Gelatinases, belonging to the matrix metalloproteases, contribute to tissue destruction in inflammatory demyelinating disorders of the central nervous system such as multiple sclerosis. We used experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) as an animal model to evaluate the effect of a hydroxamate matrix metalloprotease inhibitor (GM 6001) on inflammatory demyelination. A single dose of the inhibitor, given intraperitoneally, provided sufficient levels in the cerebrospinal fluid of animals with EAE to induce at least a partial inhibition of the gelatinase activity in the cerebrospinal fluid. When administered daily either from the time of disease induction or from the onset of clinical signs, GM 6001 suppressed the development or reversed clinical EAE in a dose-dependent way, respectively. Animals returned to the same clinical course as the nontreated group after cessation of treatment. Animals treated from the onset of clinical signs had normal permeability of the blood-brain barrier, compared with the enhanced permeability in nontreated animals. These results indicate that matrix metalloprotease inhibition can reverse ongoing EAE. This effect appears to be mediated mainly through restoration of the damaged blood-brain barrier in the inflammatory phase of the disease, since, the degree of demyelination and inflammation did not differ between the treatment groups.
K Gijbels, R E Galardy, L Steinman
Retention of bile salts by the hepatocyte contributes to liver injury during cholestasis. Although cell injury can occur by one of two mechanisms, necrosis versus apoptosis, information is lacking regarding apoptosis as a mechanism of cell death by bile salts. Our aim was to determine if the bile salt glycodeoxycholate (GDC) induces apoptosis in rat hepatocytes. Morphologic assessment included electron microscopy and quantitation of nuclear fragmentation by fluorescent microscopy. Biochemical studies included measurements of DNA fragmentation, in vitro endonuclease activity, cytosolic free Ca2+ (Cai2+), and cytosolic free Mg2+ (Mgi2+). Morphologic studies demonstrated typical features of apoptosis in GDC (50 microM) treated cells. The "ladder pattern" of DNA fragmentation was also present in DNA obtained from GDC-treated cells. In vitro endonuclease activity was 2.5-fold greater with Mg2+ than Ca2+. Although basal Cai2+ values did not change after addition of GDC, Mgi2+ increased twofold. Incubation of cells in an Mg(2+)-free medium prevented the rise in Mgi2+ and reduced nuclear and DNA fragmentation. In conclusion, GDC induces apoptosis in hepatocytes by a mechanism promoted by increases of Mgi2+ with stimulation of Mg(2+)-dependent endonucleases. These data suggest for the first time that changes of Mgi2+ may participate in the program of cellular events culminating in apoptosis.
T Patel, S F Bronk, G J Gores
Manganese superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD) is induced in ischemic hearts 24 h after ischemic preconditioning, when tolerance to ischemia is acquired. We examined the relationship between Mn-SOD induction and the protective effect of preconditioning using cultured rat cardiac myocytes. Exposure of cardiac myocytes to brief hypoxia (1 h) decreased creatine kinase release induced by sustained hypoxia (3 h) that follows when the sustained hypoxia was applied 24 h after hypoxic preconditioning (57% of that in cells without preconditioning). The activity and content of Mn-SOD in cardiac myocytes were increased 24 h after hypoxic preconditioning (activity, 170%; content, 139% compared with cells without preconditioning) coincidentally with the acquisition of tolerance to hypoxia. Mn-SOD mRNA was also increased 20-40 min after preconditioning. Antisense oligodeoxyribonucleotides corresponding to the initiation site of Mn-SOD translation inhibited the increases in the Mn-SOD content and activity and abolished the expected decrease in creatine kinase release induced by sustained hypoxia after 24 h of hypoxic preconditioning. Sense oligodeoxyribonucleotides did not abolish either Mn-SOD induction or tolerance to hypoxia. These results suggest that the induction of Mn-SOD in myocytes by preconditioning plays a pivotal role in the acquisition of tolerance to ischemia at a later phase (24 h) of ischemic preconditioning.
N Yamashita, M Nishida, S Hoshida, T Kuzuya, M Hori, N Taniguchi, T Kamada, M Tada
Many patients with asthma have increased wheezing with colds. We hypothesized that rhinovirus colds might increase asthma by augmenting airway allergic responses (histamine release and eosinophil influx) after antigen challenge. Seven allergic rhinitis patients and five normal volunteers were infected with rhinovirus type 16 (RV16) and evaluated by segmental bronchoprovocation and bronchoalveolar lavage. Segmental challenge with saline and antigen was performed 1 mo before infection, during the acute infection, and 1 mo after infection. Lavage was performed immediately and 48 h after antigen challenge. Data were analyzed by two-way analysis of variance, and a P value of < or = 0.05 was considered to be significant. All volunteers inoculated with RV16 developed an acute respiratory infection. BAL fluid obtained from allergic rhinitis subjects during the acute viral infection, and 1 mo after infection, showed the following significant RV16-associated changes after antigen challenge: (a) an enhanced release of histamine immediately after local antigen challenge; (b) persistent histamine leak 48 h afterwards; and (c) a greater recruitment of eosinophils to the airway 48 h after challenge. These changes were not seen in non-allergic volunteers infected with RV16 and challenged with antigen, nor in allergic volunteers repetitively challenged with antigen but not infected with RV16, nor in RV16 infected allergic volunteers sham challenged with saline. We conclude that rhinovirus upper respiratory infection significantly augments immediate and late allergic responses in the airways of allergic individuals after local antigen challenge. These data suggest that one mechanism of increased asthma during a cold is an accentuation of allergic responses in the airway which may then contribute to bronchial inflammation.
W J Calhoun, E C Dick, L B Schwartz, W W Busse
In experimental animals, injection of gram-negative endotoxin (LPS) decreases hepatic cytochrome P450-mediated drug metabolism. To evaluate this phenomenon in a human model of gram-negative sepsis, LPS was administered on two consecutive days to healthy male volunteers during which time a cocktail of antipyrine (AP-250 mg), hexobarbital (HB-500 mg), and theophylline (TH-150 mg) was ingested and the apparent oral clearance of each drug determined. Each subject had a control drug clearance study with saline injections. In the first experiment, six subjects received the drug cocktail 0.5 h after the first dose of LPS. In the second experiment, another six subjects received the drug cocktail 0.5 h after the second dose of LPS. In both experiments, LPS caused the expected physiologic responses of inflammation including fever with increases in serum concentrations of TNF alpha, IL-1 beta, IL-6, and acute phase reactants. In the first experiment, only minor decreases in clearances of the probe drugs were observed (7-12%). However in the second experiment, marked decreases in the clearances of AP (35, 95% CI 18-48%), HB (27, 95% CI 14-34%), and TH (22, 95% CI 12-32%) were seen. The decreases in AP clearance correlated with initial peak values of TNF alpha (r = 0.82) and IL-6 (r = 0.86). These data show that in humans the inflammatory response to even a very low dose of LPS significantly decreases hepatic cytochrome P450-mediated drug metabolism and this effect evolves over a 24-h period. It is likely that septic patients with much higher exposures to LPS have more profound inhibition of drug metabolism.
S I Shedlofsky, B C Israel, C J McClain, D B Hill, R A Blouin
Sterol carrier protein 2 (SCP2) has been shown to be involved in intracellular transport and metabolism of cholesterol. However, there have been no reports concerning SCP2 in macrophages, the major source of atheromatous foam cells. We investigated whether SCP2 is present in rat peritoneal macrophages and determined the changes of SCP2 and its mRNA levels in macrophages during form cell formation induced by acetylated LDL (AcLDL). Immunoblot analysis and Northern blot analysis demonstrated that both SCP2 and its mRNA are expressed in rat peritoneal macrophages. Incubations with AcLDL caused a dose- and time-dependent increase of cellular esterified cholesterol, SCP2 and its mRNA in rat peritoneal macrophages. The inhibitor of acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase further enhanced AcLDL-induced increase of SCP2 protein and its mRNA. Incubations with 25-hydroxy cholesterol also caused a dose-dependent stimulation of SCP2 gene expression in macrophages, while incubation with maleylated BSA had no effect. These results suggest that the increment of cellular-free cholesterol is responsible for enhanced SCP2 gene expression in macrophages. The enhancement of SCP2 gene expression by AcLDL suggests that SCP2 may play an important role during foam cell formation induced by AcLDL which may be most important step for the atherosclerosis.
A Hirai, T Kino, K Tokinaga, K Tahara, Y Tamura, S Yoshida
It has been widely postulated that the central mechanism of hepatic reperfusion injury involves the conversion, during ischemia, of the enzyme xanthine dehydrogenase (XDH) to its free radical-producing form, xanthine oxidase (XOD). However, this theory has been questioned because (a) XDH to XOD conversion in whole liver occurs very slowly; (b) the cellular distribution of XDH/XOD is unclear; and (c) the direct demonstration of XDH to XOD conversion in viable cells is lacking. In this paper, we address all three issues by measuring XDH to XOD conversion and cell viability in purified populations of hepatic endothelial cells (EC), Kupffer cells (KC), and hepatocytes (HEP). Although XDH/XOD activity on a cellular basis was greater in hepatocytes (0.92 +/- 0.12 mU/10(6) cells) than ECs (0.03 +/- 0.01) or KCs (0.12 +/- 0.04), XDH + XOD specific activity was similar in all three cell types (HEP 1.85 +/- 0.10 U/g protein; EC 1.69 +/- 0.54; KC 2.30 +/- 0.22). Over 150 min of warm (37 degrees C) or 24 h of cold (4 degrees C) hypoxia, percent XOD activity increased slowly in ECs, from 21 +/- 2% (basal) to 39 +/- 3% (warm) and 49 +/- 5% (cold) and in HEPs (29 +/- 2% to 38 +/- 3% and 49 +/- 2%), but converted significantly faster in KCs (28 +/- 3% to 91 +/- 7% and 94 +/- 4%). The dramatic changes in Kupffer cell XOD during cold hypoxia occurred despite only minor changes in cell viability. When hypoxic KCs were reoxygenated after 16 h of cold hypoxia, there was a marked increase in cell death that was significantly blocked by allopurinol. These data suggest that significant conversion to the free radical-producing state occurs within viable KCs, and that Kupffer cell XOD may play an important role in mediating reperfusion injury in the liver.
J S Wiezorek, D H Brown, D E Kupperman, C A Brass
Nitric oxide (NO) is an important mediator of physiologic and inflammatory processes in the lung. To better understand the role of NO in the airway, we examined constitutive NO synthase (NOS) gene expression and function in NCI-H441 human bronchiolar epithelial cells, which are believed to be of Clara cell lineage. NOS activity was detected by [3H]arginine to [3H]citrulline conversion (1,070 +/- 260 fmol/mg protein per minute); enzyme activity was inhibited 91% by EGTA, consistent with the expression of a calcium-dependent NOS isoform. Immunoblot analyses with antisera directed against neuronal, inducible, or endothelial NOS revealed expression solely of endothelial NOS protein. Immunocytochemistry for endothelial NOS revealed staining predominantly in the cell periphery, consistent with the association of this isoform with the cellular membrane. To definitively identify the NOS isoform expressed in H441 cells, NOS cDNA was obtained by degenerate PCR. Sequencing of the H441 NOS cDNA revealed 100% identity with human endothelial NOS at the amino acid level. Furthermore, the H441 NOS cDNA hybridized to a single 4.7-kb mRNA species in poly(A)+ RNA isolated from H441 cells, from rat, sheep, and pig lung, and from ovine endothelial cells, coinciding with the predicted size of 4.7 kb for endothelial NOS mRNA. Guanylyl cyclase activity in H441 cells, assessed by measuring cGMP accumulation, rose 6.6- and 5.4-fold with calcium-mediated activation of NOS by thapsigargin and A23187, respectively. These findings indicate that endothelial NOS is expressed in select bronchiolar epithelial cells, where it may have autocrine effects through activation of guanylyl cyclase. Based on these observations and the previous identification of endothelial NOS in a kidney epithelial cell line, it is postulated that endothelial NOS may be expressed in unique subsets of epithelial cells in a variety of organs, serving to modulate ion flux and/or secretory function.
P W Shaul, A J North, L C Wu, L B Wells, T S Brannon, K S Lau, T Michel, L R Margraf, R A Star
Scott syndrome is a bleeding disorder associated with an isolated defect in expression of membrane coagulant activity by stimulated platelets. This defect represents a decrease in platelet membrane binding sites for coagulation factors Va and VIIIa, reflecting diminished surface exposure of phosphatidylserine (PS). To gain insight into the cellular and genetic basis for this disorder, B-lymphocytes from a patient with Scott syndrome and from normal donors were immortalized by EBV-transformation, and tested for their capacity to expose plasma membrane PS in response to the Ca2+ ionophore, A23187. Upon incubation with A23187, EBV-lymphoblasts derived from normal donors consistently induced surface expression of PS in > 70% of all cells, as detected by membrane association of the PS-binding proteins, factor Va or annexin V. PS exposure in these cells was maximal after 5 min, and saturated at < 100 microM external free [Ca2+]. By contrast, < 30% of Scott syndrome lymphoblasts exposed PS, and saturation was not observed at > 1 mM external free [Ca2+]. Single-cell clones derived from the Scott lymphoblasts all exhibited a diminished response to A23187 comparable with that of the parental cells, suggesting that all lymphocytes from this patient share this membrane abnormality. Hybridomas prepared by fusion of Scott lymphoblasts with the myeloma cell line UC-LUC showed responses to Ca2+ ionophore comparable to those observed for normal lymphoblasts and for hybridomas prepared by fusion of normal lymphoblasts with UC-LUC. This correction of the Scott abnormality suggests possible complementation of an aberrant gene(s) responsible for this disorder.
H Kojima, D Newton-Nash, H J Weiss, J Zhao, P J Sims, T Wiedmer
To elucidate the molecular mechanism of the stimulatory effect of thyrotropin on the gene regulation of alpha 1B adrenergic receptor in functioning rat thyroid (FRTL-5) cells, we established a competitive reverse-transcriptase (RT) polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and nuclear run-off assay to quantify changes in mRNA levels and transcription rates. A binding assay showed that FRTL-5 cells predominantly expressed alpha 1B adrenergic receptor and that thyrotropin increased its expression sevenfold. By means of RT-PCR, we found that thyrotropin induced an 11-fold increase in alpha 1B receptor mRNA abundance. The nuclear run-off assay demonstrated that thyrotropin caused a ninefold increase at the gene transcriptional level, which occurred in the presence of the protein synthesis inhibitor cycloheximide. The half-life of the alpha 1B receptor mRNA in cells incubated with thyrotropin for 1 h increased 1.5-fold but returned to the original value after 12 h. Dibutyryl cAMP and forskolin mimicked the stimulatory effects of thyrotropin on the gene transcriptional level. The 5'-flanking region of the rat alpha 1B receptor gene contained a putative cAMP responsive element (CRE) at nucleotide -438 relative to the translation start site. The promoter analysis using the reporter gene indicated that the CRE motif confers the cAMP sensitivity to the transcription of the rat alpha 1B receptor gene. These results demonstrated that a CRE-mediated mechanism is involved in the transcriptional regulation of the alpha 1B receptor gene by thyrotropin without requiring new protein synthesis.
M Kanasaki, H Matsubara, S Murasawa, H Masaki, Y Nio, M Inada
We tested the role of different intracellular proteolytic pathways in sepsis-induced muscle proteolysis. Sepsis was induced in rats by cecal ligation and puncture; controls were sham operated. Total and myofibrillar proteolysis was determined in incubated extensor digitorum longus muscles as release of tyrosine and 3-methylhistidine, respectively. Lysosomal proteolysis was assessed by using the lysosomotropic agents NH4Cl, chloroquine, leupeptin, and methylamine. Ca(2+)-dependent proteolysis was determined in the absence or presence of Ca2+ or by blocking the Ca(2+)-dependent proteases calpain I and II. Energy-dependent proteolysis was determined in muscles depleted of ATP by 2-deoxyglucose and 2.4-dinitrophenol. Muscle ubiquitin mRNA and the concentrations of free and conjugated ubiquitin were determined by Northern and Western blots, respectively, to assess the role of the ATP-ubiquitin-dependent proteolytic pathway. Total and myofibrillar protein breakdown was increased during sepsis by 50 and 440%, respectively. Lysosomal and Ca(2+)-dependent proteolysis was similar in control and septic rats. In contrast, energy-dependent total and myofibrillar protein breakdown was increased by 172% and more than fourfold, respectively, in septic muscle. Ubiquitin mRNA was increased severalfold in septic muscle. The results suggest that the increase in muscle proteolysis during sepsis is due to an increase in nonlysosomal energy-dependent protein breakdown, which may involve the ubiquitin system.
G Tiao, J M Fagan, N Samuels, J H James, K Hudson, M Lieberman, J E Fischer, P O Hasselgren
D Bruce, D J Perry, J Y Borg, R W Carrell, M R Wardell
Nitric oxide (NO) is a potent endogenous vasodilator. Its role in the normal and stressed pulmonary circulation is unclear. To better understand the importance of endogenous NO in normal physiological responses, we studied the effects of altered NO availability on the change in pulmonary vascular tone that accompanies exercise. In paired studies we measured blood flow and pressures in the pulmonary circulation at rest and during treadmill exercise at a speed of 4 mph with and without (a) N omega-nitro-L-arginine, 20 mg/kg intravenously, a selective inhibitor of NO synthase; (b) L-arginine, 200 mg/kg intravenously, substrate for NO synthase; (c) combination of the inhibitor and substrate; and (d) inhalation of NO > 30 ppm, to determine if endogenous release of NO elicits maximal vasodilation. In addition, we sought to determine the site of NO effect in the pulmonary circulation by preconstriction with either U-44619 or hypoxia (fraction of inspired O2 = 0.12) using a distal wedged pulmonary catheter technique. NO synthase inhibition raised pulmonary vascular tone equally at rest and exercise. L-Arginine reversed the effects of NO synthase inhibition but had no independent effect. NO inhalation did not reduce pulmonary vascular tone at rest or enhance the usual reduction in pulmonary vascular resistance with exercise. The effect of NO synthase inhibition was in pulmonary vessels upstream from small veins, suggesting that endogenous NO dilates primarily small arteries and veins at rest. We conclude that, in sheep, endogenous NO has a basal vasodilator function that persists during, but is not enhanced by, exercise.
T Koizumi, R Gupta, M Banerjee, J H Newman
Giardia lamblia, a cause of diarrheal disease throughout the world, is a protozoan parasite that thrives in the small intestine. It is shown here that wheat germ agglutinin (WGA), a naturally occurring lectin widely consumed in normal human diets, reversibly inhibits the growth of G. lamblia trophozoites in vitro, and reduces infection by G. muris in the adult mouse model of giardiasis. The inhibitory effect was dose related, not associated with cytotoxicity and reversed by N-acetyl-D-glucosamine in accordance with the known specificity of the lectin and in agreement with the presence of GlcNAc residues on the surface membrane of G. lamblia trophozoites. Cell cycle analysis revealed that parasites grown in the presence of WGA are arrested in the G2/M phase, providing an explanation for the lectin-induced inhibition of cell proliferation. Comparison of electrophoretic profiles by lectin blot analysis revealed both glycoprotein induction and suppression in growth-arrested organisms. Our findings raise the possibility that blocking trophozoite growth with naturally occurring dietary lectins may influence the course of giardiasis. In addition, the study of cell cycle arrest by WGA may provide a model to study the regulation of cell division in lower eukaryotes.
E Ortega-Barria, H D Ward, G T Keusch, M E Pereira
The mechanisms responsible for the loss of cell potassium during renal ischemia are poorly understood. The present studies examined the hypothesis that potassium channels are activated as an early response to hypoxia and contribute to potassium loss independent from an inhibition of active K+ uptake. Potassium flux in suspensions of freshly isolated rat proximal tubules was measured using an ion-selective electrode. Exposure of the tubules to hypoxia for only 2.5 min resulted in a rise in the passive leak rate of K+ but no decrease in active K+ uptake. The passive leak of K+ was associated with a 40% decrease in cell ATP content. The passive K+ efflux was inhibited by 5 mM Ba2+ (95%) and by 15 mM tetraethylammonium (85%) suggesting that K+ channels were the primary route of K+ movement. The effects of K+ channel blockade on the development of hypoxic injury were also examined. Tetraethylammonium and glibenclamide, an inhibitor of ATP-sensitive K+ channels, reduced hypoxic injury as assessed by the release of lactate dehydrogenase or measurement of DNA damage. These results suggest that activation of K+ channels is an early response to hypoxia and contributes to hypoxic renal injury.
W B Reeves, S V Shah
To test the hypothesis that the hypertension associated with insulin resistance is secondary to an altered responsiveness of the vasculature to pressor agents, we evaluated the relationship between insulin resistance and pressor responses to angiotensin II (AII) in 21 hypertensive (HT) and 8 normotensive (NT) subjects on both a high (200 meq) and a low (10 meq) sodium diet. When sodium balance was achieved, each supine fasting subject underwent an AII infusion at a rate of 3 ng/kg per min for 60 min, with blood pressure monitored every 2 min. On the next day under similar conditions, a euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp was performed, with plasma glucose clamped at 90 mg/dl for 120 min. There was no significant relationship between the glucose disposal rate (M) or the insulin sensitivity index (M divided by the mean insulin level [M/I]) and blood pressure response to AII in the NTs, but a highly significant (P < 0.019) negative correlation (r = -0.55) in the HTs. Furthermore, in eight lean HTs whose body mass index was identical to that observed in the NTs, the relationship was even more striking (P < 0.008; r = -0.85). The results on high and low salt diets were similar; however, the M and M/I were significantly increased (P < 0.05) in the NTs but not HTs with sodium restriction. In conclusion, HTs but not NTs display a striking correlation between pressor response to AII and insulin resistance. This relationship is independent of the level of sodium intake. Furthermore, sodium intake modifies insulin sensitivity in NTs but not HTs. These results strongly suggest that a primary change in pressor response to vasoactive agents in insulin-resistant subjects can contribute to their elevated blood pressure.
C L Gaboury, D C Simonson, E W Seely, N K Hollenberg, G H Williams
We have previously reported that human eosinophil granule major basic protein and synthetic cationic proteins such as poly-L-arginine and poly-L-lysine, can increase airway responsiveness in vivo. In the present study, we have investigated whether activation of sensory C-fibers is important in this phenomenon. Dose-response curves to methacholine were constructed before and 1 h after intratracheal instillation of poly-L-lysine in anaesthetized spontaneously breathing rats, and the concentration of methacholine required to induce a doubling in total lung resistance was calculated. Poly-L-lysine induced a fivefold increase in airway responsiveness, which was inhibited by neonatal capsaicin treatment and potentiated by phosphoramidon (100 micrograms/ml). Furthermore, pretreatment with either CP, 96-345, or RP-67580 two selective NK-1 receptor antagonists inhibited poly-L-lysine-induced airway hyperresponsiveness and plasma protein extravasation. In vitro, cationic proteins stimulated the release of calcitonin gene-related peptide-like immunoreactivity from perfused slices of the main bronchi. Our results demonstrate that cationic proteins can activate sensory C-fibers in the airways, an effect which is important in the subsequent development of airway hyperresponsiveness and plasma protein extravasation. Cationic proteins may therefore function as a link between inflammatory cell accumulation and sensory nerve activation.
A J Coyle, F Perretti, S Manzini, C G Irvin
M B Goldring, J R Birkhead, L F Suen, R Yamin, S Mizuno, J Glowacki, J L Arbiser, J F Apperley
IL-6 is an autocrine growth factor for U266 myeloma cells and their growth is inhibited by IFN-alpha or IL-6 mAb. We asked, therefore, whether IFN-alpha-induced growth inhibition involved IL-6. IFN-alpha and mAb against IL-6, the IL-6R alpha-(gp80) or beta-chain (gp130) potently inhibited U266 cells. Remarkably, this effect occurred despite IFN-alpha-augmented secretion of endogenous IL-6. However, examining the IL-6R revealed that IFN-alpha drastically curtailed expression of the IL-6R alpha- and beta-chain. This effect occurred on two different levels (protein and mRNA) and by two different mechanisms (directly and indirectly through IL-6). First, IFN-alpha, but not IL-6, greatly decreased gp80 and, to a lesser extent, gp130 mRNA levels which resulted in a loss of IL-6 binding sites. Second, IFN-alpha-induced IL-6 predominantly down-regulated membrane-bound gp130. IFN-alpha-mediated decrease of gp80 levels was not detected on IL-6-independent myeloma (RPMI 8226) or myeloid cells (U937). We conclude that IFN-alpha inhibited IL-6-dependent myeloma cell growth by depriving U266 cells of an essential component of their autocrine growth loop, a functional IL-6R.
M Schwabe, A T Brini, M C Bosco, F Rubboli, M Egawa, J Zhao, G L Princler, H F Kung
DNA was isolated from four unrelated glucose phosphate isomerase-deficient patients. Seven new mutations in the coding region were found: 247 C-->T, 671 C-->T, 818 G-->A, 833 C-->T, 1039 C-->T, 1459 C-->T, and 1483 G-->A. Three patients were compound heterozygotes, and one patient was a homozygote of 247 C-->T/247 C-->T. Six mutations were found to involve highly conserved amino acids of glucose phosphate isomerase, suggesting that these residues are crucial for the maintenance of biological activity. Two polymorphic sites were also identified, 489 A-->G and 1356 G-->C, which do not produce a change in the amino acid sequence.
W Xu, E Beutler
The composition of lipoproteins in the plasma of patients with LCAT deficiency (LCAT-D) is grossly altered due to the lack of cholesteryl esters which form the core of normal lipoproteins. When plasma from LCAT-D patients and their relatives was examined we found that nine heterozygotes had plasma Lp(a) levels of 2-13 mg/dl whereas none of 11 affected homozygous individuals from different families contained detectable amounts of Lp(a) in their plasma. Therefore, the binding of apo(a) to LDL density particles was studied in vitro using LDL density fractions prepared from patients, and recombinant apo(a) [r-apo(a)], which was expressed and secreted by transfected COS-7 cells. The LDL from heterozygotes were chemically indistinguishable from normal LDL and homogeneous with regard to morphology, whereas the crude LDL floating fraction from homozygotes consisted of a heterogeneous mixture of large vesicles, and small spheres resembling normal LDL. The LDL density fraction from the LCAT-D patient lacked almost completely cholesteryl esters. Incubation of LCAT-D plasma with active LCAT caused a substantial augmentation of the original subfraction which morphologically resembled normal LDL. Using r-apo(a) and normal LDL or LDL of heterozygous individuals, apoB:r-apo(a) complexes were formed when incubated at 37 degrees C in vitro for 20 h. In contrast, the total LDL floating fraction from a homozygous LCAT-D patient failed to form apoB:r-apo(a) complexes. After treatment with active LCAT, a significant apoB:r-apo(a) association was observed with LCAT-D LDL-density particles. Our data emphasize the importance of the integrity of LDL structure and composition for the formation of Lp(a). In addition, we demonstrate that the absence of LCAT activity has a fundamental impact on the regulation of plasma Lp(a) levels.
E Steyrer, S Durovic, S Frank, W Giessauf, A Burger, H Dieplinger, R Zechner, G M Kostner
Insulin concentrations in humans continuously change and typically increase only when glucose also increases such as with eating. In this setting, it is not known whether the severity of hepatic and extrahepatic insulin resistance is comparable and whether the ability of glucose to regulate its own uptake and release is defective in non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). To address this question, NIDDM and nondiabetic subjects were studied when glucose concentrations were clamped at either 5 mM (euglycemia) or varied so as to mimic the glucose concentrations observed in nondiabetic humans after food ingestion (hyperglycemia). Insulin was infused so as to simulate a "nondiabetic" postprandial profile. During euglycemia, insulin increased glucose disposal in nondiabetic but not diabetic subjects indicating marked extrahepatic resistance. In contrast, insulin-induced suppression of glucose release was only minimally less (P < 0.05) in diabetic than nondiabetic subjects (-1.06 +/- 0.09 vs. -1.47 +/- 0.21 nmol.kg-1 per 4 h). Hyperglycemia substantially enhanced disposal in both groups. Glucose effectiveness measured as the magnitude of enhancement of disposal (0.59 +/- 0.18 vs. 0.62 +/- 0.17 nmollkg-1 per 4 h) and suppression of release (-0.36 +/- 0.12 vs. -0.14 +/- 0.12 nmol.kg-1 per 4 h) did not differ in the diabetic and nondiabetic subjects. In conclusion, when assessed in the presence of a physiological insulin profile, people with NIDDM demonstrate: (a) profound extrahepatic insulin resistance, (b) modest hepatic insulin resistance, and (c) normal ability of glucose to stimulate its own uptake and suppress its own release.
A A Alzaid, S F Dinneen, D J Turk, A Caumo, C Cobelli, R A Rizza
This study was undertaken to assess utilization of FFA by skeletal muscle in patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). 11 NIDDM and 9 nondiabetic subjects were studied using leg balance methods to measure the fractional extraction of [3H]oleate. Limb indirect calorimetry was used to estimate RQ. Percutaneous muscle biopsy samples of vastus lateralis were analyzed for muscle fiber type distribution, capillary density, and metabolic potential as reflected by measurements of the activity of seven muscle enzyme markers of glycolytic and aerobic-oxidative pathways. During postabsorptive conditions, fractional extraction of oleate across the leg was lower in NIDDM subjects (0.31 +/- 0.08 vs. 0.43 +/- 0.10, P < 0.01), and there was reduced oleate uptake across the leg (66 +/- 8 vs. 82 +/- 13 nmol/min, P < 0.01). Postabsorptive leg RQ was increased in NIDDM (0.85 +/- 0.03 vs. 0.77 +/- 0.02, P < 0.01), and rates of lipid oxidation by skeletal muscle were lower while glucose oxidation was increased (P < 0.05). In subjects with NIDDM, proportions of type I, IIa, and IIb fibers were 37 +/- 2, 37 +/- 6, and 26 +/- 5%, respectively, which did not differ from nondiabetics; and capillary density, glycolytic, and aerobic-oxidative potentials were similar. During 6 h after ingestion of a mixed meal, arterial FFA remained greater in NIDDM subjects. Therefore, despite persistent reduced fractional extraction of oleate across the leg in NIDDM (0.34 +/- 0.04 vs. 0.38 +/- 0.03, P < 0.05), rates of oleate uptake across the leg were greater in NIDDM (54 +/- 7 vs. 45 +/- 8 nmol/min, P < 0.01). In summary, during postabsorptive conditions there is reduced utilization of FFA by muscle, while during postprandial conditions there is impaired suppression of FFA uptake across the leg in NIDDM. During both fasting and postprandial conditions, NIDDM subjects have reduced rates of lipid oxidation by muscle.
D E Kelley, J A Simoneau
Glucocorticoids regulate catecholamine biosynthesis and storage at several sites. Chromogranin A, an abundant protein complexed with catecholamines in secretory vesicles of chromaffin cells and sympathetic axons, is also augmented by glucocorticoids. This study reports isolation of the rat chromogranin A promoter to elucidate transcriptional regulation of chromogranin A biosynthesis by glucocorticoids in neuroendocrine cells. Endogenous chromogranin A gene expression was activated up to 3.5-fold in chromaffin cells by glucocorticoid, in time-dependent fashion. Inhibition of new protein synthesis by cycloheximide did not alter the rise in chromogranin A mRNA, suggesting that glucocorticoids directly activate the chromogranin A promoter; nuclear runoff assays confirmed a 3.3-fold increased rate of initiation of new chromogranin A transcripts after glucocorticoid. Transfected rat chromogranin A promoter/luciferase reporter constructs were activated 2.6-3.1-fold by glucocorticoid, and selective agonist/antagonist studies determined that dexamethasone effects were mediated by glucocorticoid receptors. Both rat and mouse chromogranin A promoter/luciferase reporter constructs were activated by glucocorticoid. A series of promoter deletions narrowed the region of glucocorticoid action to a 93-bp section of the promoter, from position -526 to -619 bp upstream of the cap site. A 15-bp sequence ([-583 bp] 5'-ACATGAGTGTGTCCT-3' [-597 bp]) within this region showed partial homology to a glucocorticoid response element (GRE; half-site in italics) consensus sequence, and several lines of experimental evidence confirmed its function as a GRE: (a) site-directed mutation of this GRE prevented glucocorticoid activation of a chromogranin A promoter/reporter; (b) transfer of this GRE to a heterologous (thymidine kinase) promoter/reporter conferred activation by glucocorticoid, in copy number-dependent and orientation-independent fashion; and (c) electrophoretic gel mobility shifts demonstrated binding of this GRE by ligand-activated glucocorticoid receptor, though at 2.75-fold lower affinity than the glucocorticoid receptor interaction with a consensus GRE. The rat chromogranin A GRE showed functional and structural similarities to GREs in other genes proportionally regulated by glucocorticoids. We conclude that a discrete domain of the chromogranin A promoter is both necessary and sufficient to confer glucocorticoid regulation onto the gene, and that the activity of this region also explains the degree of activation of the endogenous gene by glucocorticoid.
D J Rozansky, H Wu, K Tang, R J Parmer, D T O'Connor
To determine the effect of insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) on rates and pathways of hepatic glycogen synthesis, as well as flux through hepatic pyruvate dehydrogenase, we used 13C-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy to monitor the peak intensity of the C1 resonance of the glucosyl units of hepatic glycogen, in combination with acetaminophen to sample the hepatic UDP-glucose pool and phenylacetate to sample the hepatic glutamine pool, during a hyperglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp using [1-13C]-glucose. Five subjects with poorly controlled IDDM and six age-weight-matched control subjects were clamped at a mean plasma glucose concentration of approximately 9 mM and mean plasma insulin concentrations approximately 400 pM for 5 h. Rates of hepatic glycogen synthesis were similar in both groups (approximately 0.43 +/- 0.09 mumol/ml liver min). However, flux through the indirect pathway of glycogen synthesis (3 carbon units-->-->glycogen) was increased by approximately 50% (P < 0.05), whereas the relative contribution of pyruvate oxidation to TCA cycle flux was decreased by approximately 30% (P < 0.05) in the IDDM subjects compared to the control subjects. These studies demonstrate that patients with poorly controlled insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus have augmented hepatic gluconeogenesis and relative decreased rates of hepatic pyruvate oxidation. These abnormalities are not immediately reversed by normalizing intraportal concentrations of glucose, insulin, and glucagon and may contribute to postprandial hyperglycemia.
G W Cline, D L Rothman, I Magnusson, L D Katz, G I Shulman
Genetic factors have been shown to play an important role in determining interindividual variation in plasma HDL-C levels, but the specific genetic determinants of HDL cholesterol (HDL-C) levels have not been elucidated. In this study, the effects of variation in the genomic regions encoding hepatic lipase, apolipoprotein AI/CIII/AIV, and the cholesteryl ester transfer protein on plasma HDL-C levels were examined in 73 normotriglyceridemic, Caucasian nuclear families. Genetic factors accounted for 56.5 +/- 13% of the interindividual variation in plasma HDL-C levels. For each candidate gene, adjusted plasma HDL-C levels of sibling pairs who shared zero, one, or two parental alleles identical-by-descent were compared using sibling-pair linkage analysis. Allelic variation in the genes encoding hepatic lipase and apolipoprotein AI/CIII/AIV accounted for 25 and 22%, respectively, of the total interindividual variation in plasma HDL-C levels. In contrast, none of the variation in plasma HDL-C levels could be accounted for by allelic variation in the cholesteryl ester transfer protein. These findings indicate that a major fraction of the genetically determined variation in plasma HDL-C levels is conferred by allelic variation at the hepatic lipase and the apolipoprotein AI/CIII/AIV gene loci.
J C Cohen, Z Wang, S M Grundy, M R Stoesz, R Guerra
Crigler-Najjar (CN) disease is classified into two subtypes, type I and II. The molecular basis for the difference between these types is not well understood. Several mutations in the bilirubin UDP-glucuronosyl-transferase (B-UGT) gene of six CN type I and two CN type II patients were identified. Recombinant cDNAs containing these mutations were expressed in COS cells. B-UGT activity was measured using HPLC and the amount of expressed protein was quantitated using a sandwich ELISA. This enabled us to determine the specific activities of the expressed enzymes. All type I patients examined had mutations in the B-UGT1 gene that lead to completely inactive enzymes. The mutations in the B-UGT1 gene of patients with CN type II only partially inactivated the enzyme. At saturating concentrations of bilirubin (75 microM) CN type II patient A had 4.4 +/- 2% residual activity and CN type II patient B had 38 +/- 2% residual activity. Kinetic constants for the glucuronidation of bilirubin were determined. The affinities for bilirubin of B-UGT1 expressed in COS cells and B-UGT from human liver microsomes were similar with Km of 5.1 +/- 0.9 microM and 7.9 +/- 5.3 microM, respectively. B-UGT1 from patient B had a tenfold decreased affinity for bilirubin, Km = 56 +/- 23 microM. At physiological concentrations of bilirubin both type II patients will have a strongly reduced conjugation capacity, whereas type I patients have no B-UGT activity. We conclude that CN type I is caused by a complete absence of functional B-UGT and that in CN type II B-UGT activity is reduced.
J Seppen, P J Bosma, B G Goldhoorn, C T Bakker, J R Chowdhury, N R Chowdhury, P L Jansen, R P Oude Elferink
Gadolinium (Gd3+) has been shown to prevent mechanoelectrical transduction believed to be mediated through stretch-activated channels. We investigated the possible role of Gd(3+)-sensitive channels in mediating baroreceptor activity in the carotid sinus of rabbits. Baroreceptor activity induced by a ramp increase of carotid sinus pressure was reduced significantly during exposure to Gd3+. The inhibition was dose-related and reversible, and was not associated with alteration of carotid sinus wall mechanics as the pressure-strain relationship was unaffected. Veratrine triggered action potentials from single- and multiple-baroreceptor fibers when their response to pressure was inhibited by Gd3+. This suggests that the effect of Gd3+ on baroreceptors in the isolated carotid sinus was specific to their mechanical activation. The results suggest that stretch-activated ion channels sensitive to Gd3+ may be the mechanoelectrical transducers of rabbit carotid sinus baroreceptors.
G Hajduczok, M W Chapleau, R J Ferlic, H Z Mao, F M Abboud
To investigate the contribution of IL-1, IL-6, and TNF to the increased osteoclastogenesis induced by estrogen deficiency, ovariectomized (ovx) mice were treated with either IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra), a competitive inhibitor of IL-1, TNF binding protein (TNFbp), an inhibitor of TNF, or the anti-IL-6 antibody (Ab) 20F3 for the first 2 wk after surgery. ovx increased the bone marrow cells secretion of IL-1 and TNF, but not IL-6, and the formation of TRAP-positive osteoclast-like multinucleated cells (MNCs) in bone marrow cultures treated with 1,25(OH)2D3. The increase in MNC formation induced by ovx was prevented by in vivo treatment with either 17 beta estradiol, IL-1ra, TNFbp, or anti-IL-6 Ab. However, the percent change in MNC formation induced by the anti-IL-6 Ab was similar in ovx and sham-operated animals, whereas IL-1ra and TNFbp were effective only in ovx mice. MNC formation was also decreased by in vitro treatment of bone marrow cultures with IL-1ra and TNFbp, but not with anti-IL-6 Ab. Ovx also increased bone resorption in vivo and in vitro, as assessed by the urinary excretion of pyridinoline cross links and the formation of resorption pits, respectively. IL-1ra, TNFbp and estrogen decreased bone resorption in vivo and in vitro whereas the anti-IL-6 Ab inhibited bone resorption in vitro but not in vivo. In conclusion, these data indicate that IL-1 and TNF play a direct role in mediating the effects of ovx on osteoclastogenesis and bone resorption. The data also suggest that IL-6 is not essential for increasing bone resorption in the early postovariectomy period.
R Kitazawa, R B Kimble, J L Vannice, V T Kung, R Pacifici
Activated alveolar macrophages and epithelial type II cells release both nitric oxide and superoxide which react at near diffusion-limited rate (6.7 x 10(9) M-1s-1) to form peroxynitrite, a potent oxidant capable of damaging the alveolar epithelium and pulmonary surfactant. Peroxynitrite, but not nitric oxide or superoxide, readily nitrates phenolic rings including tyrosine. We quantified the presence of nitrotyrosine in the lungs of patients with the adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and in the lungs of rats exposed to hyperoxia (100% O2 for 60 h) using quantitative immunofluorescence. Fresh frozen or paraffin-embedded lung sections were incubated with a polyclonal antibody to nitrotyrosine, followed by goat anti-rabbit IgG coupled to rhodamine. Sections from patients with ARDS (n = 5), or from rats exposed to hyperoxia (n = 4), exhibited a twofold increase of specific binding over controls. This binding was blocked by the addition of an excess amount of nitrotyrosine and was absent when the nitrotyrosine antibody was replaced with nonimmune IgG. In additional experiments we demonstrated nitrotyrosine formation in rat lung sections incubated in vitro with peroxynitrite, but not nitric oxide or reactive oxygen species. These data suggest that toxic levels of peroxynitrite may be formed in the lungs of patients with acute lung injury.
I Y Haddad, G Pataki, P Hu, C Galliani, J S Beckman, S Matalon
Excess dietary salt induces a cytochrome P450 arachidonic acid epoxygenase isoform in rat kidneys (Capdevila, J. H., S. Wei, J. Yang, A. Karara, H. R. Jacobson, J. R. Falck, F. P. Guengerich, and R. N. Dubois. 1992. J. Biol. Chem. 267:21720-21726). Treatment of rats on a high salt diet with the epoxygenase inhibitor, clotrimazole, produces significant increases in mean arterial blood pressure (122 +/- 2 and 145 +/- 4 mmHg for salt and salt- and clotrimazole-treated rats, respectively). The salt- and clotrimazole-dependent hypertension is accompanied by reductions in the urinary excretion of epoxygenase metabolites and by a selective inhibition of the renal microsomal epoxygenase reaction. The prohypertensive effects of clotrimazole are readily reversed when either the salt or clotrimazole treatment is discontinued. The indication that a salt-inducible renal epoxygenase protects against hypertension, are supported by studies with the Dahl rat model of genetic salt-sensitive hypertension. Dahl resistant animals responded to excess dietary salt by inducing the activity of their kidney microsomal epoxygenase(s) (0.102 +/- 0.01 and 0.240 +/- 0.04 nmol of products formed/min per mg of microsomal protein for control and salt-treated rats, respectively). Despite severe hypertension during excess dietary salt intake (200 +/- 20 mmHg), Dahl salt-sensitive rats demonstrated no increase in renal epoxygenase activity. These studies indicate that acquired or inherited abnormalities in renal epoxygenase activities and/or regulation can be related to salt-sensitive hypertension in rodents. Studies on the human renal epoxygenase and its relationship to salt hypertension may prove useful.
K Makita, K Takahashi, A Karara, H R Jacobson, J R Falck, J H Capdevila
Tight transcriptional control of foreign genes introduced into the germline of transgenic mice would be of great experimental value in studies of gene function. To develop a system in which the spatial and temporal expression of candidate genes implicated in cardiac development or function could be tightly controlled in vivo, we have generated transgenic mice expressing a tetracycline-controlled transactivator (tTA) under the control of a rat alpha myosin heavy chain promoter (MHC alpha-tTA mice), as well as mice harboring a candidate target gene implicated in the control of differentiation, Id1 (tet-Id1 mice). No expression of the target transgene was detected in any tissues of hemizygous tet-Id1 mice. Genetic crosses with MHC alpha-tTA mice resulted in transactivation of the Id1 transgene, but expression was restricted to heart, where tTA was expressed. Furthermore, transactivation of the target gene was tightly and reversibly controlled by systemic therapy with tetracycline, both in utero and postnatally. These studies demonstrate the feasibility of such a binary approach for tightly controlling the timing and extent of expression of transgenes in vivo. This approach should be generally useful for the ectopic expression of candidate genes in selected tissues during delineated developmental stages.
R S Passman, G I Fishman
The regulation of intestinal metabolism of t-butylhydroperoxide by glucose was examined in isolated enterocytes from proximal rat intestine. The basal rate of hydroperoxide elimination in control cells was 0.57 +/- 0.05 nmol/min per 10(6) cells, and was increased threefold by 10 mM exogenous glucose (1.74 +/- 0.14 nmol/min per 10(6) cells). Concurrently, cellular NADPH levels increased threefold (1.62 +/- 0.40 nmol/10(6) cells vs 0.57 +/- 0.14 nmol/10(6) cells in controls). The glucose effect was blocked by 6-aminonicotinamide and by 1,3-bis-(2-chloroethyl) 1-nitrosourea, consistent with glucose stimulation of NADPH production by the pentose phosphate shunt, and of NADPH utilization for glutathione disulfide reduction. The NADPH supply rate was quantified by controlled infusions of diamide, a thiol oxidant. At diamide infusion of 0.05 nmol/min per 10(6) cells, GSH and protein thiols in control cells were decreased significantly, consistent with a limited capacity for glutathione disulfide reduction. With glucose, cell GSH and protein thiols were preserved at a 10-fold higher diamide infusion which was reversed by 6-aminonicotinamide, supporting the view that glucose promotes glutathione disulfide reduction by increased NADPH supply. Collectively, the results demonstrate that intestinal metabolism of hydroperoxides subscribes to regulation by glucose availability. This responsiveness to glucose suggests that nutrient availability would be an important contributing factor in the detoxication of toxic hydroperoxides by the small intestine.
T Y Aw, C A Rhoads
Tuberculosis causes more extensive and life-threatening disease in patients with HIV infection than in immunocompetent persons. To investigate the hypothesis that these severe manifestations of tuberculosis may be due to alterations in cytokine production, we evaluated cytokine patterns in HIV-infected tuberculosis patients. Upon stimulation with Mycobacterium tuberculosis in vitro, PBMC from HIV-infected tuberculosis patients had reduced proliferative and type 1 responses, compared with HIV-seronegative tuberculosis patients. The reduction in proliferative responses was independent of the CD4 cell count, but the reduced type 1 response was a direct result of CD4 cell depletion. There was no enhancement of type 2 cytokine production in HIV-infected patients, although production of IL-10 was prominent in all tuberculosis patients. In HIV-infected tuberculosis patients, M. tuberculosis-induced proliferative responses were significantly enhanced by neutralizing antibodies to IL-10 but not by antibodies to IL-4 or by recombinant IL-12. The M. tuberculosis-induced type 1 response was augmented both by antibodies to IL-10 and by recombinant IL-12. Tuberculosis in the context of HIV infection is characterized by diminished type 1 responses, probably induced by immunosuppressive cytokines produced by macrophages/monocytes, rather than by type 2 cells.
M Zhang, J Gong, D V Iyer, B E Jones, R L Modlin, P F Barnes
Neutrophil adherence to endothelial cells (ECs) under conditions of flow occurs in successive steps, including selectin-dependent primary adhesion and CD18-dependent secondary adhesion. We used a parallel-plate flow chamber to assess the steps in T cell adherence in vitro. On monolayers of L cells transfected with the EC adhesion molecules E-selectin, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), or intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), E-selectin was capable of mediating only primary adhesion, ICAM-1 was capable of mediating only secondary adhesion, and VCAM-1 was capable of mediating both primary and secondary adhesion. Studies using human umbilical vein EC monolayers stimulated for 24 h with IL-1 also revealed distinct primary and secondary steps in T cell adhesion under flow, and the secondary adhesion was inhibited > 90% by blocking both VCAM-1/alpha 4 beta 1 integrin and ICAM-1/CD18 integrin pathways. However, the primary adhesion under conditions of flow could not be attributed to any of the mechanisms known to support adhesion of leukocytes to ECs. Alone, this pathway was shown to mediate T cell rolling and was a necessary prerequisite for engagement of the two integrin pathways in this system. Thus, T cell adherence to 24-h IL-1-stimulated human umbilical vein ECs at venular wall shear stresses involves at least two successive steps, with clear molecular distinctions from the mechanisms accounting for neutrophil/EC adhesion.
D A Jones, L V McIntire, C W Smith, L J Picker
Adenosine, an important regulator of many cardiac functions, is produced by ectosolic and cytosolic 5'-nucleotidase. The activity of these enzymes is influenced by several ischemia-sensitive metabolic factors, e.g., ATP, ADP, H+, and inorganic phosphate. However, there is no clear evidence that adenosine itself affects 5'-nucleotidase activity. This study tested whether adenosine decreases the activity of ectosolic and cytosolic 5'-nucleotidase. Cardiomyocytes were isolated from adult male Wistar rats and suspended in the modified Hepes-Tyrode buffer solution. After stabilization, isolated cardiomyocytes were incubated with and without adenosine (10(-9) - 10(-4) M). Ectosolic and cytosolic 5'-nucleotidase activity was decreased by exogenous adenosine (ectosolic 5'-nucleotidase activity, 20.6 +/- 2.3 vs. 8.6 +/- 1.6 mumol/min per 10(6) cells [P < 0.05]; cytosolic 5'-nucleotidase activity, 2.47 +/- 0.58 vs. 1.61 +/- 0.54 mumol/min per 10(6) cells [P < 0.05] at 10(-6) M adenosine) after 30 min. The decrease in ectosolic and cytosolic 5'-nucleotidase activity was inhibited by 8-phenyltheophylline and pertussis toxin, and was mimicked by N6-cyclohexyladenosine, an adenosine A1 receptor agonist. Neither CGS21680C, and A2 receptor agonist, nor cycloheximide deactivated ectosolic and cytosolic 5'-nucleotidase. Thus, we conclude that activation of adenosine A1 receptors is coupled to Gi proteins and attenuates ectosolic and cytosolic 5'-nucleotidase activity in rat cardiomyocytes.
M Kitakaze, M Hori, T Minamino, S Takashima, K Komamura, K Node, T Kurihara, T Morioka, H Sato, M Inoue
The plasma cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) mediates the exchange of HDL cholesteryl esters with triglycerides of other lipoproteins. Subsequent lipolysis of the triglyceride-enriched HDL by hepatic lipase leads to reductions of HDL size and apoA-I content. To investigate a possible modulation of the effects of CETP by apoA-II, human CETP transgenic mice were cross-bred with transgenic mice expressing human apoA-II and, in some cases, human apoA-I and apoC-III (with human-like HDL and hypertriglyceridemia). CETP expression resulted in reductions of HDL and increases in VLDL cholesteryl ester in mice expressing human apoA-II, alone or in combination with apoA-I and apoC-III, indicating that apoA-II does not inhibit the cholesteryl ester transfer activity of CETP. However, CETP expression resulted in more prominent increases in HDL triglyceride in mice expressing both apoA-II and CETP, especially in CETP/apoA-II/apoAI-CIII transgenic mice. CETP expression caused dramatic reductions in HDL size and apoA-I content in apoAI-CIII transgenic mice, but not in apoA-II/AI-CIII transgenic mice. HDL prepared from mice of various genotypes showed inhibition of emulsion-based hepatic lipase activity in proportion to the apoA-II/apoA-I ratio of HDL. The presence of human apoA-II also inhibited mouse plasma hepatic lipase activity on HDL triglyceride. Thus, apoA-II does not inhibit the lipid transfer activity of CETP in vivo. However, coexpression of apoA-II with CETP results in HDL particles that are more triglyceride enriched and resistant to reductions in size and apoA-I content, reflecting inhibition of hepatic lipase by apoA-II. The inhibition of HDL remodeling by apoA-II could explain the relatively constant levels of HDL containing both apoA-I and apoA-II in human populations.
S Zhong, I J Goldberg, C Bruce, E Rubin, J L Breslow, A Tall
N-acetylcysteine (NAC) is a nonspecific antioxidant that selectively inhibits acute fatigue of rodent skeletal muscle stimulated at low (but not high) tetanic frequencies and that decreases contractile function of unfatigued muscle in a dose-dependent manner. The present experiments test the hypothesis that NAC pretreatment can inhibit acute muscular fatigue in humans. Healthy volunteers were studied on two occasions each. Subjects were pretreated with NAC 150 mg/kg or 5% dextrose in water by intravenous infusion. The subject then sat in a chair with surface electrodes positioned over the motor point of tibialis anterior, an ankle dorsiflexor of mixed-fiber composition. The muscle was stimulated to contract electrically (40-55 mA, 0.2-ms pulses) and force production was measured. Function of the unfatigued muscle was assessed by measuring the forces produced during maximal voluntary contractions (MVC) of ankle dorsiflexor muscle groups and during electrical stimulation of tibialis anterior at 1, 10, 20, 40, 80, and 120 Hz (protocol 1). Fatigue was produced using repetitive tetanic stimulations at 10 Hz (protocol 1) or 40 Hz (protocol 2); intermittent stimulations subsequently were used to monitor recovery from fatigue. The contralateral leg then was studied using the same protocol. Pretreatment with NAC did not alter the function of unfatigued muscle; MVC performance and the force-frequency relationship of tibialis anterior were unchanged. During fatiguing contractions stimulated at 10 Hz, NAC increased force output by approximately 15% (P < 0.0001), an effect that was evident after 3 min of repetitive contraction (P < 0.0125) and persisted throughout the 30-min protocol. NAC had no effect on fatigue induced using 40 Hz stimuli or on recovery from fatigue. N-acetylcysteine pretreatment can improve performance of human limb muscle during fatiguing exercise, suggesting that oxidative stress plays a causal role in the fatigue process and identifying antioxidant therapy as a novel intervention that may be useful clinically.
M B Reid, D S Stokić, S M Koch, F A Khawli, A A Leis
K O Klein, J Baron, M J Colli, D P McDonnell, G B Cutler Jr
HSP47 is a collagen-binding stress protein and is assumed to act as a collagen-specific molecular chaperone during the biosynthesis and secretion of procollagen in the living cell. The synthesis of HSP47 has been reported to correlate with that of collagen in several cell lines. We examined the expression of HSP47 mRNA during the progression of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced liver fibrosis in rats. Northern blot analysis revealed that the expression of HSP47 mRNA was markedly induced during the progression of fibrosis in parallel with alpha 1(I) and alpha 1(III) collagen mRNAs. By in situ hybridization, the distribution of HSP47 transcripts was similar to that of alpha 1(I) collagen and was observed only in cells lining collagen fibrils. These collagen-positive cells were confirmed to be Ito cells by immunohistochemistry for desmin. The absence of high levels of HSP47 mRNA in the liver of rats treated with only a single administration of CCl4 indicated that the induction of HSP47 mRNA was not due to the direct effect of CCl4 as a stressor, but was due to the progression of liver fibrosis. The function of HSP47 in liver fibrosis will also be discussed.
H Masuda, M Fukumoto, K Hirayoshi, K Nagata
IL-10, originally isolated from mouse helper T cells, is a cytokine with regulatory functions on a number of interleukins. In this study we show that recombinant human IL-10 affects the expression of several genes involved in extracellular matrix synthesis and remodeling in human dermal fibroblast cultures. As judged by Northern blot analyses, type I collagen gene expression was downregulated, while collagenase and stromelysin gene expression were markedly enhanced by IL-10. No effect on tissue inhibitor of metalloproteases mRNA levels was noted. Transient transfections of skin fibroblasts with type I collagen promoter/chloramphenicol acetyl transferase reporter gene constructs showed downregulation by IL-10, suggesting inhibition at the transcriptional level. When compared with control cultures, incubation with IL-10 resulted in a decrease in immunostaining of fibroblast cultures with antibodies to human type I collagen. In contrast, immunostaining of such IL-10-treated cultures with antibodies to human collagenase resulted in an increase in immunostaining. This study suggests a role for IL-10 in the breakdown and remodeling of the extracellular matrix.
S Reitamo, A Remitz, K Tamai, J Uitto
Dysregulated extracellular matrix (ECM) metabolism may contribute to vascular remodeling during the development and complication of human atherosclerotic lesions. We investigated the expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), a family of enzymes that degrade ECM components in human atherosclerotic plaques (n = 30) and in uninvolved arterial specimens (n = 11). We studied members of all three MMP classes (interstitial collagenase, MMP-1; gelatinases, MMP-2 and MMP-9; and stromelysin, MMP-3) and their endogenous inhibitors (TIMPs 1 and 2) by immunocytochemistry, zymography, and immunoprecipitation. Normal arteries stained uniformly for 72-kD gelatinase and TIMPs. In contrast, plaques' shoulders and regions of foam cell accumulation displayed locally increased expression of 92-kD gelatinase, stromelysin, and interstitial collagenase. However, the mere presence of MMP does not establish their catalytic capacity, as the zymogens lack activity, and TIMPs may block activated MMPs. All plaque extracts contained activated forms of gelatinases determined zymographically and by degradation of 3H-collagen type IV. To test directly whether atheromata actually contain active matrix-degrading enzymes in situ, we devised a method which allows the detection and microscopic localization of MMP enzymatic activity directly in tissue sections. In situ zymography revealed gelatinolytic and caseinolytic activity in frozen sections of atherosclerotic but not of uninvolved arterial tissues. The MMP inhibitors, EDTA and 1,10-phenanthroline, as well as recombinant TIMP-1, reduced these activities which colocalized with regions of increased immunoreactive MMP expression, i.e., the shoulders, core, and microvasculature of the plaques. Focal overexpression of activated MMP may promote destabilization and complication of atherosclerotic plaques and provide novel targets for therapeutic intervention.
Z S Galis, G K Sukhova, M W Lark, P Libby
The kidney is a rich source of prostaglandins. These eicosanoids, formed by cyclooxygenase-dependent metabolism of arachidonic acid, are important physiologic mediators of renal glomerular hemodynamics and tubular sodium and water reabsorption. Two separate isoforms of cyclooxygenase (COX) have now been identified: constitutive COX-1, encoded by a 2.8-kb mRNA, and mitogen-activated COX-2, encoded by a 4.0-4.5-kb mRNA. COX-2 expression increases during development and inflammation, but, except for brain, constitutive expression is low. It has been generally accepted that physiologic renal production of prostaglandins is mediated by COX-1. However, in the absence of inflammation, low levels of COX-2 mRNA are also detectable in the kidney. To examine the role of COX-2 in the kidney and determine its intrarenal localization, we used a 1.3-kb cDNA probe specific for the 3' untranslated region of rat COX-2 and COX-2-specific antiserum. The COX-2-specific cDNA probe hybridized with a 4.4-kb transcript in total RNA from adult rat kidney. Immunoblots of microsomes isolated from kidney cortex and papilla indicated immunoreactive COX-2 in both locations. In situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry indicated that renal cortical COX-2 expression was localized to the macula densa of the juxtaglomerular apparatus and to adjacent epithelial cells of the cortical thick ascending limb of Henle. In addition, COX-2 immunoreactivity was detected in interstitial cells in the papilla. No COX-2 message or immunoreactive protein was detected in arterioles, glomeruli, or cortical or medullary collecting ducts. When animals were chronically sodium restricted, the level of COX-2 in the region of the macula densa increased threefold (from 0.86 +/- 0.08 to 2.52 +/- 0.43/mm2) and the total area of the COX-2 immunoreactive cells in cortex increased from 34 microns2/mm2 of cortex to 226 microns2/mm2 of cortex. The intrarenal distribution of COX-2 and its increased expression in response to sodium restriction suggest that in addition to its proposed role in inflammatory and growth responses, this enzyme may play an important role in the regulation of salt, volume, and blood pressure homeostasis.
R C Harris, J A McKanna, Y Akai, H R Jacobson, R N Dubois, M D Breyer
Insulin exerts effects on the vasculature that (a) may play a role in the regulation of blood pressure; and (b) by boosting its own delivery to target tissues, also have been proposed to play an integral part in its main action, the promotion of glucose disposal. To study the role of nitric oxide (NO) in the mediation of insulin's effects on the peripheral vasculature, NG-monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA), a specific inhibitor of the synthesis of endothelium-derived NO, was infused into the brachial arteries of healthy volunteers both before, and at the end of a 2-h hyperinsulinemic (6 pmol/kg per min) euglycemic clamp. L-NMMA (but not norepinephrine, an NO-independent vasoconstrictor) caused larger reductions in forearm blood flow during hyperinsulinemia than at baseline. Moreover, L-NMMA prevented insulin-induced vasodilation throughout the clamp. Prevention of vasodilation by L-NMMA led to significant increases in arterial pressure during insulin/glucose infusion but did not alter glucose uptake. These findings indicate that insulin's vasodilatory effects are mediated by stimulation of NO release, and that they play a role in the regulation of arterial pressure during physiologic hyperinsulinemia. Abnormalities in insulin-induced NO release could contribute to altered vascular function and hypertension in insulin-resistant states.
U Scherrer, D Randin, P Vollenweider, L Vollenweider, P Nicod
Inbred strain C57BL/6J mice develop typical atherosclerotic fatty streaks in the aorta after 15 wk on a high fat, high cholesterol diet. To investigate the effects of the immune system on the development of fatty streaks in this model, C57BL/6J mice with a normal immune system were compared with C57BL/6J mice carrying mutations resulting in various immune deficiencies. These included mice with severe combined immune deficiency, athymic "nude" mice, class I MHC deficient mice, and class II MHC deficient mice. Despite similar lipoprotein profiles, lesion development in the immune compromised strains was similar to or increased compared with normal C57BL/6J mice. Class I MHC deficient mice demonstrated a threefold increase in lesion area (22,961 +/- 6,653 vs 8,868 +/- 1,817 microns2, P = 0.01). Immunohistochemical analysis of lesions showed characteristic features of atherosclerosis with vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 expression, immunoglobulin deposition, monocyte infiltration, and smooth muscle cell proliferation. These data indicate that the classical immune system, while not essential for atherosclerotic fatty streak development, may act to suppress the development of lesions.
A I Fyfe, J H Qiao, A J Lusis
Resistance to activated protein C (APC) is the most prevalent inherited cause of venous thrombosis. The APC resistance phenotype is associated with a single point mutation in the factor V gene, changing Arg506 in the APC cleavage site to a Gln. We have investigated 50 Swedish families with inherited APC resistance for this mutation and found it to be present in 47 of them. Perfect cosegregation between a low APC ratio and the presence of mutation was seen in 40 families. In seven families, the co-segregation was not perfect as 12 out of 57 APC-resistant family members were found to lack the mutation. Moreover, in three families with APC resistance, the factor V gene mutation was not found, suggesting another still unidentified cause of inherited APC resistance. Of 308 investigated families members, 146 were normal, 144 heterozygotes, and 18 homozygotes for the factor V gene mutation and there were significant differences in thrombosis-free survival curves between these groups. By age 33 yr, 8% of normals, 20% of heterozygotes, and 40% of homozygotes had had manifestation of venous thrombosis.
B Zöller, P J Svensson, X He, B Dahlbäck
T lymphocytes reactive with as yet undefined joint-localized foreign or autoantigens may be important in the pathogenesis of RA. Molecular studies demonstrating skewed T cell antigen receptor (TCR) variable gene usage and selective expansion of particular T cell clones within the synovial compartment support this view. Based on our recent study documenting selective expansion of V beta 17+ T cells in RA, we have pursued the identification of T cells relevant to the disease process, in an informative patient, by combining molecular analysis of freshly explanted RA synovial tissue V beta 17 TCR transcripts with in vitro expansion of V beta 17+ synovial tissue T cell clones. Peripheral blood V beta 17 cDNA transcripts proved heterogeneous. In contrast, two closely related sequences, not found in the peripheral blood, dominated synovial tissue V beta 17 transcripts, suggesting selective localization and oligoclonal expansion at the site of pathology. CD4+, V beta 17+ synovial tissue-derived T cell clones, isolated and grown in vitro, were found to express TCR beta chain transcripts homologous to the dominant V beta 17 synovial tissue sequences. One clone shares with a dominant synovial tissue sequence a conserved cluster of 4/5 amino acids (IGQ-N) in the highly diverse antigen binding CDR3 region, suggesting that the T cells from which these transcripts derive may recognize the same antigen. These findings have permitted a complete characterization of the alpha/beta TCR expressed by putatively pathogenic T cell clones in RA. Functional analysis suggests that the conserved CDR3 sequence may confer specificity for, or restriction by, the MHC class II antigen, DR4.
Y Li, G R Sun, J R Tumang, M K Crow, S M Friedman