In vitro fertilization (IVF) and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) are 2 major assisted reproductive techniques (ARTs) used widely to treat infertility. Recently, spermatogonial transplantation emerged as a new ART to restore fertility to young patients with cancer after cancer therapy. To examine the influence of germ cell manipulation on behavior of offspring, we produced F1 offspring by a combination of two ARTs, spermatogonial transplantation and ICSI. When these animals were compared with F1 offspring produced by ICSI using fresh wild-type sperm, not only spermatogonial transplantation–ICSI mice but also ICSI-only control mice exhibited behavioral abnormalities, which persisted in the F2 generation. Furthermore, although these F1 offspring appeared normal, F2 offspring produced by IVF using F1 sperm and wild-type oocytes showed various types of congenital abnormalities, including anophthalmia, hydrocephalus, and missing limbs. Therefore, ARTs can induce morphological and functional defects in mice, some of which become evident only after germline transmission.
Mito Kanatsu-Shinohara, Yusuke Shiromoto, Narumi Ogonuki, Kimiko Inoue, Satoko Hattori, Kento Miura, Naomi Watanabe, Ayumi Hasegawa, Keiji Mochida, Takuya Yamamoto, Tsuyoshi Miyakawa, Atsuo Ogura, Takashi Shinohara