Although insulin stimulates protein synthesis and inhibits protein breakdown in skeletal muscle in vitro, the actual contribution of these actions to its anabolic effects in man remains unknown. Using the forearm perfusion method together with systemic infusion of L-[ring-2,6-3H]phenylalanine and L-[1-14C]leucine, we measured steady state amino acid exchange kinetics across muscle in seven normal males before and in response to a 2-h intraarterial infusion of insulin. Postabsorptively, the muscle disposal (Rd) of phenylalanine (43 +/- 5 nmol/min per 100 ml forearm) and leucine (113 +/- 13) was exceeded by the concomitant muscle production (Ra) of these amino acids (57 +/- 5 and 126 +/- 9 nmol/min per dl, respectively), resulting in their net release from the forearm (-14 +/- 4 and -13 +/- 5 nmol/min per dl, respectively). In response to forearm hyperinsulinemia (124 +/- 11 microU/ml), the net balance of phenylalanine and leucine became positive (9 +/- 3 and 61 +/- 8 nmol/min per dl, respectively (P less than 0.005 vs. basal). Despite the marked increase in net balance, the tissue Rd for both phenylalanine (42 +/- 2) and leucine (124 +/- 9) was unchanged from baseline, while Ra was markedly suppressed (to 33 +/- 5 and 63 +/- 9 nmol/min per dl, respectively, P less than 0.01). Since phenylalanine is not metabolized in muscle (i.e., its only fates are incorporation into or release from protein) these results strongly suggest that in normal man, physiologic elevations in insulin promote net muscle protein anabolism primarily by inhibiting protein breakdown, rather than by stimulating protein synthesis.
R A Gelfand, E J Barrett
The complement-mediated lysis is inefficient when complement and target cells are homologous with regard to the species. In erythrocytes from patients suffering from paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH), the species restriction is lost: PNH-erythrocytes (PNH-E) are susceptible to lysis by human complement. In human erythrocytes (huE) the species restriction is ascribed to an integral membrane protein, designated C8-binding protein (C8bp). In the present study, we tested membranes of PNH-E type III for the presence of C8bp. A protein with C8-binding capacity could not be detected. C8bp, which was isolated from the membrane of huE, inhibited the lysis of PNH-E by C5b-9 as well as the C9 polymerization. Thus, addition of C8bp restored the species restriction in PNH-E. In conclusion, we propose that lack of C8bp might represent the defect in PNH-E type III membranes, which is responsible for their enhanced lytic susceptibility towards lysis by the late complement components.
G M Hänsch, S Schönermark, D Roelcke
The purpose of this study was to determine if caffeine augments the slow-pressor response to chronic low-dose infusions of angiotensin II (AII) or the rapid-pressor response to acute infusions of AII. AII was infused (125 ng/min i.p.) for 12 d via mini-osmotic pumps in four groups of rats: group I, intact rats not treated with caffeine (n = 9); group II, intact rats treated with caffeine (0.1% in drinking water, n = 9); group III, rats previously sympathectomized with 6-hydroxydopamine, but not treated with caffeine (n = 10); and group IV, rats previously sympathectomized with 6-hydroxydopamine and treated with caffeine (n = 10). Chronic low-dose AII infusions slowly elevated systolic blood pressure in all groups. Caffeine greatly augmented this slow-pressor response to AII in intact animals; however, caffeine failed to enhance AII-induced hypertension in sympathectomized rats. Caffeine pretreatment did not enhance the rapid-pressor response to acute intravenous infusions of AII. We conclude that caffeine augmented the slow-pressor effect of chronic low-dose infusions of AII via a mechanism that involved the sympathetic nervous system.
A Ohnishi, P Li, R A Branch, B Holycross, E K Jackson
No information is available on the rate of blood flow in transplanted islets. In this study, adult rats were partially depancreatized, and islets from the excised pancreas were then isolated, maintained for 7 d in tissue culture, and subsequently transplanted back to the animal, beneath the renal capsule. Some rats were rendered diabetic with streptozotocin before transplantation. A month after transplantation the blood flow of the grafts was measured by a microsphere technique. Autotransplantation to streptozotocin-diabetic rats of approximately 500 islets did not revert the hyperglycemia, and the blood flow of these grafts was approximately 25% of that in the normoglycemic-transplanted rats. However, in insulin-treated diabetic rats the blood flow of the pancreatic graft was similar to that in the normoglycemic rats. The present results suggest that the blood flow in transplanted islets is markedly diminished by hyperglycemia and that this can be enhanced by insulin administration.
S Sandler, L Jansson
Epidermal growth factor (EGF), an acid-stable peptide present in rodent and human milk, is absorbed and promotes intestinal growth when fed to suckling rats. To determine whether absorptive cells of suckling rat ileum conduct selective transepithelial transport of EGF, we followed uptake of 125I-EGF from ileal loops by autoradiography and biochemical methods. Specific binding sites for 125I-EGF were localized by electron microscope autoradiography on apical membranes of ileal epithelial sheets in vitro. During uptake in vivo, radiolabeled molecules were concentrated in apical endosomal compartments and were also associated with lysosomal vacuoles, basolateral cell surfaces, and lamina propria. Excess cold EGF reduced basolateral label by 44% and TCA precipitable serum label by 38%. After 30 and 60 min of continuous uptake, radiolabeled molecules in epithelium, denuded mucosa, blood, and liver were analyzed under reducing conditions by reversed-phase high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Although considerable degradation of 125I-EGF occurred after uptake from the lumen, a portion of radiolabel in epithelium and mucosa represented 125I-EGF which eluted somewhat more rapidly from C18 HPLC columns and showed a slight decrease in apparent molecular weight by SDS-PAGE. All radiolabel in blood and liver represented breakdown products. Thus, EGF is selectively transported across the ileal epithelium in suckling rats but is modified during transport. Milk EGF may accumulate in the lamina propria where it could influence growth and maturation of the suckling intestine.
P A Gonnella, K Siminoski, R A Murphy, M R Neutra
Mechanisms of thrombocytopenia were studied in 38 patients with mild to moderately severe chronic autoimmune thrombocytopenia (AITP). 51Cr and 111In-labeled autologous platelet turnover studies and in vitro analysis of committed megakaryocyte progenitors (CFU-Meg) were used as independent measures of platelet production. Autologous 111In-labeled platelet localization studies were performed to assess platelet clearance. Although there was no increase in the frequency of marrow CFU-Meg, a specific increase in the CFU-Meg [3H]TdR suicide rate was seen which was inversely correlated with the platelet count (P less than 0.001). Platelet turnover studies showed significant numbers of patients had inappropriate thrombopoietic responses to their reduced platelet counts. Platelet-associated antibody levels correlated inversely with platelet turnover suggesting that antiplatelet antibody impairs platelet production. The circulating platelet count was best predicted by an index relating platelet production (i.e., turnover) to the spleen-liver platelet clearance that correlated directly with platelet survival (P less than 0.001). In summary, both depressed platelet production and increased platelet clearance by the liver and spleen contribute to the thrombocytopenia of AITP.
P J Ballem, G M Segal, J R Stratton, T Gernsheimer, J W Adamson, S J Slichter
Volume expansion has been considered essential for the correction of chloride-depletion metabolic alkalosis (CDA). To examine the predictions of this hypothesis, rats dialyzed against 0.15 M NaHCO3 to produce CDA and controls, CON, dialyzed against Ringer-HCO3 were infused with either 6% albumin (VE) or 80 mM non-sodium chloride salts (CC) added to 5% dextrose (DX) and studied by micropuncture. CDA was maintained in rats infused with DX. VE expanded plasma volume (25%), maintained glomerular filtration rate (GFR), but did not correct CDA despite increased fractional delivery of total CO2 (tCO2) out of the proximal tubule (36 +/- 2%) as compared with VE/CON (24 +/- 4%; P less than 0.05). In contrast, CC corrected CDA despite volume contraction (-16%) and lower GFR than CC/CON; proximal tCO2 delivery in CC/CDA (29 +/- 4%) did not differ from VE/CDA. CC was associated with an increment in tCO2 excretion. The data strongly suggest that maintenance and correction of CDA are primarily dependent upon total body chloride and its influences on intrarenal mechanisms and not on the demands of sodium or fluid homeostasis.
J H Galla, D N Bonduris, R G Luke
Lipid A-free polysaccharide (PS) isolated from Pseudomonas aeruginosa immunotype 5 lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was covalently coupled to toxin A via reductive amination. The PS-toxin A conjugate was comprised of 29.8% PS and 70.2% toxin A, possessed a molecular weight of greater than 1 X 10(6), was nontoxic for animals and was nonpyrogenic for rabbits at a dose of 50 micrograms/kg body wt when administered intravenously. The conjugate evoked only mild, transient reactions upon subcutaneous administration to human volunteers. Vaccination engendered immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody, which neutralized the cytotoxic effect of toxin A and promoted the uptake and killing of P. aeruginosa in the presence of human polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Passively transferred IgG isolated from the serum of immunized donors was far more effective at preventing fatal P. aeruginosa burn wound sepsis than paired preimmunization serum. These studies establish the potential usefulness of such a PS-toxin A conjugate as a vaccine against P. aeruginosa.
S J Cryz Jr, E Fürer, A S Cross, A Wegmann, R Germanier, J C Sadoff
Hepatocytes from rats that were fed ethanol chronically for 6-8 wk were found to have a modest decrease in cytosolic GSH (24%) and a marked decrease in mitochondrial GSH (65%) as compared with pair-fed controls. Incubation of hepatocytes from ethanol-fed rats for 4 h in modified Fisher's medium revealed a greater absolute and fractional GSH efflux rate than controls with maintenance of constant cellular GSH, indicating increased net GSH synthesis. Inhibition of gamma-glutamyltransferase had no effect on these results, which indicates that no degradation of GSH had occurred during these studies. Enhanced fractional efflux was also noted in the perfused livers from ethanol-fed rats. Incubation of hepatocytes in medium containing up to 50 mM ethanol had no effect on cellular GSH, accumulation of GSH in the medium, or cell viability. Thus, chronic ethanol feeding causes a modest fall in cytosolic and a marked fall in mitochondrial GSH. Fractional GSH efflux and therefore synthesis are increased under basal conditions by chronic ethanol feeding, whereas the cellular concentration of GSH drops to a lower steady state level. Incubation of hepatocytes with ethanol indicates that it has no direct, acute effect on hepatic GSH homeostasis.
J C Fernandez-Checa, M Ookhtens, N Kaplowitz
Branched-chain alpha-keto acid dehydrogenase (BCKDH) complexes of lymphoblastoid cell lines derived from patients with classical maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) phenotypes were studied in terms of their catalytic functions and analyzed by immunoblotting, using affinity purified anti-bovine BCKDH antibody. Kinetic studies on three cell lines derived from patients with the classical phenotype showed sigmoidal or near sigmoidal kinetics for overall BCKDH activity and a deficiency of the E1 component activity. An immunoblot study revealed a markedly decreased amount of the E1 beta subunit accompanied by weak staining of the E1 alpha subunit. The E2 and E3 component exhibited a cross-reactive peptide. Thus, in at least some patients with MSUD, mutations of the E1 beta subunit might provide an explanation for the altered kinetic properties of the BCKDH complex.
Y Indo, A Kitano, F Endo, I Akaboshi, I Matsuda
A mitochondrial defect was investigated in an infant with fatal congenital lactic acidosis (3-14 mM), high lactate-to-pyruvate ratio, hypotonia, and cardiomyopathy. His sister had died with a similar disorder. Resting oxygen consumption was 150% of controls. Pathological findings included increased numbers of skeletal muscle mitochondria (many with proliferated, concentric cristae), cardiomegaly, fatty infiltration of the viscera, and spongy encephalopathy. Mitochondria from liver and muscle biopsies oxidized NADH-linked substrates at rates 20-50% of controls, whereas succinate oxidation by muscle mitochondria was increased. Mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase activity (complex I, assayed as rotenone-sensitive NADH oxidase, NADH-duroquinone reductase, and NADH-cytochrome c reductase) was 0-10% of controls, and NADH-ferricyanide reductase activity was 25-50% of controls in the mitochondria and in skin fibroblasts. Activities of other electron transport complexes and related enzymes were normal. Familial deficiency of a component of mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase (complex I) proximal to the rotenone-sensitive site thus accounts for this disorder.
C L Hoppel, D S Kerr, B Dahms, U Roessmann
Five strains each of Neisseria gonorrhoeae sensitive or resistant to complement (C) dependent killing by normal human serum (NHS) were examined for their ability to stimulate chemotaxis of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) after preincubation with NHS; or IgM or IgG derived from NHS. Serum-sensitive N. gonorrhoeae stimulated C-dependent chemotaxis when opsonized with IgM, but not IgG, however, serum-resistant strains, taken as a whole, failed to promote chemotaxis when opsonized with either isotype. IgM titers in NHS against lipooligosaccharide (LOS) antigens from individual serum-sensitive, but not serum-resistant strains, correlated with the magnitude of chemotaxis generated by the corresponding opsonized strains (r = 0.99). Western blots demonstrated that IgM and IgG from NHS recognized different antigenic determinants on LOS from serum-sensitive gonococci. IgM from NHS immunopurified against serum-sensitive LOS accounted for two-thirds of the chemotaxis promoting activity present in whole serum. IgG titers in NHS against LOS antigens from individual serum-resistant strains also correlated with magnitude of chemotaxis generated by the corresponding opsonized strains (r = 0.87), although most opsonized serum-resistant strains did not generate significantly higher magnitudes of chemotaxis than controls. In contrast, a serum-resistant isolate from a patient with disseminated gonococcal infection (DGI) stimulated chemotaxis when opsonized with IgG obtained from the patient's convalescent serum. By Western blot, convalescent IgG antibody recognized an additional determinant on serum-resistant LOS not seen by normal IgG.
P Densen, S Gulati, P A Rice
The hyperthyroid state is associated with increased myocardial contractility. To clarify responsible mechanisms, we examined the effects of thyroid hormone on slow Ca channels, beta-adrenergic receptors, transsarcolemmal 45Ca flux and cytosolic free calcium in cultured chick ventricular cells. Compared with cells grown without triiodothyronine (T3), cells grown in 10 nM T3 possessed 67% (P less than 0.05) more dihydropyridine 3H-PN200-110 binding sites, 24% (P less than 0.05) more beta-adrenergic antagonist 3H-CGP12177 binding sites, a 57% (P less than 0.05) greater nifedipine-sensitive initial 45Ca uptake rate, and a 31% (P less than 0.05) greater nifedipine-sensitive 45Ca uptake rate in response to BAY k 8644. Time-averaged mean intracellular free Ca concentration ([Ca]i) measured with fura-2, total protein content, and dissociation constant values for 3H-PN200-110 or 3H-CGP12177 binding was not significantly different in the two groups of cells. BAY k 8644 (1 microM) increased mean [Ca]i 2.85- or 2.16-fold in cells grown with or without 10 nM T3, respectively. l-Isoproterenol (1 microM) increased [Ca]i 1.53- or 1.28-fold in cells grown with or without 10 nM T3, respectively. We conclude that thyroid hormone augments transsarcolemmal Ca influx, at least in part via slow Ca channels associated with increased numbers of these channels. T3-treated cells appear to be more responsive to the effects of BAY k 8644 or isoproterenol on [Ca]i.
D Kim, T W Smith, J D Marsh
We examined the insulin dose-response characteristics of human muscle glycogen synthase and phosphorylase activation. We also determined whether increasing the rate of glucose disposal by hyperglycemia at a fixed insulin concentration activates glycogen synthase. Physiological increments in plasma insulin but not glucose increased the fractional activity of glycogen synthase. The ED50: s for insulin stimulation of whole body and forearm glucose disposal were similar and unaffected by glycemia. Glycogen synthase activation was exponentially related to the insulin-mediated component of whole body and forearm glucose disposal at each glucose concentration. Neither insulin nor glucose changed glycogen phosphorylase activity. These results suggest that insulin but not the rate of glucose disposal per se regulates glycogen synthesis by a mechanism that involves dephosphorylation of glycogen synthase but not phosphorylase. This implies that the low glycogen synthase activities found in insulin-resistant states are a consequence of impaired insulin action rather than reduced glucose disposal.
H Yki-Järvinen, D Mott, A A Young, K Stone, C Bogardus
Aberrant expression of the c-myc gene results from nonrandom chromosomal translocations involving the transcriptionally active antigen receptor gene loci, in particular lymphocytic leukemias and lymphomas, and is believed to contribute to the etiology of these neoplasms. In addition to its expression in abnormal lymphocytes, increased accumulation of c-myc mRNA occurs rapidly in normal B- and T-lymphocytes after stimulation with appropriate mitogens. The mechanisms that mediate these mitogen-induced elevations in c-myc mRNA levels, however, have not been determined for normal B and T cells. By using enriched populations of B- and T-lymphocytes obtained from freshly isolated human tonsils and stimulated with Staphylococcus-A or with phytohemagglutinin, respectively, we observed marked elevations (20-40-fold) in the steady state levels of accumulated c-myc messenger RNA (mRNA) within 1 h of exposure of cells to mitogens; modest increases (three- to fivefold) in the relative rate of transcription of the c-myc gene through protein synthesis-independent (cycloheximide-insensitive) mechanisms; and rapid rates of degradation of mature c-myc mRNAs through protein synthesis-dependent (cycloheximide-sensitive) mechanisms. These findings corroborate previous studies in other cell types and provide evidence for both transcriptional and posttranscriptional control of c-myc proto-oncogene expression in normal human lymphocytes.
J C Reed, J D Alpers, P C Nowell
The distribution of nonmitochondrial Ca2+ pumping sites and the site of action of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (Ins 1,4,5-P3) were studied in subcellular fractions of human neutrophils. In homogenates, two different Ca2+ pools could be observed: a mitochondrial Ca2+ pool and a nonmitochondrial, ATP-dependent, Ins 1,4,5-P3-responsive Ca2+ pool. When the homogenate was separated into microsomes, primary granules, and secondary granules, the nonmitochondrial Ca2+ pumping and the Ins 1,4,5-P3-induced Ca2+ release occurred only in the microsomal fraction. In a gradient developed to separate different microsomal organelles, maximal Ca2+ pumping activity occurred in fractions of low densities. Correlations between Ca2+ uptake and organelle markers were negative for the endoplasmic reticulum (r = -0.49) and positive for plasma membrane (r = 0.47), Golgi (r = 0.62), and endosomes (r = 0.96). Because the Ca2+ pumping organelles in these fractions were insensitive to micromolar vanadate and digitonin treatment, they are unlikely to be plasma membrane vesicles. We conclude first that microsomal fractions of human neutrophils contain organelles that lower the ambient free Ca2+ concentration and respond to Ins 1,4,5-P3. Second, granules are not involved in intracellular Ca2+ regulation in neutrophils. Third, nonendoplasmic reticulum organelles, such as endosomes, Golgi elements, or yet undefined specialized structures, play a major role in intracellular Ca2+ homeostasis in human neutrophils.
K H Krause, P D Lew
Direct intravital microscopic examinations were made in nailfold capillaries in subjects with homozygous sickle cell disease (HbSS red cells). In the resting state, capillary red cell (rbc) flux exhibited greater intermittence compared with normal subjects, which increased with painful crisis. In crisis-free HbSS subjects, capillary occlusion and red cell sequestration occurred in only 8.2% of all capillaries and diminished to 5.8% during crisis, possibly due to sequestration of less deformable rbcs in other organs. Velocities of rbc's (Vrbc) were measured by video techniques under resting conditions and during postocclusive reactive hyperemia (PORH) induced by a pressure cuff around the finger. Resting Vrbc was normal in crisis-free HbSS subjects, averaging 0.7 mm/s. In contrast, Vrbc was significantly elevated during crisis, to 0.98 mm/s, apparently due to compensatory arteriolar dilation. Crisis subjects exhibited a significantly depressed PORH with the ratio of peak red cell velocity to resting values reduced by 15% due to a loss of vasodilatory reserve, whereas crisis-free subjects exhibited a normal response. A 55% increase in the time to attain peak Vrbc was attributed to resistance increases, possibly resulting from red cell and leukocyte-to-endothelium adhesion during the induced ischemia.
H H Lipowsky, N U Sheikh, D M Katz
We studied the Na+/K+ pump in red cells from an obese human subject (MAJ) in which the number of pumps/cell was 10-20 times higher than normal. Through measurements of the kinetic properties of several modes of operation of the Na+/K+ pump we determined that the pumps in MAJ cells are kinetically normal. In the presence of adequate metabolic substrate the maximum rates of Na+ pumping and lactate production saturated at 60 and 12 nmol/1 cell per h, respectively. Under physiological conditions pump and "leak" Na+ fluxes were similar in MAJ and normal cells. Since internal Na+ was lower in MAJ than in normal cells (Nai+ approximately 2 and 8 mmol/1 cell, respectively), we conclude that the reduction in cell Na+ allows the Na+/K+ pump in MAJ cells to operate at lower fraction of maximum capacity and to compensate for the increased number of pumps.
J A Halperin, C Brugnara, A S Kopin, J Ingwall, D C Tosteson
Antinuclear antibody and anti-RNA-protein autoantibodies were determined in 143 sera containing paraproteins and 39 control sera. Antinuclear antibodies were commonly present in the paraprotein sera by indirect immunofluorescence. 19 of 143 sera (13%) had elevated anti-Ro/SSA activity in a solid phase Ro/SSA binding assay, and 5 (3.5%) had Ro/SSA precipitating autoantibody. Eighteen sera had La/SSB binding autoantibodies (12%) but only one had an anti-La/SSB precipitin. Anti-nRNP(Sm) was not detected in any of these sera. The solid phase anti-RNA protein assays were repeated using anti-lambda and anti-kappa conjugates. Both lambda and kappa light chain autoantibodies were found in all positive sera consistent with polyclonal anti-Ro/SSA and anti-La/SSB responses. Paraprotein sera containing Ro/SSA precipitins were analyzed by isoelectric focusing followed by exposure to 125I-labeled Ro/SSA and autoradiography. All sera with anti-Ro/SSA binding paraproteins also contained polyclonal anti-Ro/SSA. Our data are consistent with the hypothesis that anti-Ro/SSA paraproteins are common and arise from a previously present polyclonal anti-Ro/SSA response.
A L Sestak, J B Harley, S Yoshida, M Reichlin
Sodium fluoride (20 mM) effected rapid hydrolysis of phosphatidylinositol bisphosphate (PIP2) in human neutrophils. Intracellular free Ca2+ levels increased after PIP2 hydrolysis but before respiratory burst activation. Both the increase in intracellular free Ca2+ levels and the extent of functional activation were dependent on the availability of extracellular Ca2+. The rate of F(-)-stimulated PIP2 hydrolysis, however, was not affected when the rise in cytosolic Ca2+ was severely limited by depletion of extracellular Ca2+. Fluoride caused the specific hydrolysis of PIP2 in isolated neutrophil plasma membranes. This effect occurred in the presence of low levels of available Ca2+ and was accompanied by the release of inositol phosphates. We conclude that PIP2 hydrolysis is an early event in the response of neutrophils to F-. This response is not Ca2+-regulated but may lead to an influx of Ca2+ from the extracellular medium. Activation of a PIP2-specific phospholipase independent of a change in cytosolic free Ca2+ levels may be the initial event in the stimulus-response pathway triggered by fluoride.
D English, D J Debono, T G Gabig
An American black woman was found to have the phenotype of moderately severe alpha-thalassemia normally associated with the loss of two to three alpha-globin genes despite an alpha-globin gene map that demonstrated the loss of only a single alpha-globin gene (-alpha/alpha alpha). Several individuals in her kindred with normal alpha-globin gene mapping studies (alpha alpha/alpha alpha) had mild alpha-thalassemia hematologic values consistent with the loss of one to two alpha-globin genes. These data suggested the presence of a nondeletion alpha-thalassemia defect in this family which segregates with the intact alpha alpha gene cluster. An abnormally migrating and highly unstable alpha-globin gene product was demonstrated by in vitro translation of the reticulocyte mRNA from the proposita and this mutant alpha-globin protein was mapped to the alpha 2-globin gene by hybrid-selected translation. The abnormal alpha 2-globin gene was cloned and sequenced. A single base mutation that results in a premature termination codon was identified at codon 116 (GAG----UAG). The defined alpha-globin genotype of the proposita (-alpha/alpha 116UAG alpha) and the positioning of this nonsense mutation at the alpha 2-globin gene locus are fully consistent with the observed alpha-thalassemia phenotype.
S A Liebhaber, M B Coleman, J G Adams 3rd, F E Cash, M H Steinberg
Osteoclasts mediate the process of bone resorption. However, little is known about the mechanisms that regulate the formation of either osteoclasts or osteoclast precursors. In contrast, colony-stimulating factors (CSFs) are well-known to regulate the formation of myeloid cells and their precursors. Because osteoclasts and myeloid cells may originate from a common stem cell, we examined the effects of two CSFs, granulocyte-macrophage CSF (GM-CSF) and interleukin 3 (IL-3), on bone resorption, osteoclast formation, and the incorporation of recently replicated nuclei into the osteoclasts of mouse bone cultures. CSFs had little effect on the formation rate of osteoclasts or their resorptive activity but significantly decreased the percentage of recently replicated osteoclast progenitor cell nuclei present in the osteoclasts of bones treated with parathyroid hormone. GM-CSF also increased the number of myeloid cells in the marrow space of the cultures and the percentage of these cells derived from recently replicated progenitors. These results demonstrate that GM-CSF and IL-3 can regulate the development of osteoclasts from recently replicated precursor cells in cultured fetal mouse long bones. However, the mechanisms by which CSFs influence osteoclast formation are difficult to determine from these studies because markers for the osteoclast progenitor and precursor do not exist. These data also provide evidence that the differentiation of osteoclast progenitors is regulated by different factors at different points in their ontogeny.
J A Lorenzo, S L Sousa, J M Fonseca, J M Hock, E S Medlock
Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) erythrocytes exhibit abnormalities in decay accelerating factor (DAF), acetylcholinesterase, and resistance to autologous C5b-9 attack. To investigate the nature of the lesion underlying PNH cells, we examined the relationship of these abnormalities to one another. Analyses of DAF in acetylcholinesterase-negative erythrocytes revealed that these two abnormalities involve functionally independent molecules, coincide precisely in the same cell populations, and are similarly expressed in PNH II and more complement-sensitive PNH III erythrocytes. The DAF and acetylcholinesterase deficiencies contrast with the C3b/C4b receptor (CR1) deficit, which is less profound and similarly distributed in complement-insensitive cell populations. Hemolytic studies showed that defective resistance to autologous C5b-9 attack is mediated by another mechanism. Whereas reconstitution of PNH II erythrocytes with DAF completely corrected their complement sensitivity, DAF reconstitution of PNH III erythrocytes restored their ability to circumvent C3b uptake but had no effect on their heightened susceptibility to reactive lysis. Assays of complement-insensitive (PNH I) erythrocytes surviving after reactive lysis disclosed partial DAF and acetylcholinesterase deficits. These findings indicate that the PNH lesion involves multiple membrane components and that PNH I erythrocytes are also abnormal.
M E Medof, A Gottlieb, T Kinoshita, S Hall, R Silber, V Nussenzweig, W F Rosse
We examined the immunofluorescence and ultrastructural changes of insulin-producing B cells in the center and at the periphery of islets of Langerhans during in vivo stimulation by glucose and glibenclamide. A decreased insulin immunostaining was detected in islets from the splenic rat pancreas after 1.5 h of glucose stimulation. By contrast, immunofluorescence changes became apparent in islets from the duodenal pancreas only after greater than 3 h of hyperglycemia. In both cases, the immunolabeling of central B cells decreased before that of peripheral B cells. Similar changes were seen following in vivo stimulation of insulin secretion by glibenclamide. At the ultrastructural level, hyperglycemia decreased the volume density of B cell secretory granules and increased that of rough endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi apparatus. These changes were also detected earlier in central than in peripheral B cells and earlier in splenic than in duodenal islets. The data show that B cells form a heterogeneous population in vivo.
Y Stefan, P Meda, M Neufeld, L Orci
The hyperlipidemia accompanying infection has been attributed to production of tumor necrosis factor. This cytokine inhibits adipose tissue lipoprotein lipase, which could decrease clearance of lipoproteins. Infections also increase hepatic lipogenesis. We now have demonstrated that tumor necrosis factor-alpha stimulates lipid synthesis in vivo. 2 h after administration of tumor necrosis factor (25 micrograms/200 g), plasma triglycerides increase 2.2-fold and remain elevated for 17 h. Plasma cholesterol also increases, but this effect appears after 7 h. Tumor necrosis factor rapidly stimulates incorporation of tritiated water into fatty acids in the liver (1-2 h), which persists for 17 h. Also, tumor necrosis factor stimulates hepatic sterol synthesis. Of note, tumor necrosis factor treatment does not stimulate lipid synthesis in other tissues, including adipose tissue. Labeled fatty acids rapidly increase in the plasma, raising the possibility that stimulation of hepatic lipogenesis by tumor necrosis factor contributes to the hyperlipidemia of infection.
K R Feingold, C Grunfeld
Two variant spectrins have been described in hereditary elliptocytosis (HE) and pyropoikilocytosis (HPP). Both are characterized by increased susceptibility of the alpha I (N-terminal) 80-kD domain to mild tryptic digestion, yielding peptides of 46-50 or 65-68 kD (T50a and T68 in our terminology). In this report we add a third unstable spectrin alpha I domain found in three kindreds with HE; alpha IT80 in this type of spectrin is cleaved by mild tryptic digestion to a 50-kD peptide (T50b) distinguished from T50a by its more basic isoelectric point. All three spectrins show impaired self-association to form oligomers. Intermediate tryptic peptides of the three unstable alpha I domains from HE spectrins were characterized by monoclonal immunoblotting and I125 limit peptide mapping and affinity purified using polyclonal anti-alpha IT80. Partial amino acid sequences of alpha I domain peptides were obtained from two unrelated patients for each of the three variant spectrins. T50a results from cleavage at arginine 250 or lysine 252 of alpha IT80; a proline replaced the normal leucine or serine at residues 254 and 255, respectively. T50b and a 19-kD peptide result from cleavage at arginine 462 or arginine 464; a proline replaced the normal residue 465 (in T19b) in one of the two patients studied. T68 results from cleavage at arginine 131. In both 68-kD peptides examined, a leucine is inserted at residue 150. The relationship of the sequence changes to the new tryptic cleavages, to the current model of alpha I domain structure, and to defective spectrin self-association is discussed.
S L Marchesi, J T Letsinger, D W Speicher, V T Marchesi, P Agre, B Hyun, G Gulati
Epidermal growth factor-urogastrone (EGF-URO) administered intraarterially was a potent dilator in dog femoral (FEM), superior (cephalic) mesenteric (SMA), celiac (CAC), coronary (COR), carotid (CAR), and renal (REN) vascular beds. The effects of EGF-URO, which exhibited tachyphylaxis, could not be attributed either to recirculating EGF-URO or to the secondary release of other agonists or products of the cyclooxygenase pathway. Two vascular beds (FEM, SMA) showed a high maximum responsiveness to EGF-URO (maximum effect [Emax] approximately equal to 70% increase in flow) whereas another group (CAC, COR, CAR, and REN) exhibited lower responsiveness (Emax approximately equal to 20%). The ED50 for this effect of EGF-URO was in the range of 0.4 micrograms (FEM, SMA, CAR, and COR) to 0.9 micrograms (CAC and REN). In isolated dog COR helical strips, EGF-URO did not exhibit either a direct relaxing or a contractile effect. However, preincubation of strips with EGF-URO caused up to a 66% inhibition of contraction in response to norepinephrine (1 microM), with an ED50 for EGF-URO of 1 nM. This action of EGF-URO also showed marked tachyphylaxis. Our data point to a potential role for EGF-URO (and possibly for the structurally related alpha-transforming growth factor) in the regulation of blood flow in vivo.
B S Gan, K L MacCannell, M D Hollenberg
In the proximal convoluted tubule (PT), the HCO3- reabsorptive rate is higher in early (EPS) compared with late proximal segments (LPS). To examine the mechanism of this HCO3- reabsorption profile, intracellular pH (pHi) was measured along the superficial PT of the rat under free-flow and stationary microperfusion using the pH-sensitive fluorescence of 4-methylumbelliferone (4MU). With 4MU superfusion, pHi was found to decline along the PT. Observation with 365-nm excitation revealed that EPS were brightly fluorescent and always emerged away from their star vessel. Midproximal segments were darker and closer to the star vessel which was surrounded by the darkest LPS. Decreasing luminal HCO3- from 15 to 0 mM lowered pHi in both EPS and LPS, but pHi remained more alkaline in EPS with both perfusates. Thus the axial decline in pHi along the PT is due to both luminal factors and intrinsic differences in luminal H+ extrusion in PT cells.
E Pastoriza-Munoz, R M Harrington, M L Graber
Although acute tropical pulmonary eosinophilia (TPE) is well recognized as a manifestation of filarial infection, the processes that mediate the abnormalities of the lung in TPE are unknown. To evaluate the hypothesis that the derangements of the lower respiratory tract in this disorder are mediated by inflammatory cells in the local milieu, we utilized bronchoalveolar lavage to evaluate affected individuals before and after therapy. Inflammatory cells recovered from the lower respiratory tract of individuals with acute, untreated TPE (n = 8) revealed a striking eosinophilic alveolitis, with marked elevations in both the proportion of eosinophils (TPE 54 +/- 5%; normal 2 +/- 5%; P less than 0.001) and the concentration of eosinophils in the recovered epithelial lining fluid (ELF) (TPE 63 +/- 20 X 10(3)/microliter; normal 0.3 +/- 0.1 X 10(3)/microliter; P less than 0.01). Importantly, when individuals (n = 5) with acute TPE were treated with diethylcarbamazine (DEC), there was a marked decrease of the lung eosinophils and concomitant increase in lung function. These observations are consistent with the concept that at least some of the abnormalities found in the lung in acute TPE are mediated by an eosinophil-dominated inflammatory process in the lower respiratory tract.
P Pinkston, V K Vijayan, T B Nutman, W N Rom, K M O'Donnell, M J Cornelius, V Kumaraswami, V J Ferrans, T Takemura, G Yenokida
The efficiency of the membrane attack complex (MAC) in killing M21 melanoma cells was determined varying the molar ratio of cell-bound C9:C8. It was found that C5b-8 produced functional channels as evidenced by 86Rb release and propidium iodide uptake; cell killing occurred in the absence of C9 with greater than 5 X 10(5) C5b-8/cell; the maximal molar ratio of C9:C8 was 6.6:1; using nonlytic numbers of C5b-8 (4.7 X 10(5)/cell), greater than 90% killing ensued at a C9:C8 molar ratio of 2.8:1 at which approximately 9,000 poly C9/cell were formed, and 50% killing at a ratio of 1:1; (e) when the MAC was assembled on cells at 0 degree C, consisting of C5b-8(1)9(1), and unbound C9 was removed before incubation at 37 degrees C, killing was similar to that observed when poly C9 formation was allowed to occur. Thus, MAC lytic efficiency toward M21 cells may be enhanced by but does not depend on poly C9 formation.
D E Martin, F J Chiu, I Gigli, H J Müller-Eberhard
The glucuronidation of 6-hydroxylated bile acids by human liver microsomes has been studied in vitro; for comparison, several major bile acids lacking a 6-hydroxyl group were also investigated. Glucuronidation rates for 6 alpha-hydroxylated bile acids were 10-20 times higher than those of substrates lacking a hydroxyl group in position 6. The highest rates measured were for hyodeoxy- and hyocholic acids, and kinetic analyses were carried out using these substrates. Rigorous product identification by high-field proton nuclear magnetic resonance and by electron impact mass spectrometry of methyl ester/peracetate derivatives revealed that 6-O-beta-D-glucuronides were the exclusive products formed in these enzymatic reactions. These results, together with literature data, indicate that 6 alpha-hydroxylation followed by 6-O-glucuronidation constitutes an alternative route of excretion of toxic hydrophobic bile acids.
A Radomińska-Pyrek, P Zimniak, Y M Irshaid, R Lester, T R Tephly, J St Pyrek
Placentas from streptozotocin-diabetic rats have previously been shown to be morphologically and biochemically immature when compared with those of control rats. The binding of epidermal growth factor (EGF) to plasma membranes prepared from placentas of control and streptozotocin-diabetic fetuses has been characterized on days 17 and 21 of gestation. Results from competitive binding data analyzed by Scatchard analysis indicate the presence of a single class of receptors on day 17 (KD = 5.4 X 10(-10)) and the appearance of a second class of binding sites for 125I-EGF by day 21 (Kd = 3.5 X 10(-9)) in membranes from control fetuses. Placental membranes from diabetic fetuses show decreased specific binding (approximately 30%) on both days and the absence of a second class of binding sites on day 21 of gestation. Results from a radioreceptor assay indicate that the quantity of EGF in the serum of fetuses removed from control rats on day 21 is twofold greater than the quantity in serum of fetuses from diabetic rats. These data reveal a developmental increase in EGF-binding sites in the placenta of normal, near-term fetal rats, largely because of the appearance of a second class of binding sites with a lower affinity for EGF. The failure (or delay) of this second class to develop in the diabetic may be important for the control of maturation and growth of this tissue.
J F Sissom, W K Stenzel, J B Warshaw
Addition of norepinephrine, angiotensin II, or histamine leads to a transient rise in the cytoplasmic Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i), as measured with aequorin, in rabbit aortic strips. Each induces a [Ca2+]i transient which peaks in 2 min and then falls either back to baseline (angiotensin II) or to a plateau (norepinephrine and histamine). The [Ca2+]i transient is due to the mobilization of Ca2+ from a caffeine-sensitive, intracellular pool. An elevation of [K+] to 35 mM leads to a monotonic sustained rise in [Ca2+]i which depends entirely on extracellular Ca2+, but an increase to 100 mM leads to a [Ca2+]i transient from the mobilization of intracellular Ca2+. Atrial natriuretic peptide does not alter basal [Ca2+]i nor inhibit the [Ca2+]i transient induced by either histamine or angiotensin II, but blocks that induced by norepinephrine, and blocks the plateau phase induced by either histamine or norepinephrine. The peptide inhibits the contractile response to all three agonists and to K+.
Y Takuwa, H Rasmussen
In a cross-sectional study of 70 early postmenopausal women, regional bone measurements were compared with total body calcium (TBCa). Spinal and forearm trabecular bone were mainly related to age and time since menopause. In contrast, TBCa and forearm integral (cortical and trabecular) and cortical bone were unrelated to age, although the time since menopause also had some influence. Forearm integral and cortical bone measurements were quite well correlated with TBCa (r = 0.84 and 0.73, respectively, P less than 0.001). The correlation between spinal bone measurements and any of the forearm measurements, even purely trabecular bone, was weak (r less than 0.52, P less than 0.001). Our results show quite clearly that forearm bone measurements cannot be used to predict bone density in the vertebrae. Loss of ovarian function affects bone in general, and trabecular bone in particular. Bone measurements at specific anatomical sites are clearly necessary for studies of metabolic bone diseases and their response to treatment.
J C Stevenson, L M Banks, T J Spinks, C Freemantle, I MacIntyre, R Hesp, G Lane, J A Endacott, M Padwick, M I Whitehead
Alport-type familial nephritis (FN), a genetic disorder, results in progressive renal insufficiency and sensorineural hearing loss. Immunochemical and biochemical analyses of the non-collagenous (NC1) domain of type IV collagen isolated from the glomerular basement membranes (GBM) of three males with this disease demonstrate absence of the normally occurring 28-kilodalton (kD) NC1 monomers, but persistence of the 26- and 24-kD monomeric subunits derived from alpha 1 and 2 (both type IV) collagen chains, respectively.
M M Kleppel, C E Kashtan, R J Butkowski, A J Fish, A F Michael
When a pair of platelet agonists, each in subthreshold concentration, is added together or in sequence to a platelet suspension, the platelet response is enhanced. Addition of two agonists to platelets loaded with aequorin also enhanced the observed rise in cytoplasmic ionized calcium ([Ca2+]i) in response to the second agonist if the agonists were added within 20 s of each other. Enhancement of aggregation and secretion required that an increase in [Ca2+]i (as indicated by aequorin but not necessarily indo-1) followed the first agonist, but not that the [Ca2+]i remain elevated until addition of the second agonist. Enhancement was not prevented by aspirin, ADP scavengers, or chelators of extracellular Ca2+. We conclude that a rise in [Ca2+]i induced by a first agonist "primes" platelets for an augmented functional response to a second agonist, which is not, however, determined by the [Ca2+]i at the time of addition of the second agonist.
J A Ware, M Smith, E W Salzman
The early proximal convoluted tubule (PCT) is the site of 50% of bicarbonate reabsorption in the nephron, but its control by angiotensin II has not been previously studied. In vivo microperfusion was used in both the early and late PCT in Munich-Wistar rats. Systemic angiotensin II administration (20 ng/kg X min) or inhibition of endogenous angiotensin II activity with saralasin (1 microgram/kg X min) caused profound changes in bicarbonate absorption in the early PCT (169 +/- 25 and -187 +/- 15 peq/mm X min, respectively). Because the bicarbonate absorptive capacity of the early PCT under free-flow conditions is 500 peq/mm X min, angiotensin II administration or inhibition affected greater than 60% of proton secretion in this segment. Both agents less markedly affected bicarbonate absorption in the late PCT (+/- 28 peq/mm X min) or chloride absorption (+/- 68-99 peq/mm X min) in both the early and late PCT. Because of its potential for controlling the majority of bicarbonate absorption in the early PCT (hence greater than or equal to 30% of bicarbonate absorption in the entire nephron), angiotensin II may be a powerful physiologic regulator of renal acidification.
F Y Liu, M G Cogan