Ganguly et al. report that 3βHSD1 promotes therapeutic resistance in prostate cancer by upregulating intratumoral androgen biosynthesis and DNA double-strand break repair. The cover image depicts the testosterone biosynthesis pathway surrounding a radiotherapy-resistant prostate tumor. Image credit: Dave Schumick.
Over the last decade, several organoid models have evolved to acquire increasing cellular, structural, and functional complexity. Advanced lung organoid platforms derived from various sources, including adult, fetal, and induced pluripotent stem cells, have now been generated, which more closely mimic the cellular architecture found within the airways and alveoli. In this regard, the establishment of novel protocols with optimized stem cell isolation and culture conditions has given rise to an array of models able to study key cellular and molecular players involved in lung injury and repair. In addition, introduction of other nonepithelial cellular components, such as immune, mesenchymal, and endothelial cells, and employment of novel precision gene editing tools have further broadened the range of applications for these systems by providing a microenvironment and/or phenotype closer to the desired in vivo scenario. Thus, these developments in organoid technology have enhanced our ability to model various aspects of lung biology, including pathogenesis of diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, pulmonary fibrosis, cystic fibrosis, and infectious disease and host-microbe interactions, in ways that are often difficult to undertake using only in vivo models. In this Review, we summarize the latest developments in lung organoid technology and their applicability for disease modeling and outline their strengths, drawbacks, and potential avenues for future development.
Ana I. Vazquez-Armendariz, Purushothama Rao Tata
The era of single-cell multiomics has led to the identification of lung epithelial cells with features of both alveolar type 1 (AT1) and alveolar type 2 (AT2) pneumocytes, leading many to infer that these cells are a distinct cell type in the process of transitioning between AT2 and AT1 cells. In this issue of the JCI, Wang and colleagues demonstrated that many so-called “transitional cells” do not actually contribute to functional repair. The findings warrant a reimagining of these cells as existing in a nondirectional, intermediate cell state, rather than moving through a transitory process from one cell type to another. We look forward to further exploration of diverse cell state expression profiles and a more refined examination of hallmark gene function beyond population labeling.
Jennifer M.S. Sucre, A. Scott McCall, Jonathan A. Kropski
Cardiac metabolism provides effects that extend beyond the transformation of energy for the heart to operate effectively. Some metabolites also function as signaling molecules and exert transcriptional changes. Heart failure is a progressive pathology in which these metabolite functions falter. In this issue of the JCI, Yang et al. describe a protective effect from a low–branched chain amino acid (BCAA) diet in a mouse model of heart failure. The findings implicate a propionylation mark on histone H3 lysine 23 (H3K23Pr), previously shown to be dependent on the BCAA isoleucine, in transcriptional control of the cardiac stress response. The result underscores the interplay between metabolism and histone acylation, highlighting targeted dietary and pharmacological intervention as a means to decelerate cardiac hypertrophy.
Christina Demetriadou, Daniel S. Kantner, Nathaniel W. Snyder
Glioblastoma (GBM) tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) provide a major immune cell population contributing to growth and immunosuppression via the production of proinflammatory factors, including IL-1. In this issue of the JCI, Chen, Giotti, and colleagues investigated loss of ll1b in the immune tumor microenvironment (TME) in GBM models driven by PDGFB expression and Nf1 knockdown. Survival was only improved in PDGFB-driven GBM models, suggesting that tumor cell genotype influenced the immune TME. IL-1β in the TME increased PDGFB-driven GBM growth by increasing tumor-derived NF-κB, expression of monocyte chemoattractants, and increased infiltration of bone marrow–derived myeloid cells (BMDMs). In contrast, no requirement for IL-1β was evident in Nf1-silenced tumors due to high basal levels of NF-κB and monocyte chemoattractants and increased infiltration of BMDM and TAMs. Notably, treatment of mice bearing PDGFB-driven GBM with anti–IL-1β or an IL1R1 antagonist extended survival. These findings suggest that effective clinical immunotherapy may require differential targeting strategies.
C. Ryan Miller, Anita B. Hjelmeland
Ruangang Pan, David K. Meyerholz, Stanley Perlman
Antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs) are a promising targeted cancer therapy; however, patient selection based solely on target antigen expression without consideration for cytotoxic payload vulnerabilities has plateaued clinical benefits. Biomarkers to capture patients who might benefit from specific ADCs have not been systematically determined for any cancer. We present a comprehensive therapeutic and biomarker analysis of a B7H3-ADC with pyrrolobenzodiazepine(PBD) payload in 26 treatment-resistant, metastatic prostate cancer (mPC) models. B7H3 is a tumor-specific surface protein widely expressed in mPC, and PBD is a DNA cross–linking agent. B7H3 expression was necessary but not sufficient for B7H3-PBD-ADC responsiveness. RB1 deficiency and/or replication stress, characteristics of poor prognosis, and conferred sensitivity were associated with complete tumor regression in both neuroendocrine (NEPC) and androgen receptor positive (ARPC) prostate cancer models, even with low B7H3 levels. Non-ARPC models, which are currently lacking efficacious treatment, demonstrated the highest replication stress and were most sensitive to treatment. In RB1 WT ARPC tumors, SLFN11 expression or select DNA repair mutations in SLFN11 nonexpressors governed response. Importantly, WT TP53 predicted nonresponsiveness (7 of 8 models). Overall, biomarker-focused selection of models led to high efficacy of in vivo treatment. These data enable a paradigm shift to biomarker-driven trial designs for maximizing clinical benefit of ADC therapies.
Supreet Agarwal, Lei Fang, Kerry McGowen, JuanJuan Yin, Joel Bowman, Anson T. Ku, Aian Neil Alilin, Eva Corey, Martine P. Roudier, Lawrence D. True, Ruth Dumpit, Ilsa Coleman, John K. Lee, Peter S. Nelson, Brian J. Capaldo, Aida Mariani, Clare Hoover, Ilya S. Senatorov, Michael Beshiri, Adam G. Sowalsky, Elaine M. Hurt, Kathleen Kelly
Monocytes and monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs) from blood circulation infiltrate glioblastoma (GBM) and promote growth. Here, we show that PDGFB-driven GBM cells induce the expression of the potent proinflammatory cytokine IL-1β in MDM, which engages IL-1R1 in tumor cells, activates the NF-κB pathway, and subsequently leads to induction of monocyte chemoattractant proteins (MCPs). Thus, a feedforward paracrine circuit of IL-1β/IL-1R1 between tumors and MDM creates an interdependence driving PDGFB-driven GBM progression. Genetic loss or locally antagonizing IL-1β/IL-1R1 leads to reduced MDM infiltration, diminished tumor growth, and reduced exhausted CD8+ T cells and thereby extends the survival of tumor-bearing mice. In contrast to IL-1β, IL-1α exhibits antitumor effects. Genetic deletion of Il1a/b is associated with decreased recruitment of lymphoid cells and loss-of-interferon signaling in various immune populations and subsets of malignant cells and is associated with decreased survival time of PDGFB-driven tumor-bearing mice. In contrast to PDGFB-driven GBM, Nf1-silenced tumors have a constitutively active NF-κB pathway, which drives the expression of MCPs to recruit monocytes into tumors. These results indicate local antagonism of IL-1β could be considered as an effective therapy specifically for proneural GBM.
Zhihong Chen, Bruno Giotti, Milota Kaluzova, Montse Puigdelloses Vallcorba, Kavita Rawat, Gabrielle Price, Cameron J. Herting, Gonzalo Pinero, Simona Cristea, James L. Ross, James Ackley, Victor Maximov, Frank Szulzewsky, Wes Thomason, Mar Marquez-Ropero, Angelo Angione, Noah Nichols, Nadejda M. Tsankova, Franziska Michor, Dmitry M. Shayakhmetov, David H. Gutmann, Alexander M. Tsankov, Dolores Hambardzumyan
Expansion of CAG and CTG (CWG) triplet repeats causes several inherited neurological diseases. The CWG repeat diseases are thought to involve complex pathogenic mechanisms through expanded CWG repeat–derived RNAs in a noncoding region and polypeptides in a coding region, respectively. However, an effective therapeutic approach has not been established for the CWG repeat diseases. Here, we show that a CWG repeat DNA–targeting compound, cyclic pyrrole–imidazole polyamide (CWG-cPIP), suppressed the pathogenesis of coding and noncoding CWG repeat diseases. CWG-cPIP bound to the hairpin form of mismatched CWG DNA, interfering with transcription elongation by RNA polymerase through a preferential activity toward repeat-expanded DNA. We found that CWG-cPIP selectively inhibited pathogenic mRNA transcripts from expanded CWG repeats, reducing CUG RNA foci and polyglutamine accumulation in cells from patients with myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1) and Huntington’s disease (HD). Treatment with CWG-cPIP ameliorated behavioral deficits in adeno-associated virus–mediated CWG repeat–expressing mice and in a genetic mouse model of HD, without cytotoxicity or off-target effects. Together, we present a candidate compound that targets expanded CWG repeat DNA independently of its genomic location and reduces both pathogenic RNA and protein levels. CWG-cPIP may be used for the treatment of CWG repeat diseases and improvement of clinical outcomes.
Susumu Ikenoshita, Kazuya Matsuo, Yasushi Yabuki, Kosuke Kawakubo, Sefan Asamitsu, Karin Hori, Shingo Usuki, Yuki Hirose, Toshikazu Bando, Kimi Araki, Mitsuharu Ueda, Hiroshi Sugiyama, Norifumi Shioda
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a progressive scarring disease arising from impaired regeneration of the alveolar epithelium after injury. During regeneration, type 2 alveolar epithelial cells (AEC2s) assume a transitional state that upregulates multiple keratins and ultimately differentiate into AEC1s. In IPF, transitional AECs accumulate with ineffectual AEC1 differentiation. However, whether and how transitional cells cause fibrosis, whether keratins regulate transitional cell accumulation and fibrosis, and why transitional AECs and fibrosis resolve in mouse models but accumulate in IPF are unclear. Here, we show that human keratin 8 (KRT8) genetic variants were associated with IPF. Krt8–/– mice were protected from fibrosis and accumulation of the transitional state. Keratin 8 (K8) regulated the expression of macrophage chemokines and macrophage recruitment. Profibrotic macrophages and myofibroblasts promoted the accumulation of transitional AECs, establishing a K8-dependent positive feedback loop driving fibrogenesis. Finally, rare murine transitional AECs were highly senescent and basaloid and may not differentiate into AEC1s, recapitulating the aberrant basaloid state in human IPF. We conclude that transitional AECs induced and were maintained by fibrosis in a K8-dependent manner; in mice, most transitional cells and fibrosis resolved, whereas in human IPF, transitional AECs evolved into an aberrant basaloid state that persisted with progressive fibrosis.
Fa Wang, Christopher Ting, Kent A. Riemondy, Michael Douglas, Kendall Foster, Nisha Patel, Norihito Kaku, Alexander Linsalata, Jean Nemzek, Brian M. Varisco, Erez Cohen, Jasmine A. Wilson, David W.H. Riches, Elizabeth F. Redente, Diana M. Toivola, Xiaofeng Zhou, Bethany B. Moore, Pierre A. Coulombe, M. Bishr Omary, Rachel L. Zemans
BACKGROUND Macrophage activation syndrome (MAS) is a life-threatening complication of Still’s disease (SD) characterized by overt immune cell activation and cytokine storm. We aimed to further understand the immunologic landscape of SD and MAS.METHOD We profiled PBMCs from people in a healthy control group and patients with SD with or without MAS using bulk RNA-Seq and single-cell RNA-Seq (scRNA-Seq). We validated and expanded the findings by mass cytometry, flow cytometry, and in vitro studies.RESULTS Bulk RNA-Seq of PBMCs from patients with SD-associated MAS revealed strong expression of genes associated with type I interferon (IFN-I) signaling and cell proliferation, in addition to the expected IFN-γ signal, compared with people in the healthy control group and patients with SD without MAS. scRNA-Seq analysis of more than 65,000 total PBMCs confirmed IFN-I and IFN-γ signatures and localized the cell proliferation signature to cycling CD38+HLA-DR+ cells within CD4+ T cell, CD8+ T cell, and NK cell populations. CD38+HLA-DR+ lymphocytes exhibited prominent IFN-γ production, glycolysis, and mTOR signaling. Cell-cell interaction modeling suggested a network linking CD38+HLA-DR+ lymphocytes with monocytes through IFN-γ signaling. Notably, the expansion of CD38+HLA-DR+ lymphocytes in MAS was greater than in other systemic inflammatory conditions in children. In vitro stimulation of PBMCs demonstrated that IFN-I and IL-15 — both elevated in MAS patients — synergistically augmented the generation of CD38+HLA-DR+ lymphocytes, while Janus kinase inhibition mitigated this response.CONCLUSION MAS associated with SD is characterized by overproduction of IFN-I, which may act in synergy with IL-15 to generate CD38+HLA-DR+ cycling lymphocytes that produce IFN-γ.
Zhengping Huang, Kailey E. Brodeur, Liang Chen, Yan Du, Holly Wobma, Evan E. Hsu, Meng Liu, Joyce C. Chang, Margaret H. Chang, Janet Chou, Megan Day-Lewis, Fatma Dedeoglu, Olha Halyabar, James A. Lederer, Tianwang Li, Mindy S. Lo, Meiping Lu, Esra Meidan, Jane W. Newburger, Adrienne G. Randolph, Mary Beth Son, Robert P. Sundel, Maria L. Taylor, Huaxiang Wu, Qing Zhou, Scott W. Canna, Kevin Wei, Lauren A. Henderson, Peter A. Nigrovic, Pui Y. Lee
Half of all men with advanced prostate cancer (PCa) inherit at least 1 copy of an adrenal-permissive HSD3B1 (1245C) allele, which increases levels of 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1 (3βHSD1) and promotes intracellular androgen biosynthesis. Germline inheritance of the adrenally permissive allele confers worse outcomes in men with advanced PCa. We investigated whether HSD3B1 (1245C) drives resistance to combined androgen deprivation and radiotherapy. Adrenally permissive 3βHSD1 enhanced resistance to radiotherapy in PCa cell lines and xenograft models engineered to mimic the human adrenal/gonadal axis during androgen deprivation. The allele-specific effects on radiosensitivity were dependent on availability of DHEA, the substrate for 3βHSD1. In lines expressing the HSD3B1 (1245C) allele, enhanced expression of DNA damage response (DDR) genes and more rapid DNA double-strand break (DSB) resolution were observed. A correlation between androgen receptor (AR) expression and increased DDR gene expression was confirmed in 680 radical prostatectomy specimens. Treatment with the nonsteroidal antiandrogen enzalutamide reversed the resistant phenotype of HSD3B1 (1245C) PCa in vitro and in vivo. In conclusion, 3βHSD1 promotes prostate cancer resistance to combined androgen deprivation and radiotherapy by upregulating DNA DSB repair. This work supports prospective validation of early combined androgen blockade for high-risk men harboring the HSD3B1 (1245C) allele.
Shinjini Ganguly, Zaeem Lone, Andrew Muskara, Jarrell Imamura, Aimalie Hardaway, Mona Patel, Mike Berk, Timothy D. Smile, Elai Davicioni, Kevin L. Stephans, Jay Ciezki, Christopher J. Weight, Shilpa Gupta, Chandana A. Reddy, Rahul D. Tendulkar, Abhishek A. Chakraborty, Eric A. Klein, Nima Sharifi, Omar Y. Mian
The heterogeneity of cancer stem cells (CSCs) within tumors presents a challenge in therapeutic targeting. To decipher the cellular plasticity that fuels phenotypic heterogeneity, we undertook single-cell transcriptomics analysis in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) to identify subpopulations in CSCs. We found a subpopulation of CSCs with ancestral features that is marked by FXYD domain–containing ion transport regulator 3 (FXYD3), a component of the Na+/K+ pump. Accordingly, FXYD3+ CSCs evolve and proliferate, while displaying traits of alveolar progenitors that are normally induced during pregnancy. Clinically, FXYD3+ CSCs were persistent during neoadjuvant chemotherapy, hence linking them to drug-tolerant persisters (DTPs) and identifying them as crucial therapeutic targets. Importantly, FXYD3+ CSCs were sensitive to senolytic Na+/K+ pump inhibitors, such as cardiac glycosides. Together, our data indicate that FXYD3+ CSCs with ancestral features are drivers of plasticity and chemoresistance in TNBC. Targeting the Na+/K+ pump could be an effective strategy to eliminate CSCs with ancestral and DTP features that could improve TNBC prognosis.
Mengjiao Li, Tatsunori Nishimura, Yasuto Takeuchi, Tsunaki Hongu, Yuming Wang, Daisuke Shiokawa, Kang Wang, Haruka Hirose, Asako Sasahara, Masao Yano, Satoko Ishikawa, Masafumi Inokuchi, Tetsuo Ota, Masahiko Tanabe, Kei-ichiro Tada, Tetsu Akiyama, Xi Cheng, Chia-Chi Liu, Toshinari Yamashita, Sumio Sugano, Yutaro Uchida, Tomoki Chiba, Hiroshi Asahara, Masahiro Nakagawa, Shinya Sato, Yohei Miyagi, Teppei Shimamura, Luis Augusto E. Nagai, Akinori Kanai, Manami Katoh, Seitaro Nomura, Ryuichiro Nakato, Yutaka Suzuki, Arinobu Tojo, Dominic C. Voon, Seishi Ogawa, Koji Okamoto, Theodoros Foukakis, Noriko Gotoh
Systemic autoimmune and autoinflammatory diseases are characterized by genetic and cellular heterogeneity. While current single-cell genomics methods provide insights into known disease subtypes, these analysis methods do not readily reveal novel cell-type perturbation programs shared among distinct patient subsets. Here, we performed single-cell RNA-Seq of PBMCs of patients with systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis (SJIA) with diverse clinical manifestations, including macrophage activation syndrome (MAS) and lung disease (LD). We introduced two new computational frameworks called UDON and SATAY-UDON, which define patient subtypes based on their underlying disrupted cellular programs as well as associated biomarkers or clinical features. Among twelve independently identified subtypes, this analysis uncovered what we believe to be a novel complement and interferon activation program identified in SJIA-LD monocytes. Extending these analyses to adult and pediatric lupus patients found new but also shared disease programs with SJIA, including interferon and complement activation. Finally, supervised comparison of these programs in a compiled single-cell pan-immune atlas of over 1,000 healthy donors found a handful of normal healthy donors with evidence of early inflammatory activation in subsets of monocytes and platelets, nominating possible biomarkers for early disease detection. Thus, integrative pan-immune single-cell analysis resolved what we believe to be new conserved gene programs underlying inflammatory disease pathogenesis and associated complications.
Emely L. Verweyen, Kairavee Thakkar, Sanjeev Dhakal, Elizabeth Baker, Kashish Chetal, Daniel Schnell, Scott Canna, Alexei A. Grom, Nathan Salomonis, Grant S. Schulert
Aberrant androgen receptor (AR) signaling drives prostate cancer (PC), and it is a key therapeutic target. Although initially effective, the generation of alternatively spliced AR variants (AR-Vs) compromises efficacy of treatments. In contrast to full-length AR (AR-FL), AR-Vs constitutively activate androgenic signaling and are refractory to the current repertoire of AR-targeting therapies, which together drive disease progression. There is an unmet clinical need, therefore, to develop more durable PC therapies that can attenuate AR-V function. Exploiting the requirement of coregulatory proteins for AR-V function has the capacity to furnish tractable routes for attenuating persistent oncogenic AR signaling in advanced PC. DNA-PKcs regulates AR-FL transcriptional activity and is upregulated in both early and advanced PC. We hypothesized that DNA-PKcs is critical for AR-V function. Using a proximity biotinylation approach, we demonstrated that the DNA-PK holoenzyme is part of the AR-V7 interactome and is a key regulator of AR-V–mediated transcription and cell growth in models of advanced PC. Crucially, we provide evidence that DNA-PKcs controls global splicing and, via RBMX, regulates the maturation of AR-V and AR-FL transcripts. Ultimately, our data indicate that targeting DNA-PKcs attenuates AR-V signaling and provide evidence that DNA-PKcs blockade is an effective therapeutic option in advanced AR-V–positive patients with PC.
Beth Adamson, Nicholas Brittain, Laura Walker, Ruaridh Duncan, Sara Luzzi, Pasquale Rescigno, Graham Smith, Suzanne McGill, Richard J.S. Burchmore, Elaine Willmore, Ian Hickson, Craig N. Robson, Denisa Bogdan, Juan M. Jimenez-Vacas, Alec Paschalis, Jonathan Welti, Wei Yuan, Stuart R. McCracken, Rakesh Heer, Adam Sharp, Johann S. de Bono, Luke Gaughan
Identification of branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) oxidation enzymes in the nucleus led us to predict that they are a source of the propionyl-CoA that is utilized for histone propionylation and, thereby, regulate gene expression. To investigate the effects of BCAAs on the development of cardiac hypertrophy and failure, we applied pressure overload on the heart in mice maintained on a diet with standard levels of BCAAs (BCAA control) versus a BCAA-free diet. The former was associated with an increase in histone H3K23-propionyl (H3K23Pr) at the promoters of upregulated genes (e.g., cell signaling and extracellular matrix genes) and a decrease at the promoters of downregulated genes (e.g., electron transfer complex [ETC I–V] and metabolic genes). Intriguingly, the BCAA-free diet tempered the increases in promoter H3K23Pr, thus reducing collagen gene expression and fibrosis during cardiac hypertrophy. Conversely, the BCAA-free diet inhibited the reductions in promoter H3K23Pr and abolished the downregulation of ETC I–V subunits, enhanced mitochondrial respiration, and curbed the progression of cardiac hypertrophy. Thus, lowering the intake of BCAAs reduced pressure overload–induced changes in histone propionylation–dependent gene expression in the heart, which retarded the development of cardiomyopathy.
Zhi Yang, Minzhen He, Julianne Austin, Danish Sayed, Maha Abdellatif
Effective eradication of leukemic stem cells (LSCs) remains the greatest challenge in treating acute myeloid leukemia (AML). The immune receptor LAIR-1 has been shown to regulate LSC survival; however, the therapeutic potential of this pathway remains unexplored. We developed a therapeutic LAIR-1 agonist antibody, NC525, that induced cell death of LSCs, but not healthy hematopoietic stem cells in vitro, and killed LSCs and AML blasts in both cell- and patient-derived xenograft models. We showed that LAIR-1 agonism drives a unique apoptotic signaling program in leukemic cells that was enhanced in the presence of collagen. NC525 also significantly improved the activity of azacitidine and venetoclax to establish LAIR-1 targeting as a therapeutic strategy for AML that may synergize with standard-of-care therapies.
Rustin R. Lovewell, Junshik Hong, Subhadip Kundu, Carly M. Fielder, Qianni Hu, Kwang Woon Kim, Haley E. Ramsey, Agnieszka E. Gorska, Londa S. Fuller, Linjie Tian, Priyanka Kothari, Ana Paucarmayta, Emily F. Mason, Ingrid Meza, Yanira Manzanarez, Jason Bosiacki, Karla Maloveste, Ngan Mitchell, Emilia A. Barbu, Aaron Morawski, Sebastien Maloveste, Zac Cusumano, Shashank J. Patel, Michael R. Savona, Solomon Langermann, Han Myint, Dallas B. Flies, Tae Kon Kim
Prostate cancer is generally considered an immunologically “cold” tumor type that is insensitive to immunotherapy. Targeting surface antigens on tumors through cellular therapy can induce a potent antitumor immune response to “heat up” the tumor microenvironment. However, many antigens expressed on prostate tumor cells are also found on normal tissues, potentially causing on-target, off-tumor toxicities and a suboptimal therapeutic index. Our studies revealed that six-transmembrane epithelial antigen of prostate-2 (STEAP2) was a prevalent prostate cancer antigen that displayed high, homogeneous cell surface expression across all stages of disease with limited distal normal tissue expression, making it ideal for therapeutic targeting. A multifaceted lead generation approach enabled development of an armored STEAP2 chimeric antigen receptor T cell (CAR-T) therapeutic candidate, AZD0754. This CAR-T product was armored with a dominant-negative TGF-β type II receptor, bolstering its activity in the TGF-β–rich immunosuppressive environment of prostate cancer. AZD0754 demonstrated potent and specific cytotoxicity against antigen-expressing cells in vitro despite TGF-β–rich conditions. Further, AZD0754 enforced robust, dose-dependent in vivo efficacy in STEAP2-expressing cancer cell line–derived and patient-derived xenograft mouse models, and exhibited encouraging preclinical safety. Together, these data underscore the therapeutic tractability of STEAP2 in prostate cancer as well as build confidence in the specificity, potency, and tolerability of this potentially first-in-class CAR-T therapy.
Peter Zanvit, Dewald van Dyk, Christine Fazenbaker, Kelly McGlinchey, Weichuan Luo, Jessica M. Pezold, John Meekin, Chien-ying Chang, Rosa A. Carrasco, Shannon Breen, Crystal Sao-Fong Cheung, Ariel Endlich-Frazier, Benjamin Clark, Nina J. Chu, Alessio Vantellini, Philip L. Martin, Clare E. Hoover, Kenesha Riley, Steve M. Sweet, David Chain, Yeoun Jin Kim, Eric Tu, Nathalie Harder, Sandrina Phipps, Melissa Damschroder, Ryan N. Gilbreth, Mark Cobbold, Gordon Moody, Emily E. Bosco
In vitro fertilization (IVF) and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) are 2 major assisted reproductive techniques (ARTs) used widely to treat infertility. Recently, spermatogonial transplantation emerged as a new ART to restore fertility to young patients with cancer after cancer therapy. To examine the influence of germ cell manipulation on behavior of offspring, we produced F1 offspring by a combination of two ARTs, spermatogonial transplantation and ICSI. When these animals were compared with F1 offspring produced by ICSI using fresh wild-type sperm, not only spermatogonial transplantation–ICSI mice but also ICSI-only control mice exhibited behavioral abnormalities, which persisted in the F2 generation. Furthermore, although these F1 offspring appeared normal, F2 offspring produced by IVF using F1 sperm and wild-type oocytes showed various types of congenital abnormalities, including anophthalmia, hydrocephalus, and missing limbs. Therefore, ARTs can induce morphological and functional defects in mice, some of which become evident only after germline transmission.
Mito Kanatsu-Shinohara, Yusuke Shiromoto, Narumi Ogonuki, Kimiko Inoue, Satoko Hattori, Kento Miura, Naomi Watanabe, Ayumi Hasegawa, Keiji Mochida, Takuya Yamamoto, Tsuyoshi Miyakawa, Atsuo Ogura, Takashi Shinohara
The B cell leukemia/lymphoma 2 (BCL-2) inhibitor venetoclax is effective in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL); however, resistance may develop over time. Other lymphoid malignancies such as diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) are frequently intrinsically resistant to venetoclax. Although genomic resistance mechanisms such as BCL2 mutations have been described, this probably only explains a subset of resistant cases. Using 2 complementary functional precision medicine techniques — BH3 profiling and high-throughput kinase activity mapping — we found that hyperphosphorylation of BCL-2 family proteins, including antiapoptotic myeloid leukemia 1 (MCL-1) and BCL-2 and proapoptotic BCL-2 agonist of cell death (BAD) and BCL-2 associated X, apoptosis regulator (BAX), underlies functional mechanisms of both intrinsic and acquired resistance to venetoclax in CLL and DLBCL. Additionally, we provide evidence that antiapoptotic BCL-2 family protein phosphorylation altered the apoptotic protein interactome, thereby changing the profile of functional dependence on these prosurvival proteins. Targeting BCL-2 family protein phosphorylation with phosphatase-activating drugs rewired these dependencies, thus restoring sensitivity to venetoclax in a panel of venetoclax-resistant lymphoid cell lines, a resistant mouse model, and in paired patient samples before venetoclax treatment and at the time of progression.
Stephen Jun Fei Chong, Fen Zhu, Olga Dashevsky, Rin Mizuno, Jolin X.H. Lai, Liam Hackett, Christine E. Ryan, Mary C. Collins, J. Bryan Iorgulescu, Romain Guièze, Johany Penailillo, Ruben Carrasco, Yeonjoo C. Hwang, Denise P. Muñoz, Mehdi Bouhaddou, Yaw Chyn Lim, Catherine J. Wu, John N. Allan, Richard R. Furman, Boon Cher Goh, Shazib Pervaiz, Jean-Philippe Coppé, Constantine S. Mitsiades, Matthew S. Davids
Productively infected cells are generally thought to arise from HIV infection of activated CD4+ T cells, and these infected activated cells are thought to be a recurring source of latently infected cells when a portion of the population transitions to a resting state. We discovered and report here that productively and latently infected cells can instead originate from direct infection of resting CD4+ T cell populations in lymphoid tissues in Fiebig I, the earliest stage of detectable HIV infection. We found that direct infection of resting CD4+ T cells was correlated with the availability of susceptible target cells in lymphoid tissues largely restricted to resting CD4+ T cells in which expression of pTEFb enabled productive infection, and we documented persistence of HIV-producing resting T cells during antiretroviral therapy (ART). Thus, we provide evidence of a mechanism by which direct infection of resting T cells in lymphoid tissues to generate productively and latently infected cells creates a mechanism by which the productively infected cells can replenish both populations and maintain two sources of virus from which HIV infection can rebound, even if ART is instituted at the earliest stage of detectable infection.
Stephen W. Wietgrefe, Jodi Anderson, Lijie Duan, Peter J. Southern, Paul Zuck, Guoxin Wu, Bonnie J. Howell, Cavan Reilly, Eugène Kroon, Suthat Chottanapund, Supranee Buranapraditkun, Carlo Sacdalan, Nicha Tulmethakaan, Donn J. Colby, Nitiya Chomchey, Peeriya Prueksakaew, Suteeraporn Pinyakorn, Rapee Trichavaroj, Julie L. Mitchell, Lydie Trautmann, Denise Hsu, Sandhya Vasan, Sopark Manasnayakorn, Mark de Souza, Sodsai Tovanabutra, Alexandra Schuetz, Merlin L. Robb, Nittaya Phanuphak, Jintanat Ananworanich, Timothy W. Schacker, Ashley T. Haase, on behalf of the RV254/SEARCH 010 Study Team
BACKGROUND Proglucagon can be processed to glucagon-like peptide1 (GLP-1) within the islet, but its contribution to islet function in humans remains unknown. We sought to understand whether pancreatic GLP-1 alters islet function in humans and whether this is affected by type 2 diabetes.METHODS We therefore studied individuals with and without type 2 diabetes on two occasions in random order. On one occasion, exendin 9-39, a competitive antagonist of the GLP-1 Receptor (GLP1R), was infused, while on the other, saline was infused. The tracer dilution technique ([3-3H] glucose) was used to measure glucose turnover during fasting and during a hyperglycemic clamp.RESULTS Exendin 9-39 increased fasting glucose concentrations; fasting islet hormone concentrations were unchanged, but inappropriate for the higher fasting glucose observed. In people with type 2 diabetes, fasting glucagon concentrations were markedly elevated and persisted despite hyperglycemia. This impaired suppression of endogenous glucose production by hyperglycemia.CONCLUSION These data show that GLP1R blockade impairs islet function, implying that intra-islet GLP1R activation alters islet responses to glucose and does so to a greater degree in people with type 2 diabetes.TRIAL REGISTRATION This study was registered at ClinicalTrials.gov NCT04466618.FUNDING The study was primarily funded by NIH NIDDK DK126206. AV is supported by DK78646, DK116231 and DK126206. CDM was supported by MIUR (Italian Minister for Education) under the initiative “Departments of Excellence” (Law 232/2016).
Andrew A. Welch, Rahele A. Farahani, Aoife M. Egan, Marcello C. Laurenti, Maya Zeini, Max Vella, Kent R. Bailey, Claudio Cobelli, Chiara Dalla Man, Aleksey Matveyenko, Adrian Vella