Obesity is a major risk factor for insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. In adipose tissue, obesity-mediated insulin resistance correlates with the accumulation of proinflammatory macrophages and inflammation. However, the causal relationship of these events is unclear. Here, we report that obesity-induced insulin resistance in mice precedes macrophage accumulation and inflammation in adipose tissue. Using a mouse model that combines genetically induced, adipose-specific insulin resistance (mTORC2-knockout) and diet-induced obesity, we found that insulin resistance causes local accumulation of proinflammatory macrophages. Mechanistically, insulin resistance in adipocytes results in production of the chemokine monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP1), which recruits monocytes and activates proinflammatory macrophages. Finally, insulin resistance (high homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance [HOMA-IR]) correlated with reduced insulin/mTORC2 signaling and elevated MCP1 production in visceral adipose tissue from obese human subjects. Our findings suggest that insulin resistance in adipose tissue leads to inflammation rather than vice versa.
Mitsugu Shimobayashi, Verena Albert, Bettina Woelnerhanssen, Irina C. Frei, Diana Weissenberger, Anne Christin Meyer-Gerspach, Nicolas Clement, Suzette Moes, Marco Colombi, Jerome A. Meier, Marta M. Swierczynska, Paul Jenö, Christoph Beglinger, Ralph Peterli, Michael N. Hall
The immune system is tightly controlled by regulatory processes that allow for the elimination of invading pathogens, while limiting immunopathological damage to the host. In the present study, we found that conditional deletion of the cell surface receptor Toso on B cells unexpectedly resulted in impaired proinflammatory T cell responses, which led to impaired immune protection in an acute viral infection model, while, in a chronic inflammatory context, was associated with reduced immunopathological tissue damage. Toso exhibited its B cell-inherent immunoregulatory function by negatively controlling the pool of IL-10-competent B1 and B2 B cells, which were characterized by a high degree of self-reactivity and were shown to mediate immunosuppressive activity on inflammatory T cell responses in vivo. Our results indicate that Toso is involved in the differentiation/maintenance of regulatory B cells by fine-tuning B cell receptor (BCR)-activation thresholds. Furthermore, we showed that during influenza A-induced pulmonary inflammation the application of Toso-specific antibodies selectively induced IL-10-competent B cells at the site of inflammation and resulted in decreased proinflammatory cytokine production by lung T cells. These findings suggest that Toso may serve as a novel therapeutic target to dampen pathogenic T cell responses via the modulation of IL-10-competent regulatory B cells.
Jinbo Yu, Vu Huy Hoang Duong, Katrin Westphal, Andreas Westphal, Abdulhadi Suwandi, Guntram A. Grassl, Korbinian Brand, Andrew C. Chan, Niko Föger, Kyeong-Hee Lee
Coagulation factor XII (FXII) deficiency is associated with decreased neutrophil migration, but the mechanisms remain uncharacterized. Here, we examine how FXII contributes to the inflammatory response. In 2 models of sterile inflammation, FXII-deficient mice (F12–/–) had fewer neutrophils recruited than WT mice. We discovered that neutrophils produced a pool of FXII that is functionally distinct from hepatic-derived FXII and contributes to neutrophil trafficking at sites of inflammation. FXII signals in neutrophils through urokinase plasminogen activator receptor–mediated (uPAR-mediated) Akt2 phosphorylation at S474 (pAktS474). Downstream of pAkt2S474, FXII stimulation of neutrophils upregulated surface expression of αMβ2 integrin, increased intracellular calcium, and promoted extracellular DNA release. The sum of these activities contributed to neutrophil cell adhesion, migration, and release of neutrophil extracellular traps in a process called NETosis. Decreased neutrophil signaling in F12–/– mice resulted in less inflammation and faster wound healing. Targeting hepatic F12 with siRNA did not affect neutrophil migration, whereas WT BM transplanted into F12–/– hosts was sufficient to correct the neutrophil migration defect in F12–/– mice and restore wound inflammation. Importantly, these activities were a zymogen FXII function and independent of FXIIa and contact activation, highlighting that FXII has a sophisticated role in vivo that has not been previously appreciated.
Evi X. Stavrou, Chao Fang, Kara L. Bane, Andy T. Long, Clément Naudin, Erdem Kucukal, Agharnan Gandhi, Adina Brett-Morris, Michele M. Mumaw, Sudeh Izadmehr, Alona Merkulova, Cindy C. Reynolds, Omar Alhalabi, Lalitha Nayak, Wen-Mei Yu, Cheng-Kui Qu, Howard J. Meyerson, George R. Dubyak, Umut A. Gurkan, Marvin T. Nieman, Anirban Sen Gupta, Thomas Renné, Alvin H. Schmaier
Lupus nephritis (LN) often results in progressive renal dysfunction. The inactive Rhomboid 2 (iRhom2) is a newly identified key regulator of A disintegrin and metalloprotease 17 (ADAM17), whose substrates, such as TNF-α and heparin-binding EGF (HB-EGF), have been implicated in the pathogenesis of chronic kidney disease. Here we demonstrate that deficiency of iRhom2 protects the lupus-prone Fcgr2b–/– mice from developing severe kidney damage without altering anti-double stranded (ds) DNA Ab production, by simultaneously blocking the HB-EGF/EGFR and the TNF-α signaling in the kidney tissues. Unbiased transcriptome profiling of kidneys and kidney macrophages revealed that TNF-α and HB-EGF/EGFR signaling pathways are highly upregulated in Fcgr2b–/– mice; alterations that were diminished in the absence of iRhom2. Pharmacological blockade of either TNF-α or EGFR signaling protected Fcgr2b–/– mice from severe renal damage. Finally, kidneys from LN patients showed increased iRhom2 and HB-EGF expression, with interstitial HB-EGF expression significantly associated with chronicity indices. Our data suggest that activation of iRhom2/ADAM17-dependent TNF-α and EGFR signaling plays a crucial role in mediating irreversible kidney damage in LN, thereby uncovering a novel target for selective and simultaneous dual inhibition of two major pathological pathways in the effector arm of the disease.
Xiaoping Qing, Yurii Chinenov, Patricia Redecha, Michael Madaio, Joris J.T.H. Roelofs, Gregory Farber, Priya D. Issuree, Laura Donlin, David R. McIlwain, Tak W. Mak, Carl P. Blobel, Jane E. Salmon
Macrophages are a source of both proinflammatory and restorative functions in damaged tissue through complex dynamic phenotypic changes. Here, we sought to determine whether monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs) contribute to recovery after acute sterile brain injury. By profiling the transcriptional dynamics of MDMs in the murine brain after experimental intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), we found robust phenotypic changes in the infiltrating MDMs over time and demonstrated that MDMs are essential for optimal hematoma clearance and neurological recovery. Next, we identified the mechanism by which the engulfment of erythrocytes with exposed phosphatidylserine directly modulated the phenotype of both murine and human MDMs. In mice, loss of receptor tyrosine kinases AXL and MERTK reduced efferocytosis of eryptotic erythrocytes and hematoma clearance, worsened neurological recovery, exacerbated iron deposition, and decreased alternative activation of macrophages after ICH. Patients with higher circulating soluble AXL had poor 1-year outcomes after ICH onset, suggesting that therapeutically augmenting efferocytosis may improve functional outcomes by both reducing tissue injury and promoting the development of reparative macrophage responses. Thus, our results identify the efferocytosis of eryptotic erythrocytes through AXL/MERTK as a critical mechanism modulating macrophage phenotype and contributing to recovery from ICH.
Che-Feng Chang, Brittany A. Goods, Michael H. Askenase, Matthew D. Hammond, Stephen C. Renfroe, Arthur F. Steinschneider, Margaret J. Landreneau, Youxi Ai, Hannah E. Beatty, Luís Henrique Angenendt da Costa, Matthias Mack, Kevin N. Sheth, David M. Greer, Anita Huttner, Daniel Coman, Fahmeed Hyder, Sourav Ghosh, Carla V. Rothlin, J. Christopher Love, Lauren H. Sansing
The underlying cellular mechanisms of catatonia, an executive “psychomotor” syndrome that is observed across neuropsychiatric diseases, have remained obscure. In humans and mice, reduced expression of the structural myelin protein CNP is associated with catatonic signs in an age-dependent manner, pointing to the involvement of myelin-producing oligodendrocytes. Here, we showed that the underlying cause of catatonic signs is the low-grade inflammation of white matter tracts, which marks a final common pathway in Cnp-deficient and other mutant mice with minor myelin abnormalities. The inhibitor of CSF1 receptor kinase signaling, PLX5622, depleted microglia and alleviated the catatonic symptoms of Cnp mutants. Thus, microglia and low-grade inflammation of myelinated tracts emerged as the trigger of a previously unexplained mental condition. We observed a very high (25%) prevalence of individuals with catatonic signs in a deeply phenotyped schizophrenia sample (n = 1095). Additionally, we found the loss-of-function allele of a myelin-specific gene (CNP rs2070106-AA) associated with catatonia in 2 independent schizophrenia cohorts and also associated with white matter hyperintensities in a general population sample. Since the catatonic syndrome is likely a surrogate marker for other executive function defects, we suggest that microglia-directed therapies may be considered in psychiatric disorders associated with myelin abnormalities.
Hana Janova, Sahab Arinrad, Evan Balmuth, Marina Mitjans, Johannes Hertel, Mohamad Habes, Robert A. Bittner, Hong Pan, Sandra Goebbels, Martin Begemann, Ulrike C. Gerwig, Sönke Langner, Hauke B. Werner, Sarah Kittel-Schneider, Georg Homuth, Christos Davatzikos, Henry Völzke, Brian L. West, Andreas Reif, Hans Jörgen Grabe, Susann Boretius, Hannelore Ehrenreich, Klaus-Armin Nave
During tumor progression, immune system phagocytes continually clear apoptotic cancer cells in a process known as efferocytosis. However, the impact of efferocytosis in metastatic tumor growth is unknown. In this study, we observed that macrophage-driven efferocytosis of prostate cancer cells in vitro induced the expression of proinflammatory cytokines such as CXCL5 by activating Stat3 and NF-κB(p65) signaling. Administration of a dimerizer ligand (AP20187) triggered apoptosis in 2 in vivo syngeneic models of bone tumor growth in which apoptosis-inducible prostate cancer cells were either coimplanted with vertebral bodies, or inoculated in the tibiae of immunocompetent mice. Induction of 2 pulses of apoptosis correlated with increased infiltration of inflammatory cells and accelerated tumor growth in the bone. Apoptosis-induced tumors displayed elevated expression of the proinflammatory cytokine CXCL5. Likewise, CXCL5-deficient mice had reduced tumor progression. Peripheral blood monocytes isolated from patients with bone metastasis of prostate cancer were more efferocytic compared with normal controls, and CXCL5 serum levels were higher in metastatic prostate cancer patients relative to patients with localized prostate cancer or controls. Altogether, these findings suggest that the myeloid phagocytic clearance of apoptotic cancer cells accelerates CXCL5-mediated inflammation and tumor growth in bone, pointing to CXCL5 as a potential target for cancer therapeutics.
Hernan Roca, Jacqueline D. Jones, Marta C. Purica, Savannah Weidner, Amy J. Koh, Robert Kuo, John E. Wilkinson, Yugang Wang, Stephanie Daignault-Newton, Kenneth J. Pienta, Todd M. Morgan, Evan T. Keller, Jacques E. Nör, Lonnie D. Shea, Laurie K. McCauley
The NLRP3 inflammasome is a protein complex responsible for caspase-1–dependent maturation of the proinflammatory cytokines IL-1β and IL-18. Gain-of-function missense mutations in NLRP3 cause the disease spectrum known as the cryopyrin-associated periodic syndromes (CAPS). In this study, we generated Nlrp3-knockin mice on various KO backgrounds including Il1b/Il18-, caspase-1–, caspase-11– (Casp1/11-), and Tnf-deficient strains. The Nlrp3L351P Il1b–/– Il18–/– mutant mice survived and grew normally until adulthood and, at 6 months of age, exhibited marked splenomegaly and leukophilia. Injection of these mice with low-dose LPS resulted in elevated serum TNF levels compared with Nlrp3L351P Casp1/11–/– mice and Il1b–/– Il18–/– littermates. Treatment of Nlrp3A350V mice with the TNF inhibitor etanercept resulted in all pups surviving to adulthood, with normal body and spleen/body weight ratios. Nlrp3A350V Tnf–/– mice showed a similar phenotypic rescue, with marked reductions in serum IL-1β and IL-18, reduced myeloid inflammatory infiltrate in the skin and spleen, and substantial decreases in splenic mRNA expression of both inflammasome components (Nlrp3, Pycard, pro-Casp1) and pro-cytokines (Il1b, Il18). Likewise, we observed a reduction in the expression of both pro-Casp1 and pro-Il1b in cultured Nlrp3A350V Tnf–/– BM-derived DCs. Our data show that TNF is an important transcriptional regulator of NLRP3 inflammasome components in murine inflammasomopathies. Moreover, these results may have therapeutic implications for CAPS patients with partial responses to IL-1–targeted therapies.
Matthew D. McGeough, Alexander Wree, Maria E. Inzaugarat, Ariela Haimovich, Casey D. Johnson, Carla A. Peña, Raphaela Goldbach-Mansky, Lori Broderick, Ariel E. Feldstein, Hal M. Hoffman
Food allergy occurs due to IgE- and mast cell–dependent intestinal inflammation. Previously, we showed that histamine-releasing factor (HRF), a multifunctional protein secreted during allergy, interacts with a subset of IgE molecules and that the HRF dimer activates mast cells in an HRF-reactive IgE-dependent manner. In this study, we investigated whether HRF plays any role in food allergy. Specifically, we determined that prophylactic and therapeutic administration of HRF inhibitors that block HRF-IgE interactions reduces the incidence of diarrhea and mastocytosis in a murine model of food allergy. Food allergy–associated intestinal inflammation was accompanied by increased secretion of the HRF dimer into the intestine in response to proinflammatory, Th2, and epithelial-derived cytokines and HRF-reactive IgE levels at the elicitation phase. Consistent with these data, patients with egg allergy had higher blood levels of HRF-reactive IgE compared with individuals that were not hypersensitive. Successful oral immunotherapy in egg-allergy patients and food-allergic mice reduced HRF-reactive IgE levels, thereby suggesting a pathological role for HRF in food allergy. Together, these results suggest that antigen and HRF dimer amplify intestinal inflammation by synergistically activating mast cells and indicate that HRF has potential as a therapeutic target in food allergy.
Tomoaki Ando, Jun-ichi Kashiwakura, Naoka Itoh-Nagato, Hirotaka Yamashita, Minato Baba, Yu Kawakami, Shih Han Tsai, Naoki Inagaki, Kiyoshi Takeda, Tsutomu Iwata, Naoki Shimojo, Takao Fujisawa, Mizuho Nagao, Kenji Matsumoto, Yuko Kawakami, Toshiaki Kawakami
Type I IFN production is essential for innate control of acute viral infection; however, prolonged high-level IFN production is associated with chronic immune activation in HIV-infected individuals. Although plasmacytoid DCs (pDCs) are a primary source of IFN, the mechanisms that regulate IFN levels following the acute phase are unknown. We hypothesized that HIV-specific Ab responses regulate late IFN production. We evaluated the mechanism through which HIV-activated pDCs produce IFN as well as how both monoclonal HIV-specific Abs and Abs produced in natural HIV infection modulated normal pDC sensing of HIV. We found that HIV-induced IFN production required TLR7 signaling, receptor-mediated entry, fusion, and viral uncoating, but not endocytosis or HIV life cycle stages after uncoating. Abs directed against the HIV envelope that do not interfere with CD4 binding markedly enhanced the IFN response, irrespective of their ability to neutralize CD4+ T cell infection. Ab-mediated enhancement of IFN production required Fc γ receptor engagement, bypassed fusion, and initiated signaling through both TLR7 and TLR9, which was not utilized in the absence of Ab. Polyclonal Abs isolated from HIV-infected subjects also enhanced pDC production of IFN in response to HIV. Our data provide an explanation for high levels of IFN production and immune activation in chronic HIV infection.
Rebecca T. Veenhuis, Zachary T. Freeman, Jack Korleski, Laura K. Cohen, Guido Massaccesi, Alessandra Tomasi, Austin W. Boesch, Margaret E. Ackerman, Joseph B. Margolick, Joel N. Blankson, Michael A. Chattergoon, Andrea L. Cox
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