In the early development of atherosclerotic plaque, monocytes are recruited to the arterial intima where they accumulate lipid and become foam cells. The recently described murine chemotactic S100 protein, CP-10, may have an important role in this process. Intraperitoneal injection of CP-10(42-55) (chemotactic hinge region peptide) into mice caused a sustained leukocyte recruitment with a sixfold increase in monocyte numbers over 24 h. CP-10(42-55)--elicited monocyte/macrophages accumulated significantly increased cholesteryl esters in response to acetylated LDL, both in vivo and in vitro and this was associated with a twofold increase in scavenger receptor expression. By contrast, thioglycollate- and macrophage colony-stimulating factor-elicited macrophages expressed levels of scavenger receptor similar to those on resident macrophages and did not exhibit enhanced acetylated LDL loading in vitro. The leukocyte integrin Mac-1 (CD11b/CD18) and its beta subunit (CD18), but neither lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 nor very late activation antigen-4, were upregulated on monocyte/macrophages elicited by CP-10(42-55), thioglycollate, and macrophage colony-stimulating factor. Cholesteryl ester accumulation in vitro was significantly enhanced by adhesion, which appeared to involve macrophage activation via ligation of Mac-1. The initial events of monocyte recruitment and adhesion to the vessel wall may be important in macrophage foam cell development, and CP-10 or related S100 proteins may contribute to the early inflammatory events of atherogenesis by stimulating these events.
W Lau, J M Devery, C L Geczy
Glucokinase and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase are key enzymes of glucose metabolism in the rat liver. The former is considered to be instrumental in regulating glucose hepatic release/uptake according to the glycaemia level, and cytosolic phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase is a major flux-generating enzyme for gluconeogenesis. The level of expression of both enzymes and the regulation of their mRNAs in the human liver cell were investigated. Surgical biopsies of liver from patients undergoing partial hepatectomies and parenchymal hepatocytes derived from the biopsies were used to assay glucokinase, hexokinase and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase activities. Hepatocytes were placed in culture and the actions of insulin, glucagon and cAMP on glucokinase and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase mRNAs were studied. The main results are: (a) glucokinase accounts for 95% of the glucose phosphorylation activity of human hepatocytes, although this fact is masked in assays of total liver tissue; (b) glucokinase activity is set at a lower level in human hepatocytes than in rat hepatocytes, and vice-versa for the gluconeogenic enzyme phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase; and (c) as previously shown in rat liver, glucokinase and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase mRNAs are regulated in a reciprocal fashion in human hepatocytes, insulin inducing the first enzyme and repressing the latter, whereas glucagon has opposite effects. These data have interesting implications with respect to metabolic regulation and intracellular hormone signaling in the human liver.
P B Iynedjian, S Marie, A Gjinovci, B Genin, S P Deng, L Buhler, P Morel, G Mentha
This paper demonstrates and characterizes naturally occurring antibodies to interferon (IFN) in human IgG preparations. In vitro neutralization of the antiviral effect of IFN alpha and IFN beta, but not IFN gamma, was observed in 12 of 15 normal IgG preparations. The neutralizing capacity was higher against rIFN alpha 2A and rIFN alpha 2C than against lymphoblastoid IFN alpha and IFN beta. Frühsommer meningoencephalitis hyperimmune IgG and hepatitis-B hyperimmune IgG showed potent neutralization, whereas anti-rhesus D-, anti-rabies-, and anti-tetanus IgG showed weak neutralization. Saturable binding of 125I-rIFN alpha 2A was demonstrated only in those IgG preparations found to neutralize the antiviral effect of IFN. Significant correlation between IFN binding and neutralization capacity was observed. The antibodies bound with Fab to rIFN alpha 2A with an avidity of approximately 30 pM; the majority was of the IgG1 subclass. Maximum binding capacity was 490 pg rIFN alpha 2A/mg IgG. Cross-binding of rIFN alpha 2C, lyIFN alpha N1 and IFN beta occurred with 10 and 100-200 times lower activities than that of rIFN alpha 2A. There was no cross-binding with rIFN gamma or rIL-6. IgG preparations containing anti-IFN antibodies blocked the binding of 125I-rIFN alpha 2A to A549 cells. In conclusion, pharmaceutically prepared human IgG preparations contain variable but significant levels of high-avidity IFN alpha and IFN beta neutralizing antibodies.
C Ross, M Svenson, M B Hansen, G L Vejlsgaard, K Bendtzen
This work was carried out to investigate the effect of alcohol drinking on serum LDL. Agarose gel electrophoresis showed that LDL samples from alcoholic patients without serious liver disease were more negatively charged and moved faster toward the cathode than LDL from nondrinking control subjects. Rabbit antibodies raised by using keyhole limpet hemocyanin modified in vitro by 4-hydroxynonenal or by acetaldehyde as immunogens reacted more strongly with patients' LDL than with control LDL, indicating the presence of oxidatively modified epitopes and acetaldehyde adducts in alcoholic patients' LDL. LDL of alcoholic patients has decreased vitamin E contents. The electromobility of LDL decreased after abstinence from alcohol and returned to normal in 2 wk, but this was not accompanied by a significant increase in its vitamin E contents. When incubated with mouse peritoneal macrophages, patients' LDL induced apolipoprotein E secretion by threefold over control LDL with a concomitant increase in cellular cholesterol. Our results thus demonstrate that LDL of alcoholic patients has lower vitamin E content, is chemically modified in vivo, and exhibits altered biological function. These changes in heavy alcoholic drinkers may render LDL more atherogenic and thereby may counter the antiatherosclerosis effects of moderate alcohol consumption.
R C Lin, J Dai, L Lumeng, M Y Zhang
The antithrombotic effects of bovine activated protein C (APC) and protein S were investigated in a rabbit model of microarterial thrombosis. Because of the species specificity of the APC-protein S interaction, bovine APC expresses potent anticoagulant activity in rabbit plasma only when bovine protein S is also present. This provided a way to assess the contribution of bovine protein S to the antithrombotic effect of bovine APC. Rabbits were infused with boluses of activated protein C (0.1, 0.2, 0.4, or 0.8 mg/kg), protein S (0.5 mg/kg), or activated protein C (0.1 or 0.01 mg/kg) plus protein S (0.5 mg/kg). APC alone produced a dose-dependent antithrombotic effect, but only the group receiving the highest dose differed significantly from controls. While a low dose of activated protein C (0.1 mg/kg) alone had no antithrombotic effect, together with protein S (0.5 mg/kg) it produced a potent response. The presented results demonstrate the in vivo significance of protein S as a cofactor to activated protein C. The data show that a potent antithrombotic effect, without hemorrhagic side effects or significant systemic anticoagulation, may be achieved by low doses of activated protein C when combined with protein S.
B Arnljots, B Dahlbäck
Various growth factors are suggested to be involved in gastric mucosal repair. Our previous studies have shown that exogenous hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) has a proliferative effect on gastric epithelial cells. In the present study, comparison of the maximum proliferative effects and the optimum concentrations of several growth factors revealed that HGF was the most potent mitogen for gastric epithelial cells, as is the case for hepatocytes. Restitution of gastric epithelial cell monolayers was assessed using a round wound restitution model. HGF was the most effective agent for facilitating gastric epithelial restitution among those tested. A binding assay revealed specific binding of HGF to its receptor on gastric epithelial cells. Northern blot analysis confirmed the expression of specific HGF receptor mRNA (c-met) by gastric epithelial cells but not by gastric fibroblasts. To investigate endogenous HGF production, we determined the effect of gastric fibroblast-conditioned medium on epithelial proliferation and restitution. The conditioned medium produced similar effects to HGF and its activity was neutralized by an anti-HGF antibody. In addition, expression of HGF mRNA was detected in gastric fibroblasts but not in gastric epithelial cells. Our immunohistochemical study confirmed these in vitro data by means of demonstrating the existence and localization of HGF at human native gastric mucosa. HGF was localized at fibroblasts under the epithelial cell layer around gastric ulcers. These results suggest that HGF may be a potent endogenous promotor of gastric epithelial cell proliferation and migration, and may contribute to gastric mucosal repair through a paracrine mechanism.
M Takahashi, S Ota, T Shimada, E Hamada, T Kawabe, T Okudaira, M Matsumura, N Kaneko, A Terano, T Nakamura
Toxin A but not toxin B, appears to mediate intestinal damage in animal models of Clostridium difficile enteritis. The purpose of this study was to investigate the electrophysiologic and morphologic effects of purified C. difficile toxins A and B on human colonic mucosa in Ussing chambers. Luminal exposure of tissues to 16-65 nM of toxin A and 0.2-29 nM of toxin B for 5 h caused dose-dependent epithelial damage. Potential difference, short-circuit current and resistance decreased by 76, 58, and 46%, respectively, with 32 nM of toxin A and by 76, 55, and 47%, respectively, with 3 nM of toxin B, when compared with baseline (P < 0.05). 3 nM of toxin A did not cause electrophysiologic changes. Permeability to [3H]mannitol increased 16-fold after exposure to 32 nM of toxin A and to 3 nM of toxin B when compared with controls (P < 0.05). Light and scanning electron microscopy after exposure to either toxin revealed patchy damage and exfoliation of superficial epithelial cells, while crypt epithelium remained intact. Fluorescent microscopy of phalloidin-stained sections showed that both toxins caused disruption and condensation of cellular F-actin. Our results demonstrate that the human colon is approximately 10 times more sensitive to the damaging effects of toxin B than toxin A, suggesting that toxin B may be more important than toxin A in the pathogenesis of C. difficile colitis in man.
M Riegler, R Sedivy, C Pothoulakis, G Hamilton, J Zacherl, G Bischof, E Cosentini, W Feil, R Schiessel, J T LaMont
Angiotensin II (Ang II) is an important regulator of proximal tubule salt and water reabsorption. Recent studies indicate that rabbit proximal tubule angiotensin II receptors are the type-1 (AT1R) subtype. We studied the effect of Ang II on proximal tubule receptor expression. Rabbits were treated with either angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors or a low salt diet to modulate endogenous Ang II levels. In captopril-treated rabbits, liver and glomerular AT1R mRNA levels increased 242 +/- 125 and 141 +/- 60%, respectively (n = 6-7; P < 0.05), as determined by quantitative PCR. In contrast, proximal tubule AT1R mRNA levels decreased 40 +/- 11% (n = 6; P < 0.05). Binding of 125I Ang II to renal cortical basolateral membranes of captopril-treated rabbits decreased from 2.9 +/- 0.55 to 1.4 +/- 0.17 fmol/mg protein (n = 6; P < 0.025). In rabbits fed a sodium chloride-deficient diet for 4 wk, AT1R mRNA levels decreased 52 +/- 11% in liver and 43 +/- 7% in glomeruli (n = 4-5; P < 0.05), whereas they increased 141 +/- 85% (n = 5; P < 0.05) in proximal tubule. In basolateral membranes from rabbits on the sodium chloride-deficient diet, specific binding of 125I Ang II increased from 2.1 +/- 0.2 to 4.3 +/- 1.1 fmol/mg protein (n = 7; P < 0.05). To determine whether Ang II directly regulates expression of proximal tubule AT1 receptors, further studies were performed in cultured proximal tubule cells grown from microdissected S1 segments of rabbit proximal tubules and immortalized by transfection with a replication-defective SV40 vector. Incubation of these cells with Ang II (10(-11) to 10(-7) M) led to concentration-dependent increases in both AT1R mRNA levels and specific 125I Ang II binding. Pretreatment with pertussis toxin inhibited Ang II stimulation of AT1R mRNA. AT1R mRNA expression was decreased by either forskolin or a nonhydrolyzable cAMP analogue (dibutryl cAMP). Simultaneous Ang II administration overcame the inhibitory effect of forskolin but not dibutryl cAMP. These results indicate that proximal tubule AT1R expression is regulated by ambient Ang II levels, and Ang II increases AT1R mRNA at least in part by decreasing proximal tubule cAMP generation through a pertussis toxin-sensitive mechanism. Upregulation of proximal tubule AT1R by Ang II may be important in mediating enhanced proximal tubule sodium reabsorption in states of elevated systemic or intrarenal Ang II.
H F Cheng, B N Becker, K D Burns, R C Harris
Oxidized LDL has been previously reported to suppress the expression of genes induced in mononuclear phagocytes by inflammatory stimuli. In this study we extend these findings to demonstrate that the suppressive effects of oxidized LDL vary depending upon the gene being monitored and the stimulus being used to induce or enhance its expression. The expression of a selection of LPS-inducible genes exhibited differential sensitivity to pretreatment with oxidized LDL. Furthermore, the ability of oxidized LDL to suppress gene expression varied markedly with the inducing stimulus used. TNF alpha and IP-10 mRNA expression induced by IFN gamma and IL-2 was markedly more sensitive to suppression by oxidized LDL than that induced by LPS. The cooperative effects of IFN gamma and LPS on the expression of the inducible nitric oxide synthase gene were suppressed by oxidized LDL while the antagonistic effect of IFN gamma on LPS-induced expression of the TNF receptor type II mRNA was not altered. The suppressive activity of LDL was acquired only after extensive oxidation and was localized in the extractable lipid component. These results suggest a potent and direct connection between the oxidative modification of LDL and the chronic inflammation seen in atherogenic lesions. Furthermore, the appreciable selectivity of oxidized LDL in mediating secondary control of cytokine gene expression demonstrates that the active material(s) is targeted to disrupt specific intracellular signaling pathways.
T A Hamilton, J A Major, G M Chisolm
We have shown recently that in the dog progestin administration results in mammary production of immunoreactive growth hormone (GH). At present we demonstrate the expression of the gene encoding GH in the mammary gland of dogs and cats using reverse-transcriptase PCR. GH mRNA was found in the great majority of normal mammary tissues as well as benign and malignant mammary tumors of the dog and was associated with the presence of immunoreactive GH in cryostat sections. The mammary PCR product proved to be identical to that of the pituitary. The highest expression levels were found after prolonged treatment with progestins. In carcinomas GH mRNA was also found in progesterone receptor-negative tissue samples, indicating that after malignant transformation GH gene expression may become progestin independent. GH mRNA was also present in mammary tissues of cats with progestin-induced fibroadenomatous changes. It is concluded that GH gene expression occurs in normal, hyperplastic, and neoplastic mammary tissue of the dog. The expression in normal tissue is stimulated by progestins and might mediate the progestin-stimulated development of canine mammary tumors. The demonstration of progestin-stimulated GH expression in mammary tissue of cats indicates that the phenomenon is more generalized among mammals.
J A Mol, E van Garderen, P J Selman, J Wolfswinkel, A Rijinberk, G R Rutteman
5-Lipoxygenase (5-LO) and 5-lipoxygenase-activating protein (FLAP) are two key proteins involved in the synthesis of leukotrienes (LT) from arachidonic acid. Although both alveolar macrophages (AM) and peripheral blood leukocytes (PBL) produce large amounts of LT after activation, 5-LO translocates from a soluble pool to a particulate fraction upon activation of PBL, but is contained in the particulate fraction in AM irrespective of activation. We have therefore examined the subcellular localization of 5-LO in autologous human AM and PBL collected from normal donors. While immunogold electron microscopy demonstrated little 5-LO in resting PBL, resting AM exhibited abundant 5-LO epitopes in the euchromatin region of the nucleus. The presence of substantial quantities of 5-LO in the nucleus of resting AM was verified by cell fractionation and immunoblot analysis and by indirect immunofluorescence microscopy. In both AM and PBL activated by A23187, all of the observable 5-LO immunogold labeling was found associated with the nuclear envelope. In resting cells of both types, FLAP was predominantly associated with the nuclear envelope, and its localization was not affected by activation with A23187. The effects of MK-886, which binds to FLAP, were examined in ionophore-stimulated AM and PBL. Although MK-886 inhibited LT synthesis in both cell types, it failed to prevent the translocation of 5-LO to the nuclear envelope. These results indicate that the nuclear envelope is the site at which 5-LO interacts with FLAP and arachidonic acid to catalyze LT synthesis in activated AM as well as PBL, and that in resting AM the euchromatin region of the nucleus is the predominant source of the translocated enzyme. In addition, LT synthesis is a two-step process consisting of FLAP-independent translocation of 5-LO to the nuclear envelope followed by the FLAP-dependent activation of the enzyme.
J W Woods, M J Coffey, T G Brock, I I Singer, M Peters-Golden
The pathogeneses of parathyroid disease in patients with uremia and nonfamilial primary parathyroid hyperplasia are poorly understood. Because of multigland involvement, it has been assumed that these common diseases predominantly involve polyclonal (non-neoplastic) cellular proliferations, but an overall assessment of their clonality has not been done. We examined the clonality of these hyperplastic parathyroid tumors using X-chromosome inactivation analysis with the M27 beta (DXS255) DNA polymorphism and by searching for monoclonal allelic losses at M27 beta and at loci on chromosome band 11q13. Fully 7 of 11 informative hemodialysis patients (64%) with uremic refractory hyperparathyroidism harbored at least one monoclonal parathyroid tumor (with a minimum of 12 of their 19 available glands being monoclonal). Tumor monoclonality was demonstrable in 6 of 16 informative patients (38%) with primary parathyroid hyperplasia. Histopathologic categories of nodular versus generalized hyperplasia were not useful predictors of clonal status. These observations indicate that monoclonal parathyroid neoplasms are common in patients with uremic refractory hyperparathyroidism and also develop in a substantial group of patients with sporadic primary parathyroid hyperplasia, thereby changing our concept of the pathogenesis of these diseases. Neoplastic transformation of preexisting polyclonal hyperplasia, apparently due in large part to genes not yet implicated in parathyroid tumorigenesis and possibly including a novel X-chromosome tumor suppressor gene, is likely to play a central role in these disorders.
A Arnold, M F Brown, P Ureña, R D Gaz, E Sarfati, T B Drüeke
CD8 T cells are divided into naive and memory subsets according to both function and phenotype. In HIV-negative children, the naive subset is present at high frequencies, whereas memory cells are virtually absent. Previous studies have shown that the overall number of CD8 T cells does not decrease in HIV-infected children. In studies here, we use multiparameter flow cytometry to distinguish naive from memory CD8 T cells based on expression of CD11a, CD45RA, and CD62L. With this methodology, we show that within the CD8 T cell population, the naive subset decreases markedly (HIV+ vs. HIV-, 190 vs. 370 cells/microliter; P < or = 0.003), and that there is a reciprocal increase in memory cells, such that the total CD8 T cell counts remained unchanged (800 vs. 860 cells/microliter; P < or = 0.76). In addition, we show that for HIV-infected children, the naive CD8 T cell and total CD4 T cell counts correlate (chi 2 P < or = 0.001). This correlated loss suggests that the loss of naive CD8 T cells in HIV infection may contribute to the defects in cell-mediated immunity which become progressively worse as the HIV disease progresses and CD4 counts decrease.
R L Rabin, M Roederer, Y Maldonado, A Petru, L A Herzenberg, L A Herzenberg
We show here that CD8 naive T cells are depleted during the asymptomatic stage of HIV infection. Although overall CD8 T cell numbers are increased during this stage, the naive CD8 T cells are progressively lost and fall in parallel with overall CD4 T cell counts. In addition, we show that naive CD4 T cells are preferentially lost as total CD4 cell counts fall. These findings, presented here for adults, and in the accompanying study for children, represent the first demonstration that HIV disease involves the loss of both CD4 T cells and CD8 T cells. Furthermore, they provide a new insight into the mechanisms underlying the immunodeficiency of HIV-infected individuals, since naive T cells are required for all new T cell-mediated immune responses. Studies presented here also show that the well-known increase in total CD8 counts in most HIV-infected individuals is primarily due to an expansion of memory cells. Thus, memory CD8 T cells comprise over 80% of the T cells in PBMC from individuals with < 200 CD4/microliter, whereas they comprise roughly 15% in uninfected individuals. Since the naive and memory subsets have very different functional activities, this altered naive/memory T cell representation has significant consequences for the interpretation of data from in vitro functional studies.
M Roederer, J G Dubs, M T Anderson, P A Raju, L A Herzenberg, L A Herzenberg
To obtain information on the mechanisms of hepatocellular damage and the determinants of response to interferon, hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype, tissue HCV antigens, hepatocellular expression of HLA-A,B,C and intercellular adhesion-1 molecules, and the number of lobular T lymphocytes were studied in 38 anti-HCV-positive patients. 14 patients did not show a primary response to interferon treatment. HCV genotype 1b was detected in 11 of them. They displayed higher scores of HCV-positive hepatocytes, HLA-A,B,C, and ICAM-1 molecules expression than with the responders. HCV-infected hepatocytes maintained the capacity to express HLA-A,B,C and ICAM-1 molecules. CD8-positive T cells in contact with infected hepatocytes and Councilman-like bodies were observed. A significant correlation was found between the number of lobular CD8-positive T cells and alanine amino transferase levels. No differences were observed in clinical, biochemical, and histological features between patients with high and low number of hepatocytes containing HCV antigens. These data suggest a prominent role of T cell-mediated cytotoxicity in the genesis of hepatocellular damage. The high expression of interferon-inducible antigens like HLA-A,B,C molecules suggests the presence of strong activation of the interferon system possibly related to high HCV replication in nonresponder patients infected with genotype 1b.
G Ballardini, P Groff, P Pontisso, F Giostra, R Francesconi, M Lenzi, D Zauli, A Alberti, F B Bianchi
Human trifunctional protein catalyzes three steps in mitochondrial beta-oxidation of fatty acids, including the long chain 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase step. Deficiency of this heterocomplex, which contains 4 alpha and 4 beta subunits, causes sudden unexplained infant death, a Reye-like syndrome, cardiomyopathy, or skeletal myopathy. We determined the molecular basis of this deficiency in a patient with neonatal presentation and later sudden death using reverse transcription and PCR amplification of his alpha subunit mRNA. We demonstrated a universal deletion of exon 3 (71 bp) in his mRNA. This deletion causes a frameshift and very early premature termination. Amplification of genomic DNA demonstrated that the patient was a compound heterozygote with two different mutations in the 5' donor splice site following exon 3: a paternally inherited G to A transversion at the invariant position +1 and a maternally inherited A to G mutation at position +3. Both allelic mutations apparently cause exon 3 skipping, resulting in undetectable levels of alpha subunit protein, and complete loss of trifunctional protein. This is the initial molecular characterization of trifunctional protein deficiency.
J C Brackett, H F Sims, P Rinaldo, S Shapiro, C K Powell, M J Bennett, A W Strauss
An inducible nitric oxide synthase has recently been described in proximal tubule epithelium. To investigate the effects of proximal tubule NO on Na+/K(+)-ATPase, we induced NO production in mouse proximal tubule epithelial cells by treatment with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and interferon-gamma (IFN gamma) followed by determinations of ouabain-sensitive ATPase activity. Na+/K(+)-ATPase activity decreased after 4 h of LPS/IFN gamma treatment, reaching maximal inhibition after 24 h (34% reduction in activity). The inhibition of Na+/K(+)-ATPase activity by LPS/IFN gamma was prevented by simultaneous incubation with N omega-nitro L-arginine and markedly blunted by removal of L-arginine from the medium. The NO donors sodium nitroprusside and SIN-1 also inhibited Na+/K(+)-ATPase activity to a similar extent than LPS/IFN gamma. However, treatment with 8-pCPT-cGMP only modestly reduced Na+/K(+)-ATPase activity. Interestingly, superoxide dismutase prevented the inhibitory effects of NO on Na+/K(+)-ATPase activity, suggesting a role for peroxynitrite in this inhibition. We conclude that NO generated by mouse proximal tubule epithelial cell iNOS inhibits Na/K ATPase activity in an autocrine fashion and that this inhibition is accompanied by a reduction in Na-dependent solute transport.
N J Guzman, M Z Fang, S S Tang, J R Ingelfinger, L C Garg
We have studied the degradation of type X collagen by metalloproteinases, cathepsin B, and osteoclast-derived lysates. We had previously shown (Welgus, H. G., C. J. Fliszar, J. L. Seltzer, T. M. Schmid, and J. J. Jeffrey. 1990. J. Biol. Chem. 265:13521-13527) that interstitial collagenase rapidly attacks the native 59-kD type X molecule at two sites, rendering a final product of 32 kD. This 32-kD fragment, however, has a Tm of 43 degrees C due to a very high amino acid content, and thus remains helical at physiologic core temperature. We now report that the 32-kD product resists any further attack by several matrix metalloproteinases including interstitial collagenase, 92-kD gelatinase, and matrilysin. However, this collagenase-generated fragment can be readily degraded to completion by cathepsin B at 37 degrees C and pH 4.4. Interestingly, even under acidic conditions, cathepsin B cannot effectively attack the whole 59-kD type X molecule at 37 degrees C, but only the 32-kD collagenase-generated fragment. Most importantly, the 32-kD fragment was also degraded at acid pH by cell lysates isolated from murine osteoclasts. Degradation of the 32-kD type X collagen fragment by osteoclast lysates exhibited the following properties: (a) cleavage occurred only at acidic pH (4.4) and not at neutral pH; (b) the cysteine proteinase inhibitors E64 and leupeptin completely blocked degradation; and (c) specific antibody to cathepsin B was able to inhibit much of the lysate-derived activity. Based upon these data, we postulate that during in vivo endochondral bone formation type X collagen is first degraded at neutral pH by interstitial collagenase secreted by resorbing cartilage-derived cells. The resulting 32-kD fragment is stable at core temperature and further degradation requires osteoclast-derived cathepsin B supplied by invading bone.
U I Sires, T M Schmid, C J Fliszar, Z Q Wang, S L Gluck, H G Welgus
Integrin alpha v beta 3 is a marker of progression in malignant melanoma. Previously we reported that human melanoma cells derived from regional lymph node metastases had increased alpha v beta 3-mediated adhesion to lymph node vitronectin. In the present study, the expression and function of alpha v beta 3 were further investigated with emphasis on the functional relationship between alpha v beta 3 and the urokinase-type plasminogen activator system of proteolysis. We found that metastases-derived melanoma MeWo LNI 6I (6I) and MIM/8 LNI cells had a markedly increased expression of alpha v mRNA transcripts relative to the parent lines which was reflected in significantly elevated levels of the alpha v beta 3 heterodimers on the cell surface. These cells also expressed elevated levels of urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) mRNA and had higher levels of surface bound urokinase plasminogen activator as detected by immunolabeling. To determine whether the expression of uPAR and alpha v were linked, alpha v synthesis in the metastatic melanoma cells was suppressed using alpha v antisense phosphorothioate oligonucleotides. This resulted in a marked decrease in detectable alpha v mRNA and protein and a corresponding substratum-specific reduction in cell adhesion to vitronectin. When uPAR expression in these cells was subsequently analyzed, we found a reduction of approximately 50% in uPAR mRNA levels. On the other hand, ligation of the alpha v beta 3 receptor on the melanoma cells by immobilized antibody resulted in a twofold increase in uPAR mRNA. The results suggest that the expression of uPAR in metastatic melanoma cells is linked to the expression and function of the vitronectin receptor.
J Nip, S A Rabbani, H R Shibata, P Brodt
Iron promotes cellular damage via its capacity to catalyze hydroxyl radical formation and by peroxidation of unsaturated lipids. The major cellular iron storage depot, ferritin, acts as a critical antioxidant defense by sequestering unbound or "free" iron, limiting its participation in damaging oxidative reactions. In this study, we investigated the relationship between LDL modified by artery wall cells and the regulation of intracellular free iron levels in the mouse model and in a human aortic endothelial and smooth muscle cell coculture system. We found in response to an atherogenic diet, fatty streak-resistant C3H/HeJ mice exhibited higher levels of liver apoferritin and lower intracellular concentrations of free iron than did fatty streak-susceptible C57 BL/6J mice. Also, ferritin repressor protein mRNA was not significantly suppressed after 15 wk on the atherogenic diet in female C57BL/6J mice, which exhibit the most extensive fatty streak formation, but was significantly reduced in C3H/HeJ mice. Iron loading of coculture cells resulted in elevations of cellular free iron and enhanced LDL-induced monocyte transmigration. Pretreatment of cells with apoferritin completely abolished iron-induced LDL modification. Addition of LDL to cocultures resulted in elevations in lipid peroxidation products, intracellular free iron, apoferritin mRNA expression, and apoferritin synthesis, suggesting a possible relationship between the oxidative modification of LDL and iron metabolism.
B J Van Lenten, J Prieve, M Navab, S Hama, A J Lusis, A M Fogelman
A previous study reported the increased expression of the cytokine TNF in the adipose tissue of genetically obese rodents. To examine this paradigm in humans, we studied TNF expression in lean, obese, and reduced-obese human subjects. TNF mRNA was demonstrated in human adipocytes and adipose tissue by Northern blotting and PCR. TNF protein was quantitated by Western blotting and ELISA in both adipose tissue and the medium surrounding adipose tissue. Using quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR), TNF mRNA levels were examined in the adipose tissue of 39 nondiabetic subjects, spanning a broad range of body mass index (BMI). There was a significant increase in adipose TNF mRNA levels with increasing adiposity. There was a significant correlation between TNF mRNA and percent body fat (r = 0.46, P < 0.05, n = 23). TNF mRNA tended to decrease in very obese subjects, but when subjects with a BMI > 45 kg/m2 were excluded, there was a significant correlation between TNF mRNA and BMI (r = 0.37, P < 0.05, n = 32). In addition, there was a significant decrease in adipose TNF with weight loss. In 11 obese subjects who lost between 14 and 66 kg (mean 34.7 kg, or 26.6% of initial weight), TNF mRNA levels decreased to 58% of initial levels after weight loss (P < 0.005), and TNF protein decreased to 46% of initial levels (P < 0.02). TNF is known to inhibit LPL activity. When fasting adipose LPL activity was measured in these subjects, there was a significant inverse relationship between TNF expression and LPL activity (r = -0.39, P < 0.02, n = 39). With weight loss, LPL activity increased to 411% of initial levels. However, the magnitude of the increase in LPL did not correlate with the decrease in TNF. Thus, TNF is expressed in human adipocytes. TNF is elevated in most obese subjects and is decreased by weight loss. In addition, there is an inverse relationship between TNF and LPL expression. These data suggest that endogenous TNF expression in adipose tissue may help limit obesity in some subjects, perhaps by increasing insulin resistance and decreasing LPL.
P A Kern, M Saghizadeh, J M Ong, R J Bosch, R Deem, R B Simsolo
RA is a heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by variations in clinical manifestations, disease course, and probably response to therapeutic interventions. We have addressed the question whether genetically and potentially etiologically more homogeneous subgroups of RA patients can be defined based upon the expression of the RA-linked sequence motif in the third hypervariable region of the HLA-DRB1 gene. Genetic comparison of patients classified upon clinical manifestation and disease course demonstrated that patients with mild disease were genetically distinct from those progressing to severe and destructive disease. Specifically, rheumatoid factor (RF) negative patients preferentially expressed RA-linked HLA-DRB1 alleles with an arginine substitution in position 71, whereas the alleles with a lysine substitution in position 71 accumulated in RF+ patients. RF- patients were further subdivided based on clinical markers (time of onset of erosive disease and requirement for aggressive therapy). Clinical heterogeneity correlated with genetic heterogeneity. Patients with early erosive disease and patients requiring aggressive therapy frequently typed HLA-DRB1*04+. Patients with late erosive/nonerosive disease or a benign disease course manageable with nonaggressive treatment preferentially expressed HLA-DRB1*01 or lacked an RA-linked haplotype. These data indicate that the heterogeneity of RA reflects genetic differences. Sequence variations within the disease-linked sequence motif, as well as polymorphisms surrounding the candidate genetic element, affect pattern, course, and treatment response of RA. Amino acid position 71 in the HLA-DRB1 gene has a unique role, the understanding of which may provide important clues to disease etiology.
C M Weyand, T G McCarthy, J J Goronzy
Fluoride stimulates trabecular bone formation, whereas bisphosphonates reduce bone resorption and turnover. Fracture prevention has not been convincingly demonstrated for either treatment so far. We compared the effects of 1-yr treatment of 9-mo-old minipigs with sodium fluoride (NaF, 2 mg/kg/d p.o.) or alendronate (ALN, 4 amino-1-hydroxybutylidene bisphosphonate monosodium, 1 mg/kg/d p.o.) on the biomechanical and histomorphometric properties of pig bones. As expected, NaF increased and ALN decreased bone turnover, but in these normal animals neither changed mean bone volume. NaF reduced the strength of cancellous bone from the L4 vertebra, relative to control animals, and the stiffness (resistance to deformation) of the femora, relative to the ALN group. In the ALN-treated animals, there was a strong positive correlation between bone strength and L5 cancellous bone volume, but no such correlation was observed in the NaF group. Furthermore, the modulus (resistance to deformation of the tissue) was inversely related to NaF content and there was a relative decrease in bone strength above 0.25 mg NaF/g bone. Moreover, within the range of changes measured in this study, there was an inverse correlation between bone turnover, estimated as the percentage of osteoid surface, and modulus. These findings have relevant implications regarding the use of these agents for osteoporosis therapy.
M H Lafage, R Balena, M A Battle, M Shea, J G Seedor, H Klein, W C Hayes, G A Rodan
This study investigates the relation between myocardial oxygen consumption (MVO2), function, and high energy phosphates during severe hypoxia and reoxygenation in sheep in vivo. Graded hypoxia was performed in open-chested sheep to adjust PO2 to values where rapid depletion of energy stores occurred. Highly time-resolved 31P nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy enabled monitoring of myocardial phosphates throughout hypoxia and recovery with simultaneous MVO2 measurement. Sheep undergoing graded hypoxia (n = 5) with an arterial PO2 nadir of 13.4 +/- 0.5 mmHg, demonstrated maintained rates of oxygen consumption with large changes in coronary flow as phosphocreatine (PCr) decreased within 4 min to 40 +/- 7% of baseline. ATP utilization rate increased simultaneously 59 +/- 20%. Recovery was accompanied by marked increases in MVO2 from 2.0 +/- 0.5 to 7.2 +/- 1.9 mumol/g per min, while PCr recovery rate was 4.3 +/- 0.6 mumol/g per min. ATP decreased to 75 +/- 6% of baseline during severe hypoxia and did not recover. Sheep (n = 5) which underwent moderate hypoxia (PO2 maintained 25-35 mmHg for 10 min) did not demonstrate change in PCr or ATP. Functional and work assessment (n = 4) revealed that cardiac power increased during the graded hypoxia and was maintained through early reoxygenation. These studies show that (a) MVO2 does not decrease during oxygen deprivation in vivo despite marked and rapid decreases in high energy phosphates; (b) contractile function during hypoxia in vivo does not decrease during periods of PCr depletion and intracellular phosphate accumulation, and this may be related to marked increases in circulating catecholamines during global hypoxia. The measured creatine rephosphorylation rate is 34 +/- 11% of predicted (P < 0.01) calculated from reoxygenation parameters, which indicates that some mitochondrial respiratory uncoupling also occurs during the rephosphorylation period.
M A Portman, T A Standaert, X H Ning
Activation of cAMP-dependent protein kinase A inhibits the renal proximal tubule brush border membrane Na(+)-H+ exchanger by a process involving participation of a regulatory cofactor (NHE-RF) that is distinct from the transporter itself. Recent studies from this laboratory reported a partial amino acid sequence of this putative cofactor (Weinman, E. J., D. H. Steplock, and S. Shenolikar. 1993. J. Clin. Invest. 92:1781-1786). The present experiments detail the structure of the NHE-RF protein as determined from molecular cloning studies. A codon-biased oligonucleotide probe to a portion of the amino acid sequence of the putative cofactor was used to isolate a 1.9-kb cDNA from a rabbit renal library. The encoded protein is 358 amino acids in length and is rich in proline residues. Search of existing data bases indicates that NHE-RF is a unique protein. Using a reticulocyte lysate, the cDNA translated a product of approximately 44 kD, which was recognized by an affinity-purified polyclonal antibody to NHE-RF. Potential phosphorylation sites for protein kinase A are present. The mRNA for the protein is expressed in kidney, proximal small intestine, and liver. Reverse transcription/PCR studies in the kidney indicate the presence of mRNA for NHE-RF in several distinct nephron segments including the proximal tubule.
E J Weinman, D Steplock, Y Wang, S Shenolikar
Cytochrome P450 metabolizes arachidonic acid to several unique and biologically active compounds in rabbit liver and kidney. Microsomal fractions prepared from rabbit lung homogenates metabolized arachidonic acid through cytochrome P450 pathways, yielding cis-epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) and their hydration products, vic-dihydroxyeicosatrienoic acids, mid-chain cis-trans conjugated dienols, and 19- and 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids. Inhibition studies using polyclonal antibodies prepared against purified CYP2B4 demonstrated 100% inhibition of arachidonic acid epoxide formation. Purified CYP2B4, reconstituted in the presence of NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase and cytochrome b5, metabolized arachidonic acid, producing primarily EETs. EETs were detected in lung homogenate using gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy, providing evidence for the in vivo pulmonary cytochrome P450 epoxidation of arachidonic acid. Chiral analysis of these lung EETs demonstrated a preference for the 14(R),15(S)-, 11(S),12(R)-, and 8(S),9(R)-EET enantiomers. Both EETs and vic-dihydroxyeicosatrienoic acids were detected in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. At micromolar concentrations, methylated 5,6-EET and 8,9-EET significantly relaxed histamine-contracted guinea pig hilar bronchi in vitro. In contrast, 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid caused contraction to near maximal tension. We conclude that CYP2B4, an abundant rabbit lung cytochrome P450 enzyme, is the primary constitutive pulmonary arachidonic acid epoxygenase and that these locally produced, biologically active eicosanoids may be involved in maintaining homeostasis within the lung.
D C Zeldin, J D Plitman, J Kobayashi, R F Miller, J R Snapper, J R Falck, J L Szarek, R M Philpot, J H Capdevila
The pathophysiology of familial combined hyperlipidemia (FCHL) is unknown, but altered lipid turnover in peripheral tissues as well as hepatic overproduction of apolipoprotein B have been suggested as possible causes. In the present study, we explored whether a change in triglyceride breakdown by lipolysis in fat cells is present in FCHL. Lipolysis activation by catecholamines was examined in isolated subcutaneous adipocytes from 10 patients with FCHL and 22 healthy control subjects. Lipolysis rate was linear for at least 3 h in both groups. However, a marked (approximately 65%) decrease in the lipolytic response to noradrenaline was found in FCHL. This was also true when lipolysis was maximally stimulated at the receptor level with isoprenaline (nonselective beta-adrenergic agonist), at the adenylyl cyclase level with forskolin, or at the level of the protein kinase hormone-sensitive lipase complex with dibutyryl cAMP. The maximum enzymatic activity of hormone-sensitive lipase was decreased by approximately 40% in FCHL. On the other hand, the lipolytic sensitivity of alpha 2-, beta 1-, and beta 2-adrenoceptors was normal in this condition, as was the number and affinity of beta 1- and beta 2-adrenoceptors. Variations in the maximum lipolysis rate correlated significantly with the variations in hormone-sensitive lipase activity in the whole material, and with the serum values for triglycerides, HDL cholesterol and apoB lipoprotein within the control group, but the serum triglyceride values in FCHL were higher than this correlation predicted. In conclusion, the data demonstrate a marked resistance to the lipolytic effect of catecholamines in fat cells from patients with FCHL, in spite of normal adrenoceptor function. The lipolytic defect appears predominantly to be due to a defect in hormone-sensitive lipase, and may be of importance in the pathophysiology of FCHL.
S Reynisdottir, M Eriksson, B Angelin, P Arner
Alleles of the inducible nitric oxide synthase locus (Nos2) cosegregated highly significantly (P < 0.0001) with blood pressure in an F2 population [F2(S x MNS), n = 171] derived from a cross of inbred Dahl salt-sensitive (S) rats with Milan normotensive rats (MNS). In contrast, alleles at the constitutive brain nitric oxide synthase locus (Nos1) did not cosegregate with blood pressure in several F2 populations. Nos2 was mapped on rat chromosome 10. Nine genetic markers, including the angiotensin-converting enzyme (Ace) and Nos2 loci spanning roughly 46 cM on rat chromosome 10, all cosegregated strongly with blood pressure in the F2(S x MNS) population. Nos2 showed the highest LOD score of 6.3. Ace and Nos2 are 30 cM apart. In an F2 population [F2(S x WKY), n = 159] derived from a cross of S rats with Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats, Nos2 alleles did (P = 0.0070), but Ace alleles did not (P = 0.91), cosegregate with blood pressure. We conclude that the Nos2 locus rather than the Nos1 locus is a candidate for influencing blood pressure in the S rat. There are probably two separate but linked quantitative trait loci (QTL) for blood pressure on rat chromosome 10, one marked by Ace and the other marked by Nos2. In F2(S x MNS) functionally variant alleles at both QTL influence blood pressure, but in F2(S x WKY) only the QTL marked by Nos2 is segregating alleles influencing blood pressure.
A Y Deng, J P Rapp
The destruction of articular cartilage in immune inflammatory arthritic disease involves the proteolytic degradation of its extracellular matrix. The role of activated matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) in the chondrodestructive process was studied by identifying a selective cleavage product of aggrecan in murine arthritis models initiated by immunization with either type II collagen or proteoglycan. We conducted semiquantitative immunocytochemical studies of VDIPEN341 using a monospecific polyclonal antibody requiring the free COOH group of the COOH-terminal Asn for epitope detection. This antibody recognizes the aggrecan G1 domain fragment generated by MMP [i.e., stromelysin (SLN) or gelatinase A] cleavage of aggrecan between Asn341-Phe342 but does not recognize intact aggrecan. VDIPEN was undetectable in normal mouse cartilage but was observed in the articular cartilage (AC) of mice with collagen-induced arthritis 10 d after immunization, without histological damage and clinical symptoms. This aggrecan neoepitope was colocalized with high levels of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) in pericellular matrices of AC chondrocytes but was not seen at the articular surface at this early time. Digestion of normal (VDIPEN negative) mouse paw cryosections with SLN also produced heavy pericellular VDIPEN labeling. Computer-based image analysis showed that the amount of VDIPEN expression increased dramatically by 20 d (70% of the SLN maximum) and was correlated with GAG depletion. Both infiltration of inflammatory cells into the synovial cavity and early AC erosion were also very prominent at this time. Analysis of adjacent sections showed that both induction of VDIPEN and GAG depletion were strikingly codistributed within sites of articular cartilage damage. Similar results occurred in proteoglycan-induced arthritis, a more progressive and chronic model of inflammatory arthritis. These studies demonstrate for the first time the MMP-dependent catabolism of aggrecan at sites of chondrodestruction during inflammatory arthritis.
I I Singer, D W Kawka, E K Bayne, S A Donatelli, J R Weidner, H R Williams, J M Ayala, R A Mumford, M W Lark, T T Glant
In intact tissue studies, intestinal absorptogogues stimulate NaCl absorption that occurs via the dual operation of Na:H and Cl:HCO3 exchanges on the brush border membrane (BBM) of villus cells. To determine the cellular mechanism of action of an intestinal absorptogogue, the effect of clonidine was determined on Na:H and Cl:HCO3 exchange in rabbit ileal villus and crypt cells. Using 2,7-bis(carboxyethyl)-5,6-carboxy-fluorescein we have previously shown that recovery from an acid load occurs via Na:H exchange, whereas recovery from an alkaline load occurs via Cl:HCO3 exchange in both cells. In villus cells, the rate of recovery from a propionate-induced alkaline load was not altered by clonidine. However, clonidine stimulated recovery from an acid load induced by NH4Cl, Na removal, or amiloride. These data suggest that clonidine stimulates Na:H exchange in villus cells. In crypt cells, the rate of recovery from a propionate-induced alkaline load was also not altered by clonidine. However, in crypt cells, unlike the villus cells, clonidine inhibited recovery from an acid load induced by NH4Cl, Na removal, or amiloride. These data suggest that clonidine inhibits Na:H exchange in crypt cells. Stimulation of Na:H exchange on the BBM of villus cells would be expected to stimulate coupled NaCl absorption (which occurs by coupling of Na:H and Cl:HCO3 exchange). Inhibition of Na:H in crypt cells, known to be present only on the basolateral membrane, will acidify the cell and may inhibit Cl:HCO3 exchange on the BBM, resulting in the inhibition of HCO3 secretion.
To determine whether the impaired insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in obese individuals is associated with altered insulin receptor signaling, we measured both glucose uptake and early steps in the insulin action pathway in intact strips of human skeletal muscle. Biopsies of rectus abdominus muscle were taken from eight obese and eight control subjects undergoing elective surgery (body mass index 52.9 +/- 3.6 vs 25.7 +/- 0.9). Insulin-stimulated 2-deoxyglucose uptake was 53% lower in muscle strips from obese subjects. Additional muscle strips were incubated in the basal state or with 10(-7) M insulin for 2, 15, or 30 min. In the lean subjects, tyrosine phosphorylation of the insulin receptor and insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1), measured by immunoblotting with anti-phosphotyrosine antibodies, was significantly increased by insulin at all time points. In the skeletal muscle from the obese subjects, insulin was less effective in stimulating tyrosine phosphorylation (maximum receptor and IRS-1 phosphorylation decreased by 35 and 38%, respectively). Insulin stimulation of IRS-1 immunoprecipitable phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI 3-kinase) activity also was markedly lower in obese subjects compared with controls (10- vs 35-fold above basal, respectively). In addition, the obese subjects had a lower abundance of the insulin receptor, IRS-1, and the p85 subunit of PI 3-kinase (55, 54, and 64% of nonobese, respectively). We conclude that impaired insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in skeletal muscle from severely obese subjects is accompanied by a deficiency in insulin receptor signaling, which may contribute to decreased insulin action.
L J Goodyear, F Giorgino, L A Sherman, J Carey, R J Smith, G L Dohm
Identifying new chemotherapeutic agents and characterizing mechanisms of resistance may improve cancer treatment. The Anticancer Drug Screen of the National Cancer Institute uses 60 cell lines to identify new agents. Expression of mdr-1/P-glycoprotein was measured by quantitative PCR. Expression was detected in 39 cell lines; the highest levels were in renal and colon carcinomas. Expression was also detected in all melanomas and central nervous system tumors, but in only one ovarian carcinoma and one leukemia cell line. Using a modified version of the COMPARE program, a high correlation was found between expression of mdr-1 and cellular resistance to a large number of compounds. Evidence that these compounds are P-glycoprotein substrates includes: (a) enhancement of cytotoxicity by verapamil; (b) demonstration of cross-resistance in a multidrug-resistant cell line, (c) ability to antagonize P-glycoprotein, increasing vinblastine accumulation by decreasing efflux; and (d) inhibition of photoaffinity labeling by azidopine. Identification of many heretofore unrecognized compounds as substrates indicates that P-glycoprotein has a broader substrate specificity than previously recognized. This study confirms the validity of this novel approach and provides the basis for similar studies examining a diverse group of gene products, including other resistance mechanisms, putative drug targets, and genes involved in the cell cycle and apoptosis.
M Alvarez, K Paull, A Monks, C Hose, J S Lee, J Weinstein, M Grever, S Bates, T Fojo
Considerable evidence that alterations in protein kinase C (PKC) are intimately involved in important physiologic and pathologic processes in many cells, including colonic epithelial cells, has accumulated. In this regard, phorbol esters, a class of potent PKC activators, have been found to induce a number of cellular events in normal or transformed colonocytes. In addition, our laboratory has demonstrated that the major active metabolite of vitamin D3, 1,25(OH)2D3, also rapidly (seconds-minutes) activated PKC and increased intracellular calcium in isolated rat colonocytes. These acute responses, however, were lost in vitamin D deficiency and partially restored with the in vivo repletion of 1,25(OH)2D3. The Ca(2+)-independent or novel isoforms of PKC expressed in the rat colon and the isoform-specific responses of PKC to acute treatment with phorbol esters or 1,25(OH)2D3 have not been previously characterized. Moreover, the effects of vitamin D status on PKC isoform expression, distribution, and response to agonists are also unknown. In the present experiments, in addition to PKC-alpha, rat colonocytes were found to express the novel isoforms delta, epsilon, and zeta by Western blotting using isoform-specific PKC antibodies. The tumor-promoting phorbol ester, 12-O-tetradecanoyl phorbol 13-acetate, caused time- and concentration-dependent translocations of all these isoforms except PKC-zeta. In vitamin D deficiency, there were no alterations in colonic PKC isoform expression but significant changes in the subcellular distribution of PKC-alpha, -delta, and -zeta. Acute treatment of colonocytes from D-sufficient, but not D-deficient, rats with 1,25(OH)2D3 caused a rapid transient redistribution of only PKC-alpha from the soluble to the particulate fraction. The alterations in PKC isoform distribution and PKC-alpha responsiveness to 1,25(OH)2D3 in vitamin D deficiency were partially, but significantly, restored with 5-7 d in vivo repletion of this secosteroid. Both 12-O-tetradecanoyl phorbol 13-acetate and 1,25(OH)2D3 activated endogenous PKC, as assessed by inhibition of myristoylated alanine-rich C kinase substrate back-phosphorylation by exogenous PKC. These studies indicate that PKC-alpha, -delta, and/or -epsilon likely mediate important phorbol ester-stimulated events described in the rat colon. In contrast, PKC-alpha is implicated in the rapid (s-min) PKC-dependent events initiated by 1,25(OH)2D3 in rat colonocytes.
M Bissonnette, R K Wali, S C Hartmann, S M Niedziela, H K Roy, X Y Tien, M D Sitrin, T A Brasitus
Cell necrosis in acute experimental pancreatitis is preceded by a redistribution of digestive enzymes into a lysosomal subcellular compartment. We have investigated whether endocytosis from the acinar cell lumen might contribute to this disturbance of intracellular compartmentation. In an animal model of pancreatitis involving pancreatic bile duct ligation in opossums, we have studied in vivo endocytosis of dextran 40 and [14C]dextran 70, cationized ferritin, and horseradish peroxidase from the apical surface of acinar cells before the onset of necrosis. Marker solutions were instilled into the pancreatic duct of anesthetized animals at physiological pressure. Tissue samples obtained at intervals of up to 60 min after instillation of markers were studied by electron microscopy and electron microscope autoradiography. All markers were taken up by acinar cells in control animals and in animals with obstructed pancreatic bile ducts. Markers for membrane-mediated endocytosis (cationated ferritin and horseradish peroxidase) were transported to lysosomes in both groups. In contrast, the fluid-phase tracer dextran was transported to the secretory pathway in controls but to lysosomes after duct ligation. Since dextran and luminally present secretory proteins can be expected to follow the same route after endocytosis, our findings suggest that altered intracellular targeting of endocytosed proteases might be one mechanism by which digestive zymogens reach an intracellular compartment in which premature activation can occur. This phenomenon may be a critical and early event in the pathogenesis of biliary pancreatitis.
M M Lerch, A K Saluja, M Rünzi, R Dawra, M L Steer
We have developed a noninvasive method to estimate splanchnic glucose uptake (SGU) in humans (oral glucose clamp technique [OG-CLAMP]), which combines a hyperinsulinemic clamp with an oral glucose load (oral glucose tolerance test). We validated this method in 12 nondiabetic subjects using hepatic vein catheterization (HVC) during an oral glucose tolerance test. During HVC, splanchnic blood flow increased from 1,395 +/- 64 to 1,935 +/- 109 ml/min, returning to basal after 180 min and accounted for 45 +/- 7% of SGU in lean and 19 +/- 5% in obese subjects (P < 0.05). SGU estimated during the OG-CLAMP was 22 +/- 2% of the glucose load, and this was significantly correlated (r = 0.90, P < 0.0001) with SGU (35 +/- 4%) and with first pass SGU (24 +/- 3%; r = 0.83, P < 0.001) measured during HVC. SGU was higher in obese than in lean subjects during OG-CLAMP (27 +/- 1% vs 18 +/- 3%, P < 0.01) and HVC (44 +/- 4% vs 26 +/- 5%, P < 0.05). In conclusion, SGU during the OG-CLAMP is well correlated to SGU measured during HVC. An increase in splanchnic blood flow is a major contributor to SGU in lean subjects. SGU is increased in obese subjects as measured by both methods.
B Ludvik, J J Nolan, A Roberts, J Baloga, M Joyce, J M Bell, J M Olefsky
Although it is well established in several mammalian species that beta 3-adrenoceptors play a major role in regulating lipolysis and thermogenesis in adipose tissue, the functional existence and role of this receptor subtype in man has been controversial. We investigated whether the beta 3-adrenoceptor functionally co-exists with beta 1- and beta 2-adrenoceptors in vivo in human adipose tissue. Subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue of healthy non-obese subjects was microdialyzed with equimolar concentrations of dobutamine (selective beta 1-adrenoceptor agonist), terbutaline (selective beta 2-adrenoceptor agonist), or CGP 12177 (selective beta 3-adrenoceptor agonist). All three agents caused a rapid, sustained, concentration-dependent and significant elevation of the glycerol level in the microdialysate (lipolysis index). However, only terbutaline stimulated the nutritive blood flow in adipose tissue, as measured by an ethanol escape technique. Dobutamine and CGP 12177 was equally effective in elevating the glycerol level (maximum effect 150% above baseline). Terbutaline was significantly more effective than the other two beta-agonists (maximum effect 200% above baseline). When adipose tissue was pretreated with the beta 1/beta 2-selective adrenoceptor blocker propranolol the glycerol increasing effect of dobutamine or terbutaline was inhibited by 80-85% but the glycerol response to CGP 12177 was not influenced. It is concluded that a functional beta 3-adrenoceptor is present in vivo in man. It co-exists with beta 1- and beta 2-adrenoceptors in adipose tissue and may therefore play a role in lipolysis regulation. It appears, however, that the beta 2-adrenoceptor is the most important beta-adrenoceptor subtype for the mobilization of lipids from abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue because of its concomitant stimulatory effect on lipolysis and blood flow.
S Enocksson, M Shimizu, F Lönnqvist, J Nordenström, P Arner
We previously generated transgenic mice expressing human apolipoprotein (apo-) B and demonstrated that the plasma of chow-fed transgenic animals contained markedly increased amounts of LDL (Linton, M. F., R. V. Farese, Jr., G. Chiesa, D. S. Grass, P. Chin, R. E. Hammer, H. H. Hobbs, and S. G. Young 1992. J. Clin. Invest. 92:3029-3037). In this study, we fed groups of transgenic and nontransgenic mice either a chow diet or a diet high in fat (16%) and cholesterol (1.25%). Lipid and lipoprotein levels were assessed, and after 18 wk of diet, the extent of aortic atherosclerotic lesions in each group of animals was quantified. Compared with the female transgenic mice on the chow diet, female transgenic mice on the high-fat diet had higher plasma levels of cholesterol (312 +/- 17 vs 144 +/- 7 mg/dl; P < 0.0001) and human apo-B (120 +/- 8 vs 84 +/- 3 mg/dl; P < 0.0001). The higher human apo-B levels were due to increased plasma levels of human apo-B48; the human apo-B100 levels did not differ in animals on the two diets. In mice on the high-fat diet, most of the human apo-B48 and apo-B100 was found in LDL-sized particles. Compared with nontransgenic mice on the high-fat diet, the transgenic animals on the high-fat diet had significantly increased levels of total cholesterol (312 +/- 17 vs 230 +/- 19 mg/dl; P < 0.0001) and non-HDL cholesterol (283 +/- 17 vs 193 +/- 19 mg/dl; P < 0.0001). The extent of atherosclerotic lesion development within the ascending aorta was quantified by measuring total lesion area in 60 progressive sections, using computer-assisted image analysis. Neither the chow-fed transgenic mice nor the chow-fed nontransgenic mice had significant atherosclerotic lesions. Nontransgenic animals on the high-fat diet had relatively small atherosclerotic lesions (< 15,000 microns 2/section), almost all of which were confined to the proximal 400 microns of the aorta near the aortic valve. In contrast, transgenic animals on the high-fat diet had extensive atherosclerotic lesions (> 160,000 microns 2/section) that were widely distributed throughout the proximal 1,200 microns of the aorta. Thus, human apo-B expression, in the setting of a diet rich in fats, causes severe atherosclerosis in mice.
D A Purcell-Huynh, R V Farese Jr, D F Johnson, L M Flynn, V Pierotti, D L Newland, M F Linton, D A Sanan, S G Young
The hierarchy of diet components (e.g., protein, carbohydrate, vitamins, and minerals) influencing growth hormone (GH), insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), and their binding proteins (BP) is not well defined. Young adult rats were fed diets for 1 mo that included low protein or 60% and 40% of carbohydrate calories. We hypothesized that levels of both hormones, their dominant BPs and liver IGF-I mRNA would fall, and that part of the mechanism for decreasing serum IGF-I would be enhanced IGFBP-3 protease activity. By day 30, caloric deprivation to 40% lowered serum GH, GHBP, IGF-I and IGFBP-3, and liver IGF-I mRNA. This was the only condition resulting in body weight loss (-15%) vs 39% gain in controls. Restriction to 60% calories had no impact on BP levels, slightly lowered IGF-I (-12%) in the face of a 95% inhibition of GH levels, while allowing a modest 9% body weight gain. Protein deprivation lowered serum GH, IGF-I and IGFBP-3, and liver IGF-I mRNA, while GHBP levels were normal. The reduced total IGF-I under these dietary conditions could not be explained by an increase in IGFBP-3 protease activity, or a decrease in the association of IGF-I with IGFBP-3 and the acid labile subunit.
M H Oster, P J Fielder, N Levin, M J Cronin
We studied death of human vascular smooth muscle cells derived from coronary plaques and normal coronary arteries and aorta. Cells from normal arteries underwent death only upon removal of serum growth factors. In contrast, plaque-derived cells died even in high serum conditions, and death increased after serum withdrawal. Death was characteristically by apoptosis in both normal and plaque-derived cells, as determined by time-lapse videomicroscopy, electron microscopy, and DNA fragmentation patterns. IGF-1 and PDGF were identified as potent survival factors in serum, whereas EGF and basic fibroblast growth factor had little effect. Stable expression of bcl-2, a protooncogene that regulates apoptosis in other cell lines, protected smooth muscle cells from apoptosis, although there was no detectable difference in endogenous bcl-2 expression between cells from plaques or normal vessels. We conclude that apoptosis of human vascular smooth muscle cells is regulated by both specific gene products and local cytokines acting as survival factors. Apoptosis may therefore regulate cell mass in the normal arterial wall and the higher rates of apoptosis seen in plaque smooth muscle cells may ultimately contribute to plaque rupture and breakdown and thus to the clinical sequelae of atherosclerosis.
M R Bennett, G I Evan, S M Schwartz
The regulated expression of cyclins controls the cell cycle. Because cardiomyocytes in adult mammals withdraw permanently from the cell cycle and thus cannot regenerate after injury, we examined cyclin expression during development by comparing cyclin A-E mRNA levels in fetal and adult human hearts. Cyclin B mRNA was detectable in adult hearts, although at a level markedly lower than that in fetal hearts. Levels of cyclin C, D1, D2, D3, and E mRNA were essentially identical in the two groups. In contrast, cyclin A mRNA was undetectable in adult hearts whereas cyclin A mRNA and protein were readily detectable in fetal hearts and cardiomyocytes, respectively. We then measured cyclin A mRNA and protein levels in rat hearts at four stages of development (fetal and 2, 14, and 28 d). Cyclin A mRNA and protein levels decreased quickly after birth (to 37% at day 2) and became undetectable within 14 d, an observation consistent with reports that cardiomyocytes stop replicating in rats by the second to third postnatal week. This disappearance of cyclin A gene expression in human and rat hearts at the time cardiomyocytes become terminally differentiated suggests that cyclin A downregulation is important in the permanent withdrawal of cardiomyocytes from the cell cycle.
M Yoshizumi, W S Lee, C M Hsieh, J C Tsai, J Li, M A Perrella, C Patterson, W O Endege, R Schlegel, M E Lee
Aged epidermis displays altered drug permeability, increased susceptibility to irritant contact dermatitis, and often severe xerosis, suggesting compromise of the aged epidermal barrier. To delineate the functional, structural, and lipid biochemical basis of epidermal aging, we compared barrier function in young (20-30 yr) vs aged (> 80 yr) human subjects, and in a murine model. Baseline transepidermal water loss in both aged humans and senescent mice was subnormal. However, the aged barrier was perturbed more readily with either acetone or tape stripping (18 +/- 2 strippings vs 31 +/- 5 strippings in aged vs young human subjects, respectively). Moreover, after either acetone treatment or tape stripping, the barrier recovered more slowly in aged than in young human subjects (50 and 80% recovery at 24 and 72 h, respectively, in young subjects vs 15% recovery at 24 h in aged subjects), followed by a further delay over the next 6 d. Similar differences in barrier recovery were seen in senescent vs young mice. Although the total lipid content was decreased in the stratum corneum of aged mice (approximately 30%), the distribution of ceramides (including ceramide 1), cholesterol, and free fatty acids was unchanged. Moreover, a normal complement of esterified, very long-chain fatty acids was present. Finally, stratum corneum lamellar bilayers displayed normal substructure and dimensions, but were focally decreased in number, with decreased secretion of lamellar body contents. Thus, assessment of barrier function in aged epidermis under basal conditions is misleading, since both barrier integrity and barrier repair are markedly abnormal. These functional changes can be attributed to a global deficiency in all key stratum corneum lipids, resulting in decreased lamellar bilayers in the stratum corneum interstices. This constellation of findings may explain the increased susceptibility of intrinsically aged skin to exogenous and environmental insults.
R Ghadially, B E Brown, S M Sequeira-Martin, K R Feingold, P M Elias
Congenital nephrogenic diabetes insipidus is a recessive hereditary disorder characterized by the inability of the kidney to concentrate urine in response to vasopressin. Recently, we reported mutations in the gene encoding the water channel of the collecting duct, aquaporin-2 (AQP-2) causing an autosomal recessive form of nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI). Expression of these mutant AQP-2 proteins (Gly64Arg, Arg187Cys, Ser216Pro) in Xenopus oocytes revealed nonfunctional water channels. Here we report further studies into the inability of these missense AQP-2 proteins to facilitate water transport in Xenopus oocytes. cRNAs encoding the missense AQPs were translated with equal efficiency as cRNAs encoding wild-type AQP-2 and were equally stable. Arg187Cys AQP2 was more stable and Gly6-4Arg and Ser216Pro AQP2 were less stable when compared to wild-type AQP2 protein. On immunoblots, oocytes expressing missense AQP-2 showed, besides the wild-type 29 kDa band, an endoplasmic reticulum-retarded form of AQP-2 of approximately 32 kD. Immunoblots and immunocytochemistry demonstrated only intense labeling of the plasma membranes of oocytes expressing wild-type AQP-2. Therefore, we conclude that in Xenopus oocytes the inability of Gly64-Arg, Arg187Cys or Ser216Pro substituted AQP-2 proteins to facilitate water transport is caused by an impaired routing to the plasma membrane.
P M Deen, H Croes, R A van Aubel, L A Ginsel, C H van Os
A S Weyrich, T M McIntyre, R P McEver, S M Prescott, G A Zimmerman
When AR42J cells, an amylase-secreting pancreatic exocrine cell line, were treated with activin A, cells extended neuritelike processes, and, concomitantly, amylase-containing vesicles disappeared. Immunofluorescence and immunoelectron microscopy revealed that these processes had neurite-specific cytoskeletal architectures: neurofilaments and microtubule bundles with cross-bridges of microtubule-associated protein 2. In addition to such morphological changes, activin-treated cells exhibited a marked increase in cytoplasmic free calcium concentration in response to depolarizing concentration of potassium. Moreover, activin-treated AR42J cells expressed mRNA for alpha 1 subunit of the neuroendocrine/beta cell-type voltage-dependent calcium channel. In naive AR42J cells, a sulfonylurea compound, tolbutamide, did not affect free calcium concentration, while it induced a marked elevation of free calcium in activin-treated cells. Single channel recording of the membrane patch revealed the existence of ATP-sensitive potassium channel in activin-treated cells. These results indicate that activin A converts amylase-secreting AR42J cells to neuronlike cells. Given that pancreatic endocrine cells possess neuronlike properties and express ATP-sensitive potassium channel as well as neuroendocrine/beta cell-type voltage-dependent calcium channel, activin treatment of AR42J cells may provide an in vitro model system to study the conversion of pancreatic exocrine cells to endocrine cells in islets.
H Ohnishi, N Ohgushi, S Tanaka, H Mogami, R Nobusawa, H Mashima, M Furukawa, T Mine, O Shimada, H Ishikawa
A peptide corresponding to residues 70-80 of the TNF-alpha polypeptide was synthesized and shown to enhance human PMN-mediated killing of Plasmodium falciparum in vitro and reduced the Plasmodium chabaudi parasitemia in mice. Studies of the mechanism of action showed that the peptide, TNF(70-80), stimulated and primed PMN for an increased respiratory burst and release of granule constituents in response to a second agonist. The PMN-stimulatory activity of the peptide was inhibited by mAbs against the p55 and p75 TNF receptors and a TNF-neutralizing mAb. Analysis of PMN receptor expression showed that CR3 (CD18/CD11b) and Fc gamma RIII were upregulated by TNF(70-80), which was consistent with the peptide's ability to enhance parasite killing by PMN. The peptide, unlike TNF, did not increase the expression of adhesion molecules on endothelial cells and failed to promote binding of P. falciparum-infected erythrocytes to endothelial cells. TNF(70-80) also inhibited the TNF-induced increase in adhesion of P. falciparum-infected erythrocytes to endothelial cells. The results demonstrate that the host-protective effects of TNF can be retained while toxic effects are eliminated using a selected, characterized subunit of the cytokine.
L M Kumaratilake, D A Rathjen, P Mack, F Widmer, V Prasertsiriroj, A Ferrante
Tuberculosis has emerged as an epidemic fueled by the large number of individuals infected with the human immunodeficiency virus, especially those who are injecting drug users. We found a striking increase from 4- to 208-fold in p24 levels in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from involved sites of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection vs uninvolved sites in three HIV+ patients. We used an in vitro cell culture model to determine if tuberculosis could activate replication of HIV-1. Mononuclear phagocyte cell lines U937 and THP-1 infected with HIV-1JR-CSF, in vitro and stimulated with live M. tuberculosis H37Ra, had a threefold increase in p24 in culture supernatants. Using the HIV-1 long terminal repeat with a chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) reporter construct, live M. tuberculosis increased transcription 20-fold in THP-1 cells, and cell wall components stimulated CAT expression to a lesser extent. The nuclear factor-kappa B enhancer element was responsible for the majority of the increased CAT activity although two upstream nuclear factor-IL6 sites may also contribute to enhanced transcription. Antibodies to TNF-alpha and IL-1 inhibited the increase in CAT activity of the HIV-1 long terminal repeat by M. tuberculosis from 21-fold to 8-fold. Stimulation of HIV-1 replication by M. tuberculosis may exacerbate dysfunction of the host immune response in dually infected individuals.
Y Zhang, K Nakata, M Weiden, W N Rom
Reductions in bone density are a major determinant of vertebral fractures in the elderly population. However, women have a greater incidence of fractures than men, although their spinal bone densities are comparable. Recent observations indicate that women have 20-25% smaller vertebrae than men after accounting for differences in body size. To assess whether elderly women with vertebral fractures have smaller vertebrae than women who do not experience fractures, we reviewed 1,061 computed tomography bone density studies and gathered 32-matched pairs of elderly women, with reduced bone density, whose main difference was absence or presence of vertebral fractures. Detailed measurements of the dimensions of unfractured vertebrae and the moment arm of spinal musculature from T12 to L4 were calculated from computed tomography images in the 32 pairs of women matched for race, age, height, weight, and bone density. The cross-sectional area of unfractured vertebrae was 4.9-11.5% (10.5 +/- 1.4 vs 9.7 +/- 1.5 cm2; P < 0.0001) smaller and the moment arm of spinal musculature was 3.2-7.4% (56.4 +/- 5.1 vs 53.1 +/- 4.4 mm; P < 0.0001) shorter in women with fractures, implying that mechanical stress within intact vertebral bodies for equivalent loads is 5-17% greater in women with fractures compared to women without fractures. Such significant variations are very likely to contribute to vertebral fractures in osteoporotic women.
V Gilsanz, M L Loro, T F Roe, J Sayre, R Gilsanz, E E Schulz
Accelerated protein glycation in diabetes has been mechanistically linked to the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy. Because glycated albumin induces abnormalities in cultured mesangial cells that resemble those characterizing the glomerular mesangium in diabetes, and monoclonal antibodies (A717) specific for Amadori-modified glycated albumin prevent these abnormalities, we postulated that in vivo administration of A717 could retard the progression of diabetic nephropathy. To test this hypothesis, diabetic db/db mice and their nondiabetic db/m littermates were treated with eight consecutive weekly injections of 150 micrograms of A717 (Fab fragments) to reduce the elevated plasma glycated albumin concentration, or with irrelevant murine IgG (MIg). Relative to nondiabetics, diabetic mice (MIg treated) manifested proteinuria (3.35 +/- 0.15 vs 0.87 +/- 0.1 mg albumin/mg creatinine), 3.8-fold increase in mesangial matrix fraction, and renal cortical overexpression of mRNAs encoding alpha 1(IV) collagen (2.6-fold increase) and fibronectin (3.8-fold increase). Treatment of db/db mice with A717 significantly reduced the proteinuria (1.52 +/- 0.3 mg/mg creatinine), inhibited mesangial matrix expansion, and attenuated overexpression of matrix mRNAs. The nephropathic protective effects of A717 were independent of any change in blood glucose concentrations. Antibodies unreactive with glycated albumin did not duplicate the beneficial effects of A717. Thus, abrogating the biologic effects of increased glycated albumin with A717 has a salutary influence on the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy and has novel therapeutic potential in its management.
M P Cohen, K Sharma, Y Jin, E Hud, V Y Wu, J Tomaszewski, F N Ziyadeh
We have explored the expression of the transcription factors GATA-1, GATA-2, and NF-E2 in purified early hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPCs) induced to gradual unilineage erythroid or granulocytic differentiation by growth factor stimulus. GATA-2 mRNA and protein, already expressed in quiescent HPCs, is rapidly induced as early as 3 h after growth factor stimulus, but then declines in advanced erythroid and granulocytic differentiation and maturation. NF-E2 and GATA-1 mRNAs and proteins, though not detected in quiescent HPCs, are gradually induced at 24-48 h in both erythroid and granulocytic culture. Beginning at late differentiation/early maturation stage, both transcription factors are further accumulated in the erythroid pathway, whereas they are suppressed in the granulopoietic series. Similarly, the erythropoietin receptor (EpR) is induced and sustainedly expressed during erythroid differentiation, although beginning at later times (i.e., day 5), whereas it is barely expressed in the granulopoietic pathway. In the first series of functional studies, HPCs were treated with antisense oligomers targeted to transcription factor mRNA: inhibition of GATA-2 expression caused a decreased number of both erythroid and granulocyte-monocytic clones, whereas inhibition of NF-E2 or GATA-1 expression induced a selective impairment of erythroid colony formation. In a second series of functional studies, HPCs treated with retinoic acid were induced to shift from erythroid to granulocytic differentiation (Labbaye et al. 1994. Blood. 83:651-656); this was coupled with abrogation of GATA-1, NF-E2, and EpR expression and conversely enhanced GATA-2 levels. These results indicate the expression and key role of GATA-2 in the early stages of HPC proliferation/differentiation. Conversely, NF-E2 and GATA-1 expression and function are apparently restricted to erythroid differentiation and maturation: their expression precedes that of the EpR, and their function may be in part mediated via the EpR.
C Labbaye, M Valtieri, T Barberi, E Meccia, B Masella, E Pelosi, G L Condorelli, U Testa, C Peschle
Isocapnic dry gas hyperventilation provokes hyperpnea-induced bronchoconstriction in guinea pigs by releasing tachykinins from airway sensory C-fiber neurons. It is unknown whether dry gas hyperpnea directly stimulates C-fibers to release tachykinins, or whether this physical stimulus initiates a mediator cascade that indirectly stimulates C-fiber tachykinin release. We tested the hypotheses that mucosal hypothermia and/or hyperosmolarity--physical consequences of airway heat and water loss imposed by dry gas hyperpnea--can directly stimulate C-fiber tachykinin release. Neurons isolated from neonatal rat dorsal root ganglia were maintained in primary culture for 1 wk. Cells were then exposed for 30 min at 37 degrees C to graded concentrations of NaCl, mannitol, sucrose, or glycerol (0-600 mOsm) added to isotonic medium, or to isotonic medium at 25 degrees C without or with 462 mOsm mannitol added. Fractional release of substance P (SP) was calculated from supernatant and intracellular SP contents following exposure. Hyperosmolar solutions containing excess NaCl, mannitol, or sucrose all increased fractional SP release equivalently, in an osmolarity-dependent fashion. In marked contrast, hypothermia had no effect on fractional SP release under isotonic or hypertonic conditions. Thus, hyperosmolarity, but not hypothermia, can directly stimulate tachykinin release from cultured rat sensory C-fibers. The lack of effect of glycerol, a solute which quickly crosses cell membranes, suggests that neuronal volume change represents the physical stimulus transduced by C-fibers during hyperosmolar exposure.
A Garland, J E Jordan, J Necheles, L E Alger, M M Scully, R J Miller, D W Ray, S R White, J Solway
Tissue protein hypercatabolism (TPH) is a most important feature in cancer cachexia, particularly with regard to the skeletal muscle. The rat ascites hepatoma Yoshida AH-130 is a very suitable model system for studying the mechanisms involved in the processes that lead to tissue depletion, since it induces in the host a rapid and progressive muscle waste mainly due to TPH (Tessitore, L., G. Bonelli, and F. M. Baccino. 1987. Biochem. J. 241:153-159). Detectable plasma levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha associated with marked perturbations in the hormonal homeostasis have been shown to concur in forcing metabolism into a catabolic setting (Tessitore, L., P. Costelli, and F. M. Baccino. 1993. Br. J. Cancer. 67:15-23). The present study was directed to investigate if beta 2-adrenergic agonists, which are known to favor skeletal muscle hypertrophy, could effectively antagonize the enhanced muscle protein breakdown in this cancer cachexia model. One such agent, i.e., clenbuterol, indeed largely prevented skeletal muscle waste in AH-130-bearing rats by restoring protein degradative rates close to control values. This normalization of protein breakdown rates was achieved through a decrease of the hyperactivation of the ATP-ubiquitin-dependent proteolytic pathway, as previously demonstrated in our laboratory (Llovera, M., C. García-Martínez, N. Agell, M. Marzábal, F. J. López-Soriano, and J. M. Argilés. 1994. FEBS (Fed. Eur. Biochem. Soc.) Lett. 338:311-318). By contrast, the drug did not exert any measurable effect on various parenchymal organs, nor did it modify the plasma level of corticosterone and insulin, which were increased and decreased, respectively, in the tumor hosts. The present data give new insights into the mechanisms by which clenbuterol exerts its preventive effect on muscle protein waste and seem to warrant the implementation of experimental protocols involving the use of clenbuterol or alike drugs in the treatment of pathological states involving TPH, particularly in skeletal muscle and heart, such as in the present model of cancer cachexia.
P Costelli, C García-Martínez, M Llovera, N Carbó, F J López-Soriano, N Agell, L Tessitore, F M Baccino, J M Argilés
Dermal fibroblasts from a 13-yr-old boy with isolated skeletal features of the Marfan syndrome were used to study fibrillin synthesis and processing. Only one half of the secreted profibrillin was proteolytically processed to fibrillin outside the cell and deposited into the extracellular matrix. Electron microscopic examination of rotary shadowed microfibrils made by the proband's fibroblasts were indistinguishable from control cells. Sequencing of the FBN1 gene revealed a heterozygous C to T transition at nucleotide 8176 resulting in the substitution of a tryptophan for an arginine (R2726W), at a site immediately adjacent to a consensus sequence recognized by a cellular protease. Six other individuals in the proband's family had the FBN1 mutation that segregated with tall stature. None of the affected individuals have cardiac or ocular manifestations of the Marfan syndrome. This mutation identifies a putative site for profibrillin to fibrillin processing, and is associated with isolated skeletal features of the Marfan syndrome, indicating that the FBN1 gene is one of the genes that determines height in the general population. The cellular effect of the mutation may be equivalent to a "null" FBN1 allele and may define the phenotype associated with FBN1 "null" alleles.
D M Milewicz, J Grossfield, S N Cao, C Kielty, W Covitz, T Jewett
In myotonic muscular dystrophy, abnormal muscle Na currents underlie myotonic discharges. Since the myotonic muscular dystrophy gene encodes a product, human myotonin protein kinase, with structural similarity to protein kinases, we tested the idea that human myotonin protein kinase modulates skeletal muscle Na channels. Coexpression of human myotonin protein kinase with rat skeletal muscle Na channels in Xenopus oocytes reduced the amplitude of Na currents and accelerated current decay. The effect required the presence of a potential phosphorylation site in the inactivation mechanism of the channel. The mutation responsible for human disease, trinucleotide repeats in the 3' untranslated region, did not prevent the effect. The consequence of an abnormal amount of the kinase would be altered muscle cell excitability, consistent with the clinical finding of myotonia in myotonic dystrophy.
J P Mounsey, P Xu, J E John 3rd, L T Horne, J Gilbert, A D Roses, J R Moorman
Cyclic adenosine diphospho-ribose (cADPR) triggers Ca2+ release from intracellular stores and is therefore proposed to function as a second messenger in cellular signaling; however, an extracellular stimulus, i.e., first messenger (hormone or autacoid) that modulates cADPR metabolism has not been identified. We discovered that all-trans-retinoic acid (atRA) is a potent stimulus to increase cADPR synthesis by cultured LLC-PK1 cells. The stimulation of cADPR synthesis by atRA is dose dependent between 0.1 nM and 1 microM (maximum increase approximately delta + 600%), while atRA does not alter the rate of cADPR hydrolysis by LLC-PK1 cells. The activity of other intrinsic apical membrane enzymes was not significantly altered. The stimulation of cADPR synthesis by atRA occurs after a lag period of 6-8 h, and the stimulation is inhibited by actinomycin D and by cycloheximide. Our results therefore demonstrate that atRA in physiological concentrations is a potent extracellular stimulus, first messenger, that enhances cADPR synthesis, and the effect of atRA requires de novo protein synthesis. We suggest that some of the diverse biologic actions of atRA such as morphogenetic and cell differentiation may be mediated via cADPR.
K W Beers, E N Chini, T P Dousa
Chemokines may control the macrophage infiltrate found in many solid tumors. In human ovarian cancer, in situ hybridization detected mRNA for the macrophage chemokine monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) in 16/17 serous carcinomas, 4/4 mucinous carcinomas, 2/2 endometrioid carcinomas, and 1/3 borderline tumors. In serous tumors, mRNA expression mainly localized to the epithelial areas, as did immunoreactive MCP-1 protein. In the other tumors, both stromal and epithelial expression were seen. All tumors contained variable numbers of cells positive for the macrophage marker CD68. MCP-1 mRNA was also detected in the stroma of 5/5 normal ovaries. RT-PCR demonstrated mRNA for MCP-1 in 7/7 serous carcinomas and 6/6 ovarian cancer cell lines. MCP-1 protein was detected by ELISA in ascites from patients with ovarian cancer (mean 4.28 ng/ml) and was produced primarily by the cancer cells. Human MCP-1 protein was also detected in culture supernatants from cell lines and in ascites from human ovarian tumor xenografts which induce a peritoneal monocytosis in nude mice. We conclude that the macrophage chemoattractant MCP-1 is produced by epithelial ovarian cancer and that the tumor cells themselves are probably a major source. MCP-1 may contribute to the accumulation of tumor-associated macrophages, which may subsequently influence tumor behavior.
R P Negus, G W Stamp, M G Relf, F Burke, S T Malik, S Bernasconi, P Allavena, S Sozzani, A Mantovani, F R Balkwill
Intestinal epithelial cells of the neonatal rat and mouse have been shown to express a major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I-like Fc receptor, or FcRn, which transports IgG in an apical to basolateral direction. Previous studies have suggested the possible expression of this receptor beyond the neonatal period within the liver. Since bile contains high levels of IgG, we sought to determine whether the FcRn was functionally expressed by adult rat hepatocytes. Using primers specific for FcRn, which did not cross hybridize with MHC class I transcripts, FcRn DNA was amplified by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction from RNA of adult rat hepatocytes. This RNA contained functional FcRn transcripts as it encoded a beta 2-microglobulin-associated cell surface protein as determined by immunoprecipitation of biotinylated cell surface proteins with a polyclonal anti-FcRn specific antiserum. Western blotting of hepatocyte canalicular (apical) and sinusoidal (basolateral) plasma membranes with an FcRn-specific monoclonal antibody further confirmed the protein expression and suggested that FcRn was enriched on the canalicular surface membranes. FcRn, on the surface of hepatocytes, was biologically functional as it bound Fc fragments of IgG at pH 6.0 but not 8.0, which is the same pH dependence observed for FcRn in rat neonatal enterocytes. Thus, FcRn is functionally expressed outside of the neonatal period on the canalicular cell surface of adult hepatocytes. This suggests that hepatocyte FcRn may bind luminal IgG, providing a potential functional communication between parenchymal immune cells and bile.
R S Blumberg, T Koss, C M Story, D Barisani, J Polischuk, A Lipin, L Pablo, R Green, N E Simister
Glucose modulates beta cell insulin secretion via effects on ATP-sensitive potassium (KATP) channels. To test the hypothesis that glucose exerts a similar effect on neuronal function, local glucose availability was varied in awake rats using microdialysis in the substantia nigra, the brain region with the highest density of KATP channels. 10 mM glucose perfusion increased GABA release by 111 +/- 42%, whereas the sulfonylurea, glipizide, increased GABA release by 84 +/- 20%. In contrast, perfusion of the KATP channel activator, lemakalim, or depletion of ATP by perfusion of 2-deoxyglucose with oligomycin inhibited GABA release by 44 +/- 8 and 45 +/- 11%, respectively. Moreover, the inhibition of GABA release by 2-deoxyglucose and oligomycin was blocked by glipizide. During systemic insulin-induced hypoglycemia (1.8 +/- 0.3 mM), nigral dialysate GABA concentrations decreased by 49 +/- 4% whereas levels of dopamine in striatal dialysates increased by 119 +/- 18%. We conclude that both local and systemic glucose availability influences nigral GABA release via an effect on KATP channels and that inhibition of GABA release may in part mediate the hyperexcitability associated with hypoglycemia. These data support the hypothesis that glucose acts as a signaling molecule, and not simply as an energy-yielding fuel, for neurons.
M J During, P Leone, K E Davis, D Kerr, R S Sherwin
Obesity is frequently associated with insulin resistance and abnormal glucose homeostasis. Recent studies in animal models have indicated that TNF-alpha plays an important role in mediating the insulin resistance of obesity through its overexpression in fat tissue. However, the mechanisms linking obesity to insulin resistance and diabetes in humans remain largely unknown. In this study we examined the expression pattern of TNF-alpha mRNA in adipose tissues from 18 control and 19 obese premenopausal women by Northern blot analysis. TNF-alpha protein concentrations in plasma and in conditioned medium of explanted adipose tissue were measured by ELISA. Furthermore, the effects of weight reduction by dietary treatment of obesity on the adipose expression of TNF-alpha mRNA were also analyzed in nine premenopausal obese women, before and after a controlled weight-reduction program. These studies demonstrated that obese individuals express 2.5-fold more TNF-alpha mRNA in fat tissue relative to the lean controls (P < 0.001). Similar increases were also observed in adipose production of TNF-alpha protein but circulating TNF-alpha levels were extremely low or undetectable. A strong positive correlation was observed between TNF-alpha mRNA expression levels in fat tissue and the level of hyperinsulinemia (P < 0.001), an indirect measure of insulin resistance. Finally, body weight reduction in obese subjects which resulted in improved insulin sensitivity was also associated with a decrease in TNF-alpha mRNA expression (45%, P < 0.001) in fat tissue. These results suggest a role for the abnormal regulation of this cytokine in the pathogenesis of obesity-related insulin resistance.
G S Hotamisligil, P Arner, J F Caro, R L Atkinson, B M Spiegelman
Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), the primary inhibitor of tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA) and urokinase plasminogen activator, is an important regulator of the blood fibrinolytic system. Elevated plasma levels of PAI-1 are associated with thrombosis, and high levels of PAI-1 within platelet-rich clots contribute to their resistance to lysis by t-PA. Consequently, strategies aimed at inhibition of PAI-1 may prove clinically useful. This study was designed to test the hypothesis that a 14-amino acid peptide, corresponding to the PAI-1 reactive center loop (residues 333-346), can rapidly inhibit PAI-1 function. PAI-1 (0.7 microM) was incubated with peptide (55 microM) at 37 degrees C. At timed intervals, residual PAI-1 activity was determined by addition of reaction mixture samples to t-PA and chromogenic substrate. The T1/2 of PAI-1 activity in the presence of peptide was 4 +/- 3 min compared to a control T1/2 of 98 +/- 18 min. The peptide also inhibited complex formation between PAI-1 and t-PA as demonstrated by SDS-PAGE analysis. However, the capacity of the peptide to inhibit PAI-1 bound to vitronectin, a plasma protein that stabilizes PAI-1 activity, was markedly attenuated. Finally, the peptide significantly enhanced in vitro lysis of platelet-rich clots and platelet-poor clots containing recombinant PAI-1. These results indicate that a 14-amino acid peptide can rapidly inactivate PAI-1 and accelerate fibrinolysis in vitro. These studies also demonstrate that PAI-1 function can be directly attenuated in a physiologic setting and suggest a novel approach for augmenting fibrinolysis in vivo.
D T Eitzman, W P Fay, D A Lawrence, A M Francis-Chmura, J D Shore, S T Olson, D Ginsburg