effects of 1-desamino-8-D-arginine vasopressin (dDAVP) on urinary acidification and tubular handling of bicarbonate and chloride. No effect was detected on the fractional absorption of water, total CO2, and chloride at end-proximal and early distal sites of superficial nephrons in intact animals; dDAVP, however, inhibited the fractional absorption of total CO2 in Henle's loop while stimulating that of chloride in thyroparathyroidectomized (TPTX) somatostatin-infused rats. In the distal tubule accessible to micropuncture, net total CO2 secretion was observed during hypotonic volume expansion, which reversed to net total CO2 absorption during dDAVP infusion in intact Wistar rats. Marked stimulation of urinary acidification occurred in all animals as attested by a fall in urine pH and bicarbonate excretion. Net acid excretion almost doubled in intact rats. We conclude that (a) antidiuretic hormone (ADH) inhibits fractional bicarbonate absorption in the thick ascending limb while stimulating that of chloride at least in TPTX somatostatin-infused rats, and (b) ADH stimulates proton secretion (or inhibits bicarbonate secretion) in the distal tubule and cortical collecting ducts, which leads to enhanced urinary acidification.
M Bichara, O Mercier, P Houillier, M Paillard, F Leviel
We investigated the effects of estradiol on bioactive luteinizing hormone (LH) release in normal men using two complementary strategies: (i) steady state intravenous infusions of estradiol at its endogenous production rate, and (ii) oral administration of the antiestrogen, tamoxifen HCl. Immunoreactive and biologically active LH were monitored by radioimmunoassay and the rat interstitial cell testosterone bioassay, respectively. Estradiol infusions significantly suppressed mean plasma bioactive LH concentrations and decreased the bio/immuno LH ratio. Conversely, antiestrogen treatment enhanced spontaneous bioactive LH pulse frequency, increased bioactive LH pulse amplitude, and augmented plasma intrapulse and interpulse bio/immuno LH ratios. Low-dose pulsed injections of exogenous gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) also increased plasma bio/immuno LH ratios. However, tamoxifen attenuated the ability of exogenous GnRH to further enhance the bio/immuno LH ratio, which suggests that endogenous LH release was already maximally enriched in LH bioactivity during antiestrogen administration. We conclude that estradiol modulates the pulsatile secretion of LH molecules enriched in biological activity in man.
J D Veldhuis, M L Dufau
Colony assays were performed for 50 patients with B cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Blast colony formation was observed for 33 patients, and the plating efficiency (PE) showed a marked interpatient variation, which indicates a pronounced biological heterogeneity at the level of leukemic progenitor cells. Notably, the mean PE of leukemic B cell precursors from patients with a pseudodiploid or near-diploid karyotype with structural chromosomal abnormalities (SCA) was significantly higher than the mean PE of normal diploid or hyperdiploid cases. All patients who had SCA involving 7p13, 11q23-24, or 12p11-13, and patients with a Philadelphia chromosome had high PE values. The S phase percentage, expression of CD19 antigen, and relapse status were also correlated with PE. Significantly, colony blasts had slightly different surface marker profiles in each case and were common ALL antigen negative in 33% of cases, which indicates the existence of a marked immunological heterogeneity at the level of leukemic progenitor cells.
F M Uckun, J H Kersey, K J Gajl-Peczalska, N A Heerema, A J Provisor, D Haag, G Gilchrist, C W Song, D C Arthur, J Roloff
Reversible ischemia reduced renal cortical brush border membrane (BBM) Na+-dependent D-glucose uptake (336 +/- 31 vs. 138 +/- 30 pmol/mg per 2 s, P less than 0.01) but had no effect on Na+-independent glucose or Na+-dependent L-alanine uptake. The effect on D-glucose uptake was present after only 15 min of ischemia and was due to a reduction in maximum velocity (1913 +/- 251 vs. 999 +/- 130 pmol/mg per 2 s; P less than 0.01). This reduction was not due to more rapid dissipation of the Na+ gradient, altered sidedness of the vesicles, or an alteration in membrane potential. Ischemia did, however, reduce the BBM sphingomyelin-to-phosphatidylcholine (SPH/PC) and cholesterol-to-phospholipid ratios and the number of specific high-affinity Na+-dependent phlorizin binding sites (390 +/- 43 vs. 146 +/- 24 pmol/mg; P less than 0.01) without altering the binding dissociation constant (Kd). 20 mM benzyl alcohol also reduced the number of Na+-dependent phlorizin binding sites (418 +/- 65 vs. 117 +/- 46; P less than 0.01) without altering Kd. The reduction in Na+-dependent D-glucose transport correlated with ischemic-induced changes in the BBM SPH/PC and cholesterol-to-phospholipid ratios and membrane fluidity. Taken together these data indicate the cellular site responsible for ischemic-induced reduction in renal cortical transcellular glucose transport is the BBM. We propose the mechanism involves marked alterations in BBM lipids leading to large increases in BBM fluidity which reduces the binding capacity of Na+-dependent glucose carriers. These data indicate that reversible ischemia has profound effects on the surface membrane function of epithelial cells.
B A Molitoris, R Kinne
To determine whether activation by insulin of glycogen synthase (GS), phosphofructokinase (PFK), or pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) in skeletal muscle regulates intracellular glucose metabolism, subjects were studied basally and during euglycemic insulin infusions of 12, 30, and 240 mU/m2 X min. Glucose disposal, oxidative and nonoxidative glucose metabolism were determined. GS, PFK, and PDH were assayed in skeletal muscle under each condition. Glucose disposal rates were 2.37 +/- 0.11, 3.15 +/- 0.19, 6.71 +/- 0.44, and 11.7 +/- 1.73 mg/kg X min; glucose oxidation rates were 1.96 +/- 0.18, 2.81 +/- 0.28, 4.43 +/- 0.32, and 5.22 +/- 0.52. Nonoxidative glucose metabolism was 0.39 +/- 0.13, 0.34 +/- 0.26, 2.28 +/- 0.40, and 6.52 +/- 1.21 mg/kg X min. Both the proportion of active GS and the proportion of active PDH were increased by hyperinsulinemia. PFK activity was unaffected. Activation of GS was correlated with nonoxidative glucose metabolism, while activation of PDH was correlated with glucose oxidation. Sensitivity to insulin of GS was similar to that of nonoxidative glucose metabolism, while the sensitivity to insulin of PDH was similar to that of glucose oxidation. Therefore, the activation of these enzymes in muscle may regulate nonoxidative and oxidative glucose metabolism.
L J Mandarino, K S Wright, L S Verity, J Nichols, J M Bell, O G Kolterman, H Beck-Nielsen
In perfused pancreas of rats rendered diabetic by streptozotocin injection (STZ) during neonatal age the insulin response to 27 mM glucose was significant but impaired. It was unaffected by the alpha adrenergic blocker phentolamine. When 27 mM mannoheptulose was added simultaneously with 27 mM glucose, insulin release was inhibited, but less promptly than in pancreases from non-diabetic rats. When mannoheptulose was introduced 15 min after starting perfusion with 27 mM glucose, inhibition was apparent in non-diabetic rats, but not in STZ. In non-diabetic rats perfusion without glucose for 40 min failed to affect the subsequent response to 27 mM glucose. Conversely, in STZ, glucose omission enhanced 3.7-fold the response to 27 mM glucose. Insulin release in response to 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (IBMX) was more marked in STZ than in non-diabetic rats. After glucose omission the IBMX-induced response was, however, reduced (67%) in STZ, but not significantly (7%) in non-diabetic rats. Thus, glucopenia in vitro sensitizes B cells of STZ to glucose, but desensitizes them to IBMX. Abnormal responsiveness may be linked to metabolic consequences of B cell fuel abundance.
V Grill, M Westberg, C G Ostenson
Infusion of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) increases the glomerular filtration rate (GFR), and ANP is released from cardiac myocytes in response to extracellular fluid volume expansion. Since diabetes mellitus is associated with glomerular hyperfiltration and volume expansion, we investigated the relationship between ANP and GFR in diabetic rats given insulin to achieve stable moderate hyperglycemia or normoglycemia. At 2 wk after induction of diabetes, moderately hyperglycemic diabetic rats exhibited elevations of plasma ANP levels averaging 281 +/- 28 pg/ml vs. 158 +/- 15 pg/ml in normoglycemic diabetic rats. In hyperglycemic rats, the GFR was also elevated on average to 2.24 +/- 0.28 ml/min as compared with 1.71 +/- 0.13 ml/min in normoglycemic diabetic rats. To test further the relationship between ANP and GFR in diabetes, moderately hyperglycemic diabetic rats were infused either with a specific ANP antiserum or with nonimmune serum. The infusion of specific ANP antiserum uniformly reduced the GFR on average from 2.38 +/- 0.1 ml/min to 1.60 +/- 0.1 ml/min, whereas the infusion of nonimmune serum was without effect. It is concluded that elevated endogenous ANP levels contribute to the hyperfiltration observed in early diabetes in the rat.
F V Ortola, B J Ballermann, S Anderson, R E Mendez, B M Brenner
Rat mesangial cells (MC) release a factor that competes in a dose-dependent manner with 125I-labeled platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) for binding to human foreskin fibroblasts (HFF). The competitor activity in mesangial cell conditioned medium (MCCM) is reversible, trypsin sensitive, and inhibited by anti-PDGF IgG. MCCM also expresses potent mitogenic activity to HFF. Anti-PDGF IgG, in concentrations that completely abolished the mitogenic activity of pure PDGF and the competitor activity of MCCM, only partially (33-41%) inhibits this mitogenic activity. The PDGF receptor competing activity as well as the total mitogenic activity, coelutes with labeled pure PDGF on Sephacryl S-200 gel chromatography. Cation exchange chromatography of concentrated MCCM yields a major mitogen peak with little competitor activity and a smaller mitogenic peak with comparable competitor activity, suggestive of the presence of other mitogens in MCCM besides the PDGF-like protein. PDGF is a potent mitogen and may play a role at inflammatory sites. The production of PDGF-like protein by MC may provide insights for understanding the pathogenesis of glomerular diseases.
H E Abboud, E Poptic, P DiCorleto
Na+:H+ and Cl-:HCO3- exchange are localized, respectively, to basolateral (blLPM) and canalicular (cLPM) rat liver plasma membranes. To determine whether these exchangers play a role in bile formation, we examined the effect of a choleretic agent, ursodeoxycholate (UDCA), on these exchange mechanisms. 22Na (1 mM) and 36Cl (5 mM) uptake was determined using outwardly directed H+ and HCO3- gradients, respectively. Preincubation of blLPM vesicles with UDCA (0-500 microM) resulted in a concentration-dependent increase in initial rates of amiloride-sensitive pH-driven Na+ uptake, with a maximal effect at 200 microM. UDCA (200 microM) increased Vmax from 23 +/- 2 (control) to 37 +/- 7 nmol/min per mg protein; apparent Km for Na+ was unchanged. Preincubation with tauroursodeoxycholate (200 microM), taurocholate (10-200 microM) or cholate, chenodeoxycholate, or deoxycholate (200 microM) had no effect on pH-driven Na+ uptake. UDCA (200 microM) had no effect on either membrane lipid fluidity, assessed by steady-state fluorescence polarization using the probes 1,6-diphenyl-1,3,5-hexatriene, 12-(9-anthroyloxy) stearic acid, and 2-(9-anthroyloxy) stearic acid (2-AS), or Na+,K+-ATPase activity in blLPM vesicles. In cLPM vesicles, UDCA (0-500 microM) had no stimulatory effect on initial rates of HCO3(-)-driven Cl- uptake. Enhanced basolateral Na+:H+ exchange activity, leading to intracellular HCO3- concentrations above equilibrium, may account for the bicarbonate-rich choleresis after UDCA infusion.
R H Moseley, N Ballatori, D J Smith, J L Boyer
MRL/Mp-lpr/lpr autoimmune mice consistently show an approximately 25% incidence of the systemic lupus erythematosus marker autoantibody anti-Sm. In the present report, we show that the failure to find anti-Sm antibodies in three-quarters of 5-mo-old MRL/lpr mice was not an artifact of an insensitive assay, but rather that the mice fell into two populations as regards their anti-Sm positivity. Based on an extensive analysis of the incidence of anti-Sm positivity in 5-mo-old mice according to their cage of residence, we found no evidence for genetic, environmental, or parental influences on the propensity of an individual animal to become anti-Sm positive. Also, the gender of the mouse, its Sm antigen level, or its length of survival were not related to anti-Sm antibody, nor was the anti-Sm antibody status of either parent. Some animals became anti-Sm positive after 5 mo of age, but this was less likely than becoming positive before 5 mo of age. Finally, a survey of 205 autoimmune C57BL/6-lpr/lpr mice confirmed the uniqueness of the MRL background for this autoantibody response. These results together indicate that the possibility of making anti-Sm antibodies is under genetic control, but that the expression of this capability in an individual animal is governed by stochastic events. We hypothesize further that such random processes may involve the expression of particular immunoglobulin variable-region genes combined with mechanisms of extensive somatic mutation or positive feedback amplification, which would transmute an initial monoclonal response into an eventual polyclonal one.
R A Eisenberg, S Y Craven, R W Warren, P L Cohen
The effect of atriopeptin III (AP-III) on ameliorate ischemic acute renal failure was first examined in the isolated perfused kidney. Isolated rat kidneys were clamped for 1 h and reperfused for 30 min without therapy and then perfused with either 0 (control) or 100 micrograms/dl AP-III. In this system AP-III significantly improved renal plasma flow (39.6 +/- 2.4 vs. 32.2 +/- 2.1 ml/min per g; P less than 0.05) inulin clearance (182.6 +/- 49.2 vs. 24.6 +/- 6.2 microliters/min per g; P less than 0.05), urine flow (52.9 +/- 12.1 vs. 7.1 +/- 0.8 microliters/min per g, P less than 0.01), and net tubular sodium reabsorption (21.2 +/- 6.6 vs. 2.9 +/- 0.9 mumol/min per g, P less than 0.05) as compared with control. A second series of in vivo studies experiments were performed using 1 h of bilateral renal artery clamping followed by an intravenous infusion of either saline alone (control) or AP-III (0.20 microgram/kg per min) for 60 min. The results demonstrated that inulin clearance (244.4 +/- 25.1 vs. 15.8 +/- 8.2 microliters/min per 100 g; P less than 0.01), urine flow (23.1 +/- 5.9 vs. 1.1 +/- 0.5 microliters/min per 100 g; P less than 0.01), and net tubular sodium reabsorption (38.9 +/- 4.7 vs. 4.3 +/- 1.6 mumol/min per 100 g; P less than 0.01) were significantly higher in AP-III-treated rats than controls during the hour of AP-III infusion. In 1 h posttreatment study this significant protective effect of AP-III was documented to persist. In more chronic studies animals treated acutely with AP-III had lower serum creatinine concentration at 24 h (1.8 +/- 0.3 vs. 3.3 +/- 0.4 mg/dl; P less than 0.01) and 48 (1.0 +/- 0.2 vs. 2.4 +/- 4.0 mg/dl; P less than 0.01) after the 60 min of ischemia than controls. Renal adenosine triphosphate regeneration as assessed by P-31 nuclear magnetic resonance during reflow was also significantly improved in AP-III-treated animals at 1 h (3.03 +/- 0.30 vs. 1.45 +/- 0.40 mumol/g dry wt; P less than 0.05) and 2 h (3.98 +/- 0.46 vs. 1.80 +/- 0.05 mumol/g dry wt; P less than 0.01) or reflow as compared with control rats. Thus, AP-III significantly ameliorates ischemic acute renal failure both in vitro and in vivo in the rat.
M Nakamoto, J I Shapiro, P F Shanley, L Chan, R W Schrier
The relative importance of genetic factors in determining bone mass in different parts of the skeleton is poorly understood. Lumbar spine and proximal femur bone mineral density and forearm bone mineral content were measured by photon absorptiometry in 38 monozygotic and 27 dizygotic twin pairs. Bone mineral density was significantly more highly correlated in monozygotic than in dizygotic twins for the spine and proximal femur and in the forearm of premenopausal twin pairs, which is consistent with significant genetic contributions to bone mass at all these sites. The lesser genetic contribution to proximal femur and distal forearm bone mass compared with the spine suggests that environmental factors are of greater importance in the aetiology of osteopenia of the hip and wrist. This is the first demonstration of a genetic contribution to bone mass of the spine and proximal femur in adults and confirms similar findings of the forearm. Furthermore, bivariate analysis suggested that a single gene or set of genes determines bone mass at all sites.
N A Pocock, J A Eisman, J L Hopper, M G Yeates, P N Sambrook, S Eberl
Mature human erythrocyte membranes contained specific, high affinity (Kd 3.3 X 10(-11) M) folate binding moieties. Folate binding was pH, time- and temperature-dependent, saturable, and was much greater for pteroylmonoglutamate and 5-methyltetrahydrofolate than 5-formyltetrahydrofolate and amethopterin. On detergent solubilization of membranes, two peaks of specific folate binding with Mr greater than or equal to 200,000 and 160,000 were identified on Sephacryl S-200 gel filtration chromatography in Triton X-100, and this corresponded to two similar peaks of immunoprecipitated material when solubilized iodinated membranes were probed with anti-human placental folate receptor antiserum. Age-dependent separation of erythrocytes by Stractan density gradients revealed a sevenfold greater folate binding capacity in membranes purified from younger compared with aged erythrocytes. Since this difference was not reflected in proportionately higher immunoreactive folate binding protein, (as determined by a specific radioimmunoassay for these proteins), or differences in affinity in younger than aged cells, these findings indicate that erythrocyte folate binding proteins become progressively nonfunctional at the onset of red cell aging.
A C Antony, R S Kincade, R S Verma, S R Krishnan
The regulation of renin secretion was studied in continuous culture of human juxtaglomerular cells (JGC), which provided a permanent source of human renin production (Pinet, F., M. T. Corvol, F. Dench, J. Bourguignon, J. Feunteun, J. Ménard, and P. Corvol, 1985, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 82:8503-8507). 95% of the renin species secreted was prorenin, and therefore this study concerned primarily prorenin secretion. Renin production was stable, since the cells had been maintained in culture for more than two years. In culture, these human cells formed colonies of smooth musclelike cells, and electron microscopy showed the presence of cytoskeleton structures including myofibrils and attachment bodies. This human model was used to investigate the control of prorenin secretion in vitro at cellular level. Various pharmacological agents known to stimulate or inhibit renin secretion were tested in the cell cultures. The variations in prorenin secretion were measured in the supernatant. Forskolin, an independent receptor activator of adenylate cyclase, stimulated prorenin secretion in a dose-dependent manner and this stimulation was mediated by 3',5' cyclic-AMP (cAMP). Angiotensin II (AII) was found to inhibit prorenin secretion directly in a dose-dependent manner and atrial natriuretic factor (ANF), whose effects on human JGC were characterized for the first time, was also shown to exert such inhibition. When the effects of this inhibition by AII and ANF were tested on forskolin-mediated stimulation of prorenin secretion, the latter was inhibited and no change occurred in cAMP release. When JGC were treated with histamine, bradykinin, or one or two bradykinin analogues, the responses suggested that in these cells, H2-histamine receptors and kinin receptors are dependent on adenylate cyclase. One peptide, substance P, had an inhibitory effect on prorenin secretion but it was less important than AII and ANF. The present results demonstrate that the adenylate cyclase system of human JGC remains intact during culture and supports the hypothesis that cAMP is the second messenger and Cai2+, the final messenger involved in renin secretion. The cell system used here permits the evaluation of cellular responses and intracellular events in granulated cells in a human model.
F Pinet, J Mizrahi, I Laboulandine, J Menard, P Corvol
A new method has been developed for purification of cytochrome b from stimulated human granulocytes offering the advantage of high yields from practical quantities of whole blood. Polymorphonuclear leukocytes were treated with diisopropylfluorophosphate, degranulated and disrupted by nitrogen cavitation. Membranes enriched in cytochrome b were prepared by differential centrifugation. Complete solubilization of the cytochrome from the membranes was achieved in octylglucoside after a 1-M salt wash. Wheat germ agglutinin-conjugated Sepharose 4B specifically bound the solubilized cytochrome b and afforded a threefold purification. Eluate from the immobilized wheat germ agglutinin was further enriched by chromatography on immobilized heparin. The final 260-fold purification of the b-type cytochrome with a 20-30% yield was achieved by velocity sedimentation in sucrose density gradients. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) of the purified preparation revealed two polypeptides of Mr 91,000 and Mr 22,000. Treatment of the 125I-labeled, purified preparation with peptide:N-glycosidase F, which removes N-linked sugars, decreased relative molecular weight of the larger species to approximately 50,000, whereas beta-elimination, which removes O-linked sugars, had little or no effect on the mobility of the Mr-91,000 polypeptide. Neither of the deglycosylation conditions had any effect on electrophoretic mobility of the Mr-22,000 polypeptide. Disuccinimidyl suberate cross-linked the two polypeptides to a new Mr of 120,000-135,000 by SDS-PAGE. Antibody raised to the purified preparation immunoprecipitated spectral activity and, on Western blots, bound to the Mr-22,000 polypeptide but not the Mr-91,000 polypeptide. Western blot analysis of granulocytes from patients with X-linked chronic granulomatous disease revealed a complete absence of the Mr-22,000 polypeptide. These results (a) suggest that the two polypeptides are in close association and are part of the cytochrome b, (b) provide explanation for the molecular weight discrepancies previously reported for the protein, and (c) further support the involvement of the cytochrome in superoxide production in human neutrophils.
C A Parkos, R A Allen, C G Cochrane, A J Jesaitis
We investigated impaired cellular immune responses of individuals on chronic hemodialysis by using monoclonal antibodies that trigger differential pathways of T cell activation. Reduced cellular reactivity, which exists in a high proportion of such patients, can be attributed to a failure of the monocyte population to support the process of primary T cell activation in vitro. This defect results in a lack of interleukin 2 production, which is critically dependent on a monocyte-derived signal. In contrast, T lymphocyte function was found to be physiologic. Perhaps more important, the degree of monocyte dysfunction in vitro correlated with the same patients' in vivo responses to hepatitis B vaccination. Addition of recombinant human interleukin 2 fully reconstituted their deficient immune response in vitro.
S C Meuer, M Hauer, P Kurz, K H Meyer zum Büschenfelde, H Köhler
Transforming growth factor beta (TGF beta), a recently discovered polypeptide, modulates growth of normal and neoplastic cells. Since little is known concerning in vivo disposition of TGF beta, we performed studies to examine the hepatic processing of biologically active 125I-TGF beta in the rat. After intravenous injection, 125I-TGF beta disappeared from the plasma with an initial t1/2 of 2.2 min; partial hepatectomy delayed the plasma disappearance of 125I-TGF beta by 80%. 60 min after intrafemoral injection, 63% of the recovered label was present in liver and/or bile; by 90 min, most of the label removed by the liver (83%) had been slowly excreted into bile. Nearly all the label in bile (96%) was soluble in trichloracetic acid and not immunoprecipitable by specific antiserum. Colchicine and vinblastine inhibited cumulative biliary excretion of label by 28 and 37%, respectively; chloroquine and leupeptin each increased the amount of label in bile that was precipitable by trichloracetic acid and that coeluted with authentic 125I-TGF beta on molecular sieve chromatography. There was efficient first-pass hepatic extraction of 125I-TGF beta (36%) in the isolated perfused rat liver, which was inhibited by unlabeled TGF beta (but not by epidermal growth factor, EGF) and by lectins in a dose-dependent manner; prolonged fasting also decreased clearance (26%). After fractionation of liver by differential or isopycnic centrifugation, radiolabel codistributed with marker enzymes for lysosomes. The results indicate rapid, extensive, inhibitable, and organ-selective extraction of TGF beta by the liver. After extraction, TGF beta undergoes efficient transhepatic transport, extensive intracellular metabolism, and slow but complete biliary excretion of its metabolites. Liver fractionation studies and pharmacologic manipulations suggest that these processes are associated with organelles that include microtubules and lysosomes. The data suggest that the liver is a major target tissue or site of metabolism for biologically active TGF beta.
R J Coffey Jr, L J Kost, R M Lyons, H L Moses, N F LaRusso
Triiodothyronine sulfate (T3S) is rapidly deiodinated by the propylthiouracil (PTU)-sensitive type I deiodinase. Here we examined the effects of PTU on plasma T3S levels in rats after intravenous administration of radiolabeled T3 or T3S. Sephadex LH-20 chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography were used to quantify conjugated and nonconjugated iodothyronines, and iodide was measured as the TCA-soluble radioactivity. In control rats, radioiodide was the main metabolite of both T3 and T3S. Plasma T3S was cleared more rapidly than plasma T3 despite increased binding to plasma proteins. PTU reduced plasma iodide levels by 66 and 78% after T3 and T3S, respectively, and decreased plasma clearance of T3S by 81%. However, PTU had no effect on plasma T3 clearance but increased plasma T3S from injected T3 4.2 times. Biliary excretion of injected T3S was less than 20% in normal rats, in contrast to 70% within 4 h in PTU-treated rats. In conclusion, T3S is an important intermediate in the in vivo metabolism of T3 in rats and accumulates in plasma if type I deiodination is inhibited.
M Rutgers, F Bonthuis, W W de Herder, T J Visser
Flux rates of amino acids were measured across the leg after an overnight fast in resting human volunteers. A balanced amino acid solution was, after a primed infusion, continuously infused for 2 h at each of three step-wise and increasing rates corresponding to 8.3, 16.7, 33.2 mg N/kg per h that were equivalent to 0.2, 0.4, 0.8 g N/kg per d. Flux of amino acids across the leg was compared with the flux of glucose, glycerol, lactate, free fatty acids, and oxygen. The size of the muscular tissue pool of amino acids was measured. Whole body amino acid oxidation was estimated by means of the continuous infusion of a 14C-labeled mixture of amino acids. Arterial steady state levels were obtained for most amino acids within 30 to 45 min after the primed constant infusion. Leg flux of amino acids switched from a net efflux after an overnight fast to a balanced flux between infusion rates corresponding to 0.2-0.4 g N/kg per d. At 0.8 g N/kg per d essentially all amino acids showed uptake. The infusion of amino acids stimulated leg uptake of glucose and lactate production and decreased FFA release. Oxygen uptake and leg blood flow increased significantly with increased infusion of amino acids. There was significant variability in transport rate among individual amino acids. Branched chain amino acids showed rapid transport and methionine slow transport rate. Only small changes in the muscle tissue concentration of certain amino acids were registered after 6 h of amino acid infusion despite uptake for several hours. When amino acids were infused at a rate corresponding to 0.8 g N/kg per d, the leg uptake of amino acids was 6% and the simultaneous whole body oxidation of infused amino acids was approximately 10%. Net uptake of leucine across the leg per hour was 62% of the muscle pool of free leucine when amino acids were infused at a rate corresponding to 0.4 g N/kg per d. Multiple regression analysis showed that the arterial concentration of an amino acid was the most important factor for uptake, more so than insulin concentration and blood flow. It is concluded that leg exchange of amino acids is large enough to rapidly change the pool size of the amino acids in skeletal muscle, if not counter-regulated by changes in rates of protein synthesis and degradation. Estimates of the capacity for protein synthesis and transfer RNA acceptor sites in muscles agree in order of magnitude with the net uptake of amino acids at high infusion rates of amino acids. Therefore, measurements of the balance of tyrosine, phenylalanine, and particularly methionine at steady state may reflect net balance of proteins across skeletal muscles even in short-time experiments.
K Lundholm, K Bennegård, H Zachrisson, F Lundgren, E Edén, A C Möller-Loswick
The growth of T lymphocyte colonies in agar is dependent on the cooperation of a number of different cell types and their products. Among these interacting cells are monocytes and/or macrophages. Monocytes are capable of producing both interleukin 1 (IL-1) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF). These two factors display a positive influence on T cell colony formation. Recombinant IL-1 and recombinant TNF were both shown to stimulate T cell colony growth in a dose-dependent manner, and this stimulation could be blocked by prior incubation with anti-IL-1 or anti-TNF, respectively. In addition, conditioned medium obtained from monocytes cultured in the presence of endotoxin also stimulated T cell colony formation. This stimulation by monocyte-conditioned medium was partially suppressed by incubation with anti-TNF or anti-IL-1, while incubation with both antibodies together displayed greater suppression. In conclusion, monocytes produce at least two factors, IL-1 and TNF, which can stimulate T cell colony formation by peripheral blood lymphocytes.
J R Zucali, G J Elfenbein, K C Barth, C A Dinarello
Actin microfilaments are anchored to the plasma membrane at focal contacts. Using an indirect immunofluorescence method, we detected an autoantibody reactive with focal contacts in PtK2, HEp-2, and BHK-21 cells in serum from two patients with early systemic sclerosis. With double immunofluorescence, using the actin-binding drug phalloidin, we localized the plaques decorated by these sera specifically at the termini of microfilament bundles. The reactive antigens were identified by immunoblotting as proteins of 80,000- and 75,300-mol wt in PtK2, and of 53,500-mol wt in HEp-2 and BHK-21 cells. The 53,500-mol wt protein was also identified in rat skeletal, myocardial, and smooth muscle tissues. The detergent solubility of these proteins suggested that they may be linked to the plasma membrane. The autoantigens were immunologically distinct from vinculin and alpha-actinin, two major proteins also known to be concentrated at the ends of microfilament bundles. Our observations suggest that this novel anticytoskeletal autoantibody may identify a novel family of vertebrate cell proteins involved in the linkage of microfilaments to the plasma membrane at focal contacts.
J L Senécal, S Fortin, A Roussin, F Joyal
We have cloned adherent synovial cells from rheumatoid synovitis. These can be generally divided into three types, including cells that have the characteristic features of dendritic cells (DCs), macrophagelike cells (MCs) and fibroblastlike cells (FCs), as classified by morphology and immunofluorescent staining. The cloned cells were able to divide and were cultured for up to 11 mo without any significant morphological changes. All the cloned cells were HLA-DR+ after gamma-interferon treatment. Spontaneous production of a factor with interleukin 1 activity by the cloned cells was detected even after long-term culture (the ability, on a per cell basis, being in the following order: DC greater than MC greater than FC). These synovial cells may be important for bony destruction in rheumatoid joints.
M Goto, M Sasano, H Yamanaka, N Miyasaka, N Kamatani, K Inoue, K Nishioka, T Miyamoto
The electrical parameter used to define defibrillation strength is energy. Peak current, however, may more accurately reflect the field quantities (i.e., electric field strength and current density) that mediate defibrillation and therefore should be a better clinical descriptor of threshold than energy. Though transthoracic impedance is a major determinant of energy-based threshold and is sensitive to operator-dependent changes in impedance (electrode-subject interface), an ideal threshold descriptor should be invariant with respect to these changes in impedance. We therefore compared the relative invariance of energy- and current-based thresholds when transthoracic impedance was altered by one of two methods: (a) change in electrode size (protocol A) or (b) change in electrode force (protocol B). In protocol A, impedance was altered in each dog by a mean of 95%. Energy thresholds determined at both low and high impedance were 44 +/- 21 J (mean +/- SD) and 105 +/- 35 J, respectively, P less than 0.0001. In contrast, peak current (A) thresholds were independent of transthoracic impedance, 22 +/- 5 A (low impedance) vs. 24 +/- 6 A (high impedance), P = NS. Energy and current thresholds showed a similar relationship for animals tested in protocol B. Therefore, current-based thresholds, in contrast to energy thresholds are independent of operator-dependent variables of transthoracic impedance and are invariant for a given animal. These results suggest that redefining defibrillation threshold in terms of peak current rather than energy provides a superior method of defibrillation.
B B Lerman, H R Halperin, J E Tsitlik, K Brin, C W Clark, O C Deale
We have found highly predictable patterns of protooncogene expression in cell lines and tumor tissue of neuroblastoma (NB), a tumor of the peripheral nervous system (PNS). These patterns make it possible to recognize two different genetically definable subgroups among histopathologically indistinguishable tumors. Additionally, we have identified a difference in neurotransmitter biosynthetic enzyme activity in these two subgroups of NB. The patterns of protooncogene expression and neurotransmitter biosynthetic enzymes suggests that these tumors arise in different cells of the PNS.
C J Thiele, C McKeon, T J Triche, R A Ross, C P Reynolds, M A Israel
Multiple components of vascular alpha adrenergic responsiveness were investigated in twenty-four men with mild hypertension and eighteen age- and weight-matched normotensive controls. Arterial plasma norepinephrine (paNE), an index of sympathetic drive, was increased in hypertensives compared to normotensives (mean +/- SE), 199 +/- 24 vs. 134 +/- 11 pg/ml, P less than 0.02. The effective concentration of intra-arterial (iaNE) increasing forearm vascular resistance (FAVR) 30% (NE-EC30, an index of vascular alpha-receptor sensitivity) was similar in normotensives and hypertensives, 9 +/- 1 vs. 13 +/- 3 ng/100 ml per min, respectively, P greater than 0.3. The phentolamine induced reduction in FAVR, an index of vascular alpha-tone, was greater in hypertensives, -21.3 +/- 1.8 vs. normotensives, -14.9 +/- 1.2 U, P less than 0.02. We interpret these data as evidence for normal vascular alpha-receptor sensitivity to norepinephrine in mild hypertensives. Consequently, the increased sympathetic drive in mild hypertensives explains the elevated vascular alpha-tone. Although vascular alpha-receptor sensitivity to iaNE was normal, the FAVR responses at high doses (reactivity) were greater in hypertensives to regional infusion of both NE and angiotensin II. This "nonspecific" enhancement of vascular reactivity is probably explained by structural vascular changes in hypertensives.
B Egan, R Panis, A Hinderliter, N Schork, S Julius
Recently, the gene for a novel mammalian hematopoietic growth factor homologous to murine interleukin 3 was isolated from a gibbon T cell line and expressed in monkey COS cells. The factor, termed multi-colony stimulating factor (multi-CSF) or interleukin 3, is stimulatory to human target cells. We investigated the range of enriched human bone marrow and fetal liver hematopoietic progenitors responsive to multi-CSF; compared the colony types observed with those obtained in the presence of recombinant granulocyte-macrophage CSF (GM-CSF); and analyzed the effects on colony formation of combining multi-CSF with GM-CSF or granulocyte-CSF (G-CSF). The results show that multi-CSF acts as a multipoietin. Alone it stimulates the formation of colonies derived from granulocyte, macrophage, eosinophil, and megakaryocyte progenitors. In combination with erythropoietin it supports the development of both erythroid and mixed colonies. Furthermore, the data show that multi-CSF is a more potent stimulus of erythroid progenitors than GM-CSF. In combination with G-CSF multi-CSF substantially increases granulocyte colony number over the number obtained with each factor alone. We conclude that multi-CSF may prove to have important therapeutic potential in vivo as a stimulus for hematopoiesis.
C A Sieff, C M Niemeyer, D G Nathan, S C Ekern, F R Bieber, Y C Yang, G Wong, S C Clark
Mounting evidence suggests that opiate addiction and stress are associated with impaired cell-mediated immunity. We tested the hypothesis that morphine and the endogenous opioid beta-endorphin (beta-END), a pituitary peptide released in increased concentrations during stress, can suppress the production of the key macrophage-activating lymphokine interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) by cultured human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMNC). Using a radioimmunoassay to measure IFN-gamma, we found that exposure of PBMNC to biologically relevant concentrations of both opioids significantly inhibited IFN-gamma generation by cells stimulated with concanavalin A and varicella zoster virus. Studies of the mechanism of suppression revealed (a) a classical opioid receptor is involved (suppression was antagonized by naloxone and was specific for the NH2 terminus of beta-END), (b) monocytes are the primary target cell for opioids (monocyte-depleted lymphocyte preparations showed little suppression), and (c) reactive oxygen intermediates (ROI) and prostaglandin E2 are important mediators (scavengers of ROI and indomethacin eliminated the suppression). Based on these findings we suggest that opioid-triggered release of inhibitory monocyte metabolites may play a role in the immunodeficiency associated with narcotic addiction and stress.
P K Peterson, B Sharp, G Gekker, C Brummitt, W F Keane
To study vascular actions of synthetic alpha-human atrial natriuretic polypeptide (alpha hANP) in man, forearm blood flow (FBF) was measured by strain-gauge plethysmograph during the continuous infusion of 100 ng/min alpha hANP dissolved in 5% dextrose into the brachial artery in healthy subjects. alpha hANP increased FBF, with the concomitant increase in ipsilateral limb venous plasma concentrations of alpha hANP. Overall, there was a significant linear correlation between the decrements of ipsilateral forearm vascular resistance (FVR) during infusions of alpha hANP and initial FVR levels (r = -0.883, P less than 0.01). Moreover, alpha hANP, at the stepwise increasing doses of 20, 100, and 500 ng/min, increased FBF in a dose-related fashion: alpha hANP elicits a concentration-dependent vasodilation of forearm vascular beds. Concomitantly, infusions of alpha hANP caused a dose-dependent increase in ipsilateral limb venous plasma cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cyclic GMP). Overall, there were direct correlations of FBF either to ipsilateral venous plasma alpha hANP (r = 0.724, P less than 0.01) or to cyclic GMP concentrations (r = 0.637, P less than 0.01). Subsequently, isoosmolar CaCl2 solution was infused into the same brachial artery at a rate of 0.09 meq/min, and then, with a 2.5 +/- 0.2-mg/dl increase in ipsilateral venous serum calcium concentrations the incremental responses of both FBF and plasma cyclic GMP to alpha hANP were severely blunted. There was also a significant positive linear correlation between FBF and venous plasma cyclic GMP during infusions of alpha hANP with the simultaneous administration of CaCl2 (r = 0.807, P less than 0.01). Finally, the addition of CaCl2 infusion did not change the slope of the regression line of the FBF-plasma cyclic GMP relationship during infusions of alpha hANP. Evidence presented suggests that alpha hANP acts directly on the forearm vascular beds in man, eliciting its vascular relaxant effect, possibly by increasing cellular levels of cyclic GMP. Moreover, modest elevations of serum calcium inhibit the alpha hANP-dependent vasodilation, possibly through the suppression of cyclic GMP activation.
T Fujita, Y Ito, H Noda, Y Sato, K Ando, K Kangawa, H Matsuo
In vitro autoradiography with [3H]captopril was used to localize and quantitate angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) in various tissues in two-kidney, one-clip (2K-1C) hypertension, one-kidney, one-clip (1K-1C) hypertension, desoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA)-salt hypertension, and a normotensive control group. There were no significant differences in mean systolic blood pressure among the hypertensive groups. Plasma renin activity (PRA) was highest in the 2K-1C group (6.20 +/- 2.17 ng/ml per h), intermediate in the 1K-1C group (2.19 +/- 0.62 ng/ml per h) and control group (3.20 +/- 0.53 ng/ml per h), and lowest in the DOCA-salt group (0.07 +/- 0.06 ng/ml per h). In the lungs, aorta, mesenteric arteries, and adrenal medulla, ACE labeling was highest in the 2K-1C group, intermediate in the 1K-1C and control groups, and lowest in the DOCA-salt group. ACE levels in these tissues correlated positively with PRA. In the kidney, anterior pituitary, testis, and choroid plexus of the brain, ACE levels correlated negatively with PRA, with lowest ACE levels in the 2K-1C group and highest levels in the DOCA-salt group. In the epididymis, posterior pituitary, and other regions of the brain, ACE levels did not differ significantly among the groups.
S K Wilson, D R Lynch, S H Snyder
We recently identified that the Y' bile acid binders are 3 alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases (3 alpha-HSD). In the present studies, purified 3 alpha-HSD catalyzed rapid 3H loss from [3 beta-3H, C24-14C]lithocholic and chenodeoxycholic acids without net conversion to 3-oxo bile acids under physiologic pH and redox conditions. [3 beta-3H]Cholic acid was a poor substrate. The Y' fraction of hepatic cytosol was exclusively responsible for this activity and 3H was transferred selectively to NADP+. Time-dependent 3H loss was also seen in isolated hepatocytes. Further hydroxylation products of lithocholic and chenodeoxycholic acids lost 3H at the same rate, whereas 3H loss from lithocholic acid rapidly ceased, which suggests compartmentation of this bile acid in hepatocytes. Indomethacin inhibited 3H loss from bile acids either in incubations with the pure enzyme or in isolated hepatocytes. Indomethacin did not alter the initial uptake rate of bile acids by hepatocytes, but caused a redistribution of unconjugated bile acids into the medium at early time points (2.5 and 5.0 min) and that of conjugated bile acids at later time intervals (30 min). 3H loss from the 3 beta position therefore can be used to probe the interaction between bile acids and cytosolic 3 alpha-HSD in intact cells, and indomethacin is capable of inhibiting this interaction.
H Takikawa, A Stolz, N Kaplowitz
[3 beta-3H, 24-14C]Lithocholic, chenodeoxycholic, and cholic acids were administered in tracer bolus doses either prograde or retrograde in the isolated perfused rat liver. Little 3H loss from cholic acid was observed, whereas with the other bile acids, 20-40% of the administered 3H was lost in a single pass from perfusate to bile. Most of the 3H loss occurred rapidly (5 min) and was recovered as [3H]water in perfusate. Excretion of bile acids was delayed with retrograde administration, and 3H loss was more extensive. In both prograde and retrograde studies, indomethacin markedly inhibited the excretion of the bolus of bile acid into bile. Indomethacin inhibited the extraction of glycocholate (50 microM) during steady state perfusion without affecting transport maximum for excretion. At lower glycocholate concentration (5 microM), indomethacin inhibited both extraction and excretion. A greater effect was seen on excretion in the latter case, which suggests that displacement of bile acid from the cytosolic protein lead to redistribution in the hepatocyte as well as reflux into the sinusoid. These data suggest that binding of bile acids to cytosolic 3 alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases occurs extensively during hepatic transit and is important in mediating the translocation of bile acids from the sinusoidal to canalicular pole of the cell.
H Takikawa, M Ookhtens, A Stolz, N Kaplowitz
Functional and/or structural measurements were performed in eight groups of Munich-Wistar rats after five-sixths nephrectomy. Groups 1 and 5 received no therapy. Groups 2 and 6 received daily doses of methylprednisolone (MP). Groups 3 and 7 received MP plus the angiotensin I converting enzyme inhibitor (CEI), benzazepril. Groups 4 and 8 received CEI alone. Groups 1 through 4 underwent micropuncture study 2 wk after renal ablation. Untreated group 1 rats exhibited systemic hypertension and elevation of the single nephron glomerular filtration rate due to glomerular capillary hyperperfusion and hypertension. Administration of MP in group 2 resulted in comparable systemic hypertension, with further elevation of the single nephron glomerular filtration rate due to even higher values for glomerular perfusion and hydraulic pressure. Concurrent treatment with CEI in groups 3 and 4 controlled systemic and glomerular hypertension despite equivalent renal ablation and, in group 3, comparable doses of MP. Groups 5 through 8 were followed for 12 wk. Untreated group 1 rats demonstrated continued systemic hypertension, progressive proteinuria, and eventual glomerular sclerosis. Addition of MP in group 6 dramatically accelerated the development of proteinuria and glomerular sclerosis, while CEI (groups 7 and 8) afforded striking protection against disease progression. Thus, potent vasodilator glucocorticoids may amplify hemodynamically mediated glomerular injury, whereas control of systemic and glomerular hypertension prevents this undesirable consequence of chronic steroid therapy.
D L Garcia, H G Rennke, B M Brenner, S Anderson
This study was undertaken to examine some of the cellular ionic mechanisms responsible for the cerebral vasospasm that occurs as a consequence of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). After cisternal injection of autologous blood we documented spasm of the basilar artery upon angiography from 4 to 7 d postictus in six dogs. When these basilar arteries were isolated we observed marked membrane depolarization and enhanced electrical spike activity compared with controls. The slope of the membrane potential vs log [K]0 curve was significantly reduced in arteries exposed to SAH. Further analysis supported the concept that such altered muscle cell properties resulted from reduction in resting K+ conductance (gk). Exposure of arteries in vitro to nicorandil (10(-9)-10(-7)M) (a drug which acts by increasing gk) hyperpolarized the muscle cells and increased internal diameter. Infusion of nicorandil (3-5 micrograms/kg per min) to intact, anesthetized animals reversed, by 50%, the reduction in basilar artery diameter after experimental SAH.
D R Harder, P Dernbach, A Waters
16, 16 Dimethyl prostaglandin E2 (dmPGE2), a known cytoprotective agent, was examined for its ability to alter the course of fulminant hepatitis in an experimental model of fulminant viral hepatitis, murine hepatitis murine hepatitis type 3 (MHV-3). Fully susceptible BALB/cJ mice, infected with 100 50% lethal doses (LD50) of MHV-3 developed histologic and biochemical evidence of fulminant hepatitis, as evidenced by massive hepatic necrosis with hypoglycemia, metabolic acidosis, and a markedly elevated serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) (mean, 1,402 +/- 619 IU/liter). In contrast, animals treated with dmPGE2 either before or after infection (up to 48 h) demonstrated a marked reduction in both histologic and biochemical evidence of liver damage as characterized by normal blood glucose, total CO2, and ALT determinations (mean ALT, 63 +/- 40 IU/liter). Treatment of infected mice with PGF2 alpha demonstrated no cytoprotective effects. High titers of infectious virus were recovered from the livers of both dmPGE2-treated and -untreated animals throughout the course of infection. In a parallel in vitro study, dmPGE2 (10(-4)-10(-8) M) demonstrated a similar cytoprotective effect on monolayers of isolated cultured hepatocytes from fully susceptible BALB/cJ mice infected at a multiplicity of infection of 0.1, 1.0, and 10.0. In addition, splenic macrophages recovered from infected and untreated BALB/cJ mice demonstrated a marked augmentation in procoagulant activity (PCA) from a basal 10 +/- 5 mU/10(6) splenic macrophages to a maximum of 615 +/- 102 mU/10(6) splenic macrophages, whereas no increase in macrophage PCA was detected in infected animals treated with dmPGE2. These results suggest that dmPGE2, without detectably altering viral replication or infectivity in vivo, confers a marked cytoprotective effect on hepatocytes both in vivo and in vitro, and prevents the induction of macrophage PCA in vivo in fully susceptible BALB/cJ mice after murine hepatitis virus type 3 infection.
M Abecassis, J A Falk, L Makowka, V J Dindzans, R E Falk, G A Levy
The effects of exogenous histamine on nasal mucosal blood flow and the systemic activity of intranasally administered desmopressin, a vasopressin analogue, were studied in normal volunteers. Ten subjects received either saline or histamine (1, 20, 100, and 500 micrograms) by intranasal spray. Maximal nasal mucosal blood flow response, determined by laser doppler velocimetry, demonstrated a significant (P less than 0.05) linear relationship to histamine dose. Eight additional subjects received each of the following intranasal treatments: 20 micrograms histamine followed by 10 micrograms desmopressin; normal saline followed by 10 micrograms desmopressin; 20 micrograms histamine followed by vehicle; or normal saline and vehicle. Nasal blood flow was determined before and after each treatment. Desmopressin activity was assessed by measuring urine osmolality, flow rate, electrolyte, and creatinine concentration for 24 h after each treatment. The effect of histamine and desmopressin was greater than desmopressin alone, with respect to nasal blood flow response (103 +/- 24 vs. 4 +/- 17%, mean +/- SEM, P less than 0.02), initial urine osmolality (520 +/- 123 vs. 333 +/- 75 mosM, P less than 0.03), urine electrolyte (potassium, 45 +/- 11 vs. 28 +/- 7 meq/liter; sodium, 68 +/- 21 vs. 36 +/- 8 meq/liter, P less than 0.03) and creatinine concentrations (95 +/- 23 vs. 60 +/- 13 mg/dl, P less than 0.03), and the duration of decrease in urine flow rate compared with saline and vehicle. These results suggest that the systemic activity of intranasal desmopressin is enhanced by increasing local nasal blood flow and are consistent with increased transnasal absorption of the peptide.
L S Olanoff, C R Titus, M S Shea, R E Gibson, C D Brooks
Treatment of human granulosa cells with human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) or an analogue of its second messenger, cyclic AMP (cAMP), promotes a rapid accumulation of the messenger RNAs (mRNAs) for cytochrome P450 side-chain cleavage (scc) and adrenodoxin. A twofold increase in the cellular content of these mRNAs was observed within 4 h of exposure to 8-bromo-cAMP, and was maintained for up to 48 h. Inhibition of protein synthesis by cycloheximide did not prevent the hCG- or 8-bromo-cAMP-stimulated accumulation of either cytochrome P450scc or adrenodoxin mRNAs. We conclude that human granulosa cells respond rapidly to hCG and cAMP analogues with a coordinate increase in levels of the mRNAs encoding two key proteins of the steroidogenic machinery, and that this stimulation does not require synthesis of a protein intermediate.
T G Golos, W L Miller, J F Strauss 3rd
The chromatin-bound enzyme poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (ADPRP) is strongly stimulated by DNA with single- or double-stranded breaks, and transfers the ADP-ribose moiety of NAD to nuclear proteins. The activation of ADPRP is important for DNA repair and replication, and also has been postulated to play a role in the pathogenesis of lymphocyte dysfunction associated with chronic inflammatory diseases, and inborn errors of nucleoside metabolism. We have detected high titers of IgG autoantibodies to the ADPRP protein in six patients with rheumatic complaints. No other autoantibodies were detected in any of the six sera. The specificity of the anti-enzyme antibodies was established by (a) immunoprecipitation of ADPRP activity, (b) immunoprecipitation and immunoblotting of both the native 116-kD enzyme and its proteolytic digestion products. ADPRP was purified from human thymus and calf thymus. The autoantibodies reacted equivalently with both enzymes. The anti-ADPRP antibodies had a distinctive immunofluorescent pattern with HEp-2 cells, reacting intensely with nucleoli and metaphase chromosomes, and diffusely with the nucleus. Autoantibodies to ADPRP have not been described previously. The presence of a specific immune response against an enzyme that has been associated with various immunodeficiency syndromes raises intriguing possibilities concerning the relationship between DNA damage, immunodeficiency, and autoimmunity.
H Yamanaka, E H Willis, C A Penning, C L Peebles, E M Tan, D A Carson
The interactions of normal erythrocytes and erythrocytes from patients having hemoglobin S hemoglobinopathies with normal human endothelial cells (EC) were investigated under flow conditions. When EC supernatant, containing 2.8-11.0 U/dl of von Willebrand factor (vWF) antigen and vWF multimeric forms larger than those present in normal plasma, was the red blood cell (RBC)-suspending medium instead of serum-free medium (SFM), the adhesion of sickle RBC, but not normal RBC, to endothelial cells was greatly increased (range of enhancement of sickle RBC adhesion, 2- to 27-fold). Adhesion of sickle RBC to endothelial cells was reduced to near serum-free levels when EC supernatant was immunologically depleted of vWF forms. Sickle RBC suspended in SFM containing 200 U/dl of purified vWF multimers of the type found in normal human plasma or 300 micrograms/ml human fibronectin were only slightly more adhesive to endothelial cells than sickle RBC suspended in SFM alone. These data indicate that unusually large vWF multimers produced by endothelial cells are potent mediators of the adhesion of sickle erythrocytes to endothelial cells. Vaso-occlusive crises in sickle cell anemia may be caused, at least in part, by adhesive interactions between the abnormal surfaces of sickle RBC and the endothelium after the release of unusually large vWF multimeric forms from stimulated or damaged endothelial cells.
T M Wick, J L Moake, M M Udden, S G Eskin, D A Sears, L V McIntire
The adult T cell leukemia (ATL) is a T cell neoplasm etiologically associated with human T lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I) infection. ATL cells often abnormally express interleukin 2 (IL-2) receptors, and ATL patients may show clinical evidence of hypercalcemia, osteolytic bone lesions, or increased bone turnover. Whereas interleukin 1 (IL-1) is not generally recognized as a product of T cells, this cytokine is capable of both altering IL-2 receptor expression and activating osteoclasts. Thus, we investigated the possibility that primary ATL leukemic T cells and HTLV-I-infected long-term ATL cell lines produce IL-1. S1 nuclease protection assays demonstrated that primary leukemic ATL cells from five out of six patients, as well as one patient with T4+ chronic lymphocytic leukemia, contained considerable quantities of IL-1 beta messenger RNA (mRNA) and small amounts of IL-1 alpha mRNA. These primary leukemic T cells also released biologically active IL-1 protein as evaluated in the murine thymocyte comitogenesis bioassay. In contrast to primary tumor cells, four out of six long-term ATL cell lines produced variable amounts of IL-1 alpha mRNA in the absence of detectable IL-1 beta mRNA as measured by S1 nuclease protection. These data demonstrate that IL-1 gene (especially IL-1 beta) expression occurs in many primary HTLV-I-infected leukemic T cells raising the possibility that this mediator may play a role in the pathological changes associated with this leukemia. Also, these studies show that the pattern of IL-1 alpha and IL-1 beta gene expression differs between primary ATL tumor cells and long-term cultured ATL cell lines, indicating an interesting biological difference in these two HTLV-I-infected cell populations.
Y Wano, T Hattori, M Matsuoka, K Takatsuki, A O Chua, U Gubler, W C Greene