A field of research that began with a curious observation in Drosophila has resulted in a new understanding of how cells respond to sudden and adverse changes in their environment. In addition through the study of the structure/function of the stress proteins, especially those which function as molecular chaperones, new insights into the details by which proteins are synthesized and acquire their final biologically active conformation have been realized. Equally exciting is the progress being made as it relates the potential diagnostic and therapeutic applications of the stress-response proteins. The use of stress proteins as the next generation of vaccines and/or their use as potentially powerful adjuvants, capable of stimulating both T and B cell responses to a particular antigen of interest appear close to becoming a reality. One wonders how many more surprises are in store for us as we continue to explore this evolutionally conserved cellular stress response.
G Minowada, W J Welch
The mechanism of the onset of labor is unknown in humans and guinea pigs. Contrary to most other species, progesterone withdrawal appears not to precede the onset of labor. To elucidate the role of oxytocin in the onset and maintenance of labor, guinea pigs were fitted with vascular catheters, an intraabdominal pressure catheter and an array of uterine electromyogram electrodes. An oxytocin antagonist (des-Gly9-[D-Trp2,Thr4,Orn8]dC6-oxytocin, 20 micrograms/kg per h, n = 11) or saline solution (n = 12) was infused starting on day 66 of gestation (term is 69 d). Oxytocin receptor blockade resulted in decreased uterine activity and a prolonged expulsive phase (second stage) of labor. Fetal delivery was delayed and fetal mortality was increased. The onset of the expulsive phase of labor was delayed but maximum uterine activity occurred in time together with a timely change in uterine electromyogram activity from a prepartum to a postpartum pattern following an unaltered progressive increase in baseline uterine activity. This indicates that oxytocin is requisite for the normal progress of the first and second stage of labor, but has no involvement in the mechanism of the onset and the timing of labor.
J C Schellenberg
Upper airway dilator muscles play an important role in the pathophysiology of sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome (SAHS). The mechanical and structural characteristics of these muscles remain unknown. The aim of this study was to compare the physiologic, metabolic, and fiber type characteristics of one upper airway dilator muscle (musculus uvulae, MU) in 11 SAHS and in seven nonapneic snorers. The different analyses were done on MU obtained during uvulo-palato-pharyngoplasty. Snorers and SAHS differed only in their apnea + hypopnea indices (11.5 +/- 5.9 and 34.2 +/- 14.6/h, respectively, mean +/- SD). Absolute twitch and tetanic tension production of MU was significantly greater in SAHS than in snorers while the fatigability index was similar in the two groups. Protein content and anaerobic enzyme activities of MU were significantly greater in SAHS than in snorers; no difference was observed for aerobic enzyme activities. The total muscle fiber cross-sectional area of MU was significantly higher in SAHS (2.2 +/- 0.9 mm2) than in snorers (1.1 +/- 0.7 mm2). The surface occupied by type IIA muscle fibers of MU was larger in SAHS (2.00 +/- 0.96) than in snorers (0.84 +/- 0.63 mm2). We conclude that the capacity for tension production and the anaerobic metabolic activity of MU are greater in SAHS than in snorers.
F Sériès, C Côté, J A Simoneau, Y Gélinas, S St Pierre, J Leclerc, R Ferland, I Marc
Intratracheal inoculation of parainfluenza type 3 virus to guinea pigs induces a marked increase in airway responsiveness in vivo and in vitro. In spontaneously breathing anesthetized guinea pigs inhalation of an aerosol containing the nitric oxide (NO) precursor L-arginine (2.0 mM) completely prevented the virus-induced airway hyperresponsiveness to histamine. In addition, perfusion of L-arginine (200 microM) or the direct NO-donor S-nitroso-N-acetyl-penicillamine (SNAP, 1 microM) through the lumen of tracheal tubes from infected animals prevented the increase in airway responsiveness to histamine or the cholinoceptor agonist methacholine. The NO synthase inhibitor N omega-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME, 120 microM) did not further increase the virus-induced airway hyperresponsiveness. In additional experiments, NO was measured with an Iso-NO nitric oxide meter and sensor. Stimulation of control tissues in vitro with histamine (10(-3) M) resulted in a contraction with a simultaneous release of NO (44.5 +/- 5.4 nM). The release of NO was markedly reduced by 75% (P < 0.01, 11.4 +/- 3.1 nM) in tracheas from virus-infected animals that demonstrated enhanced contractile responses. Preincubation of tissues from virus-treated guinea pigs with L-arginine (200 microM) completely prevented the enhanced contraction and simultaneously returned the NO production to control values (51.2 +/- 3.4 nM). An NO deficiency might be causally related to the development of airway hyperresponsiveness after a viral respiratory infection.
G Folkerts, H J van der Linde, F P Nijkamp
Disruption of the mdr2 gene in mice leads to a complete absence of phospholipid from bile (Smit, J. J. M., et al. 1993. Cell. 75:451-462). We have investigated the control of both mdr2 P-glycoprotein (Pgp) expression and bile salt secretion on biliary lipid secretion in the mouse. Lipid secretion was monitored at various bile salt output rates in wild-type mice (+/+), heterozygotes (+/-), and homozygotes (-/-) for mdr2 gene disruption. In (-/-) mice, phospholipid secretion was negligible at all bile salt output rates. In (+/-) mice, a curvilinear relation between bile salt and phospholipid secretion was observed similar to that in (+/+) mice; however, at all bile salt secretion rates phospholipid secretion was reduced compared to (+/+) mice, indicating that mdr2 Pgp exerts a strong control over secretion. Infusion of increasing amounts of taurocholate up to maximal secretory rate led to a decline in the phospholipid and cholesterol secretion in both (+/+) and (+/-) mice in accordance to what has been observed in other species. In contrast, in (-/-) mice cholesterol secretion increased under these conditions while phospholipid output remained extremely low. The increased cholesterol secretion may represent extraction of cholesterol from the canalicular plasma membrane by taurocholate micelles as opposed to the concomitant secretion of both phospholipid and cholesterol in the presence of a functional mdr2 Pgp. Increased bile flow in (-/-) mice could be attributed completely to an increase in the bile salt-independent fraction and may therefore be caused by the bile duct proliferation in these mice.
R P Oude Elferink, R Ottenhoff, M van Wijland, J J Smit, A H Schinkel, A K Groen
Chronic metabolic acidosis has been previously shown to stimulate protein degradation. To evaluate the effects of chronic metabolic acidosis on nitrogen balance and protein synthesis we measured albumin synthesis rates and urinary nitrogen excretion in eight male subjects on a constant metabolic diet before and during two different degrees of chronic metabolic acidosis (NH4Cl 2.1 mmol/kg body weight, low dose group, and 4.2 mmol/kg body weight, high dose group, orally for 7 d). Albumin synthesis rates were measured by intravenous injection of [2H5ring]phenylalanine (43 mg/kg body weight, 7.5 atom percent and 15 atom percent, respectively) after an overnight fast. In the low dose group, fractional synthesis rates of albumin decreased from 9.9 +/- 1.0% per day in the control period to 8.4 +/- 0.7 (n.s.) in the acidosis period, and from 8.3 +/- 1.3% per day to 6.3 +/- 1.1 (P < 0.001) in the high dose group. Urinary nitrogen excretion increased significantly in the acidosis period (sigma delta 634 mmol in the low dose group, 2,554 mmol in the high dose group). Plasma concentrations of insulin-like growth factor-I, free thyroxine and tri-iodothyronine were significantly lower during acidosis. In conclusion, chronic metabolic acidosis causes negative nitrogen balance and decreases albumin synthesis in humans. The effect on albumin synthesis may be mediated, at least in part, by a suppression of insulin-like growth factor-I, free thyroxine and tri-iodothyronine.
P E Ballmer, M A McNurlan, H N Hulter, S E Anderson, P J Garlick, R Krapf
Increasing evidence suggests that angiotensin II (AngII) acts as a modulator for ventricular remodeling after myocardial infarction. Using competitive reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, nuclear runoff, and binding assays, we examined the regulation of AngII type 1a and 1b (AT1a-R and AT1b-R) and type 2 receptor (AT2-R) expression in the infarcted rat heart as well as the effects of AngII receptor antagonists. AT1a-R mRNA levels were increased in the infarcted (4.2-fold) and noninfarcted portions (2.2-fold) of the myocardium 7 d after myocardial infarction as compared with those in sham-operated controls, whereas AT1b-R mRNA levels were unchanged. The amount of detectable AT2-R mRNA increased in infarcted (3.1-fold) and noninfarcted (1.9-fold) portions relative to that in the control. The transcription rates for AT1a-R and AT2-R genes, determined by means of a nuclear runoff assay, were significantly increased in the infarcted heart. The AngII receptor numbers were elevated (from 12 to 35 fmol/mg protein) in the infarcted myocardium in which the increases in AT1-R and AT2-R were 3.2- and 2.3-fold, respectively, while the receptor affinity was unchanged. Therapy with AT1-R antagonist for 7 d reduced the increase in AT1-R and AT2-R expressions in the infarcted heart together with a decrease in blood pressure, whereas therapy with an AT2-R antagonist did not affect mRNA levels and blood pressure. Neither AT1-R nor AT2-R antagonists affected the infarct sizes. These results demonstrated that myocardial infarction causes an increase in the gene transcription and protein expression of cardiac AT1a-R and AT2-R, whereas the AT1b-R gene is unaffected, and that therapy with an AT1-R antagonist, but not with an AT2-R antagonist, is effective in reducing the increased expression of AngII receptor subtypes induced by myocardial infarction.
Y Nio, H Matsubara, S Murasawa, M Kanasaki, M Inada
H C Jung, L Eckmann, S K Yang, A Panja, J Fierer, E Morzycka-Wroblewska, M F Kagnoff
CD40 and CD40 ligand (gp39) mediate contact-dependent T-B cell interaction. We determined the expression of CD40 ligand by activated neonatal T cells and the response of neonatal B cells when activated through CD40. Although expression of CD40 ligand peaked simultaneously in both activated adult and neonatal cells, neonatal T cells expressed significantly less CD40 ligand surface protein and mRNA than adult T cells. Activated thymocytes also expressed far less CD40 ligand than adult T cells. Consistent with these results, activated neonatal T cells exhibited less helper function than activated adult T cells. Neonatal T cells primed and restimulated in vitro expressed CD40 ligand in amounts comparable with adult T cells and provided B cell help more effectively. This suggests that the poor expression of CD40 ligand reflects antigenic naiveté rather than an intrinsic defect of neonatal T cells. Neonatal B cells cultured with soluble CD40 ligand (sgp39) and IL-10 produced IgM in amounts comparable with adult cells, but much less IgG and IgA. Nevertheless, neonatal B cells were capable of proliferation and class switching, since sgp39 and IL-4 induced proliferation and IgE production comparable to adult B cells and production of modest amounts of IgG. Together, these results indicate that diminished CD40 ligand expression, along with decreased production of lymphokines, may be responsible, at least in part, for the transient immunodeficiency observed in human neonates.
S Nonoyama, L A Penix, C P Edwards, D B Lewis, S Ito, A Aruffo, C B Wilson, H D Ochs
G Xu, G Salen, S Shefer, G C Ness, T S Chen, Z Zhao, G S Tint
Interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra) is an important modulator of IL-1 activity in a variety of tissues. IL-1ra is differentially produced by different cell types as a 22-26-kD secreted peptide (sIL-1ra) and/or a smaller 16- or 18-kD intracellular peptide (icIL-1ra). This study was undertaken to evaluate the production of IL-1ra in the human cornea. IL-1ra mRNA can be detected in early passage human corneal epithelial cells and corneal stromal fibroblasts and is significantly enhanced by IL-1. Corneal endothelial cells do not express IL-1ra mRNA. Immunohistochemical studies of cultured corneal cells and whole human cornea demonstrate IL-1ra protein production by both the epithelial and stromal cells but not the endothelial cells. Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, ELISA, and immunoprecipitation studies indicate that corneal epithelial cells are capable of producing both icIL-1ra and sIL-1ra forms of IL-1ra whereas the corneal stromal cells produce only icIL-1ra. In addition to the larger 18-kD icIL-1ra, both corneal epithelial and stromal cells are also capable of producing a smaller recently described 16-kD icIL-1ra. Thus, the differential production of IL-1ra in the human cornea is unique; whereas both epithelial and stromal cells produce icIL-1ra (type 1 and type 2), the epithelial cells appear to also produce sIL-1ra. It is proposed that these IL-1ra proteins may play an important role in regulating IL-1-induced corneal inflammation.
M C Kennedy, J T Rosenbaum, J Brown, S R Planck, X Huang, C A Armstrong, J C Ansel
Neutrophil adhesion and direct cytotoxicity for cardiac myocytes require chemotactic stimulation and are dependent upon CD18-ICAM-1 binding. To characterize the potential role of IL-8 in this interaction, canine IL-8 cDNA was cloned and the mature recombinant protein expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 cells. Recombinant canine IL-8 markedly increased adhesion of neutrophils to isolated canine cardiac myocytes. This adhesion resulted in direct cytotoxicity for cardiac myocytes. Both processes were specifically blocked by antibodies directed against CD18 and IL-8. In vivo, after 1 h of coronary occlusion, IL-8 mRNA was markedly and consistently induced in reperfused segments of myocardium. IL-8 mRNA was not induced in control (normally perfused) myocardial segments. Minimal amounts of IL-8 mRNA were detected after 3 or 4 h of ischemia without reperfusion. Highest levels of induction were evident in the most ischemic myocardial segments. IL-8 mRNA peaked in the first 3 h of reperfusion and persisted at high levels beyond 24 h. IL-8 staining was present in the inflammatory infiltrate near the border between necrotic and viable myocardium, as well as in small veins in the same area. These findings provide the first direct evidence for regulation of IL-8 in ischemic and reperfused canine myocardium and support the hypothesis that IL-8 participates in neutrophil-mediated myocardial injury. Images
G L Kukielka, C W Smith, G J LaRosa, A M Manning, L H Mendoza, T J Daly, B J Hughes, K A Youker, H K Hawkins, L H Michael, A Rot, M L Entman
To investigate the physiological role of a kidney-specific chloride channel (ClC-K1), we sought to determine its exact localization by immunohistochemistry and its functional regulation using Xenopus oocyte expression system. The antiserum specifically recognized a 70-kD protein in SDS-PAGE of membrane protein from rat inner medulla and an in vitro translated ClC-K1 protein. Immunohistochemistry revealed that ClC-K1 was exclusively localized to the thin limb of Henle's loop in rat inner medulla. In comparison with the immunostaining with anti-aquaporin-CHIP antibody that only stains the descending thin limb of Henle's loop (tDL), ClC-K1 was found to be localized only in the ascending limb (tAL) which has the highest chloride permeability among nephron segments. Immunoelectron microscopy confirmed that the staining of ClC-K1 in tAL was observed in the region of both apical and basolateral plasma membranes. Expressed chloride current in Xenopus oocytes by ClC-K1 cRNA was regulated by extracellular pH and extracellular calcium. Furosemide inhibited the expressed current (Ki = 100 microM), whereas N-ethyl-maleimide stimulated the current. These functional characteristics were consistent with the in vitro perfusion studies of chloride transport in tAL. The localization and the functional characteristics described here indicate that ClC-K1 is responsible for the transepithelial chloride transport in tAL.
S Uchida, S Sasaki, K Nitta, K Uchida, S Horita, H Nihei, F Marumo
Intracardiac grafts comprised of genetically modified skeletal myoblasts were assessed for their ability to effect long-term delivery of recombinant transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) to the heart. C2C12 myoblasts were stably transfected with a construct comprised of an inducible metallothionein promoter fused to a modified TGF-beta 1 cDNA. When cultured in medium supplemented with zinc sulfate, cells carrying this transgene constitutively secrete active TGF-beta 1. These genetically modified myoblasts were used to produce intracardiac grafts in syngeneic C3Heb/FeJ hosts. Viable grafts were observed as long as three months after implantation, and immunohistological analyses of mice maintained on water supplemented with zinc sulfate revealed the presence of grafted cells which stably expressed TGF-beta 1. Regions of apparent neovascularization, as evidenced by tritiated thymidine incorporation into vascular endothelial cells, were observed in the myocardium which bordered grafts expressing TGF-beta 1. The extent of vascular endothelial cell DNA synthesis could be modulated by altering dietary zinc. Similar effects on the vascular endothelial cells were not seen in mice with grafts comprised of nontransfected cells. This study indicates that genetically modified skeletal myoblast grafts can be used to effect the local, long-term delivery of recombinant molecules to the heart.
G Y Koh, S J Kim, M G Klug, K Park, M H Soonpaa, L J Field
Scavenger receptor (ScR)-mediated uptake of modified lipoproteins may contribute to the transformation of smooth muscle cells into lipid-laden foam cells during atherogenesis. This study examined the in vivo expression of ScRs in aortas, with or without balloon injury, taken from hypercholesterolemic or normocholesterolemic rabbits. Numerous intimal cells in the rabbit aortic lesions expressed ScRs as detected by immunocytochemical staining with a goat anti-rabbit ScR antibody. Single immunostaining for cell identification markers in serial sections, as well as double staining, confirmed the expression of ScRs by both intimal smooth muscle cells and macrophages. To explore potential inducers of ScR expression by smooth muscle cells in vivo, we studied the regulation of ScR expression in vitro by cytokines known to be present in atherosclerotic lesions. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) or interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) increased ScR mRNA levels, protein expression, and AcLDL degradative activity in cultured rabbit aortic smooth muscle cells. The induction of ScR expression in intimal smooth muscle cells in vivo could be a useful marker of smooth muscle cell activation during atherogenesis and may contribute to foam cell formation by this cell type following balloon injury and/or hypercholesterolemia. Cytokines, such as TNF-alpha or IFN-gamma, may stimulate some of the phenotypic changes that characterize the alteration in gene expression of intimal smooth muscle cells in rabbit atherosclerotic lesions.
H Li, M W Freeman, P Libby
The liver is highly susceptible to a number of pathological insults, including ischemia/reperfusion injury. One of the striking consequences of liver injury is the associated pulmonary dysfunction that may be related to the release of hepatic-derived cytokines. We have previously employed an animal model of hepatic ischemia/reperfusion injury, and demonstrated that this injury causes the production and release of hepatic-derived TNF, which mediates a neutrophil-dependent pulmonary microvascular injury. In this study, we have extended these previous observations to assess whether an interrelationship between TNF and the neutrophil chemoattractant/activating factor, epithelial neutrophil activating protein-78 (ENA-78), exists that may be accountable for the pathology of lung injury found in this model. In the context of hepatic ischemia/reperfusion injury, we demonstrated the following alterations in lung pathophysiology: (a) an increase in pulmonary microvascular permeability, lung neutrophil sequestration, and production of pulmonary-derived ENA-78; (b) passive immunization with neutralizing TNF antiserum resulted in a significant suppression of pulmonary-derived ENA-78; and (c) passive immunization with neutralizing ENA-78 antiserum resulted in a significant attenuation of pulmonary neutrophil sequestration and microvascular permeability similar to our previous studies with anti-TNF. These findings support the notion that pulmonary ENA-78 produced in response to hepatic-derived TNF is an important mediator of lung injury.
L M Colletti, S L Kunkel, A Walz, M D Burdick, R G Kunkel, C A Wilke, R M Strieter
Streptococcus pneumoniae is one of the most common etiologic agents of community-acquired pneumonia, particularly bacteremic pneumonia. Pneumolysin, a multifunctional cytotoxin, is a putative virulence factor for S. pneumoniae; however, a direct role for pneumolysin in the early pathogenesis of pneumococcal pneumonia has not been confirmed in vivo. We compared the growth of a pneumolysin-deficient (PLY[-]) type 2 S. pneumoniae strain with its isogenic wild-type strain (PLY[+]) after direct endotracheal instillation of bacteria into murine lungs. Compared with PLY(-) bacteria, infection with PLY(+) bacteria produced greater injury to the alveolar-capillary barrier, as assayed by albumin concentrations in alveolar lavage, and substantially greater numbers of PLY(+) bacteria were recovered in alveolar lavages and lung homogenates at 3 and 6 h after infection. The presence of pneumolysin also contributed to the development of bacteremia, which was detected at 3 h after intratracheal instillation of PLY(+) bacteria. The direct effects of pneumolysin on lung injury and on the ability of pneumococci to evade local lung defenses was confirmed by addition of purified recombinant pneumolysin to inocula of PLY(-) pneumococci, which promoted growth of PLY(-) bacteria in the lung to levels comparable to those seen with the PLY(+) strain. We further demonstrated the contributions of both the cytolytic and the complement-activating properties of pneumolysin on enhanced bacterial growth in murine lungs using genetically modified pneumolysin congeners and genetically complement-deficient mice. Thus, pneumolysin facilitates intraalveolar replication of pneumococci, penetration of bacteria from alveoli into the interstitium of the lung, and dissemination of pneumococci into the bloodstream during experimental pneumonia. Moreover, both the cytotoxic and the complement-activating activities of pneumolysin may contribute independently to the acute pulmonary injury and the high rates of bacteremia which characterize pneumococcal pneumonia.
J B Rubins, D Charboneau, J C Paton, T J Mitchell, P W Andrew, E N Janoff
In this work, an x-irradiation/high fat/high cholesterol diet-induced atherogenic model was invoked to examine the effects of severe diffuse atherosclerosis on myocardial metabolism in the in vivo porcine heart. This model was studied using spatially localized 31P-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) to monitor pH and the levels of inorganic phosphate, phosphomonoesters, creatine phosphate, and adenosine triphosphate as a function of workload transmurally in control swine and in animals suffering from chronic ischemic heart disease. These preliminary studies revealed that the development of severe atherosclerosis and the accompanying chronically diseased state produce changes in high energy phosphates and that increases in rate pressure products result in demonstrable signs of ischemia in the myocardium which span the entire left ventricular wall. Ischemic changes include a global increase in inorganic phosphate and corresponding decreases in creatine phosphate, ATP, and pH. Importantly, changes in intracellular pH are noted with even the slightest increase in workload suggesting that these diseased hearts display elevated glycolytic activity. By challenging these animals with increased cardiac workload, we directly visualize how the chronically compromised heart responds to severe oxygen challenges in a clinically relevant model of this situation.
D P Rath, M Bailey, H Zhang, Z Jiang, A M Abduljalil, S Weisbrode, R L Hamlin, P M Robitaille
Changes in VLDL triglyceride and VLDL apo B production were determined semiquantitatively in healthy young men by examining the effect of altering plasma insulin and/or FFA levels on the change in the slopes of the specific activity of VLDL [3H]triglyceride glycerol or the 131I-VLDL apo B versus time curves. In one study (n = 8) insulin was infused for 5 h using the euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp technique. Plasma FFA levels declined by approximately 80% (0.52 +/- 0.01 to 0.11 +/- 0.02 mmol/liter), VLDL triglyceride production decreased by 66.7 +/- 4.2% (P = 0.0001) and VLDL apo B production decreased by 51.7 +/- 10.6% (P = 0.003). In a second study (n = 8) heparin and Intralipid (Baxter Corp., Toronto, Canada) were infused with insulin to prevent the insulin-mediated fall in plasma FFA levels. Plasma FFA increased approximately twofold (0.43 +/- 0.05 to 0.82 + 0.13 mmol/liter), VLDL triglyceride production decreased to a lesser extent than with insulin alone (P = 0.006) (-31.8 +/- 9.5%, decrease from baseline P = 0.03) and VLDL apo B production did not decrease significantly (-6.3 +/- 13.6%, P = NS). In a third study (n = 8) when heparin and Intralipid were infused without insulin, FFA levels rose approximately twofold (0.53 +/- 0.04 to 0.85 +/- 0.1 mmol/liter), VLDL triglyceride production increased by 180.1 +/- 45.7% (P = 0.008) and VLDL apo B production increased by 94.2 +/- 28.7% (P = 0.05). We confirm our previous observation that acute hyperinsulinemia suppresses VLDL triglyceride and VLDL apo B production in healthy humans. In addition, we have demonstrated that elevation of plasma FFA levels acutely stimulates VLDL production in vivo in healthy young males. Elevating plasma FFA during hyperinsulinemia attenuates but does not completely abolish the suppressive effect of insulin on VLDL production, at least with respect to VLDL triglycerides. Therefore, in normal individuals the acute inhibition of VLDL production by insulin in vivo is only partly due to the suppression of plasma FFA, and may also be due to an FFA-independent process.
G F Lewis, K D Uffelman, L W Szeto, B Weller, G Steiner
Calcitonin inhibits both osteoclast formation and bone resorption, and is a primary treatment for patients with hypercalcemia and increased bone turnover. However, the clinical utility of calcitonin is limited because patients become refractory to calcitonin after several days (the calcitonin "escape phenomenon"). The molecular basis for calcitonin "escape" is unclear. To determine the regulatory mechanisms controlling calcitonin receptor (CTR) expression in osteoclasts and their precursors, we treated immature mononuclear precursors for human osteoclast-like multinucleated cells (MNC) formed in vitro with 1,25-(OH)2D3, to induce their differentiation to committed mononuclear precursors, and mature multinucleated osteoclasts, and used reverse transcriptase (RT)-PCR to assess expression of CTR mRNA in both committed mononuclear precursors and MNC. The PCR fragment produced was cloned and sequenced to confirm that it was derived from CTR mRNA. CTR mRNA expression was detected in mononuclear MNC precursors after 7 d of 1,25-(OH)2D3 treatment. It was also present in osteoclast-like MNC and highly purified giant cells from osteoclastomas, but not in monocytes or macrophage polykaryons formed in vitro. Calcitonin markedly decreased CTR but not actin mRNA expression in giant cells and MNC after 12 h, and removal of calcitonin restored CTR mRNA expression. Similarly, calcitonin decreased calcitonin-induced adenylate cyclase activity. These data suggest: (a) downregulation of CTR gene expression by calcitonin may in part explain the calcitonin "escape phenomenon"; and (b) expression of CTR mRNA occurs in mononuclear osteoclast precursors within 7 d after exposure to 1,25-(OH)2D3.
S Takahashi, S Goldring, M Katz, S Hilsenbeck, R Williams, G D Roodman
A method is introduced for estimating the contribution of gluconeogenesis to glucose production. 2H2O is administered orally to achieve 0.5% deuterium enrichment in body water. Enrichments are determined in the hydrogens bound to carbons 2 and 6 of blood glucose and in urinary water. Enrichment at carbon 6 of glucose is assayed in hexamethylenetetramine, formed from formaldehyde produced by periodate oxidation of the glucose. Enrichment at carbon 2 is assayed in lactate formed by enzymatic transfer of the hydrogen from glucose via sorbitol to pyruvate. The fraction gluconeogenesis contributes to glucose production equals the ratio of the enrichment at carbon 6 to that at carbon 2 or in urinary water. Applying the method, the contribution of gluconeogenesis in healthy subjects was 23-42% after fasting 14 h, increasing to 59-84% after fasting 42 h. Enrichment at carbon 2 to that in urinary water was 1.12 +/- 0.13. Therefore, the assumption that hydrogen equilibrated during hexose-6-P isomerization was fulfilled. The 3H/14C ratio in glucose formed from [3-3H,3-14C]lactate given to healthy subjects was 0.1 to 0.2 of that in the lactate. Therefore equilibration during gluconeogenesis of the hydrogen bound to carbon 6 with that in body water was 80-90% complete, so that gluconeogenesis is underestimated by 10-20%. Glycerol's contribution to gluconeogenesis is not included in these estimates. The method is applicable to studies in humans of gluconeogenesis at safe doses of 2H2O.
B R Landau, J Wahren, V Chandramouli, W C Schumann, K Ekberg, S C Kalhan
Insulin-like growth factor (IGF) circulates in blood in two large molecular mass forms of 150 and 40 kD. Under normal conditions, most of the IGF is bound to the 150-kD complex by which it is retained in the circulation and therefore unable to exert acute insulin-like actions. The aim of this study was to answer the question whether or not IGF in the 40-kD complex is bioavailable to insulin target tissues and thus can cause acute insulin-like effects in vivo. Intravenously injected 1:1 molar recombinant human (rh) IGF I/rhIGF binding protein (BP)-3 complex lowered blood glucose and stimulated glycogen synthesis in diaphragm of hypophysectomized, but not of normal rats. The serum half-lives of the two components of the complex were similar to each other, but considerably shorter in hypox than in normal rats. On neutral gel filtration of serum both components of the injected complex appeared predominantly in the 150-kD region in normal rats. In hypox rats which lack the 150-kD complex they were found in the 40-kD region and disappeared rapidly from the circulation. We conclude that in the absence of the 150-kD complex, IGF associated with the 40-kD complex can rapidly leave the vascular compartment, reach insulin or type 1 IGF receptors and exert acute insulin-like effects.
J Zapf, C Hauri, E Futo, M Hussain, J Rutishauser, C A Maack, E R Froesch
We sought to examine mechanisms underlying nitroglycerin (NTG) tolerance and "cross-tolerance" to other nitrovasodilators. Rabbits were treated for 3 d with NTG patches (0.4 mg/h) and their aortic segments studied in organ chambers. Relaxations were examined after preconstriction with phenylephrine. In NTG tolerant rabbit aorta, relaxations to cGMP-dependent vasodilators such as NTG (45 +/- 6%), SIN-1 (69 +/- 7%), and acetylcholine (ACh, 64 +/- 5%) were attenuated vs. controls, (90 +/- 2, 94 +/- 3, and 89 +/- 2% respectively, P < 0.05 for all), while responses to the cAMP-dependent vasodilator forskolin remained unchanged. In tolerant aorta, endothelial removal markedly enhanced relaxations to NTG and SIN-1 (82 +/- 4 and 95 +/- 3%, respectively). Other studies were performed to determine how the endothelium enhances tolerance. Vascular steady state .-O2 levels (assessed by lucigenin chemiluminescence) was increased twofold in tolerant vs. control vessels with endothelium (0.31 +/- 0.01 vs. 0.61 +/- 0.01 nmol/mg per minute). This difference was less in vessels after denudation of the endothelium. Diphenylene iodonium, an inhibitor of flavoprotein containing oxidases, and Tiron a direct .-O2 scavenger normalized .-O2 levels. In contrast, oxypurinol (1 mM) an inhibitor of xanthine oxidase, rotenone (50 microM) an inhibitor of mitochondrial electron transport and NG-nitro-L-arginine (100 microM) an inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase did not affect the chemiluminescence signals from NTG-tolerant aortas. Pretreatment of tolerant aorta with liposome-entrapped, pH sensitive superoxide dismutase (600 U/ml) significantly enhanced maximal relaxation in response to NTG, SIN-1, and ACh, and effectively reduced chemiluminescence signals. These studies show that continuous NTG treatment is associated with increased vascular .-O2-production and consequent inhibition of NO. mediated vasorelaxation produced by both exogenous and endogenous nitrovasodilators.
T Münzel, H Sayegh, B A Freeman, M M Tarpey, D G Harrison
The size of the kidneys in patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is due in large measure to the accumulation of secreted fluid within thin-walled epithelial sacs. We measured the net transepithelial movement of liquid in response to forskolin in isolated, intact cysts excised from the surface of human ADPKD kidneys and in cultured, polarized monolayers of epithelial cells derived from ADPKD cysts. 10 excised cysts bathed symmetrically in control culture medium secreted fluid at a rate of 0.19 +/- 0.03 microliter/cm2 per hour after stimulation with forskolin (10 microM). Ouabain (100 microM) addition to the cavity fluid did not change the rate of fluid secretion of 10 forskolin-treated cysts, but addition of the glycoside to the external bathing medium fluid of nine cysts decreased secretion to -0.004 +/- 0.05 microliter/cm2 per hour. 24 monolayers absorbed fluid (range -0.029 to -0.412 microliter/cm2 per hour); by contrast, fluid was secreted (range 0.074 to 1.242 microliters/cm2 per hour) after stimulation with forskolin (10 microM). Ouabain (0.1 microM) in the basolateral but not in the apical medium inhibited fluid secretion. Forskolin increased the intracellular cyclic AMP content of ADPKD and MDCK monolayers by 236 and 196%, respectively. Six ADPKD monolayers had stable lumen negative transepithelial electrical potential differences (PDte) of -1.4 +/- 0.3 mV, positive short circuit currents (SCC) of 11.9 +/- 2.1 microAmp/cm2 and a tissue resistance (Rte) of 116 +/- 14 ohm.cm2. Forskolin increased SCC to 15.5 +/- 1.9 microAmp/cm2 (P < 0.005) and decreased Rte to 95 +/- 13 ohm.cm2 (P < 0.05); PDte remained stable at -1.4 +/- 0.3 mV. Ouabain (10 microM) had no effect when added to the apical medium, but in the basolateral medium decreased SCC to 1.7 +/- 0.3 microAmp/cm2 and PDte to -0.2 +/- 0.1 mV. We conclude that ADPKD cells in surface cysts have the potential to absorb or to secrete solutes and fluid. cAMP-mediated fluid secretion from the basolateral medium into the lumen of surface ADPKD cysts may be driven by anion transport.
J J Grantham, M Ye, V H Gattone 2nd, L P Sullivan
Beta-adrenergic receptor kinase (beta ARK) is a serine-threonine kinase involved in the process of homologous desensitization of G-coupled receptors. beta ARK is a member of a multigene family, consisting of six known subtypes, also named G protein-coupled receptor kinases (GRK 1-6). In this study we investigated the expression of GRKs during the process of T cell activation, which is of fundamental importance in regulating immune responses. T cell activation was induced by exposing mononuclear leukocytes (MNL) to PHA and confirmed by tritiated thymidine incorporation measurement. A substantial increase of GRK activity (as measured by in vitro phosphorylation of rhodopsin) was found after 48 h (331 +/- 80% of controls) and 72 h (347 +/- 86% of controls) of exposure to PHA. A threefold increase of beta ARK1 immunoreactivity was found in MNL exposed to PHA for 72 h. Persistent activation of protein kinase C (PKC) by 10 nM 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) was able to increase beta ARK activity to the same extent as PHA, suggesting a PKC-mediated mechanism. The kinetic of beta-adrenergic-stimulated cAMP production was substantially modified in TPA and PHA-activated cells, indicating that the increased GRK activity resulted in an increased beta-adrenergic homologous desensitization. A three- to fourfold increase in GRK activity was also observed in a population of T cell blasts (> 97% CD3+) exposed to PHA for 48-72 h. A significant increase in beta ARK1 and beta ARK2 mRNA expression was observed 48 h after mitogen stimulation, while mRNA expression of GRK5 and GRK6 was not changed. In conclusion our data show that the expression of GRK subtypes is actively and selectively modulated according to the functional state of T lymphocytes.
A De Blasi, G Parruti, M Sallese
Evidence suggesting that prolonged effector cell survival may contribute to perpetuation of inflammation prompted us to ask whether monocyte macrophages, the predominate inflammatory cell in the lesion of chronic atopic dermatitis (AD), exhibit enhanced survival in AD. Cultures of peripheral blood monocytes from patients with chronic AD, psoriasis, and from normal (NL) donors were examined for morphologic features and DNA fragmentation characteristic of cells undergoing the process of apoptosis (programmed cell death). Cultures of AD monocytes exhibited a significantly lower incidence of apoptosis than did cultures of NL monocytes (45 vs 68%, P < 0.01), or psoriatic monocytes (45 vs 80%, P < 0.01). Furthermore, AD monocytes were unresponsive to both IL-1, an inhibitor of apoptosis, and IL-4, an enhancer of apoptosis, in comparison to cultured NL monocytes. Of note, GM-CSF in a concentration-dependent fashion, decreased the incidence of apoptosis in NL monocyte cultures and rendered them unresponsive to these cytokines. These findings suggested that GM-CSF may enhance monocyte survival in AD. In support of this hypothesis, AD monocyte cultures produced fivefold more GM-CSF than did cultures of NL monocytes or psoriatic monocytes (P < 0.05). Additionally, there was a significantly greater number of GM-CSF mRNA expressing cells detected by in situ hybridization in biopsies of lesions of chronic AD than in acute AD or NL skin (P < 0.05). Finally, NL monocytes incubated with supernatants obtained from monocytes of AD patients exhibited significant inhibition of apoptosis, an effect that could be ablated by a neutralizing antibody to GM-CSF. Taken together, these data strongly suggest that increased production of GM-CSF by cells from patients with AD inhibits monocyte apoptosis and may contribute to the chronicity of this inflammatory disease.
D L Bratton, Q Hamid, M Boguniewicz, D E Doherty, J M Kailey, D Y Leung
In response to the pure recombinant human alpha-IFN, IFLrA, Raji and Daudi were the only two cell lines among 19 human lymphoblastoid cell lines tested that formed the human lupus inclusions (LI) to a high frequency. Raji, Daudi, and five other cell lines were examined for protein changes that might accompany LI formation. Their selection was based upon T or B origin, association with Epstein-Barr virus, and ability to form LI. A trace protein of an estimated molecular mass of 36 kD (p36) and an isoelectric point of 5.6 was detected on two-dimensional gels only of alpha-IFN-treated Raji and Daudi cells. Gamma-IFN did not induce p36 or LI in any of these seven cell lines. In Daudi cells p36 and LI formed simultaneously in response to IFLrA, and persisted until the alpha-IFN-induced death of the culture. In Raji cells, p36 and LI appearance and disappearance coincided with the addition and removal of alpha-IFN. Fractionation of Raji cells with nonionic-detergent buffer placed p36 with the inclusions in the cytoplasmic supernatant. With detergent-free buffer p36 and LI were distributed evenly between the nuclear and cytoplasmic fractions. Pulse-chase experiments revealed that p36 was secreted. The de novo synthesis of p36 with alpha-IFN treatment was shown by labeling the cell proteins with [35S] methionine before and after the addition of alpha-IFN. These results along with previous results on the de novo synthesis of LI in the endoplasmic reticulum (which is involved in the processing and secretion of proteins) suggest a role for LI in the synthesis and secretion of p36.
S A Rich
Accruing evidence indicates that the levels of extracellular Mg2+ and Ca2+ can have a distinct impact on the adhesive and migratory activities of many cell types. The physiological relevance of these observations, however, has remained largely unexplored. In the present study, wound fluids collected throughout the early stages of cutaneous wound repair were examined for possible Mg2+ and Ca2+ fluctuations. Early in the process, when cell migration into the wound site is initiated, Mg2+ is elevated and Ca2+ is reduced (Mg2+:Ca2+ = 1). As wound healing progresses, wound fluid concentrations of Mg2+ and Ca2+ begin to return to normal plasma levels (Mg2+:Ca2+ = 0.4). When macrophages, keratinocytes, fibroblasts, and endothelial cells were exposed to dialyzed wound fluid, the migration stimulated by undialyzed wound fluid was lost. Addition back to dialyzed wound fluid of 24 h, postinjury concentrations of Mg2+ and Ca2+ restored all migratory stimulus. This observed migration is approximately twofold greater than when normal plasma Mg2+ and Ca2+ concentrations are present. Changes in the levels of Mg2+ and Ca2+ in wound fluid occur during the same period that inflammatory cells, keratinocytes, fibroblasts, and neovasculature have been shown to migrate during wound healing in vivo. Together, these data suggest that the impact of these changes on integrins and E-cadherin may play a direct role in the activation and maintenance of the migratory phenotypes of the cells involved in the wound healing process.
J J Grzesiak, M D Pierschbacher
Glycogen storage disease (GSD) type 1, which is caused by the deficiency of glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase), is an autosomal recessive disease with heterogenous symptoms. Two models of G6Pase catalysis have been proposed to explain the observed heterogeneities. The translocase-catalytic unit model proposes that five GSD type 1 subgroups exist which correspond to defects in the G6Pase catalytic unit (1a), a stabilizing protein (1aSP), the glucose-6-P (1b), phosphate/pyrophosphate (1c), and glucose (1d) translocases. Conversely, the conformation-substrate-transport model suggests that G6Pase is a single multifunctional membrane channel protein possessing both catalytic and substrate (or product) transport activities. We have recently demonstrated that mutations in the G6Pase catalytic unit cause GSD type 1a. To elucidate whether mutations in the G6Pase gene are responsible for other GSD type 1 subgroups, we characterized the G6Pase gene of GSD type 1b, 1c, and 1aSP patients. Our results show that the G6Pase gene of GSD type 1b and 1c patients is normal, consistent with the translocase-catalytic unit model of G6Pase catalysis. However, a mutation in exon 2 that converts an Arg at codon 83 to a Cys (R83C) was identified in both G6Pase alleles of the type 1aSP patient. The R83C mutation was also demonstrated in one homozygous and five heterogenous GSD type 1a patients, indicating that type 1aSP is a misclassification of GSD type 1a. We have also analyzed the G6Pase gene of seven additional type 1a patients and uncovered two new mutations that cause GSD type 1a.
K J Lei, L L Shelly, B Lin, J B Sidbury, Y T Chen, R C Nordlie, J Y Chou
BACKGROUND. Multiple myeloma remains an incurable malignancy due to marked resistance of the tumor to standard doses of chemotherapy. Treatment approaches, using chemotherapeutic dose escalation and hematopoietic stem cell support have resulted in significant augmentation of tumor mass reduction such that complete remissions are effected in approximately 50% of patients. These remissions are however, often not durable. In the setting of minimal residual disease, therefore, adjunctive immunotherapy may be useful. METHODS. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were studied from 28 untreated patients with multiple myeloma (MM). Mononuclear cell CD16 (FcR gamma III) expression was determined by flow cytometry. The effect of lymphocyte-derived soluble CD16, isolated by affinity chromatography, on MM cell growth and differentiation was assessed. MM cell proliferation, viability, immunoglobulin production and gene expression was studied. RESULTS. Data are presented indicating that cells expressing CD16 are increased in untreated patients with IgG-secreting myeloma. The predominant phenotype of these cells is CD8+ or CD56+. These CD16+ cells can produce a soluble form of the Fc receptor (sFcR, sCD16) that can bind to surface Ig on cultured human IgG-secreting myeloma cells and effect suppression of tumor cell growth and Ig secretion. This effector function is accompanied by concomitant suppression of c-myc as well as IgH and IgL gene transcription. Finally, prolonged exposure to sCD16 causes myeloma tumor cell cytolysis. CONCLUSIONS. sCD16 and possibly other soluble FcR are candidate molecules for adjunctive immunotherapy of myeloma, once complete responses have been effected by intensive cytotoxic therapy, now possible in up to 50% of newly diagnosed patients.
R G Hoover, C Lary, R Page, P Travis, R Owens, J Flick, J Kornbluth, B Barlogie
Macaca nemestrina has been described as an animal model for acute HIV-1 infection. This animal, unlike most infected humans, appears to contain HIV-1 replication. Therefore analysis of HIV-1-specific proliferative and cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) responses following HIV-1 challenge of M. nemestrina may provide information into the role of such responses in both the control of acute HIV infection and protective immunity. Although CD4+ T cell responses to HIV-1 are generally difficult to detect in HIV-1-infected humans, early and persistent CD4+ T cell proliferative responses to HIV-1 antigens were detected in all HIV-1-inoculated M. nemestrina. HIV-1-specific CD8+ CTL responses were evaluated in PBMC by stimulation with autologous cells expressing HIV-1 genes, limiting dilution precursor frequency analysis, and T cell cloning. CTL reactive with gag, env, and nef were present 4-8 wk after infection, and persisted to 140 wk after infection. The presence of both CD4+ and CD8+ T cell responses before and after clearance of HIV-1 viremia is consistent with a role for these responses in the successful control of HIV-1 viral replication observed in M. nemestrina. Further studies of T cell immunity in these animals that resist disease should provide insights into the immunobiology of HIV-1 infection.
S J Kent, L Corey, M B Agy, W R Morton, M J McElrath, P D Greenberg
Specific mutations in the UL97 region of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) have been found to confer resistance to laboratory-adapted strains subjected to ganciclovir selection. In this study, mutations in the UL97 region of HCMV isolates obtained from patients receiving ganciclovir therapy were examined to determine whether they would confer ganciclovir resistance, and if these mutations could be detected directly in the plasma of AIDS patients with progressive HCMV disease despite ganciclovir treatment. A single nucleotide change within a conserved region of UL97 was found in five resistant isolates, resulting in an amino acid substitution in residue 595: from leucine to phenylalanine in one, and from leucine to serine in four resistant isolates. A sixth resistant isolate demonstrated a single nucleotide change, leading to a threonine to isoleucine substitution in residue 659. The role of the 595 amino acid substitution in conferring ganciclovir resistance was confirmed by marker transfer experiments. In further studies, direct sequencing of HCMV DNA present in plasma obtained from persons with resistant viruses revealed the identical amino acid substitutions in plasma as those present in the cultured viruses. These findings indicate that clinical resistance to ganciclovir can result from specific point mutations in the UL97 gene, and that the emergence of the resistant genotype can be detected directly in patient plasma.
D G Wolf, I L Smith, D J Lee, W R Freeman, M Flores-Aguilar, S A Spector
Interaction between vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) on endothelial cells and alpha 4 integrins on leukocytes is thought to mediate the selective recruitment of eosinophils and lymphocytes that occurs in allergic diseases. IL-4 is associated with allergic conditions, and it has been shown to selectively increase expression of VCAM-1 on endothelial cells in vivo, suggesting that it could be responsible for VCAM-1 expression in allergic disease. Using a combination of immunofluorescence, flow cytometry, and Northern analysis, we compared the effect of TNF-alpha and IL-4 on VCAM-1 expression. TNF-alpha is also associated with allergic diseases, and it rapidly increases transcription of the VCAM-1 gene. The effect of IL-4 was relatively modest with prolonged kinetics: VCAM-1 was not detected until 72 h after treatment with IL-4. However, when TNF-alpha and IL-4 were combined, there was a synergistic increase in VCAM-1 expression and a dramatic prolongation of the appearance of VCAM-1 on the cell surface. This synergy results from a combination of transcriptional activation by TNF-alpha and the stabilization of resulting transcripts by IL-4. We propose that IL-4 allows subthreshold concentrations of TNF-alpha (concentrations that would not normally activate expression of adhesion molecules on the endothelium) to selectively increase VCAM-1 expression and to prolong its appearance on the surface of cells in allergic disease.
M F Iademarco, J L Barks, D C Dean
To compare glutamine and alanine as gluconeogenic precursors, we simultaneously measured their systemic turnovers, clearances, and incorporation into plasma glucose, their skeletal muscle uptake and release, and the proportion of their appearance in plasma directly due to their release from protein in postabsorptive normal volunteers. We infused the volunteers with [U-14C] glutamine, [3-13C] alanine, [2H5] phenylalanine, and [6-3H] glucose to isotopic steady state and used the forearm balance technique. We found that glutamine appearance in plasma exceeded that of alanine (5.76 +/- 0.26 vs. 4.40 +/- 0.33 mumol.kg-1.min-1, P < 0.001), while alanine clearance exceeded glutamine clearance (14.7 +/- 1.3 vs. 9.3 +/- 0.8 ml.kg-1.min-1, P < 0.001). Glutamine appearance in plasma directly due to its release from protein was more than double that of alanine (2.45 +/- 0.25 vs. 1.16 +/- 0.12 mumol.kg-1.min-1, P < 0.001). Although overall carbon transfer to glucose from glutamine and alanine was comparable (3.53 +/- 0.24 vs 3.47 +/- 0.32 atoms.kg-1.min-1), nearly twice as much glucose carbon came from protein derived glutamine than alanine (1.48 +/- 0.15 vs 0.88 +/- 0.09 atoms.kg-1.min-1, P < 0.01). Finally, forearm muscle released more glutamine than alanine (0.88 +/- 0.05 vs 0.48 +/- 0.05 mumol.100 ml-1.min-1, P < 0.01). We conclude that in postabsorptive humans glutamine is quantitatively more important than alanine for transporting protein-derived carbon through plasma and adding these carbons to the glucose pool.
N Nurjhan, A Bucci, G Perriello, M Stumvoll, G Dailey, D M Bier, I Toft, T G Jenssen, J E Gerich
To determine the pathway of plasma FFA oxidation and the site(s) of label fixation observed during infusion of FFA tracers, [1-13C]palmitate and [1-14C]acetate were infused intravenously for 3 h in five volunteers. Breath 13CO2 enrichment and 14CO2 specific activity were followed for 6 h to determine the labeled CO2 decay rates. Acetate enters directly into the TCA cycle; hence, if palmitate transits a large lipid pool before oxidation, 13CO2 enrichment (from palmitate) should decay slower than 14CO2 specific activity (from acetate). Breath 13CO2 enrichment and 14CO2 specific activity decayed at a similar rate after stopping the tracer infusions (half-lives of 13CO2 and 14CO2 decay: mean [+/- SE] 106.6 +/- 8.9 min, and 96.9 +/- 6.0 min, respectively, P = NS), which suggests that palmitate enters the TCA cycle directly and that label fixation occurs after citrate synthesis. Significant label fixation was shown in plasma glutamate/glutamine and lactate/pyruvate during infusion of either [1,2-13C]acetate or [U-13C]palmitate, suggesting that TCA cycle exchange reactions are at least partly responsible for label fixation. This was consistent with our finding that the half-lives of 13CO2 enrichment and 14CO2 specific activity decreased significantly during exercise to 14.4 +/- 3 min and 16.8 +/- 1 min, respectively, since exercise significantly increases the rate of the TCA cycle in relation to that of the TCA cycle exchange reactions. We conclude that plasma FFA entering cells destined to be oxidized are directly oxidized and that tracer estimates of plasma FFA oxidation will underestimate the true value unless account is taken of the extent of label fixation.
L S Sidossis, A R Coggan, A Gastaldelli, R R Wolfe
The mechanism of coronary vasodilation produced by exercise is not understood completely. Recently, we reported that blockade of vascular smooth muscle K(ATP)+ channels decreased coronary blood flow at rest, but did not attenuate the increments in coronary flow produced by exercise. Adenosine is not mandatory for maintaining basal coronary flow, or the increase in flow produced by exercise during normal arterial inflow, but does contribute to coronary vasodilation in hypoperfused myocardium. Therefore, we investigated whether adenosine opposed the hypoperfusion produced by K(ATP)+ channel blockade, thereby contributing to coronary vasodilation during exercise. 11 dogs were studied at rest and during exercise under control conditions, during intracoronary infusion of the K(ATP)+ channel blocker glibenclamide (50 micrograms/kg per min), and during intracoronary glibenclamide in the presence of adenosine receptor blockade. Glibenclamide decreased resting coronary blood flow from 45 +/- 5 to 35 +/- 4 ml/min (P < 0.05), but did not prevent exercise-induced increases of coronary flow. Glibenclamide caused an increase in myocardial oxygen extraction at the highest level of exercise with a decrease in coronary venous oxygen tension from 15.5 +/- 0.7 to 13.6 +/- 0.8 mmHg (P < 0.05). The addition of the adenosine receptor antagonist 8-phenyltheophylline (5 mg/kg intravenous) to K(ATP)+ channel blockade did not further decrease resting coronary blood flow but did attenuate the increase in coronary flow produced by exercise. This was accompanied by a further decrease of coronary venous oxygen tension to 10.1 +/- 0.7 mmHg (P < 0.05), indicating aggravation of the mismatch between oxygen demand and supply. These findings are compatible with the hypothesis that K+ATP channels modulate coronary vasomotor tone both under resting conditions and during exercise. However, when K(ATP)+ channels are blocked, adenosine released from the hypoperfused myocardium provides an alternate mechanism to mediate coronary vasodilation in response to increases in oxygen demand produced by exercise.
D J Duncker, N S van Zon, T J Pavek, S K Herrlinger, R J Bache
Although gamma delta T cell receptor-bearing lymphocytes (gamma delta T cells) constitute a significant minority of circulating and tissue-associated T lymphocytes, the mechanism responsible for the activation of these cells is unknown. To address this question, resting gamma delta TCR+, CD3+, CD4-, CD8- cells isolated from the blood of healthy volunteers were cultured with allogeneic dendritic cells (DC) or monocytes, and their proliferative response measured. DC alone induced gamma delta T cells to proliferate, with a peak response on the sixth day of culture. Pretreatment of DC with an anti-HLA-DR mAb, but not anti-HLA class I or anti-CD1 mAbs, inhibited the response of gamma delta T cells. Antibodies to gamma delta T cell receptor, CD2, CD3, or CD11a were also inhibitory, whereas antibodies to alpha beta T cell receptor, CD4, CD5, and CD8 had no effect. Although only 40-60% of freshly isolated gamma delta T cells expressed CD28, mAbs directed against CD28 or its ligand, CD80, were markedly inhibitory. Moreover, removal of CD28+ cells from the gamma delta T cell population nearly abrogated the response to DC. These results demonstrate that resting gamma delta T cells recognize and respond to MHC class II determinants on allogeneic DC in a manner that is highly dependent on the CD28 activation pathway as well as molecules such as CD2 and CD11a that mediate cell-to-cell adhesion.
M Takamizawa, F Fagnoni, A Mehta-Damani, A Rivas, E G Engleman
Dopamine and D1 agonists and NE all increase phosphatidyl inositol-specific phospholipase C (PLC) activity, but whereas dopamine produces a natriuresis, NE has an antinatriuretic effect. To determine if catecholamines differentially regulate the expression of PLC isoforms, we infused fenoldopam, a D1 agonist, or pramipexole, a D1/D2 agonist, intravenously or infused fenoldopam or NE into the renal artery of anesthetized rats. After 3-4 h of infusion, when the expected natriuresis (fenoldopam or pramipexole) or antinatriuresis (NE) occurred, the kidneys were removed for analysis of PLC isoform protein expression activity. Western blot analysis revealed that in renal cortical membranes, fenoldopam and pramipexole increased expression of PLC beta 1 and decreased expression of PLC gamma 1; PLC delta was unchanged. In the cytosol, pramipexole and fenoldopam increased expression of both PLC beta 1 and PLC gamma 1. No effects were noted in the medulla. A preferential D1 antagonist, SKF 83742, which by itself had no effect, blocked the effects of pramipexole, thus confirming the involvement of the D1 receptor. In contrast, NE also increased PLC beta 1 but did not affect PLC gamma 1 protein expression in membranes. The changes in PLC isoform expression were accompanied by similar changes in PLC isoform activity. These studies demonstrate for the first time differential regulation of PLC isoforms by catecholamines.
P Y Yu, L D Asico, G M Eisner, P A Jose
Phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) is an important membrane component for supporting activated protein C anticoagulant activity but has little influence on prothrombin activation. This difference constitutes a potential mechanism for selective inhibition of the protein C anticoagulant pathway by lupus anticoagulants and/or antiphospholipid antibodies. In this study, we demonstrate that the presence of PE augments lupus anticoagulant activity. In the plasma of some patients with lupus anticoagulants, activated protein C anticoagulant activity is more potently inhibited than prothrombin activation. As a result, in the presence of activated protein C and PE, these patient plasmas clot faster than normal plasma. Patients with minimal lupus anticoagulant activity are identified whose plasma potently inhibits activated protein C anticoagulant activity. This process is also PE dependent. In three patient plasmas, these phenomena are shown to be due to immunoglobulins. The PE requirement in the expression of activated protein C anticoagulant activity and the PE dependence of some antiphospholipid antibodies provide a mechanistic basis for the selective inhibition of the protein C pathway. Inhibition of activated protein C function may be a common mechanism contributing to increased thrombotic risk in certain patients with antiphospholipid antibodies.
M D Smirnov, D T Triplett, P C Comp, N L Esmon, C T Esmon
Flow cytometric analysis of primary ex vivo keratinocyte cultures demonstrated that stem cells, (beta 1 integrin+, keratin 1/keratin 10 [K1/K10-], proliferating cell nuclear antigen [PCNA-] [Bata-Csorgo, Zs., C. Hammerberg, J. J. Voorhees, and K. D. Cooper. 1993. J. Exp. Med. 178:1271-1281]) establish such cultures. This methodology also enabled the quantitation of synchronized recruitment of these cells from G0 into G1 of the cell cycle (PCNA expression), which preceded bright beta 1 integrin expression. (beta 1 integrinbright expression has been shown to be a characteristic feature of keratinocyte stem cells in culture (Jones, P. H., and F. M. Watt. 1993. Cell. 73:713-724). Using the above assay, we determined whether lesional T lymphocytes in psoriasis could be directly responsible for the induction of the stem cell hyperproliferation that is characteristic of this disease. Indeed, CD4+ T lymphocytes, cloned from lesional psoriatic skin and stimulated by immobilized anti-CD3 plus fibronectin, promoted psoriatic uninvolved keratinocyte stem cell proliferation via soluble factors. This induction appeared to be through accelerated recruitment of stem cells from their quiescent state (G0) into cell cycle. By contrast, normal keratinocyte stem cells exhibited no such growth stimulation. Supernatants exhibiting growth induction all contained high levels of GM-CSF and gamma-IFN, low IL-3 and TNF-alpha, and variable IL-4. Only anti-gamma-IFN antibody was able to neutralize growth stimulatory activity of the supernatants on psoriatic uninvolved keratinocyte stem cells. However, because recombinant gamma-IFN alone inhibited growth in this assay, these data suggest that, in psoriasis, gamma-IFN acts cooperatively with other growth factors in the immune induction of cell cycle progression by the normally quiescent stem cell keratinocytes.
Z Bata-Csorgo, C Hammerberg, J J Voorhees, K D Cooper
The replication of human immunodeficiency retroviruses involves a complex series of events that is regulated at both transcriptional and posttranscriptional levels. The tat gene product is a potent trans-activator of viral transcription and therefore an attractive target for the development of antiviral drugs. Tat-defective HIV-1 proviral DNA clones have been shown previously to be replication defective. In this study, we report that tat-defective HIV-1 and HIV-2 viral DNA transfected into U937 cells can direct efficient viral replication in the presence of transcriptional stimulators such as TNF-alpha and PMA. In MT-4 cells, tat-defective HIV-1 can replicate without any stimulation. The viruses recovered from MT-4 cells remained tat defective defined by their inability to infect T cell lines (e.g., Molt 4/8) although replication could be rescued with cytokines. Limited replication was observed in primary mononuclear cells. Furthermore, we showed that Ro 24-7429, a potent tat antagonist and antiviral compound, failed to suppress HIV-1 replication in TNF-alpha-stimulated T cells. These results have important implications for targeting tat as a therapeutic strategy for AIDS.
L Luznik, G Kraus, J Guatelli, D Richman, F Wong-Staal
A congenital myasthenic condition has been described in several patients characterized by a deficiency in end-plate acetylcholinesterase (AChE). The characteristic form of AChE in the end-plate basal lamina has the catalytic subunits disulfide linked to a collagen-like tail unit. Southern analysis of the gene encoding the catalytic subunits revealed no differences between patient and control DNA. Genomic DNA clones covering exon 4 and the alternatively spliced exons 5 and 6 were analyzed by nuclease protection and sequencing. Although allelic differences were detected between controls, we found no differences in exonic and intronic areas that might yield distinctive splicing patterns in patients and controls. The ACHE gene was cloned from genomic libraries from a patient and a control. Transfection of the cloned genes revealed identical species of mRNA and expressed AChE. Cotransfection of the genes expressing the catalytic subunits with a cDNA from Torpedo encoding the tail unit yielded asymmetric species that require assembly of catalytic subunits and tail unit. thus the catalytic subunits of AChE expressed in the congenital myasthenic syndrome appear identical in sequence, arise from similar splicing patterns, and assemble normally with a tail unit to form a heteromeric species.
S Camp, S Bon, Y Li, D K Getman, A G Engel, J Massoulié, P Taylor
Our goal is to use peptide epitopes that are recognized by cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) as immunogens for the development of prophylactic and therapeutic vaccines with chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection being our first therapeutic target. Because most CTL peptide epitopes are poor immunogens, we specifically modified them by covalently attaching two additional components: a T helper peptide epitope and two lipid molecules. Using the murine influenza virus CTL epitope NP 147-155 as a model system, we found this construct to be highly immunogenic, and a single injection resulted in memory CTL induction that persisted for > 1 yr. Based on the animal studies, a vaccine was designed and tested for both safety and its ability to induce a primary CTL response in normal subjects. The three vaccine components included HBV core antigen peptide 18-27 as the CTL epitope, tetanus toxoid peptide 830-843 as the T helper peptide, and two palmitic acid molecules as the lipids. A dose escalation trial (5, 50, and 500 micrograms) carried out in 26 normal subjects showed that the vaccine was safe and able to induce a primary HBV-specific CTL response. A dose-response curve was observed and five out of five subjects responded to the 500-micrograms dose.
A Vitiello, G Ishioka, H M Grey, R Rose, P Farness, R LaFond, L Yuan, F V Chisari, J Furze, R Bartholomeuz
The last exon of the C1-1NH gene was screened for point mutations in 36 unrelated hereditary angioedema patients. Mutations were found in eight patients, predicting changes in the short COOH-terminal region which anchors the reactive site loop on its COOH-terminal side. The effects of each of these mutations were examined in transiently transfected Cos-7 cells. Complete intracellular retention or degradation was observed with substitutions in the COOH-terminal strands 4B or 5B: Leu459-->Pro, Leu459-->Arg, and Pro467-->Arg were all blocked at early stages of intracellular transport, but differences in the immunofluorescence patterns indicated that a significant fraction of the Leu459-->Pro and of the Pro467-->Arg proteins reached a compartment distinct from the endoplasmic reticulum. In line with previous findings with alpha 1-antitrypsin, chain termination within strand 5B resulted in rapid degradation. Mutant Val451-->Met, in strand 1C, and mutant Pro476-->Ser, replacing the invariant proline near the COOH terminus, yielded reduced secretion, but these extracellular proteins were unable to bind the target protease C1s. Presence of low levels of both dysfunctional proteins in patient plasmas defies the conventional classification of C1 inhibitor deficiencies as type I or type II. These data point to a key role of certain residues in the conserved COOH-terminal region of serpins in determining the protein foldings compatible with transport and proper exposure of the reactive site loop.
E Verpy, E Couture-Tosi, E Eldering, M Lopez-Trascasa, P Späth, T Meo, M Tosi
In vitro studies indicate that muscarinic cholinergic inhibition of beta-adrenergic cardiac responses may be modulated in part by nitric oxide (NO). To evaluate the role of NO in parasympathetic inhibition of the beta-adrenergic contractile response in vivo, we assessed the inotropic response to dobutamine before and during bilateral vagus nerve stimulation in closed-chest dogs. Dobutamine administration and vagal stimulation were repeated during intracoronary infusion of the NO synthase inhibitor NG-monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA, 10 mumol/min) and again following infusion of L-arginine (100 mg/kg). In eight dogs, intracoronary dobutamine infusion at rates of 25 and 50 micrograms/min increased peak +dP/dt by 131 +/- 24 and 168 +/- 22%, respectively (P < 0.0001). Vagal stimulation (2.5 Hz) attenuated the responses to dobutamine (25 and 50 micrograms/min) by 23 +/- 4 and 21 +/- 4%, respectively (P < 0.001). L-NMMA reduced (by 44-62%; P < 0.001) and L-arginine restored vagal inhibition of the dobutamine-stimulated inotropic response. In a second group of nine dogs, dobutamine was administered systemically to assure a constant concentration in the coronary circulation. Vagal stimulation (2.5 Hz) attenuated the dobutamine-stimulated inotropic response (2.5 and 5.0 micrograms/kg per min) by 40 +/- 12% and 57 +/- 8%, respectively (P < 0.004). As with intracoronary dobutamine, L-NMMA diminished and L-arginine restored vagal inhibition of the inotropic response to dobutamine. Intracoronary infusion of atropine (12 micrograms/min) abolished the vagal inhibitory effect, and intracoronary infusion of 8-bromo-cyclic GMP (1 and 10 mM) caused a dose-dependent attenuation of the dobutamine-stimulated increase in +dP/dt. These data suggest that NO mediates, at least in part, vagal inhibition of the inotropic response to beta-adrenergic stimulation by dobutamine, and thus may play a role in normal physiologic regulation of myocardial autonomic responses.
J M Hare, J F Keaney Jr, J L Balligand, J Loscalzo, T W Smith, W S Colucci
We investigated potential targets for the activity of protein synthesis inhibitors against the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii. Although nanomolar concentrations of azithromycin and clindamycin prevent replication of T. gondii in both cell culture and in vivo assays, no inhibition of protein labeling was observed in either extracellular or intracellular parasites treated with up to 100 microM drug for up to 24 h. Quantitative analysis of > 300 individual spots on two-dimensional gels revealed no proteins selectively depleted by 100 microM azithromycin. In contrast, cycloheximide inhibited protein synthesis in a dose-dependent manner. Nucleotide sequence analysis of the peptidyl transferase region from genes encoding the large subunit of the parasite's ribosomal RNA predict that the cytoplasmic ribosomes of T. gondii, like other eukaryotic ribosomes, should be resistant to macrolide antibiotics. Combining cycloheximide treatment with two-dimensional gel analysis revealed a small subset of parasite proteins likely to be synthesized on mitochondrial ribosomes. Synthesis of these proteins was inhibited by 100 microM tetracycline, but not by 100 microM azithromycin or clindamycin. Ribosomal DNA sequences believed to be derived from the T. gondii mitochondrial genome predict macrolide/lincosamide resistance. PCR amplification of total T. gondii DNA identified an additional class of prokaryotic-type ribosomal genes, similar to the plastid-like ribosomal genes of the Plasmodium falciparum. Ribosomes encoded by these genes are predicted to be sensitive to the lincosamide/macrolide class of antibiotics, and may serve as the functional target for azithromycin, clindamycin, and other protein synthesis inhibitors in Toxoplasma and related parasites.
C J Beckers, D S Roos, R G Donald, B J Luft, J C Schwab, Y Cao, K A Joiner
Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) activity contributes to the vascular response to injury because ACE inhibition limits neointima formation in rat carotid arteries after balloon injury. To investigate the mechanisms by which ACE may contribute to vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation, we studied expression of ACE in vivo after injury and in vitro after growth factor stimulation. ACE activity 14 d after injury was increased 3.6-fold in the injured vessel. ACE expression, measured by immunohistochemistry, became apparent at 7 d in the neointima and at 14 d was primarily in the most luminal neointimal cells. To characterize hormones that induce ACE in vivo, cultured VSMC were exposed to steroids and growth factors. Among steroids, only glucocorticoids stimulated ACE expression with an 8.0 +/- 2.1-fold increase in activity and a 6.5-fold increase in mRNA (30 nM dexamethasone for 72 h). Among growth factors tested, only fibroblast growth factor (FGF) stimulated ACE expression (4.2 +/- 0.7-fold increase in activity and 1.6-fold increase in mRNA in response to 10 ng/ml FGF for 24 h). Dexamethasone and FGF were synergistic at the indicated concentrations inducing 50.6 +/- 12.4-fold and 32.5-fold increases in activity and mRNA expression, respectively. In addition, when porcine iliac arteries were transfected with recombinant FGF-1 (in the absence of injury), ACE expression increased in neointimal VSMC, to the same extent as injured, nontransfected arteries. The data suggest a temporal sequence for the response to injury in which FGF induces ACE, ACE generates angiotensin II, and angiotensin II stimulates VSMC growth in concert with FGF.
R S Fishel, V Thourani, S J Eisenberg, S Y Shai, M A Corson, E G Nabel, K E Bernstein, B C Berk
Conscious pigs underwent a sequence of 10 2-min coronary occlusions, each separated by 2 min of reperfusion, for three consecutive days (days 1, 2, and 3 of stage I). The recovery of systolic wall thickening (WTh) after the 10th reperfusion was markedly improved on days 2 and 3 compared with day 1, indicating that the myocardium had become preconditioned against "stunning." 10 d after stage I, pigs underwent again a sequence of 10 2-min coronary occlusions for two consecutive days (days 1 and 2 of stage II). On day 1 of stage II, the recovery of WTh after the 10th reperfusion was similar to that noted on day 1 of stage I; on day 2 of stage II, however, the recovery of WTh was again markedly improved compared with day 1. Blockade of adenosine receptors with 8-p-sulfophenyl theophylline failed to prevent the development of preconditioning against stunning. Northern blot analysis demonstrated an increase in heat stress protein (HSP) 70 mRNA 2 h after the preconditioning ischemia; at this same time point, immunohistochemical analysis revealed a concentration of HSP70 in the nucleus and an overall increase in staining for HSP70. 24 h after the preconditioning ischemia, Western dot blot analysis demonstrated an increase in HSP70. This study indicates the existence of a new, previously unrecognized cardioprotective phenomenon. The results demonstrate that a brief ischemic stress induces a powerful, long-lasting (at least 48 h) adaptive response that renders the myocardium relatively resistant to stunning 24 h later (late preconditioning against stunning). This adaptive response disappears within 10 d after the last ischemic stress but can be reinduced by another ischemic stress. Unlike early and late preconditioning against infarction, late preconditioning against stunning is not blocked by adenosine receptor antagonists, and therefore appears to involve a mechanism different from that of other forms of preconditioning currently known. The increase in myocardial HSP70 is compatible with, but does not prove, a role of HSPs in the pathogenesis of this phenomenon.
J Z Sun, X L Tang, A A Knowlton, S W Park, Y Qiu, R Bolli
Heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor (HB-EGF) is a potent chemoattractant and mitogen for smooth muscle cells (SMC) in culture. To elucidate whether HB-EGF is implicated in the pathogenesis of human atherosclerosis, we examined immunohistochemical localization of HB-EGF in human aortic walls and atherosclerotic plaques. The medial SMC of the aorta in babies and children synthesized HB-EGF protein, while the number of SMC producing HB-EGF was dramatically decreased in young and middle-aged adults. In atherosclerotic plaques, however, marked production of HB-EGF protein was detected in SMC and macrophages of the plaques. Furthermore, EGF receptors, to which HB-EGF is known to bind, were detected in plaque SMC. These data suggest that HB-EGF may be implicated in the migration and proliferation of SMC that occurs in the normal development of arterial walls, and in the formation of atherosclerotic plaques.
J Miyagawa, S Higashiyama, S Kawata, Y Inui, S Tamura, K Yamamoto, M Nishida, T Nakamura, S Yamashita, Y Matsuzawa
The process of hepatobiliary copper (Cu) secretion is still poorly understood: Cu secretion as a complex with glutathione and transport via a lysosomal pathway have been proposed. The recent cloning and sequencing of the gene for Wilson disease indicates that Cu transport in liver cells may be mediated by a Cu transporting P-type ATPase. Biochemical evidence for ATP-dependent Cu transport in mammalian systems, however, has not been reported so far. We have investigated Cu transport in rat liver plasma membrane vesicles enriched in canalicular or basolateral membranes in the presence and absence of ATP (4 mM) and an ATP-regenerating system. The presence of ATP clearly stimulated uptake of radiolabeled Cu (64Cu, 10 microM) into canalicular plasma membrane vesicles and, to a lesser extent, also into basolateral plasma membrane vesicles. ATP-dependent Cu transport was dose-dependently inhibited by the P-type ATPase inhibitor vanadate, and showed saturation kinetics with an estimated Km of 8.6 microM and a Vmax of 6.9 nmol/min/mg protein. ATP-stimulated Cu uptake was similar in canalicular membrane vesicles of normal Wistar rats and those of mutant GY rats, expressing a congenital defect in the activity of the ATP-dependent canalicular glutathione-conjugate transporter (cMOAT). These studies demonstrate the presence of an ATP-dependent Cu transporting system in isolated plasma membrane fractions of rat liver distinct from cMOAT.
M Dijkstra, G In 't Veld, G J van den Berg, M Müller, F Kuipers, R J Vonk
Z Wang, R M Wang, A A Owji, D M Smith, M A Ghatei, S R Bloom
Several transporters have been localized along the nephron by physiological methods or immunocytochemistry. However, the actual abundance of these molecules has not been established. To accomplish this goal, we have developed a fluorescence-based ELISA method and have used it to quantitate Aquaporin-CHIP (AQP-CHIP) water channel protein in rat kidney tubules. Microdissected tubules (2 mm/sample, permeabilized with 0.5% Triton X-100) or purified AQP-CHIP standards (0-200 fmol) were utilized in a fluorescence ELISA protocol after covalent immobilization on epoxy-activated Sepharose beads. The lower limit of detection was 2.4 fmol of AQP-CHIP. Preabsorption with excess purified AQP-CHIP or use of nonimmune serum eliminated the signal. In proximal segments, the measured AQP-CHIP was linearly related to tubule length (1-10 mm). The measured AQP-CHIP was (mean +/- SE, fmol/mm): S-1 proximal, 10.8 +/- 2.1; S-2, 10.0 +/- 2.3; S-3, 21.3 +/- 3.1; type 1 thin descending limb (DTL), 12.9 +/- 4.6; type 2 DTL, 86.5 +/- 19.5; type 3 DTL, 43.0 +/- 11.2. In thin ascending limbs, thick ascending limbs, distal convoluted tubules, connecting tubules, and collecting ducts, the AQP-CHIP signal was indistinguishable from zero. Based on the unit water conductance of single CHIP molecules, our calculations show that the content of AQP-CHIP is sufficient to explain water permeability measured in isolated proximal tubules and DTL segments.
Y Maeda, B L Smith, P Agre, M A Knepper
The effect of increased Glut4 protein expression in muscle and fat on the whole body glucose metabolism has been evaluated by the euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp technique in conscious mice. Fed and fasting plasma glucose concentrations were 172 +/- 7 and 78 +/- 7 mg/dl, respectively, in transgenic mice, and were significantly lower than that of nontransgenic littermates (208 +/- 5 mg/dl in fed; 102 +/- 5 mg/dl in fasting state). Plasma lactate concentrations were higher in transgenic mice, (6.5 +/- 0.7 mM in the fed and 5.8 +/- 1.0 mM in fasting state) compared with that of non-transgenic littermates (4.7 +/- 0.3 mM in the fed and 4.2 +/- 0.5 mM in fasting state). In the fed state, the rate of whole body glucose disposal was 70% higher in transgenic mice in the basal state, 81 and 54% higher during submaximal and maximal insulin stimulation. In the fasting state, insulin-stimulated whole body glucose disposal was also higher in the transgenic mice. Hepatic glucose production after an overnight fast was 24.8 +/- 0.7 mg/kg per min in transgenic mice, and 25.4 +/- 2.7 mg/kg per min in nontransgenic mice. Our data demonstrate that overexpression of Glut4 protein in muscle increases basal as well as insulin-stimulated whole body glucose disposal. These results suggest that skeletal muscle glucose transport is rate-limiting for whole body glucose disposal and that the Glut4 protein is a potential target for pharmacological or genetic manipulation for treatment of patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus.
J M Ren, B A Marshall, M M Mueckler, M McCaleb, J M Amatruda, G I Shulman