A double antibody radioimmunoassay has been developed to measure thyroglobulin in rat (RTg) serum. The lowest detectable quantity measurable was 5.0 ng/ml. Specificity was documented by: (a) fall in serum RTg to undetectable levels after thyroid ablation; (b) the fact that L-thyroxine, D-thyroxine, L-triiodothyronine, D-triiodothyronine, triiodothyroacetic acid, tetraiodothyroacetic acid, triiodothyropropionic acid, moniodotyrosine, diiodotyrosine, and human thyroglobulin (HTg) in concentrations up to 40,000 ng per tube did not cross-react in the assay; (c) the demonstration that constant levels of serum RTg were observed while varying amounts of serum (criterion of parallelism) were introduced in the assay. The mean RTg concentration in tail vein blood of adult Sprague-Dawley rats were 101.5 +/- 13.0 ng/ml (SEM) (n=21); values ranged from 12.0 to 258.0 ng/ml. Chronic administration of a high-iodine diet (HID) did not affect serum thyroglobulin levels. Chronic administration of a low-iodine diet (LID) and propylthiouracil (PTU) led to a statistically significant increase in serum RTg that was accompanied by a significant rise in serum thyrotropin (rTSH). Serum thyroxine (T4) administered to normal rats for 14 days (20 mug/day subcutaneously) depressed serum RTg concentration from a mean level of 119.4 +/- 17.5 ng/ml (n=19) to a mean of 35.0 +/- 0.27 ng/ml (n=19) (P less than 0.001). While rats were on continuous T4 suppression, bovine thyroid-stimulating hormone (bTSH) given intravenously (2 IU) resulted in a mean maximal increment of RTg of 332.0 +/- 81.5 ng/ml (n=6) at 24 h. IgC-(LATS) long-acting thyroid stimulatory injected intravenously resulted in a mean maximal increment of RTg concentration at 96 h of 87.2 +/- 14.3 ng/ml (n=5). Normal IgG had no statistical significant effect of RTg levels at any time after the injection.
A J Van Herle, H Klandorf, R P Uller
The contact phase of intrinsic clotting involves Factor XI, Factor XII, Fletcher factor, and a fourth activity that we call contact activation cofactor (CAC). All four of these activities are reduced or absent in Dicalite-adsorbed plasma. A modified activated partial thromboplastin time assay for CAC has been defined by using a substrate of Dicalite-adsorbed plasma combined with partially purified sources of Factors XI and XII, and Fletcher factor. The following properties of CAC in plasma have been determined by using the assay: it is stable up to 60 min at 56 degrees C; gradually loses activity at 80 degrees C; is stable between pH 6 and 9; is precipitated by ammonium sulfate between 40% and 50% saturation; is slightly adsorbed by A1(OH)3; and is eluted from DEAE-cellulose after the major protein peaks. A purification procedure has been devised that separates CAC from other known clotting factors. Isolated CAC was less stable than CAC in plasma, but in the presence of dilute human serum albumin it retained full activity for 80 min at 56 degrees C. On gel filtration CAC had an apparent mol wt of 220,000 daltons. These properties are consistent with those described for Fitzgerald factor, which further supports the conclusion that CAC and Fitzgerald factor represent the same activity. Isolated CAC promoted the generation of activated Factor XI (XIa) in a mixture containing purified Factor XI, Factor XII, and kaolin. The amount of Factor XIa generated was proportional to the amount of added CAC. No time-consuming reaction between Factor XI or Factor XII and CAC could be demonstrated.
S Schiffman, P Lee
We have reported previously two siblings with gout and uric acid lithiasis associated with excessive purine production. In the erythrocytes of these patients, phosphoribosylpyrophosphate (PRPP) synthetase exhibited resistance to feedback-inhibition by normal cell constituents such as guanosine-5'-diphosphate (GDP) and adenosine-5'-diphosphate (ADP), resulting in superactivity of the mutant enzyme and consequently in increased PRPP content and availability for nucleotide synthesis. Erythrocyte PRPP content and availability were normal in the propositus' parents, his healthy brother and three sons, and they all had normal serum level and urinary excretion of uric acid, except for the mother who was hyperuricosuric. To further characterize this mutation we studied PRPP and purine metabolism in cultured fibroblasts of the affected family. PRPP synthetase in dialyzed lysates of fibroblasts from the propositus and his mother exhibited increased specific activity, more markedly at low inorganic phosphate concentration, and decreased sensitivity to inhibition by ADP and GDP, PRPP content and availability and the rate of de novo purine nucleotide synthesis were markedly increased in the fibroblasts of the propositus and to a lesser extent in the fibroblasts of his mother but were normal in the fibroblasts of the other family members investigated. The fibroblast studies demonstrate the following sequence of abnormalities: feedback-resistance of PRPP synthetase; superactivity of this enzyme in normal physiological milieu; increased availability of PRPP; and increased de novo synthesis of purine nucleotides. The pattern of inheritance of this disorder is compatible with both an X-linked recessive and autosomal dominant traits.
E Zoref, A De Vries, O Sperling
Intact diaphragms from vitamin D-deficient rats were incubated in vitro with [3H]leucine. Oral administration of 10 mug (400 U) of cholecalciferol 7 h before incubation increased leucine incorporation into diaphragm muscle protein by 136% (P less than 0.001) of the preparation from untreated animals. Nephrectomy did not obliterate this response. ATP content of the diaphragm muscle was also enhanced 7 h after administration of the vitamin. At 4 h after administration of cholecalciferol, serum phosphorus concentration was reduced by 0.7 mg/100 ml (P less than 0.025) and the rate of inorganic 32PO4 accumulation by diaphragm muscle was increased by 18% (P less than 0.025) over the untreated animals. Increasing serum phosphate concentration of the vitamin D-deficient animals by dietary supplementation with phosphate for 3 days failed to significantly enhance leucine incorporation into protein. However, supplementation of the rachitogenic, vitamin D-deficient diet with phosphorus for 3 wk stimulated the growth of the animal and muscle ATP levels. This increase in growth and muscle ATP content attributed to the addition of phosphorus to the diet was less than the increase in growth and muscle ATP levels achieved by the addition of both phosphorus and vitamin D to the diet. To eliminate systemic effects of the vitamin, the epitrochlear muscle of the rat foreleg of vitamin D-depleted rats was maintained in tissue culture. Addition of 20 ng/ml of 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (25-OHD3) to the medium enhanced ATP content of the muscle and increased leucine incorporation into protein. Vitamin D3 at a concentration of 20 mug/ml and 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol (1,25-(OH)2D3) at a concentration of 500 pg/ml were without effect. Analysis of muscle cytosol in sucrose density gradients revealed a protein fraction which specifically bound 25-OHD3 and which demonstrated a lesser affinity for 1,25-(OH)2D3. These studies suggest that 25-OHD3 may influence directly the intracellular accumulation of phosphate by muscle and thereby play an important role in the maintenance of muscle metabolism and function.
S J Birge, J G Haddad
The role of insulin in the regulation of human adipose tissue lipoprotein lipase was evaluated. Adipose tissue heparin-releasable lipoprotein lipase (thought to be related to peripheral clearance of plasma triglycerides) was low in insulin-deficient, untreated hyperglycemic diabetic subjects (P less than 0.001) and treatment of hyperglycemia returned the activity to normal. In chronic hyperinsulinism, represented by obesity, heparin-releasable activity among control subjects was correlated to percent of ideal body weight (r=0.53, P less than 0.05) and to fat cell size (r=0.61, P less than 0.02). Acetone-ether powder lipoprotein lipase activity (presumed to reflect total tissue enzyme) was also related to percent of ideal body weight (r=0.76, P less than 0.001 for controls; r=0.67, P less than 0.05 for diabetics) and to fat cell size (r=0.71, P less than 0.01 for controls; r=0.85, P less than 0.01 for diabetics. Postprandial-stimulated insulin secretion was related to diet-induced changes in lipoprotein lipase in control subjects; both were dependent upon the amount of dietary carbohydrate. In contrast, the diabetic patients with low insulin responses, failed to increase lipoprotein lipase activity with feeding. The changes in heparin-releasable (r=0.66, P less than 0.01) and acetone-ether powder (r=0.69, P less than 0.01) activity during feeding were related to the percent increase in plasma insulin. Thus, insulin appears to be important in the regulation of human adipose tissue lipoprotein lipase activity. Elevated insulin levels in obesity and increased insulin secretion after eating were associated with increased lipoprotein lipase activity. Defects in insulin secretion, both in postabsorptive and postprandial states, are associated with low adipose tissue lipoprotein lipase and may lead to hypertriglyceridemia in diabetic man.
O J Pykälistö, P H Smith, J D Brunzell
Human granulocytes contain several cationic proteins with a molecular weight of approximately 25,000, almost identical amino acid composition, and complete immunologic identity. These proteins possess a chymotrypsin-like protease activity at a neutral pH. The antibacterial activity of the cationic proteins has been studied. Bactericidal activities are found against both Gram-positive (Streptococcus faecalis and Staphylococcus aureus) and Gram-negative (Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) organisms. Gram-positive bacteria are, however, the most sensitive. The pH-optimum is near neutrality, and the microbicidal activity shows an inverse relationship to the ionic strength, indicating an ionic interaction between the cationic proteins and the bacterial surface. The microbicidal effect of the cationic proteins is generally independent of the chymotrypsin-like activity of the same proteins since the activity against several bacterial species is heat stable while the chymotrypsin-like activity is heat labile. The surface properties of S. aureus that are determined by protein A do not seem to influence the susceptibility to cationic proteins. The properties of the Gram-negative envelope of E. coli that determine the susceptibility to the lytic action of serum do not influence the sensitivity to the action of cationic proteins. The present study shows that cationic proteins of human granulocytes represent one potential microbicidal mechanism that is independent of hydrogen peroxide and myeloperoxidase.
H Odeberg, I Olsson
There are two conflicting theories of how plasma vitamin B12 (B12) is transported in man: (a) by two distinct transport proteins, transcobalamins I and II (TC I and II), each having a specific role and time of function; and (b) by three active transport proteins, TC I, II, and III, that take up B12 randomly in proportion to the unsaturated amounts of each. To test these theories a man was given 1.12 mug, 229 muCi, of [57Co]B12 mixed with food. Blood samples were taken several times on the 1st day and at lengthening intervals up to day 51. The amount of TC II-B12 was measured in each sample by: gel filtration and by precipitation with (NH4)2SO4. Total serum R-B12 was then separated into TC I and TC III by: (a) a single step anion exchange system and (b) isoelectric focusing (IEF). As the B12 was being absorbed, 92-95% of that in venous blood was carried by TC II. Absolute and percentage transport by TC II declined sharply during the first 24 h; between days 7 and 51 20-33% of the label was on TC II, and the rest was carried by R-type binders. Absolute transport by TC I did not reach a maximum until after day 1 and before day 3. Transport by an alpha2 R-type binder, TC III, could not be demonstrated. TC I was isoelectrically heterogenous, with the components focusing between pH 2.9 and 3.35. It was concluded that (a) TC II is the dominant carrier of B12 immediately after absorption; (b) maximum transport by TC I requires the passage of time after absorption; (c) after the absorbed B12 reaches equilibrium with the total body B12, about one fourth of the plasma B12 is carried by TC II and three fourth by TC I; and (d) TC I and TC II are the only functional transport proteins of plasma B12.
C A Hall
The effect of the intravenous infusion of insulin plus glucose on plasma glucagon levels was studied in hyperglycemic fasting adult-type and juvenile-type diabetics and compared with fasting nondiabetics. Adult-type diabetics were given insulin for 2 h at a rate of 0.03 U/kg-min, raising their mean insulin to between 25 and 36 muU/ml; glucagon declined from a base-line value of 71+/-2 (SEM) to 56+/-1 pg/ml at 120 min (P less than 0.001). In juvenile-type diabetics given the same insulin-glucose infusion, glucagon declined from a base-line level of 74+/-8 to 55+/-5 pg/ml at 120 min (P less than 0.05). The absolute glucagon values in the diabetic groups did not differ significantly at any point from the mean glucagon levels in nondiabetics given insulin at the same rate plus enough glucose to maintain normoglycemia. When glucagon was expressed as percent of baseline, however, the normoglycemic nondiabetics exhibited significantly lower values than adult-type diabetics at 90 and 120 min and juvenile-type diabetics at 60 min. In nondiabetics given insulin plus glucose at a rate that caused hyperglycemia averaging between 134 and 160 mg/dl, glucagon fell to 41+/-7 pg/ml at 120 min, significantly below the adult diabetics at 90 and 120 min (P less than 0.01 and less than 0.05) and the juvenile group at 60 min (P less than 0.01). The mean minimal level of 39+/-2 pg/ml was significantly below the adult (P less than 0.001) and juvenile groups (P less than 0.05). When insulin was infused in the diabetic groups at a rate of 0.4 U/kg-min together with glucose, raising mean plasma insulin to between 300 and 600 muU/ml, differences from the hyperglycemic nondiabetics were no longer statistically significant. It is concluded that, contrary to the previously reported lack of insulin effect in diabetics during carbohydrate meals, intravenous administration for 2 h of physiologic amounts of insulin plus glucose is accompanied in unfed diabetics by a substantial decline in plasma glucagon. These levels are significantly above hyperglycemic nondiabetics at certain points but differ from normoglycemic nondiabetics only when expressed as percent of the baseline. At a supraphysiologic rate of insulin infusion in diabetics, these differences disappear.
P Raskin, Y Fujita, R H Unger
The final step in heme biosynthesis is chelation of porphyrin with Fe++ catalyzed by the mitochondrial enzyme heme synthetase. We have employed a sensitive radiochemical assay for this enzyme, using 59Fe and deuteroporphyrin or protoporphyrin as substrates. In this method iron is maintained in the ferrous state, oxygen is excluded from the incubation system, and labeled heme product is extracted into ethyl acetate. This assay has been used to measure the activity of heme synthetase in homogenates of liver, obtained by needle biopsy, and in sonicates of human skin fibroblasts, cultured in vitro. In addition, activity of the first enzyme of the heme synthetic pathway, delta-aminolevulinic acid synthetase, has been measured in fibroblast lysates. Lysates of fibroblasts from eight patients with protoporphyria had activities of delta-aminolevulinic acid synthetase which did not differ significantly from those of eight normal fibroblast lines, whereas activity of heme synthetase, with either deuteroporphyrin or protoporphyrin as substrate, was markedly decreased in sonicates of skin fibroblasts from these patients, the mean being 8% of control with deuteroporphyrin and 14% with protoporphyrin as substrate. In homogenates of liver from five patients with protoporphyria, activity of heme synthetase was also significantly less than that found in six patients without prophyria, the mean being 13% of control with protoporphyrin as substrate. These results provide evidence that decreased activity of heme synthetase is the basic defect in the heme synthetic pathway in protoporphyria. This deficiency is probably responsible for protoporphyrin accumulation and hence the biochemical and clinical features observed in protoporphyria.
H L Bonkowsky, J R Bloomer, P S Ebert, M J Mahoney
Anti-RNA antibodies were found in 82% of 28 systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) probands and in 16% of 124 of their family members. The incidence in 76 control family members was only 5%. In the SLE family members, the antibodies were found exclusively in 21% of the 94 close household contacts of the probands. The incidence of anti-native DNA (nDNA) antibodies was 68% for the SLE probands. The incidence of anti-nDNA antibodies in close household contacts of the probands was 6%, which was not significantly different from the 1% incidence found in control families. Lymphocytotoxic antibodies occurred in 57% of the SLE family members as a whole and in 68% of the close household contacts. In the SLE probands, lymphocytotoxic antibodies correlated with anti-single-stranded RNA (poly A) and anti-nDNA but not with anti-double-stranded RNA (poly A-poly U). On the other hand, lymphocytotoxic antibodies in the household contacts correlated with anti-double-stranded RNA (poly A-poly U) but not with anti-poly A or anti-nDNA. The anti-RNA antibodies were present in consanguineous household contacts but not in nonconsanguineous household contacts. These findings strengthen the hypothesis that both an environmental agent, possibly a virus, as well as the genetic response are important in the pathogenesis of SLE. Family members may therefore be a logical population in whom to search for specific antibodies to a viral agent.
R J DeHoratius, R Pillarisetty, R P Messner, N Talal
Human peripheral blood polymorphonuclear leukocytes, when exposed to appropriate stimuli, generate significant amounts of superoxide anion (O-.2), a highly reactive molecule which is possibly involved in bacterial killing. Since the subcellular localization and mechanism of activation of O-.2 generating systems are unknown, we have investigated superoxide dismutase-inhibitable cytochrome c reduction (attributable to O-.2) by, and lysosomal enzyme release from, normal polymorphonuclear leukocytes and cells rendered incapable of ingesting particles by treatment with cytochalasin B. Neither phagocytosis nor lysosomal degranulation were prerequisites for enhanced O-.2 generation. Cytochalasin B-treated cells exposed to (a) serum-treated zymosan, a C3b receptor stimulus; (b) heat aggregated human IgG, an Fc receptor stimulus; and (c) the complement component, C5a, generated enhanced amounts of O-.2 in a time and concentration-dependent fashion. These cells also responded by releasing lysosomal enzymes, but there was no correlation between the ability of any immune reactant to provoke enzyme release and its ability to stimulate O-.2 generation. The three stimuli also enhanced O-.2 generation by normal (untreated) polymorphonuclear leukocytes, but only serum-treated zymosan and aggregated IgG were capable of provoking lysosomal enzyme release from normal cells. Untreated zymosan and native IgG neither stimulated O-.2 production nor provoked lysomal enzyme release. Since enhanced O-.2 production was stimulated by immune reactants in the absence of phagocytosis, the O-.2 generating system is very likely associated with the external plasma membrane of the polymorphonuclear leukocyte. Leukocyte membrane receptors for complement and immunoglobulins may therefore not only serve in particle recognition but also may initiate biochemical events which accompany phagocytosis and killing.
I M Goldstein, D Roos, H B Kaplan, G Weissmann
Similarities between lead-induced anemia and a new hereditary erythorenzymopathy involving pyrimidine-specific 5'-nucleotidase prompted studies of the effects of lead on this and other erythrocyte enzymes. In vitro incubations of normal mature erythrocytes demonstrated that significant inhibition of pyrimidine 5'-nucleotidase occurred in the presence of lead at concentrations that had minimal effects on many other erythrocyte enzymes assayed simultaneously. Similarly, subjects with chronic lead intoxication secondary to industrial exposure exhibited substantial and consistent impairment of erythrocyte pyrimidine-5'-nucleotidase activity. Results suggest that lead-induced deficiency of this enzyme in maturing erythroid elements could, if sufficiently severe, result in induction of basophilic stippling and premature erythrocyte hemolysis analogous to that encountered in the genetically induced enzyme-deficiency syndrome.
D E Paglia, W N Valentine, J G Dahlgren
In an attempt to assess hepatic functional capacity, hourly urea production, and corresponding serum amino acid concentrations after the ingestion of single protein meals (60, 120, and 240 g of protein) were evaluated in 18 normal subjects and in 8 patients with liver disease. In normal subjects, the relationship between urea production and serum amino acid concentration was linear (urea production in milligram urea nitrogen/kilogram lean body mass/hour = 6.3 times mg amino acid nitrogen/100 ml minus 20.5 SE of the estimate 6.9, r = 0.74, P less than 0.001), and variation of protein intake from 50 to 150 g/day for 3 days before testing did not change this relationship. The patients demonstrated impairment of urea synthesis proportional to the clinical severity of their liver disease. The potential clinical applications of these findings need to be determined.
R J Rafoth, G R Onstad
Collagenase activity was measured by direct assay in skins from 12 patients afflicted with systemic sclerosis. In seven of those cases where extensive involvement of the forearm and trunk skin existed, collagenase activity of the involved skin was minimal or absent. Moreover, in the same patient, regions of marked skin involvement (e.g., forearm) showed no collagenase activity, when clinically uninvolved areas (thigh) exhibited normal or nearly normal levels of enzyme activity. In other patients where clinical symptoms were systemic and not associated significantly with the skin, collagenase activity approximated normal levels. Measurements of collagenase activity and tensile strength in another condition (basal cell carcinoma) that includes changes in mechanical properties of skin that any be regarded as the opposite end of the spectrum from those of sclerodermatous skin support a general correlation between collagenase activity and tensile strength. These studies indicate that the major defect responsible for the hidebound skin lesions of scleroderma may be decreased collagenase activity.
A H Brady
Synovial tissue from patients with rheumatoid arthritis was maintained in organ culture for 3-14 days. Conditioned media from these synovial cultures contained bone resorption-stimulating activity, measured in vitro by using calcium release from mouse calvaria as the assay system. The synovial cultures also produce prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) as measured by serologic methods. The production of both the bone resorption-stimulating activity and PGE2 was inhibited by more than 90% by treatment of the synovial cultures with indomethacin (5 mug/ml). In contrast, treatment of the synovial cultures with colchicine (0.1 mug/ml) caused a marked and parallel increase in the concentration of both bone resorption-stimulating activity and PGE2 in the conditioned media. The bone resorption-stimulating activity was quantitatively extracted into diethyl ether. Within the limits of experimental error, all of the bone resorption-stimulating activity in medium was accounted for by its content of PGE2, itself a potent osteolytic factor. We conclude that the bone resorption-stimulating activity produced by rheumatoid synovia in culture is PGE2.
D R Robinson, A H Tashjian Jr, L Levine
A quantitative in vitro assay was employed to directly assess the effect of corticosteroids on the IgG and complement receptor function of human mononuclear phagocytic cells. In this system corticosteroids were solubilized with cholesterol-phospholipid sonicated dispersions before exposure to mononuclear cells. Solubilized corticosteroids at concentrations between 10(-4) and 10(-3) M inhibited both IgG and complement receptor activity in a dose-response fashion. Inhibition was dependent upon the time of interaction of the mononuclear cells with corticosteroids and was half-maximal by 15 min. The inhibitory effect at all concentrations of hydrocortisone was partially overcome by increasing the number of IgG molecules per erythrocyte. Hydrocortisone also inhibited the binding of erythrocytes coated with both IgG and C3, despite the fact that when both were on the erythrocyte surface a synergistic effect on binding to mononuclear cells was observed. At the steroid concentrations employed, the capacity of mononuclear cells to exclude trypan blue and to take up latex particles and neutral red was unaffected. Mineralocorticoids also inhibited receptor activity, but the sex hormones were less effective. These studies demonstrate an effect of steroid hormones on cell membrane receptor function, and they suggest that an inhibition of the recognition system for IgG and C3 in vivo may explain, in part, the effect of corticosteroids in man.
A D Schreiber, J Parsons, P McDermott, R A Cooper
Peripheral blood and hepatic tissue T- and B-lymphocyte distributions, serum alpha fetoprotein (AFP) concentrations, and hepatic AFP were studied in 46 patients undergoing diagnostic percutaneous liver biopsy. The patients included 26 with alcoholic liver disease, 13 with nonalcoholic hepatitis or cirrhosis, and 7 with either normal histology or minor nonspecific changes. Serum AFP was determined by radioimmunoassay and hepatic tissue AFP by indirect immunofluorescence. Peripheral blood T lymphocytes were identified by the sheep red-cell rosette technique; and B lymphocytes by fluoresceinated anti-immunoglobulin antisera and IgG aggregates. Tissue identification of T lymphocytes was accomplished using an extensively absorbed rabbit antihuman thymocyte antiserum and indirect immunofluorescence; tissue B lymphocytes were identified using pepsin F (ab')2 fragments of rabbit IgG antibodies to human immunoglobulins. T lymphocytes predominanted in hepatic lymphoid infiltrates from patients with alcoholic liver disease (91+/-4%), whereas in patients with chronic active or chronic persistant hepatitis, viral hepatitis, or cryoptogenic cirrhosis proportions of T and B lymphocytic infiltrates were similar (50+/-15%). Hepatic tissue AFP was detected in 9 of 18 patients with alcoholic hepatitis; serum AFP concentration was increased in only 1 of these 9 patients. Tissue AFP was not observed in the remaining biopsy material nor were serum AFP concentrations increased. Peripheral blood T-cell numbers were significantly decreased in patients with alcoholic liver disease (P less than 0.01) and in nonalcoholic hepatitis or cirrhosis (P less than 0.025). A close relationship between peripheral blood T-lymphocytopenia and hepatic T-cell infiltrates was observed in patients with alcoholic liver disease; this relationship was less apparent in patients with nonalcoholic hepatitis or cirrhosis.
G Husby, R G Strickland, J L Caldwell, R C Williams Jr
The magnitude (Zrs) and phase angle (thetars) of the total respiratory impedance (Zrs), from 3 to 45 Hz, were rapidly obtained by a modification of the forced oscillation method, in which a random noise pressure wave is imposed on the respiratory system at the mouth and compared to the induced random flow using Fourier and spectral analysis. No significant amplitude or phase errors were introduced by the instrumentation. 10 normals, 5 smokers, and 5 patients with chronic obstructive lung disease (COPD) were studied. Measurements of Zrs were corrected for the parallel shunt impedance of the mouth, which was independently measured during a Valsalva maneuver, and from which the mechanical properties of the mouth were derived. There were small differences in Zrs between normals and smokers but both behaved approximately like a second-order system with thetars = 0 degree in the range of 5--9 Hz, and thetars in the range of +40 degrees at 20 Hz and +60 degrees at 40 Hz. In COPD, thetars remained more negative (compared to normals and smokers) at all frequencies and crossed 0 between 15 and 29 Hz. Changes in Zrs, similar in those in COPD, were also observed at low lung volumes in normals. These changes, the effects of a bronchodilator in COPD, and deviations of Zrs from second-order behavior in normals, can best be explained by a two-compartment parallel model, in which time-constant discrepancies between the lung parenchyma and compliant airway keep compliant greater than inertial reactance, resulting in a more negative phase angle as frequency is increased.
E D Michaelson, E D Grassman, W R Peters
5-Fluorodeoxyuridine monophosphate (FdUMP), the active metabolite of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), is a tight-binding inhibitor of thymidylate synthetase, the enzyme which converts dUMP to TMP. Newly developed assays for FdUMP and dUMP were utilized to assess the competitive roles played by these nucleotides in determining the inhibition of TMP synthesis in mice bearing the P1534 ascites tumor. After 5-FU administration, levels of FdUMP reached a dose-dependent peak within 6 h in the ascites tumor and in bone marrow, and declined thereafter in a biphasic manner with an initial t 1/2 of 6 h and a final t 1/2 of 7-9 days. In duodenal mucosa, FdUMP levels were 1.8-2-fold higher than in the other tissues, but elimination was much more rapid. Simultaneous with the fall in FdUMP a progressive accumulation of the competitive substrate dUMP was observed in each tissue after 5-FU; and peak dUMP levels coincided with recovery of thymidylate synthesis, as determined by the incorporation of [3H]deoxyuridine into DNA. In vitro experiments with partially purifed thymidylate synthetase revealed and initial competitive interaction of dUMP and FdUMP, which, at high concentrations of dUMP was capable of markedly slowing the rate of irreversible inactivation of enzyme by FdUMP. These studies were found to be quantitatively consistent with a two-phase model of enzyme inactivation involving an initial competition between dUMP and FdUMP, with subsequent irreversible inactivation of enzyme by covalent linkage to the inhibitor. Recovery of thymidylate synthesis after 5-FU appears to result from both a fall in intracellular levels of inhibitor and a progressive accumulation of the competitive substrate dUMP.
C E Myers, R C Young, B A Chabner
The mutation in a young gouty male with a partial deficiency of hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase has been evaluated. The serum uric acid was 11.8 mg/100 ml, and the urinary uric acid excretion was 1,279 mg/24 h. Erythrocyte hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase was 34.2 nmol/h/mg, adenine phosphoribosyltransferase was 36.5 nmol/h/mg and phosphoribosylpyrophosphate was 2.6 muM. Hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase from peripheral leukocytes and cultured diploid skin fibroblasts was within the normal range, but enzyme activity in rectal mucosa was below the normal range. Initial velocity studies of the normal enzyme and the mutant enzyme from erythrocytes with the substrates hypoxanthine, guanine, or phosphoribosylpyrophosphate showed that the Michaelis constants were similar. Product inhibition studies distinguished the mutant enzyme from the normal enzyme. Hyperbolic kinetics with increasing phosphoribosylpyrophosphate were converted to sigmoid kinetics by 0.2 mM GMP with the mutant enzyme but not with the normal enzyme. The mutant erythrocyte hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase was inactivated normally at 80 degrees C and had a normal half-life in the peripheral circulation. The mol wt of 48,000 was similar to the normal enzyme mol wt of 47,000. With isoelectric focusing, the mutant erythrocyte enzyme had two major peaks with isoelectric pH's of 5.50 and 5.70, in contrast to the isoelectric pH's of 5.76, 5.82, and 6.02 of the normal isozymes. Isoelectric focusing of leukocyte extracts from the patient revealed the presence of the mutant enzyme. Cultured diploid fibroblasts from the propositus appeared to function normally, as shown by the inability to grow in 50-100 muM azaguanine and by the normal incorporation of [14C]hypoxanthine into nucleic acid. In contrast, erythrocytes from the patient displayed abnormal properties, including the increased synthesis of phosphoribosylphyrophosphate and elevated functional activity of orotate phosphoribosyltransferase and orotidylic decarboxylase. These unique kinetic, physical, and functional properties provide support for heterogeneous structural gene mutations in partial deficiencies of hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase.
I H Fox, I L Dwosh, P J Marchant, S Lacroix, M R Moore, S Omura, V Wyhofsky
Incorporation of radiolabeled precursors into muscle proteins was studied in isolated rat hemidiaphragms. A mixture of three branched-chain amino acids (0.3 mM each) added to media containing glucose stimulated the incorporation of [14C]lysine into proteins. When tested separately, valine was ineffective, isoleucine was inhibitory, but 0.5 mM leucine increased the specific activity of muscle proteins during incubation with [14C]lysine or [14C]acetate in hemidiaphragms from fed or fasted rats incubated with or without insulin. Preincubation with 0.5 mM leucine increased the specific activity of muscle proteins during a subsequent 30- or 60-min incubation with [14C]lysine or [14C]pyruvate without leucine. Preincubation with other amino acids (glutamate, histidine, methionine, phenylalanine, or tryptophan) did not exert this effect. When hemidiaphragms were incubated with a mixture of amino acids at concentrations found in rat serum and a [14C]lysine tracer, the specific activity of muscle proteins increased when leucine in the medium was raised from 0.1 to 0.5 mM. Experiments with actinomycin D and cycloheximide suggested that neither RNA synthesis nor protein synthesis are required for the initiation of the leucine effect. Leucine was not effective when added after 1 h preincubation without leucine. The concentration of lysine in the tissue water of diaphragms decreased during incubation with 0.5 mM leucine in the presence or absence of cycloheximide, suggesting that leucine inhibited protein degradation. During incubation with [3h]tyrosine (0.35 mM) the addition of 0.5 mM leucine increased the specific activity of muscle proteins, while the specific activity of intracellular tyrosine remained constant and its concentration decreased, suggesting that leucine also promoted protein synthesis. The concentration of leucine in muscle cells or a compartment thereof may play a role in regulating the turnover of muscle proteins and influence the transition to negative nitrogen balance during fasting, uncontrolled diabetes, and the posttraumatic state. Leucine may play a pivotal role in the protein-sparing effect of amino aicds.
M G Buse, S S Reid
High levels of a novel vitamin B12-binding protein (hepatoma B12 BP) have been observed recently in plasma obtained from three adolescent patients with hepatocellular carcinoma. This protein has now been isolated in homogeneous form from the plasma and pleural fluid of two of these patients by the use of affinity chromatography with vitamin B12-Sepharose. The hepatoma B12 BP belongs to the R-type group of B12-binding proteins and is essentially indistinguishable from the recently isolated human milk and saliva R-type proteins in terms of: (a) immunologic properties based on immunodiffusion and immunoprecipitation assays; (b) amino acid composition; (c) molecular weight based on amino acid and carbohydrate content; and (d) absorption spectra. Both hepatoma B12 BPs contain more sialic acid and less fucose than the milk and saliva B12 BPs. All four proteins contain similar amounts of galactose, mannose, galactosamine, and glucosamine. Differences in sialic acid content appear to account for the differences in electrophoretic mobility that were observed among the four proteins. Differences in total carbohydrate content appear to account for the differences in apparent molecular weight that were observed with both gel filtration and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Tumor tissue from one of the patients contained 10 times as much R-type protein as did normal liver tissue from the same patient. This suggests, although it does not prove, that synthesis by the tumor is the cause of the high levels of R-type protein found in the plasma of certain patients with hepatocellular carcinoma. Plasma survival studies performed with rabbits indicate that the hepatoma B12 BP has a prolonged plasma survival and suggests that his parameter is also of importance.
R L Burger, S Waxman, H S Gilbert, C S Mehlman, R H Allen
We studied the effects of dialysates from leukocyte lysates containing dialyzable transfer factor activity and other leukocyte dialysates devoid of transfer factor activity on accumulation of cyclic nucleotides in human leukocytes. Dialysates from normal leukocytes produced 4- to 11-fold increases in leukocyte cGMP, and experiments with purified cell populations revealed that the increases were predominantly, if not entirely, in blood monocytes. Substances that increased monocyte cGMP could be obtained from several cell populations including mononuclear cells from Hypaque-Ficoll gradients, plastic-adherent monocytes, nonadherent lymphocytes, and neutrophils, but were not present in dialysates of leukemic lymphocytes from patients with the Sezary syndrome. Moreover, dialysates that increased leukocyte cGMP had essentially no effect on intracellular cAMP. Dialysates of lysed mononuclear cells contained serotonin, ascorbate, and an unidentified cholinergic activity, agents known to increase leukocyte cGMP. After passage of dialyzable transfer factor from mononuclear cells through a gel-filtration column, four fractions were obtained that increased leukocyte cGMP. Two of these fractions contained ascorbate; two other active fractions, including one that also caused conversion of delayed skin tests, did not contain detectable ascorbate or serotonin. The dialysate of lysed neutrophils also increased cGMP, but this activity was limited to the column fractions which contained ascorbic acid. These observations raise the possibility that alterations in monocyte cGMP content could modulate either the specific antigen-dependent, or, more likely, the antigen-independent activities in preparations of transfer factor.
J A Sandler, T K Smith, V C Manganiello, C H Kirkpatrick
The hepatic uptake of bilirubin (BR), indocyanine green (ICG), and sulfobromophthalein (BSP) was studied in 350 anesthetized Sprague-Dawley rats by determining the initial plasma disappearance rate (V) of various doses of unlabeled ICG, or of tracer quantities of [3H]BR or [35S]BSP injected into the jugular vein simultaneously with varying amounts of unlabeled BR or BSP. Similar studies were also performed involving the simultaneous injection of potential inhibitors of hepatic uptake. The results indicate that: (a) hepatic uptake determined by direct tissue measurement could be accurately estimated from the plasma disappearance data; (b) saturation of hepatic uptake with increasing dose was readily demonstrated for each of these three organic anions, and in each instance a plot of V versus dose took the form of a rectangular hyperbola analyzable in terms of Michaelis-Menten kinetics; (c) for BR, the saturable uptake process showed a Vmax more than 100 times the normal net transfer rate from plasma to bile; (d) hepatic uptake of BR, BSP, and ICG showed relatively selective, mutually competitive inhibition; glycoholic acid did not inhibit hepatic uptake of any of these substances; and (e) "counter-transport" could be demonstrated for each of the three test substances. These data are compatible with the existence of a carrier-mediated transport process for hepatic uptake of each of these three organic anions and clarify the relationship of hepatic BR uptake to its overall transport from plasma to bile.
B F Scharschmidt, J G Waggoner, P D Berk
A cobalamin-dependent N5-methyltetra-hydrofolate-homocysteine methyltransferase (methyl-transferase) was demonstrated in unfractioned extracts of human normal and leukemia leukocytes. Activity was substantially reduced in the absence of an added cobalamin derivative. Presumably, this residual activity reflects the endogeneous level of holoenzyme. Enzyme activity was notably higher in lymphoid cells than in myeloid cells. Thus, mean specific activities (+/-SD) were: chronic lymphocytic leukemia lymphocytes, 2.15+/-1.16; normal lymphocytes, 0.91+/-0.59; normal mature granulocytes, 0.15+/-0.10; chronic myelocytic leukemia granulocytes, barely detectable activity. Properties of leukocytes enzymes resembled those of methyltransferases previously studied in bacteria and other animal cells. Granulocytes and chronic myelocytic leukemia cells contain a factor or factors that inhibits Escherichia coli enzyme. The data suggest that the prominence of this cobalamin-dependent enzyme in lymphocytes and other mononuclear cell types may be related to their potential for cell division.
R Peytremann, J Thorndike, W S Beck
The urine and serum of chronically uremic patients and dogs contain an inhibitor of sodium transport that reduces short-circuit current (SCC) in the toad bladder and produces natriuresis in the rat. The present studies represent an effort to determine whether the same inhibitor is detectable in urine of normal dogs maintained on a dosium intake varying from 3 to 258 meq/day. Observations were made with and without fludrocortisone. The same Sephadex G-25 gel filtration fraction previously shown to contain the "uremic" inhibitor was tested in both the isolated toad bladder and rat bioassay systems. The fraction from dogs maintained on 258 meq qodium plus 0.2 mg fludrocortisone/day consistently inhibited SCC in the toad bladder and induced a natriuresis in the rat (P less than 0.001). The fraction from dogs on the same sodium intake without fludrocortisone was also natriuretic (P less than 0.01) but did not inhibit SCC significantly. In contrast, the fraction from dogs fed 3 meq sodium with fludrocortisone or 91 meq sodium without fludrocortisone had no significant effect in either assay system. Thus, an inhibitor of sodium transport has been found in the urine of nonuremic dogs. Both the degree of natriuresis in the rat and the degree of inhibition of SCC in the toad bladder correlated with the state of sodium balance which ensued in the dog.
H Favre, K H Hwang, R W Schmidt, N S Bricker, J J Bourgoignie
The function of lung is fundamentally linked to the connective tissue composition of the alveolar interstitium. The composition and synthesis of one class of interstitial connective tissue components, the glycosaminoglycans (GAG), was determined in lung parenchyma of rabbits at different stages of development. Parenchymal GAG content ranged between 0.2 and 0.4% (wt/wt) of dry weight, with highest concentration in adult lung. There were significant changes in types of GAG present at different ages. Fetal lungs contained a relatively high proportion of chondroitin 4-sulfate while the GAG in lung parenchyma of older animals was predominantly dermatan sulfate, heparan sulfate, and heparin. Methods were developed for the study of rates of synthesis of GAG by incorporation of [1-14C]glucosamine into lung explants. The rate of synthesis of total GAG per cell increased with development to a maximum in lung from weanling rabbits and fell to low rates of synthesis in mature rabbits. Fetal rabbit lung parenchyma synthesized mostly hyaluronic acid and heparan sulfate, while in weanling rabbit parenchyma hyaluronic acid and chondroitin 4/6-sulfate synthesis was greatest. In mature animals, the rates of synthesis of all types of GAG were relatively low but there was a relatively greater emphasis on synthesis of dermatan sulfate and heparin. These results may have significance in changes in lung function during development and in effects on other connective tissue components.
A L Horwitz, R C Crystal
Isolated human polymorphonuclear leukocytes engaged in phagocytosis liberate superoxide radical and hydrogen peroxide into the surrounding medium. These two chemical species react to produce the hydroxyl radical, which attacks the leukocyte and leads to premature death of the cell. The hydroxyl radical may be scavenged by mannitol, or its formation can be prevented by the addition of superoxide dismutase or catalase to the medium, thereby eliminating the premature death of the cells. This phenomenon may partially explain the observed anti-inflammatory activity of superoxide dismutase.
M L Salin, J M McCord
The enzyme, 5'-nucleotidase (5'N) (E.C.-220.127.116.11) is present in lymphocytes isolated from the blood of normal subjects. This activity is markedly decreased or not detectable in the cells from three-quarters of patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), while supranormal levels are found in less than 10% of the cases. To determine whether the decreased 5'N value in CLL represents a lower activity per cell or fewer enzyme-containing cells than in the normal, conditions were established for the histochemical measurement of 5'N in human lymphocytes. It was found that the cells isolated from the blood of normal subjects or patients with CLL consist of 5'N-positive and 5'N-negative subpopulations. Normal subjects who had high 5'N specific activity were shown to have a greater percentage of 5'N-positive cells than individuals with low 5'N activity. Patients with CLL who had no activity by standard chemical assay had no 5'N-positive cells, while the exceptional patient with CLL with a higher than normal specific activity showed an percentage of 5'N-positive cells. It is suggested that the selective proliferation of 5'N-positive and 5'N-negative populations may account for the heterogeneity of 5'N in CLL.
R Silber, M Conklyn, G Grusky, D Zucker-Franklin
An 8-15S fraction of RNA isolated from hyperplastic human parathyroid tissue (primary chief-cell hyperplasia) and translated in a cell-free extract of wheat germ directs the synthesis of a protein that shares antigenic determinants and tryptic peptides with parathyroid hormone and its previously recognized immediated precursor, proparathyroid hormone. In addition, the protein contains tryptic peptides not found in proparathyroid hormone and migrates more slowly than does proparathyroid hormone on both urea-acid and urea-sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gels, indicating that it is more acidic and larger than proparathyroid hormone. Sequential Edman degradation of the cell-free protein, radiolabeled with [35S]methionine, for 25 cycles released [35S]methionine at cycles 1, 7, 11, and 14, indicating that the NH2-terminal peptide sequence of the protein differs from that of both proparathyroid hormone and parathyroid hormone. We propose that this protein is an early biosynthetic precursor of human parathyroid hormone, pre-proparathyroid hormone, analogous to that identified recently by in vitro translation of bovine parathyroid mRNA.
J F Habener, B Kemper, J T Potts Jr, A Rich
A radioimmunoassay has been developed for the measurement of serum myoglobin in order to evaluate the time-course and frequency of myoglobinemia in patients with acute myocardial infarction. The method can detect as little as 0.5 ng of myoglobin and is not affected by hemolysis or storage of serum at -- 20 degrees C. Myoglobin was detected in all of 92 sera from normal adults and ranged between 6 and 85 ng/ml. Levels were markedly elevated in sera from 18 of 20 patients with acute myocardial infarction when samples were obtained within 12 h after hospital admission, the mean concentration being 380+/-53 ng/ml. Wehn the initial sample was drawn between 12 and 24 h after admission in another group of 20 patients with acute myocardial infarcts, the mean serum myoglobin concentration was 195+/-47 ng/ml, and 11 of these individuals had normal levels. Serial determinations performed on nine patients with acute infarction demonstrated that maximum myoglobin levels occurred within the first 8-12 h after admission and fell rapidly toward normal thereafter. The serum concentration of myoglobin in 21 additional patients admitted with chest pain but without acute myocardial infarction was 41+/-6 ng/ml. Radioimmunoassay of serum myoglobin appears to be useful and sensitive test for the early detection of myocardial infarction.
M J Stone, J T Willerson, C E Gomez-Sanchez, M R Waterman
The present study was designed to test the hypothesis that physiological concentrations of glucagon may increase plasma ketone body concentration when sufficient free fatty acid substrate is available to support hepatic ketogenesis. Physiological elevations of plasma glucagon concentration were produced by a constant infusion of hormone, and increased plasma-free fatty acid availability was produced by simultaneous heparin injection to induce intravascular lipolysis. In the five insulin-dependent subjects studied, when plasma glucagon concentration remained at the normal basal level of 72+/-14 pg/ml during control saline infusion, the heparin-induced increase in free fatty acid availability resulted in approximately a 20% increase in plasma ketone body concentration. In contrast, when plasma glucagon concentration was elevated by hormone infusion to the physiological level of 215+/-35 pg/ml, the heparin-induced increases in free fatty acid availability resulted in approximately an 80% increase in plasma ketone body concentration. These results suggest that physiological elevations in plasma glucagon concentration may augment ketonemia in diabetic man when simultaneous elevations in plasma-free fatty acid arepresent.
D S Schade, R P Eaton
Similarities exist between the properties of adenylate cyclase after stimulation by cholera toxin and after stimulation by guanylylimidodiphosphate (Gpp-(NH)p). Thus a strong stimulation is achieved by both agents, the stimulation is essentially irreversible, the action of certain hormones is enhanced and the enzyme can be solublized with Lubrol PX in the activated state. Because of these similarities the interaction of cholera toxin and Gpp(NH)p on adenylate cyclase was examined. It was found that prior activation of rat liver adenylate cyclase by cholera toxin in vivo, or by cholera toxin and NAD in homogenates, blocked the stimulatory effect of Gpp(NH)p. Furthermore under conditions in which the effect of Gpp(NH)p was less than that of cholera toxin, inhibition of stimulation by cholera toxin was seen. Stimulation of adenylate cyclase by maximal concentrations of Gpp(NH)p, but not by submaximal concentrations, blocked the stimulatory effect of cholera toxin. The mutant interference of the actions of these two agents suggests a common target in the regulatory mechanism of the adenylate cyclase complex.
J Flores, G W Sharp
Although catecholamines stimulate lipolysis in human fat cells, activation by epinephrine of adenylate cyclase in human fat cell membranes is not readily observed. The possible role of guanine nucleotides in this reaction has now been examined with human material. Fat cell ghosts were prepared from subcutaneous fat obtained from patients undergoing elective surgery. Adenylate cyclase was assayed with [alpha-32P]ATP as substrate. Fluoride ion stimulated the enzyme 8.3-fold relative to basal levels, but epinephrine activation of cyclase was not statistically significant. GTP did not allow expression of an epinephrine effect. However, the addition of the GTP analogue, 5'-guanylyl-imidodiphosphate [GMP-P(NH)P], along with epinephrine produced 5.7-fold activation of the enzyme (P less than 0.001). GMP-P(NH)P alone was without stimulatory effect. Comparable augmentation by GMP-P (NH) P of adenylate cyclase activity was seen with isoproterenol, norepinephrine, and epinephrine. Propranolol blocked catecholamine-GMP-P (NH) P stimulation of the enzyme, suggesting that the nucleotide-dependent activation of catecholamine-sensitive adenylate cyclase is mediated by beta-receptors. GMP-P(NH)P may prove useful in allowing in vitro demonstration of additional hormone-sensitive adenylate cyclase systems.
B Cooper, J S Partilla, R I Gregerman