BACKGROUND Proglucagon can be processed to glucagon-like peptide1 (GLP-1) within the islet, but its contribution to islet function in humans remains unknown. We sought to understand whether pancreatic GLP-1 alters islet function in humans and whether this is affected by type 2 diabetes.METHODS We therefore studied individuals with and without type 2 diabetes on two occasions in random order. On one occasion, exendin 9-39, a competitive antagonist of the GLP-1 Receptor (GLP1R), was infused, while on the other, saline was infused. The tracer dilution technique ([3-3H] glucose) was used to measure glucose turnover during fasting and during a hyperglycemic clamp.RESULTS Exendin 9-39 increased fasting glucose concentrations; fasting islet hormone concentrations were unchanged, but inappropriate for the higher fasting glucose observed. In people with type 2 diabetes, fasting glucagon concentrations were markedly elevated and persisted despite hyperglycemia. This impaired suppression of endogenous glucose production by hyperglycemia.CONCLUSION These data show that GLP1R blockade impairs islet function, implying that intra-islet GLP1R activation alters islet responses to glucose and does so to a greater degree in people with type 2 diabetes.TRIAL REGISTRATION This study was registered at ClinicalTrials.gov NCT04466618.FUNDING The study was primarily funded by NIH NIDDK DK126206. AV is supported by DK78646, DK116231 and DK126206. CDM was supported by MIUR (Italian Minister for Education) under the initiative “Departments of Excellence” (Law 232/2016).
Andrew A. Welch, Rahele A. Farahani, Aoife M. Egan, Marcello C. Laurenti, Maya Zeini, Max Vella, Kent R. Bailey, Claudio Cobelli, Chiara Dalla Man, Aleksey Matveyenko, Adrian Vella