W Casscells, J T Willerson
P S Linsley
C A Buck
L J Deftos, S J Schiff
Alternative splicing of the human glucocorticoid receptor (hGR) pre-mRNA generates two highly homologous isoforms, termed hGR alpha and hGR beta. hGR alpha is a ligand-activated transcription factor which, in the hormone-bound state, modulates the expression of glucocorticoid-responsive genes by binding to specific glucocorticoid response element (GRE) DNA sequences. In contrast, hGR beta does not bind glucocorticoids and is transcriptionally inactive. We demonstrate here that hGR beta is able to inhibit the effects of hormone-activated hGR alpha on a glucocorticoid-responsive reporter gene in a concentration-dependent manner. [3H]-Dexamethasone binding studies indicate that hGR beta does not alter the affinity of hGR alpha for its hormonal ligand. The presence of hGR beta in nuclear extracts and its ability to bind to a radiolabeled GRE oligonucleotide suggest that its inhibitory effect may be due to competition for GRE target sites. Reverse transcription-PCR analysis shows expression of hGR beta mRNA in multiple human tissues. These results indicate that hGR beta may be a physiologically and pathophysiologically relevant endogenous inhibitor of glucocorticoid action, which may participate in defining the sensitivity of target tissues to glucocorticoids. They also underline the importance of distinguishing between the two receptor isoforms in all future studies of hGR function and the need to revisit old data.
C M Bamberger, A M Bamberger, M de Castro, G P Chrousos
The coexpression of the natriuretic peptides ANP, BNP and CNP as well as their differential regulation in mouse macrophages was demonstrated by quantitative PCR, HPLC analysis, and specific radioimmunoassays. Exposure of peritoneal- and bone marrow-derived macrophages to various immunomodulators revealed that bacterial LPS strikingly increases (up to 300-fold) the mRNA coding for CNP as does zymosan (up to 15-fold). In this respect, neither the phorbol ester PMA nor the glucocorticoid dexamethasone had any effect. Examination of macrophages for ANP mRNA showed a similar response to LPS and zymosan, though only a three- to sixfold increase, confirming previous data. In contrast, the concentration of mRNA coding for brain natriuretic peptide in these cells was reduced by dexamethasone (up to twofold) as well as LPS (two- to fivefold). No change was observed upon challenge with zymosan or PMA. The findings at the mRNA level are complemented by their corresponding peptide products. Incubation of macrophages with LPS resulted in a two- and fivefold elevation of intracellular ANP and CNP immunoreactivity, respectively. The amount of peptides released from cells under these conditions was found increased for ANP (threefold) and CNP (10-fold). No changes were observed for both intra- and extracellular brain natriuretic peptide. The coexpression of natriuretic peptides in macrophages as well as their different regulations by immunomodulators suggest discrete functions of these peptides within the immune system.
A M Vollmar, R Schulz
To determine whether decreased renal responsiveness to atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) in diabetes is mediated by alterations in the renal ANP receptor, ANP receptor density and affinity were measured 17-20 d after streptozotocin injection and compared with values in vehicle-treated controls and streptozotocin-treated rats made euglycemic with insulin. Plasma ANP concentration was significantly greater in hyperglycemic diabetic rats than in control or euglycemic diabetic rats. Both in glomeruli and inner medulla, ANP receptor dissociation constant did not differ among the three study groups, whereas the maximum binding capacity was decreased significantly in hyperglycemic diabetics in comparison with controls and euglycemic diabetics. Glomerular clearance receptors were also decreased significantly in hyperglycemic diabetic rats in comparison with control and euglycemic diabetic rats. To determine whether the decreased number of renal ANP receptors in diabetic rats was associated with a decreased biological response, we measured ANP-dependent cyclic GMP (cGMP) accumulation by isolated glomeruli and inner medullary collecting duct cells in vitro. cGMP accumulation was significantly less in hyperglycemic diabetic rats than in controls or euglycemic diabetic rats both in the presence or absence of the phosphodiesterase inhibitor zaprinast. cGMP phosphodiesterase activity in inner medullary collecting duct cells obtained from control and hyperglycemic diabetic rats did not differ. Thus, the decreased number of biologically active ANP receptors in the kidneys of diabetic rats is accompanied by decreased biological responsiveness in vitro and provides a potential explanation for the reduction in renal sensitivity to ANP in this condition.
L A Sechi, J P Valentin, C A Griffin, E Lee, E Bartoli, M H Humphreys, M Schambelan
The hypothesis that L-DOPA therapy in Parkinson's disease may augment neuronal damage and thus accelerate the progression of the disease remains controversial. In this study, we demonstrate that L-DOPA induces death of catecholaminergic cells in vitro via an active program of apoptosis. Treatment of PC12 cells with clinically applicable concentrations of L-DOPA (25-100 microM) induced cell death via a mechanism which exhibited morphological and biochemical characteristics of apoptosis, including chromatin condensation, membrane blebbing, and internucleosomal DNA fragmentation. L-DOPA-induced apoptosis was cell and drug-type specific. Toxicity is an intrinsic property of the drug molecule since it was not suppressed by inhibiting conversion of L-DOPA to dopamine. However, L-DOPA toxicity was inhibited by antioxidants, suggesting that activation of apoptosis is mediated by oxygen radicals. Our finding that L-DOPA-induced cell death in vitro occurs via apoptosis explains the lack of evidence supporting its toxicity in vivo, since apoptotic neurons are rapidly phagocytosed in vivo without causing damage to surrounding tissue. Furthermore, since apoptosis is an active cellular program which can be modulated, we suggest clinical approaches for decreasing L-DOPA toxicity, thus preventing acceleration of neuronal damage in Parkinson's disease.
G Walkinshaw, C M Waters
Mitochondrial very-long-chain acyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase (VLCAD) was purified from human liver. The molecular masses of the native enzyme and the subunit were estimated to be 154 and 70 kD, respectively. The enzyme was found to catalyze the major part of mitochondrial palmitoylcoenzyme A dehydrogenation in liver, heart, skeletal muscle, and skin fibroblasts (89-97, 86-99, 96-99, and 78-87%, respectively). Skin fibroblasts from 26 patients suspected of having a disorder of mitochondrial beta-oxidation were analyzed for VLCAD protein using immunoblotting, and 7 of them contained undetectable or trace levels of the enzyme. The seven deficient fibroblast lines were characterized by measuring acyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenation activities, overall palmitic acid oxidation, and VLCAD protein synthesis using pulse-chase, further confirming the diagnosis of VLCAD deficiency. These results suggested the heterogenous nature of the mutations causing the deficiency in the seven patients. Clinically, all patients with VLCAD deficiency exhibited cardiac disease. At least four of them presented with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. This frequency (> 57%) was much higher than that observed in patients with other disorders of mitochondrial long-chain fatty acid oxidation that may be accompanied by cardiac disease in infants.
T Aoyama, M Souri, S Ushikubo, T Kamijo, S Yamaguchi, R I Kelley, W J Rhead, K Uetake, K Tanaka, T Hashimoto
When applied to quiescent human aortic smooth muscle cells (AOSMC), endothelin-1 (ET-1) caused significant increases in mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activity, [3H]thymidine incorporation, and cell proliferation, confirming an activity of ET-1 as a potent mitogen on AOSMC. As an in vitro model to evaluate the significance of the mitogenic activity of ET-1 on smooth muscle cells during atherogenesis, we studied possible modulations of the responsiveness of the cells by treatment with various cytokines (IL-1 beta, IL-8, TNF alpha, and TGF beta). Of the four cytokines tested, we found that the treatment of the cells with IL-1 beta dramatically reduced the responsiveness of the cells to ET-1; IL-1 beta treatment at the concentration of 0.2 ng/ml for 8 h completely abolished the activity of ET-1 to induce the mitogenic responses. IL-1 beta treatment caused no changes in the responses induced by EGF, basic fibroblast growth factor, or PDGF. Studies on ET-1-induced intracellular signaling events in IL-1 beta-treated cells revealed that the failure of ET-1 to induce mitogenic responses was due to an increase in cAMP formation secondary to ET-1-induced activation of prostanoid metabolism. These findings on AOSMC in vitro raise the possibility that, under some inflammatory conditions in vivo, ETs may work as a negative modulator of smooth muscle cell proliferation.
Y Fujitani, H Ninomiya, T Okada, Y Urade, T Masaki
Thrombolysis is dramatically slower when high concentrations of lytic agent are used. This paradoxical observation, first described as "plasminogen steal," was originally believed to be due to depletion of extrinsic plasminogen and consequent leaching of clot-bound plasminogen. We report that administration of increasing concentrations of recombinant human tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) to fibrin gels resulted in lysis rates that displayed a maximum, with significantly slower rates found at higher tPA, regardless of whether plasminogen was supplied extrinsically or intrinsically. A similar maximum in lysis rates was observed in a system lacking an extrinsic phase when plasminogen was added to fibrin suspensions preincubated with increasing tPA. Thus, intrinsic plasminogen leakage and alpha 2-antiplasmin were not required for the decreased lysis at high tPA. No maximum was observed for increasing concentrations of urokinase. Using fibrin suspensions or gels preincubated with tPA before addition of plasmin, we report that tPA, but not urokinase, caused a dose-dependent inhibition of the fibronolytic action of plasmin. With respect to optimal dosage schemes and the design of novel lytic agents, these findings indicate that (a) there exists a biochemical mechanism against minimizing reperfusion time with increasing tPA dosages and (b) the fibrin affinity of tPA may cause reduced fibrinolysis by plasmin.
J H Wu, S L Diamond
Previous work has shown that the Pseudomonas-derived protease, pseudomonas elastase (PAE), can modify transferrin to form iron complexes capable of catalyzing the formation of hydroxyl radical (.OH) from neutrophil (PMN)-derived superoxide (.O2-) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). As the lung is a major site of Pseudomonas infection, the ability of these iron chelates to augment oxidant-mediated pulmonary artery endothelial cell injury via release of 51Cr from prelabeled cells was examined. Diferrictransferrin previously cleaved with PAE significantly enhanced porcine pulmonary artery endothelial cell monolayer injury from 2.3-6.3 to 15.8-17.0% of maximum, resulting from exposure to H2O2, products of the xanthine/xanthine oxidase reaction, or PMA-stimulated PMNs. Iron associated with transferrin appeared to be responsible for cell injury. Spin trapping and the formation of thiobarbituric acid-reactive 2-deoxyribose oxidation products demonstrated the production of .OH in this system. The addition of catalase, dimethyl thiourea, and the hydrophobic spin trap, alpha-phenyl-n-terbutyl-nitrone, offered significant protection from injury (27.8-58.2%). Since sites of Pseudomonas infection contain other proteases, the ability of porcine pancreatic elastase and trypsin to substitute for PAE was examined. Results were similar to those observed with PAE. We conclude .OH formation resulting from protease alteration of transferrin may serve as a mechanism of tissue injury at sites of bacterial infection and other processes characterized by increased proteolytic activity.
R A Miller, B E Britigan
We examined the in vivo metabolic effects of vanadyl sulfate (VS) in non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). Six NIDDM subjects treated with diet and/or sulfonylureas were examined at the end of three consecutive periods: placebo for 2 wk, VS (100 mg/d) for 3 wk, and placebo for 2 wk. Euglycemic hyperinsulinemic (30 mU/m2.min) clamps and oral glucose tolerance tests were performed at the end of each study period. Glycemic control at baseline was poor (fasting plasma glucose 210 +/- 19 mg/dl; HbA1c 9.6 +/- 0.6%) and improved after treatment (181 +/- 14 mg/dl [P < 0.05], 8.8 +/- 0.6%, [P < 0.002]); fasting and post-glucose tolerance test plasma insulin concentrations were unchanged. After VS, the glucose infusion rate during the clamp was increased (by approximately 88%, from 1.80 to 3.38 mg/kg.min, P < 0.0001). This improvement was due to both enhanced insulin-mediated stimulation of glucose uptake (rate of glucose disposal [Rd], +0.89 mg/kg.min) and increased inhibition of HGP (-0.74 mg/kg.min) (P < 0.0001 for both). Increased insulin-stimulated glycogen synthesis (+0.74 mg/kg.min, P < 0.0003) accounted for > 80% of the increased Rd after VS, and the improvement in insulin sensitivity was maintained after the second placebo period. The Km of skeletal muscle glycogen synthase was lowered by approximately 30% after VS treatment (P < 0.05). These results indicate that 3 wk of treatment with VS improves hepatic and peripheral insulin sensitivity in insulin-resistant NIDDM humans. These effects were sustained for up to 2 wk after discontinuation of VS.
N Cohen, M Halberstam, P Shlimovich, C J Chang, H Shamoon, L Rossetti
Leukocyte rolling has been postulated to be mandatory for subsequent leukocyte adhesion and tissue injury observed during ischemia/reperfusion. The objective of this study was to systematically assess this hypothesis at the microvascular level by examining the effects of various concentrations of a selectin-binding carbohydrate (fucoidin) on the increased rolling and adhesion of leukocytes in postischemic venules. The contribution of L-selectin and/or P-selectin to leukocyte rolling were also assessed in this model. Using intravital microscopy we observed that 60 min of ischemia followed by reperfusion caused a profound increase in leukocyte rolling and adhesion. A high dose of fucoidin (25 mg/kg) reduced leukocyte rolling by > 90% and significantly reduced leukocyte adhesion, whereas a lower dose of fucoidin still reduced leukocyte rolling by 60% but had no effect on leukocyte adhesion. Moreover, despite the profound reduction in leukocyte rolling with fucoidin, the remaining rolling cells were able to firmly adhere via a CD18-dependent mechanism, particularly in those postcapillary venules with reduced (30-50%) shear rates. The increased rolling was also reduced 60% by either an anti-P-selectin antibody, an anti-L-selectin antibody, or a combination of the two antibodies, but this reduction in rolling cells did not translate into significantly reduced leukocyte adhesion. Our data suggest that L-selectin, P-selectin, and a fucoidin-sensitive pathway contribute to the significant increase in reperfusion-induced leukocyte rolling. However, targeting leukocyte rolling as a form of therapy requires very significant efficacy (> 90%) to achieve reasonable (approximately 50%) attenuation in leukocyte adhesion in postischemic venules.
P Kubes, M Jutila, D Payne
Excess vascular oxidative stress and the local formation of oxidized LDL (ox-LDL) have been implicated in the development of impaired endothelium-dependent arterial relaxation in hypercholesterolemia and atherosclerosis. Dietary antioxidants limit LDL oxidation in vitro and treatment of cholesterol-fed rabbits with dietary antioxidants preserves endothelium-derived relaxing factor (EDRF) action. To investigate the mechanism(s) responsible for these observations, we examined EDRF action, vascular oxidative stress, and antioxidant protection in male New Zealand White rabbits using four dietary treatments. Animals consumed standard chow (chow group) or chow supplemented with: (a) 0.5% cholesterol (0.5% cholesterol group); (b) 1% cholesterol (1% cholesterol group); or (c) 1% cholesterol and 1% probucol (probucol group). After 28 d of dietary treatment, segments of thoracic aorta from the 0.5 and 1% cholesterol groups demonstrated impairment of acetylcholine-mediated endothelium-dependent arterial relaxation compared to chow-fed animals (57 +/- 11% and 45 +/- 9% vs 78 +/- 3%, respectively; P < 0.05). In contrast, vessels from the probucol group demonstrated normal relaxation to acetylcholine (83 +/- 5%). Plasma cholesterol levels and the extent of atherosclerosis were similar among all cholesterol-fed groups. Probucol treatment was associated a threefold increase in LDL resistance to copper-induced oxidative modification (P < 0.05) and a reduction in tissue lipid peroxidation (as assessed by thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances; P < 0.05) compared to animals fed cholesterol alone. Most importantly, both of these changes were strongly correlated with preserved EDRF action. Moreover, cholesterol feeding was associated with a dose-dependent increase in vascular superoxide generation and lysophosphatidylcholine content, both of which were prevented by probucol treatment. From these findings, we conclude that probucol, a lipid-soluble antioxidant, preserves EDRF action in cholesterol-fed rabbits in association with limiting vascular oxidative stress and superoxide generation.
J F Keaney Jr, A Xu, D Cunningham, T Jackson, B Frei, J A Vita
The growth of human leukemic cells in culture and in vivo is dependent upon the presence of hematopoietic growth factors. Most populations of human leukemic acute myeloblastic leukemia (AML) cells express c-Kit on their surface and respond to Kit ligand (KL) in culture. To determine if this interaction was of potential significance in vivo we used a mouse model system. 32D cells, a murine IL-3-dependent myeloid cell line, were rendered KL responsive by transfection of the murine c-Kit. After injection of 32D or 32D-Kit cells into syngeneic hosts, animals bearing 32D-Kit cells, but not 32D cells, became moribund and were killed. These animals had circulating leukemic blast cells, infiltration of bone marrow, spleen, brain, liver, lung, and kidney. Cells recovered from some of the animals continued to be dependent upon IL-3 or KL for growth while in other cases the cells were factor independent. This model illustrates that the constitutive expression of c-Kit enhances the leukemic potential of 32D cells. The model will be useful for studying the progression of leukemia in vivo and testing whether interruption of the interaction of Kit and KL can affect the growth of leukemic cells.
Q Hu, M Trevisan, Y Xu, W Dong, S A Berger, S D Lyman, M D Minden
The presentation of recombinant biologically active 125I-TGF-beta 1 via the bloodstream to potential target cells in mice and rats was evaluated by quantitative light and electron microscope radioautography. Specificity was evaluated by in vivo competition with excess unlabeled TGF-beta 1, and integrity of the ligand at the binding site was demonstrated by trichloroacetic acid precipitation after extraction from tissues. The distribution of radiolabel at 2.5, 15, 30, 45, and 60 min after 125I-TGF-beta 1 injection revealed radiolabel principally over microvasculature endothelium but at times > 2.5 min over endothelial endocytic components indicative of internalization. Nonspecific binding of 125I-TGF-beta 1 to the apex of the proximal convoluted tubule of the kidney indicated it as the likely site of rapid clearance of TGF-beta 1 from the circulation, while a comparison of the binding of 125I-TGF-beta 1 (endothelial) to that of 125I-TGF-beta 1 complexed with alpha 2-macroglobulin-methylamine (liver parenchyma) indicated that clearance of TGF-beta 1 complexed alpha 2-macroglobulin was likely via the hepatic alpha 2-macroglobulin receptor. The endothelial TGF-beta receptors uncovered here are likely involved in the local regulatory mechanism of leukocyte and monocyte adhesion and tissue infiltration regulated by endocrine TGF-beta 1.
K Dickson, A Philip, H Warshawsky, M O'Connor-McCourt, J J Bergeron
Interleukin-1 (IL-1), initially called "endogenous pyrogen," is primarily known as a mediator of inflammation. However, it also plays many other diverse physiologic roles including the stimulation and inhibition of both primary cells in culture and the interstitial and parenchymal cells of a number of organs including the heart. In the heart, IL-1 expression has traditionally been reported in situations where there is immunologic myocardial injury such as occurs during transplant rejection and congestive heart failure. For this reason, all of the effects of IL-1 have been presumed to be deleterious. Using a cell culture model which allows both the muscle cells (myocytes) and nonmuscle cells (fibroblasts) to be evaluated separately, we have found that IL-1 induces both cardiac myocyte hypertrophy and reinitiates myocyte DNA synthesis. In stark contrast, IL-1 exerts a potent anti-proliferative effect on cardiac fibroblasts. To our knowledge this is the first report concerning the differential effects of IL-1 on myocardial cell growth in culture and, given the inducible expression of IL-1 by myocardial cells during stress, underscores the importance of investigating the complex nature of the intracardiac cell-cell interactions that occur in the heart.
J N Palmer, W E Hartogensis, M Patten, F D Fortuin, C S Long
The effect of extracellular L-arginine and L-glutamine on nitric oxide (NO) release was studied in cultured bovine aortic endothelial cells and in rabbit aortic rings. Increasing L-arginine (0.01 to 10 mM) did not alter NO release from cultured endothelial cells or modify endothelium-dependent relaxation to acetylcholine in isolated vessels. L-Glutamine (0.6 and 2 mM) inhibited NO release from cultured cells (in response to bradykinin) and from aortic rings (in response to acetylcholine or ADP). L-Arginine (0.1-10 mM) dose-dependently reversed the L-glutamine inhibition of receptor-stimulated NO release in both models. In contrast to its inhibitory response to receptor-mediated stimuli, glutamine alone slightly potentiated NO release in both models when the calcium ionophore, A23187, was added. Furthermore, cultured cells incubated with L-arginine (0.01-10 mM), in the presence or absence of glutamine, released similar amounts of NO in response to A23187. L-Glutamine did not affect intracellular L-arginine levels. Neither D-glutamine nor D-arginine affected NO release or endothelium-dependent vascular relaxation. L-Glutamine had no effect on the activity of endothelial NOS assessed by L-arginine to L-citrulline conversion. These findings show that in the absence of L-glutamine, manipulating intracellular L-arginine levels over a wide range does not affect NO release. L-Glutamine in concentrations circulating in vivo may tonically inhibit receptor-mediated NO release by interfering with signal transduction. One mechanism by which L-arginine may enhance NO release is via reversal of the inhibitory effect of L-glutamine, but apparently independently of enhancing NO synthase substrate.
J F Arnal, T Münzel, R C Venema, N L James, C L Bai, W E Mitch, D G Harrison
A subset of sickle cells becomes K(+)-depleted and dehydrated before or soon after leaving the bone marrow. These young cells may be identified in blood as transferrin receptor-positive (TfR+) dense reticulocytes. KCl cotransport, which is normally active in young erythroid cells with a maximum at pH 6.8, is a candidate pathway for K+ depletion of sickle reticulocytes. In this investigation, KCl cotransport activity was evaluated in young, TfR+ cells which had become dense in vivo and in age-matched cells which had retained normal hydration. Sickle erythrocytes were first separated into three primary density fractions, with care taken to preserve the in vivo hydration state. After normalization of intracellular hemoglobin concentration with nystatin, the cells were incubated at 37 degrees C for 20 min at pH 6.8 and 7.4. Before and after incubation, each primary fraction was separated into four secondary density fractions. The percentage of TfR+ cells in each secondary fraction was measured and a density distribution for TfR+ cells was determined for each primary fraction before and after incubation. The density shift during incubation was a measure of KCl cotransport. TfR+ cells from the denser primary fractions II and III had significantly more density shift than TfR+ cells from the light fraction I. Although the shifts were larger at low pH, differences between primary fractions were also observed at pH 7.4. These data indicate that the cells which become dense quickly in vivo have more KCl cotransport activity than those which remain light in vivo, and support this pathway as a primary mechanism for dehydration of young sickle cells.
R S Franco, M Palascak, H Thompson, C H Joiner
Because the osteoporosis occurring in chronic cholestatic liver disease (CCLD) is associated with decreased bone formation and is reversible by liver transplantation, substances retained in plasma during cholestasis may impair osteoblast function. This hypothesis was tested using a new bioassay that measures plasma mitogenic activity (PMA) for normal human osteoblast-like (hOB) cells. In 29 jaundiced patients, mean PMA was 56.4% (P < 0.001) of that in 29 age- and sex-matched normal subjects, and the decrease in PMA was similar in the 14 with CCLD and the 15 with other causes of jaundice. Bile acids and bilirubin are the two major groups of products retained during cholestasis. The common conjugated bile acids and bilirubin were added to normal human plasma in concentrations simulating those found in patients with CCLD. Various bile salts had no effect on PMA whereas unconjugated bilirubin decreased PMA in a dose-dependent fashion (r = -0.98, P < 0.0001) without affecting cell viability. Relatively selective removal of bilirubin from the plasma by photobleaching normalized the decreased PMA in five jaundiced patients but produced no apparent change in five normal subjects. These data support the hypothesis that hyperbilirubinemia or possibly other photolabile substances impair osteoblast proliferative capacity and thus may play a major role in the pathogenesis of the osteoporosis associated with CCLD.
C H Janes, E R Dickson, R Okazaki, S Bonde, A F McDonagh, B L Riggs
Pneumocystis carinii is a major opportunistic pathogen and a leading cause of morbidity in patients with AIDS. CD4+ cells have been shown to be important in host defenses against P. carinii, but the antigen(s) involved with this response have not been identified. We undertook the present study to determine whether the major surface glycoprotein (MSG) of P. carinii contains epitopes that can elicit a protective cellular immune response. Spleen cells and purified CD4+ cells isolated from Lewis rats, pulsed 1-4 d with MSG, and injected into corticosteroid-treated Lewis rats with pneumocystosis resulted in significant reduction in the P. carinii burden, as judged by organism quantitation and lung histology. The protective response demonstrated by the donor cells was dependent on previous exposure to P. carinii, cell concentration, and time of incubation with MSG. In addition, reconstitution with MSG-specific CD4+ cells resulted in an early hyperinflammatory response within the lungs of these animals with a high percentage of mortality. Thus, in this model, MSG can elicit an immune response mediated by CD4+ cells, which has a harmful as well as helpful effect on the host, and these responses occur despite the presence of corticosteroids.
S A Theus, R P Andrews, P Steele, P D Walzer
Oxidation of LDL by peroxidases has been suggested to be a model for in vivo oxidation. The mechanism might involve the generation of an intermediate radical such as a phenoxy radical. We show that, in contrast to the oxidation of LDL by copper, oxidation by peroxidase system (H2O2/horse radish peroxidase) showed less resistance. This suggested that either the antioxidants were consumed more rapidly or might have actually participated in the oxidation. Accordingly, addition of vitamin E increased the rate of oxidation of LDL. In contrast, probucol inhibited the oxidation even at low concentrations suggesting ineffective formation of probucol radical or the sterically hindered probucol radical was inefficient in catalyzing subsequent oxidation. The oxidation of LDL by horse radish peroxidase was also enhanced in the presence of diphenylphenylenediamine, an antioxidant that does not have a phenolic -OH group. Myeloperoxidase was able to oxidize LDL even in the absence of added tyrosine suggesting that it was able to utilize the LDL-associated vitamin E. Addition of free tyrosine inhibited the formation of conjugated dienes. We suggest that if peroxidases are involved in the initiation of LDL oxidation in vivo, higher concentrations of antioxidants may be indicated to inhibit propagation of oxidation.
N Santanam, S Parthasarathy
S Molossi, M Elices, T Arrhenius, R Diaz, C Coulber, M Rabinovitch
The murine monoclonal antibody mAb-1H11 raised against malondialdehyde (MDA)-modified LDL, was used to detect cross-reacting material in human atheromatous tissue and in plasma. MDA-modified LDL levels in plasma were 0.19 +/- 0.02 mg/dl (mean +/- SEM) in 44 control subjects, 0.24 +/- 0.02 mg/dl in 15 patients with chronic stable angina pectoris (P = NS vs LDL cholesterol matched controls), 1.4 +/- 0.1 mg/dl in 60 patients with acute myocardial infarction (P < 0.001 vs controls), and 0.86 +/- 0.11 mg/dl in 22 patients with carotid atherosclerosis (P < 0.001 vs controls). Modified LDL, isolated from pooled LDL of 10 patients, showed a higher electrophoretic mobility on agarose gels, a higher content of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, and a higher cholesterol/protein ratio than native LDL and had a similar reactivity (antigen/protein ratio) in the assay as the in vitro MDA-modified LDL used for calibration. Its apo B-100 moiety was not fragmented. Uptake of this modified LDL by macrophages resulted in foam cell generation. In conclusion, elevated plasma levels of atherogenic MDA-modified LDL may be a marker for unstable atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease.
P Holvoet, G Perez, Z Zhao, E Brouwers, H Bernar, D Collen
Vector-mediated gene transfer offers a direct method of correcting genetic pulmonary diseases and might also be used to correct temporary abnormalities associated with acquired, nongenetic disorders. Because the fetus or newborn may be a more immune tolerant host for gene transfer using viral vectors, we used replication defective recombinant adenoviral vectors to test the feasibility of gene transfer to the fetal pulmonary epithelium in vitro and in vivo. Both proximal and distal epithelial cells in cultured fetal lung tissues from rodents and humans diffusely expressed the lacZ transgene 3 d after viral infection. In vivo gene delivery experiments were performed in fetal mice and lambs. Delivery of Ad2/CMV-beta Gal to the amniotic fluid in mice produced intense transgene expression in the fetal epidermis and amniotic membranes, some gastrointestinal expression, but no significant airway epithelial expression. When we introduced the adenoviral vector directly into the trachea of fetal lambs, the lacZ gene was expressed in the tracheal, bronchial, and distal pulmonary epithelial cells 3 d after viral infection. Unexpectedly, reactive hyperplasia and squamous metaplasia were noted in epithelia expressing lacZ in the trachea, but not in the distal lung of fetal lambs. 1 wk after infection, adenovirus-treated fetuses developed inflammatory cell infiltrates in the lung tissue with CD4, CD8, IgM, and granulocyte/macrophage positive immune effector cells. Transgene expression faded coincident with inflammation and serologic evidence of antiadenoviral antibody production. While these studies document the feasibility of viral-mediated gene transfer in the prenatal lung, they indicate that immunologic responses to E1-deleted recombinant adenoviruses limit the duration of transgene expression.
P B McCray Jr, K Armstrong, J Zabner, D W Miller, G A Koretzky, L Couture, J E Robillard, A E Smith, M J Welsh
The majority of human malignant glioma cells express Fas/APO-1 and are susceptible to Fas/APO-1 antibody-mediated apoptosis in vitro. The sensitivity of Fas/APO-1-positive glioma cell lines to Fas/APO-1 antibody-mediated killing correlates inversely with the constitutive expression of the antiapoptotic protooncogene bcl-2. Here we report that BCL-2 protein expression of human glial tumors in vivo correlates with malignant transformation in that BCL-2 immunoreactive glioma cells were more abundant in WHO grade III/IV gliomas than in grade I/II gliomas. Fas/APO-1 antibody-sensitive human glioma cell lines stably transfected with a murine bcl-2 cDNA acquired resistance to Fas/APO-1 antibody-mediated apoptosis. Forced expression of bcl-2 also attenuated TNF alpha-mediated cytotoxicity of glioma cell lines in the presence of actinomycin D and cycloheximide and conferred partial protection from irradiation and the cancer chemotherapy drugs, cisplatin and BCNU. Preexposure of the glioma cell lines to the cytokines, IFN gamma and TNF alpha, which sensitize for Fas/APO-1-dependent killing, partially overcame bcl-2-mediated rescue from apoptosis, suggesting that multimodality immunotherapy involving cytokines and Fas/APO-1 targeting might eventually provide a promising approach to the treatment of human malignant gliomas.
M Weller, U Malipiero, A Aguzzi, J C Reed, A Fontana
This report examines the effect of recombinant murine (rm) IL-10 on antigen-induced cellular recruitment into the airways of sensitized Balb/c mice. The intranasal instillation of 10 micrograms ovalbumin induced an early (6-24 h) increase in the number of neutrophils, and a late rise (24-96 h) in that of eosinophils in the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid and bronchial tissue. A single intranasal instillation of 0.01-0.1 microgram of rmIL-10, administered concurrently with ovalbumin, but not 1 or 3 h thereafter, dose-dependently inhibited both airway neutrophilia and eosinophilia. This phenomenon was suppressed by treating the sensitized mice with 1 mg/mouse of a neutralizing anti-IL-10 mAb, which increased significantly ovalbumin-induced neutrophil and eosinophil accumulation in the BAL fluid. These results suggest that antigen stimulation may trigger the in vivo generation of IL-10, which, in turn, participates in the leukocyte infiltration into the airways. rmIL-10 also reduced TNF-alpha release in the BAL fluid observed 1 and 3 h after antigen challenge. Furthermore, the intranasal instillation of an anti-TNF-alpha antiserum to sensitized mice markedly reduced ovalbumin-induced neutrophil and eosinophil accumulation in the BAL fluid. These findings indicate that leukocyte infiltration into the airways of antigen-challenged mice is regulated by IL-10. Furthermore, inhibition of TNF-alpha production by rmIL-10 suggests that allergic airway inflammation and TNF-alpha formation are parallel events in this model.
C Zuany-Amorim, S Hailé, D Leduc, C Dumarey, M Huerre, B B Vargaftig, M Pretolani
Hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) is a cytosolic neutral lipase that hydrolyzes intracellular stores of triglycerides within adipocytes and is thought to be the rate limiting enzyme in lipolysis; however, direct evidence to prove this concept has been lacking. The present study was designed to establish the function of HSL in adipocytes. A 2360-bp fragment containing the entire HSL coding region was cloned into the vector pCEP4 and was used to transfect the 3T3-F442A adipogenic cell line. Nondifferentiated, transfected cells were screened for HSL overexpression by indirect immunofluorescence microscopy and confirmed by immunoblotting cell extracts with anti-HSL/fusion protein antibodies and by Northern blots for HSL mRNA. Stable transfectants overexpressing HSL were obtained and cloned. Compared with undifferentiated 3T3-F442A cells transfected with pCEP4 not containing the insert (vector alone) where HSL expression was very low, undifferentiated HSL transfectants had up to a 100-fold increase in HSL activity. Likewise, immunoreactive HSL protein and HSL mRNA levels were increased up to 100-fold in HSL transfectants. When confluent cells were allowed to differentiate by exposure to insulin, HSL expression increased in vector alone transfected cells, but remained below that observed in HSL transfectants. A similar degree of differentiation was seen in both vector alone and HSL transfectants when based on the induction of lipoprotein lipase. Cellular triglyceride content increased dramatically in the vector alone transfected cells while triglyceride content was markedly reduced in the HSL transfectants. The expression of late markers of adipocyte differentiation, such as aP2 and GPDH, was diminished and appeared to vary with the degree to which HSL was overexpressed and the cellular triglyceride content was reduced. Thus, the overexpression of HSL in 3T3-F442A cells prevents differentiated adipocytes from taking on the appearance of fat cells, i.e., accumulating triglyceride. Furthermore, the overexpression of HSL directly or indirectly attenuates the expression of several genes that appear during late adipocyte differentiation.
C Sztalryd, M C Komaromy, F B Kraemer
L J Feldman, P G Steg, L P Zheng, D Chen, M Kearney, S E McGarr, J J Barry, J F Dedieu, M Perricaudet, J M Isner
The so-called antikeratin antibodies (AKA) and the antiperinuclear factor (APF) are the most specific serological markers of RA. Using indirect immunofluorescence, AKA label the stratum corneum of various cornified epithelia and APF the keratohyalin granules of human buccal mucosa epithelium. We recently demonstrated that AKA recognize human epidermal filaggrin. Here, we report the identification of the major APF antigen as a diffuse protein band of 200-400 kD. This protein is seen to be closely related to human epidermal (pro) filaggrin since it was recognized by four antifilaggrin mAbs specific for different epitopes, and since the APF titers of RA sera were found to be correlated to their AKA titers and to their immunoblotting reactivities to filaggrin. Immunoabsorption of RA sera on purified epidermal filaggrin abolished their reactivities to the granules of buccal epithelial cells and to the 200-400-kD antigen. Moreover, antifilaggrin autoantibodies, i.e., AKA, affinity purified from RA sera, were shown to immunodetect the 200-400-kD antigen and to stain these granules. These results indicate that AKA and APF are largely the same autoantibodies. They recognize human epidermal filaggrin and (pro) filaggrin-related proteins of buccal epithelial cells. Identification of the epitopes recognized by these autoantibodies, which we propose to name antifilaggrin autoantibodies, will certainly open new paths of research into the pathophysiology of RA.
M Sebbag, M Simon, C Vincent, C Masson-Bessière, E Girbal, J J Durieux, G Serre
Two distinct calcitonin (CT) receptor (CTR)-encoding cDNAs (designated GC-2 and GC-10) were cloned and characterized from giant cell tumor of bone (GCT). Both GC-2 and GC-10 differ structurally from the human ovarian cell CTR (o-hCTR) that we cloned previously, but differ from each other only by the presence (GC-10) or absence (GC-2) of a predicted 16-amino acid insert in the putative first intracellular domain. Expression of all three CTR isoforms in COS cells demonstrated that GC-2 has a lower binding affinity for salmon (s) CT (Kd approximately 15 nM) than GC-10 or o-hCTR (Kd approximately 1.5 nM). Maximal stimulatory concentrations of CT resulted in a mean accumulation of cAMP in GC-2 transfected cells that was greater than eight times higher than in cells transfected with GC-10 after normalizing for the number of receptor-expressing cells. The marked difference in maximal cAMP response was also apparent after normalizing for receptor number. GC-2 also demonstrated a more potent ligand-mediated cAMP response compared with GC-10 for both human (h) and sCT (the EC50 values for GC-2 were approximately 0.2 nM for sCT and approximately 2 nM for hCT; EC50 values for GC-10 were approximately 6 nM for sCT and approximately 25 nM for hCT). Reverse transcriptase PCR of GCT RNA indicated that GC-2 transcripts are more abundant than those encoding for GC-10. In situ hybridization on GCT tissue sections demonstrated CTR mRNA expression in osteoclast-like cells. We localized the human CTR gene to chromosome 7 in band q22. The distinct functional characteristics of GC-2 and GC-10, which differ in structure only in the first intracellular domain, indicate that the first intracellular domain of the CTR plays a previously unidentified role in modulating ligand binding and signal transduction via the G protein/adenylate cyclase system.
A H Gorn, S M Rudolph, M R Flannery, C C Morton, S Weremowicz, T Z Wang, S M Krane, S R Goldring
Oxidized low density lipoprotein (LDL) possesses several atherogenic properties. The mechanisms by which LDL becomes oxidized in vivo remain unknown, but previous studies have suggested that 15-lipoxygenase may be one of the factors involved in the initiation of LDL oxidation in the arterial wall. 3 wk after a retrovirus-mediated 15-lipoxygenase gene transfer into iliac arteries of normocholesterolemic rabbits there was a threefold increase in 15-lipoxygenase activity but no signs of LDL oxidation. However, when animals were made moderately hypercholesterolemic by feeding a 0.13% cholesterol diet for 2-3 wk starting from day 4 after the gene transfer, oxidation-specific lipid-protein adducts characteristic of oxidized LDL were detected in 15-lipoxygenase-transduced arteries. Control experiments in which contralateral iliac arteries were transduced with beta-galactosidase-containing retroviruses showed only occasional signs of the presence of oxidation-specific adducts. The results support the hypothesis that products derived from the 15-lipoxygenase activity are involved in the induction of LDL oxidation within the arterial wall, provided that sufficient concentrations of lipoproteins are present in the artery.
S Ylä-Herttuala, J Luoma, H Viita, T Hiltunen, T Sisto, T Nikkari
Pneumocystis carinii interacts with glycoproteins present in the lower respiratory tract through its mannose-rich surface antigen complex termed gpA. Surfactant protein D (SP-D) is a recently described component of the airspace lining material that possesses a calcium-dependent lectin domain capable of interacting with glycoconjugates present on microorganisms and leukocytes. Accordingly, we evaluated the extent and localization of SP-D in the lower respiratory tract during Pneumocystis pneumonia in an immunosuppressed rat model and examined its role in modulating interaction of P. carinii with macrophages. We report that SP-D is a major component of the alveolar exudates that typify P. carinii pneumonia and is present bound to the surface of P. carinii organisms in vivo. We further demonstrate that SP-D binds to P. carinii through saccharide-mediated interactions with gpA present on the surface of the organism. Lastly, we show that SP-D augments binding of P. carinii to alveolar macrophages, but does not significantly enhance macrophage phagocytosis of the organism. The interaction of SP-D with gpA represents an additional important component of the host-parasite relationship during P. carinii pneumonia.
D M O'Riordan, J E Standing, K Y Kwon, D Chang, E C Crouch, A H Limper
The autologous mixed lymphocyte reaction (AMLR) involves the activation of T cells by autologous antigen presenting cells. Cells are generated during the course of the AMLR that have suppressive properties in vitro. In the present study we investigated the induction of CD8+ T cells in the AMLR with suppressive properties and the mechanism by which these cells downregulate in vitro proliferative responses. Purified CD8+ but not CD4+ T cells activated in the AMLR in conditioned medium inhibited proliferation of autologous T cells by anti-CD3 or PPD. Nonactivated CD8+ T cells did not suppress. The CD8+ T cells activated in the AMLR in the presence of conditioned medium (CD8+ Tact) were CD11b negative and were noncytotoxic. The inhibitory effect of CD8+ Tact cells was completely abrogated by anti-IFN-gamma antibody, but not by anti-IL-4, anti-IL-10, or anti-TGF-beta antibody. The induction of CD8+ Tact cells in the AMLR was blocked by anti-IL-2 or by anti-GM-CSF antibody and the combination of these two recombinant cytokines could support the induction of suppressive CD8+ Tact cells. CD8+ Tact cells were defective in patients with chronic progressive multiple sclerosis (MS) as compared to patients with relapsing-remitting MS or normal controls. Our studies provide a basis for understanding the mechanism of suppression by human CD8+ T cells in terms of specific cytokines, and demonstrate the potential importance of these cells in a human autoimmune disease as their function is defective in patients with progressive MS.
K E Balashov, S J Khoury, D A Hafler, H L Weiner
C L Ivey, F M Williams, P D Collins, P J Jose, T J Williams
Although it is a well known fact that hepatocytes are the primary source of plasma proteinase inhibitors, including alpha 1-antichymotrypsin, this protein has also been detected in lung epithelial cells, which may suggest its local production. We have demonstrated that lung-derived epithelial cells are capable of synthesizing high levels of alpha 1-antichymotrypsin. In normal bronchial epithelial cells, as well as in the HTB55 human adenocarcinoma cell line, alpha 1-antichymotrypsin synthesis was under the control of inflammatory cytokines, of which oncostatin M was the most potent stimulator. This finding is consistent with a role for this inhibitor in protecting the lung epithelium from damage by chymotrypsin-like enzymes released from phagocytes such as neutrophils following pathogen invasion.
J Cichy, J Potempa, R K Chawla, J Travis
Endothelins (ET) and prostaglandin E2 are synthesized in the inner medulla by collecting duct epithelium and interstitial cells, respectively. All ascending vasa recta (AVR) blood returns from the inner medulla to the cortex in outer medullary vascular bundles. We reasoned that hormones might influence medullary blood flow by diffusing across AVR fenestrations to modulate vasoconstriction of outer medullary descending vasa recta (OMDVR). To investigate this possibility, OMDVR dissected from vascular bundles were exposed to ET-1, 2, or 3. Each endothelin isoform induced stable vasoconstriction with potency, ET-1 > ET-2 > ET-3 (EC50, 1.8 x 10(-15), 5.9 x 10(-12), and 8.8 x 10(-10) M, respectively). The ETA receptor antagonist BQ-123 and BQ-610 (10(-6) M), as well as an ETA and ETB receptor antagonist combination, attenuated vasoconstriction due to ET-1 (10(-12) M). BQ-123 had no effect on the response to ET-3 (10(-8) M). The ETB receptor antagonist BQ-788 (10(-6) M) attenuated the response to ET-3 (10(-10) M), but not that to ET-1 (10(-12) M). Finally, PGE2 (10(-6) M) reversibly dilated OMDVR preconstricted with ET-1 (10(-12) M) or ET-3 (10(-8) M) but not ET-1 (10(-10) M). We conclude that ET-1,2, and 3 are potent constrictors of OMDVR and the response to ET-1 is mainly ETA receptor subtype mediated, while ET-3 acts via the ETB. PGE2 modulates ET induced constriction. These findings are consistent with interactive feedback and control of medullary perfusion by locally synthesized hormones.
E P Silldorff, S Yang, T L Pallone
Flow may be a physiological stimulus of the endothelial release of nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandins (PGs). We tested the hypothesis that pressure-induced constriction of the glomerular afferent arteriole (Af-Art) is modulated by luminal flow via endothelial production of NO. We microdissected the terminal segment of an interlobular artery together with two Af-Arts, their glomeruli (GL) and efferent arterioles (Ef-Art). The two Af-Arts were perfused simultaneously from the interlobular artery, while one Ef-Art was occluded. Since the arteriolar perfusate contained 5% albumin, oncotic pressure built up in the glomerulus with the occluded Ef-Art and opposed the force of filtration, resulting in little or no flow through the corresponding Af-Art. Thus this preparation allowed us to observe free-flow and no-flow Af-Arts simultaneously during stepwise 30-mmHg increases in intraluminal pressure (from 30 to 120 mmHg). Pressure-induced constriction was weaker in free-flow than no-flow Af-Arts, with the luminal diameter decreasing by 11.1 +/- 1.7 and 25.6 +/- 2.3% (n = 30), respectively, at 120 mmHg. To examine whether flow modulates myogenic constriction through endothelium-derived NO and/or PGs, we examined pressure-induced constriction before and after (a) disruption of the endothelium, (b) inhibition of NO synthesis with NW-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), or (c) inhibition of cyclooxygenase with indomethacin. Both endothelial disruption and L-NAME augmented pressure-induced constriction in free-flow but not no-flow Af-Arts, abolishing the differences between the two. However, indomethacin had no effect in either free-flow or no-flow Af-Arts. These results suggest that intraluminal flow attenuates pressure-induced constriction in Af-Arts via endothelium-derived NO. Thus flow-stimulated NO release may be important in the fine control of glomerular hemodynamics.
L A Juncos, J Garvin, O A Carretero, S Ito
Hormonal activation of protein kinase C (PKC) is a major signaling mechanism regulating salt and water transport in the distal nephron. We used antisense DNA to down-regulate a PKC isoform in the rabbit cortical collecting duct (CCD) and examined its role in mediating arginine vasopressin's (AVP) effect on salt transport in the CCD. Immunoblots demonstrate that PKC-epsilon (diacylglycerol sensitive) and PKC-zeta (diacylglycerol insensitive) are the major PKC isoforms in both freshly isolated and primary cultures of rabbit CCDs. Rabbit CCDs grown on semi-permeable supports, displayed a positive baseline short circuit current (Isc), which was abolished by amiloride, demonstrating active Na+ absorption. Both AVP and 8-chloro-phenylthio-cAMP (8CPTcAMP) transiently increased Isc, however, within 40 min Isc fell below baseline. Down-regulation of PKC-epsilon, as confirmed by immunoblot, was achieved either by treatment with a PKC-epsilon-specific antisense oligonucleotide or 48 h of 1 microM PMA. In PKC-epsilon down-regulated cells, 8CPTcAMP produced a sustained, rather than transient, increase in Isc. We suggest cAMP stimulates Na+ transport, but secondary activation of PKC-epsilon results in the sustained inhibition of Na+ transport seen in response to vasopressin in the CCD.
D L DeCoy, J R Snapper, M D Breyer
A critical step in bone resorption is the fusion of mononuclear osteoclast precursors to form multinucleated osteoclasts. However, little is known of the molecular mechanisms that are responsible for this important process. Since the expression of proteins in the cadherin family of homophilic calcium-dependent cell adhesion molecules is involved in the fusion process for certain other cells, we examined their role in osteoclast formation. Immunohistochemical examination of human and mouse bone using monoclonal antibodies to human and mouse E-cadherin clearly demonstrated positive staining in osteoclasts. N- and P-cadherin were not detected. In cultures of murine marrow mononuclear cells in which osteoclasts form by cell fusion, E-cadherin expression determined by Western blotting reached the highest levels as fusion was taking place. Expression of E-cadherin gene fragment was also detected in the marrow cultures by polymerase chain reaction. To study the functional role of E-cadherin expression in osteoclastic differentiation, neutralizing monoclonal antibodies were examined for their effects on osteoclast formation. The antibodies decreased the number of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (a marker of murine osteoclast)-positive multinucleated cell (TRAP-positive MNC) by inhibiting the fusion of mononuclear osteoclast precursors, but not proliferation of these cells or their attachment to plastic dish surfaces. This inhibitory effect was reversible. Furthermore, synthetic peptides containing the cell adhesion recognition sequence of cadherins also decreased TRAP-positive MNC formation. The antibodies and peptides inhibited not only osteoclast formation but also bone resorption. Antibodies to other types of cadherins and control rat IgG had no effects in these culture systems. Our findings suggest that E-cadherin expression may be involved in fusion (differentiation) of hemopoietic osteoclast precursors into mature multinucleated osteoclasts.
G Mbalaviele, H Chen, B F Boyce, G R Mundy, T Yoneda
We tested the hypothesis that glycolytic inhibition by 2-deoxyglucose causes greater impairment of diastolic relaxation and intracellular calcium handling in well-oxygenated hypertrophied adult rat myocytes compared with control myocytes. We simultaneously measured cell motion and intracellular free calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) with indo-1 in isolated paced myocytes from aortic-banded rats and sham-operated rats. There was no difference in either the end-diastolic or peak-systolic [Ca2+]i between control and hypertrophied myocytes (97 +/- 18 vs. 105 +/- 15 nM, 467 +/- 92 vs. 556 +/- 67 nM, respectively). Myocytes were first superfused with oxygenated Hepes-buffered solution containing 1.2 mM CaCl2, 5.6 mM glucose, and 5 mM acetate, and paced at 3 Hz at 36 degrees C. Exposure to 20 mM 2-deoxyglucose as substitution of glucose for 15 min caused an upward shift of end-diastolic cell position in both control (n = 5) and hypertrophied myocytes (n = 10) (P < 0.001 vs. baseline), indicating an impaired extent of relaxation. Hypertrophied myocytes, however, showed a greater upward shift in end-diastolic cell position and slowing of relaxation compared with control myocytes (delta 144 +/- 28 vs. 55 +/- 15% of baseline diastolic position, P < 0.02). Exposure to 2-deoxyglucose increased end-diastolic [Ca2+]i in both groups (P < 0.001 vs. baseline), but there was no difference between hypertrophied and control myocytes (218 +/- 38 vs. 183 +/- 29 nM, respectively). The effects of 2-deoxyglucose were corroborated in isolated oxygenated perfused hearts in which glycolytic inhibition which caused severe elevation of isovolumic diastolic pressure and prolongation of relaxation in the hypertrophied hearts compared with controls. In summary, the inhibition of the glycolytic pathway impairs diastolic relaxation to a greater extent in hypertrophied myocytes than in control myocytes even in well-oxygenated conditions. The severe impairment of diastolic relaxation induced by 2-deoxyglucose in hypertrophied myocytes compared with control myocytes cannot be explained by greater diastolic Ca2+ overload, which implicates an increase in myofilament Ca(2+)-responsiveness as a possible mechanism.
Y Kagaya, E O Weinberg, N Ito, T Mochizuki, W H Barry, B H Lorell
The nucleoside analogue, 2',3'-dideoxycytidine (ddC), is a potent inhibitor of HIV replication, and AIDS patients receiving ddC experience clinical improvement without significant hematologic toxicity. Repeated ddC administration (1,000 mg/kg per day) for 13 wk produces an increased incidence of thymic lymphoma in B6C3F1 mice. Previous studies reveal a common link between chemically induced and genetically associated models of mouse thymic lymphoma that involves a defect in a subpopulation of primitive hematopoietic progenitor cells. This defect is characterized by suppression of a subpopulation of IL-3-responsive cells and ablation of stem cell factor synergy with GM-CSF. The present study was undertaken to ascertain whether ddC produces the same pattern of bone marrow toxicity in mice, and whether this effect is observed in rat and human bone marrow. ddC exposure in vivo and in vitro produced a select suppression of murine CFU identical to that previously described for other models of mouse thymic lymphoma. In contrast, this selective CFU suppression was not observed in rat and human bone marrow or in CD34+ cells. These studies suggest that the mouse may not be a good predictive model for ddC hematotoxicity in humans and that susceptibility to the development of thymic lymphoma may be unique to the mouse.
R D Irons, A T Le, D B Som, W S Stillman
A H Cross, T J Girard, K S Giacoletto, R J Evans, R M Keeling, R F Lin, J L Trotter, R W Karr
The effects of surgical bowel manipulation and anesthesia on intestinal glucose absorption were determined in chronically catheterized rats. Total and passive rates of glucose absorption were measured using 3-O-methyl-glucose (3OMG) and L-glucose, metabolically inert analogues of D-glucose. The rates of 3OMG absorption immediately postoperative and 4 h later were 86 and 62% less than the absorption rate 6 d postoperative. The absorption rates of 3OMG 1 and 2 d postoperative were not different from 6 d postoperative. Absorption of L-glucose was not altered by bowel manipulation and anesthesia. Even after correction for the increased resistance of the unstirred water layer (UWL) after bowel manipulation, the rates of total and active intestinal glucose absorption immediately postoperative were only 11 and 15% of predicted rates of absorption. In chronically catheterized rats, > 75% of luminal 3OMG at a concentration of 400 mM was absorbed by active transport. The Km and Vmax of 3OMG active transport corrected for the resistance of the UWL were 11.3 mM and 15.6 mumoles/min, respectively. We conclude that measurements of intestinal glucose absorption performed within 24 h of surgical bowel manipulation greatly underestimate active absorption even if corrections are made to account for the increased resistance of the UWL.
M R Uhing, R E Kimura
A method is described for determining the fraction of intestinal 3-O-methyl-glucose (3OMG) absorption that occurs by active transport in chronically catheterized rats without the influence of anesthesia or surgical bowel manipulation. That fraction was determined by simultaneously measuring portal venous-aortic blood concentration gradients (delta C) of 3-O-methyl-glucose (3OMG) and L-glucose, metabolically inert analogues of D-glucose. 3OMG is actively and passively absorbed by the same mechanisms as D-glucose, L-glucose is only passively absorbed. The fraction of 3OMG that is actively transported was calculated from the difference between 3OMG and L-glucose absorption, divided by total 3OMG absorption. We found that more than 94% of 3-O-methyl-glucose is absorbed by active transport when luminal concentrations range from 50 to 400 mM. We conclude that in unrestrained, unanesthetized chronically catheterized rats, most 3OMG is actively absorbed by the intestine even at high luminal concentrations.
M R Uhing, R E Kimura
Protein-tyrosine phosphatases (PTPases) have an essential role in the regulation of the steady-state phosphorylation of the insulin receptor and other proteins in the insulin signalling pathway. To examine whether increased PTPase activity is associated with adipose tissue insulin resistance in human obesity we measured PTPase enzyme activity towards the insulin receptor in homogenates of subcutaneous adipose tissue from a series of six lean and six nondiabetic, obese (body mass index > 30) subjects. The obese subjects had a mean 1.74-fold increase in PTPase activity (P < 0.0001) with a striking positive correlation by linear regression analysis between PTPase activity and body mass index among all of the samples (R = 0.918; P < 0.0001). The abundance of three candidate insulin receptor PTPases in adipose tissue was also estimated by immunoblot analysis. The most prominent increase was a 2.03-fold rise in the transmembrane PTPase LAR (P < 0.001). Of the three PTPase examined, only immunodepletion of LAR protein from the homogenates with neutralizing antibodies resulted in normalization of the PTPase activity towards the insulin receptor, demonstrating that the increase in LAR was responsible for the enhanced PTPase activity in the adipose tissue from obese subjects. These studies suggest that increased PTPase activity towards the insulin receptor is a pathogenetic factor in the insulin resistance of adipose tissue in human obesity and provide evidence for a potential role of the LAR PTPase in the regulation of insulin signalling in disease states.
F Ahmad, R V Considine, B J Goldstein
Evidence suggests that eosinophils contribute to inflammation in bronchial asthma by releasing chemical mediators and cytotoxic granule proteins. To investigate the mechanism of eosinophil degranulation in asthma, we established an in vitro model of allergen-induced degranulation. We treated tissue culture plates with short ragweed pollen (SRW) extract and sera from either normal donors or SRW-sensitive patients with asthma. Eosinophils were incubated in the wells and degranulation was assessed by measurement of eosinophil-derived neurotoxin in supernatants. We detected degranulation only when sera from SRW-sensitive patients were reacted with SRW. Anti-IgG and anti-Fc gamma RII mAb, but not anti-IgE or anti-Fc epsilon RII mAb, abolished the degranulation. IgG-depleted serum did not induce degranulation; IgE-depleted serum triggered as much degranulation as untreated serum. Furthermore, serum levels of SRW-specific IgG1 or IgG3 correlated with the amounts of released eosinophil-derived neurotoxin. When eosinophils were cultured in wells coated with purified IgG or IgE, eosinophil degranulation was observed only with IgG. Finally, human IgG1 and IgG3, and less consistently IgG2, but not IgG4, induced degranulation. Thus, sera from patients with SRW-sensitive asthma induce eosinophil degranulation in vitro through antigen-specific IgG1 and IgG3 antibodies. These antibodies may be responsible for degranulation of eosinophils in inflammatory reactions, such as bronchial asthma.
M Kaneko, M C Swanson, G J Gleich, H Kita
Ras regulates novel patterns of gene expression and the differentiation of various eukaryotic cell types. Stable transfection of Ha-ras into the human colon cancer line CaCo2 results in the morphologic differentiation to a small bowel phenotype. The purpose of our study was to determine whether the Ras regulatory pathway plays a role in the expression of the neurotensin gene (NT/N), a terminally differentiated endocrine product specifically localized in the gastrointestinal tract to the adult small bowel. We found that CaCo2-ras cells, but not parental CaCo2, express high levels of the human NT/N gene and, moreover, that this increase in gene expression is regulated at the level of transcription. Transfection experiments using NT/N-CAT mutation constructs identify the proximal 200 bp of NT/N flanking sequence as sufficient for maximal Ras-mediated NT/N reporter gene induction. Furthermore, a proximal AP-1/CRE motif is crucial for this Ras-mediated NT/N activation. Wild-type Ha-ras induces NT/N gene expression, albeit at lower levels than activated Ras; a dominant-negative Raf blocks this NT/N induction, suggesting that Raf lies down-stream of Ras in this pathway. In addition, postconfluent cultures of CaCo2 cells, which are differentiated to a small bowel phenotype, express the NT/N gene by 6 d after reaching confluency; this increase of NT/N expression is associated with concomitant increases of cellular p21ras protein. We conclude that Ras (both wild-type and activated) enhances expression of the NT/N gene in the gut-derived CaCo2 cell line, suggesting an important role for the Ras signaling pathway in NT/N gene transcription. Our results underscore the possibility that tissue-specific genes (such as NT/N) expressed in distinct subpopulations of the gut may be subject to Ras regulation. Finally, we speculate that the NT/N gene and the CaCo2 and CaCo2-ras cell systems will provide unique models to further define the cellular mechanisms leading to mammalian intestinal differentiation.
B M Evers, Z Zhou, P Celano, J Li
Certain dihydroxy bile acids cause secretory diarrhea when present in the colonic lumen at inappropriately high concentrations. However, the mechanism underlying the secretagogue activity has not been fully elucidated. Experiments were performed to test whether mast cells and one of their major mediators, histamine, might contribute to the secretory effect. Chenodeoxycholic acid, a secretory bile acid, and ursodeoxycholic acid, a nonsecretory, hydrophilic bile acid, were compared for their ability to induce chloride secretion across segments of mouse colon mounted in Ussing chambers. Chenodeoxycholic acid, but not ursodeoxycholic acid, induced dose-dependent, biphasic chloride secretion that was greater after serosal than mucosal addition and was greater in distal versus proximal colonic segments. The secretory effect of chenodeoxycholic acid was inhibited by H1 histamine receptor antagonists and modified by the cyclooxygenase inhibitor indomethacin. However, it was unaffected by an H2 histamine receptor antagonist or by atropine. Secretory effects of chenodeoxycholic acid were diminished in magnitude and delayed in colonic tissues from mice with a genetic deficiency of tissue mast cells. Concentrations of chenodeoxycholic acid inducing secretion also released histamine from tissue segments. These data indicate that mast cells and histamine-mediated processes contribute significantly to the secretory effects of dihydroxy bile acids in the murine colon.
C M Gelbmann, C D Schteingart, S M Thompson, A F Hofmann, K E Barrett
When cultures of pancreatic islet cells are exposed to the nitric oxide donor sodium nitroprusside, to enzymatically generated reactive oxygen intermediates or to streptozotocin cell lysis occurs after 4-12 h. We report here that a heat shock at 43 degrees C for 90 min reduces cell lysis from nitric oxide (0.45 mM sodium nitroprusside) by 70%, from reactive oxygen intermediates (12 mU xanthine oxidase and 0.05 mM hypoxanthine) by 80% and from streptozotocin (1.5 mM) by 90%. Heat shock induced resistance was observed immediately after termination of the 90 min culture at 43 degrees C and correlated with enhanced expression of hsp70. The occurrence of DNA strand breaks, a major early consequence of nitric oxide, reactive oxygen intermediates, or streptozotocin action, was not suppressed by heat shock treatment. However, the depletion of NAD+, the major cause of radical induced islet cell death, was suppressed after heat shock (P < 0.01). We conclude that pancreatic islet cells can rapidly activate defence mechanisms against nitric oxide, reactive oxygen intermediates and streptozotocin by culture at 43 degrees C. Islet cell survival is due to the prevention of lethal NAD+ depletion during DNA repair, probably by slowing down poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase activation.
K Bellmann, A Wenz, J Radons, V Burkart, R Kleemann, H Kolb
Tumors frequently induce the multifunctional cytokine IL-6, which has been linked to several paraneoplastic syndromes, most notably cachexia. IL-6 stimulates osteoclast formation, causes mild hypercalcemia, and is produced by bone cells in vitro upon exposure to systemic hormones. Since IL-6 is produced together with parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTH-rP) in some patients with cancer, we tested the hypothesis that production of IL-6 potentiates the effects of PTH-rP on Ca2+ homeostasis and osteoclastic bone resorption and examined potential mechanisms for these interactions in vivo. Chinese hamster ovarian (CHO) cells stably transfected with cDNAs for IL-6 (CHO/IL-6) and PTH-rP sense (CHO/PTH-rP) or antisense (CHO/PTH-rP AS) were inoculated intramuscularly into nude mice. Experimental groups included CHO/IL-6 plus CHO/PTH-rP; CHO/IL-6 plus CHO/PTH-rP AS; CHO/IL-6 alone; and CHO/PTH-rP alone. Blood ionized Ca2+ was measured on days 0, 7, 10, 12, and 13. Three different developmental stages in the osteoclast lineage were examined at day 13: the early multipotential precursor, granulocyte macrophage colony-forming units (CFU-GM); more mature mononuclear osteoclast precursors, assessed by their capacity to form tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase-positive multinucleated cells in marrow cultures; and mature osteoclasts, assessed by histomorphometry. IL-6 increased CFU-GM but not bone resorption or Ca2+. In contrast, PTH-rP induced hypercalcemia and bone resorption and increased multinucleated osteoclasts and more mature precursors cells, but not CFU-GM. However, mice treated with both IL-6 and PTH-rP had very marked hypercalcemia and osteoclastosis as well as an increase in the number of both CFU-GM and mature osteoclast precursors. These data demonstrate that IL-6 enhances PTH-rP-mediated hypercalcemia and bone resorption, most likely by increasing the pool of early osteoclast precursors that in turn can differentiate to mature osteoclasts. We conclude that IL-6 stimulatory effects on osteoclast precursors may enhance the effects of other bone resorption factors that act at later stages in the osteoclast lineage.
J de la Mata, H L Uy, T A Guise, B Story, B F Boyce, G R Mundy, G D Roodman
Culture filtrates of Shigella flexneri 2a strain M4243 grown in iron-depleted medium, caused significant fluid accumulation in rabbit ileal loops. Also, when tested in Ussing chambers, a greater rise in potential difference and short circuit current was seen with such filtrates compared with the medium control. Analogous filtrates from two M4243 derivatives lacking the 140-MD invasiveness plasmid (either M4243avir or BS103) retained 60-65% of the wild-type enterotoxic activity. Ultrafiltration and gel exclusion size fractionation of M4243 filtrate revealed that the activity was approximately 60 kD. SDS-PAGE performed on this fraction showed 18 bands, 5 of which reacted with human convalescent sera. Genes encoding this enterotoxin, named ShET1 for Shigella enterotoxin 1, were cloned from the S. flexneri 2a chromosome, and two separate open reading frames of 534 and 186 bp were sequenced. These observations suggest that S. flexneri 2a elaborates two distinct enterotoxins: ShET1, encoded by genes located on the chromosome, and ShET2, encoded by a gene on the 140-MD invasiveness plasmid. ShET1, which is composed of two distinct subunits and is elaborated in vivo, where it elicits an immune response, may be important in the pathogenesis of diarrheal illness due to S. flexneri 2a.
A Fasano, F R Noriega, D R Maneval Jr, S Chanasongcram, R Russell, S Guandalini, M M Levine
The newly recognized human endogenous vasoconstrictive dinucleotides, diadenosine pentaphosphate (AP5A) and diadenosine hexaphosphate (AP6A), were tested for growth stimulatory effects in rat mesangial cells (MC). Both AP5A and AP6A stimulated growth in micromolar concentrations. The growth stimulatory effect exceeded that of ATP, alpha,beta-methylene ATP, adenosine 5'-O-(3-thio)triphosphate and UTP. Both diadenosine phosphates potentiated the growth response to platelet-derived growth factor, but not to insulin-like growth factor-1. To further elucidate the site of action in the cell cycle, RNA and protein synthesis were assessed. AP5 and AP6A stimulated protein synthesis, but not RNA formation. Furthermore, both agents increased cytosolic free Ca2+ concentration. It is concluded that AP5A and AP6A may play a regulatory role in MC growth as progression factors and possibly modify MC proliferation in glomerular disease.
S Heidenreich, M Tepel, H Schlüter, B Harrach, W Zidek
In the enclosed study we have examined the expression and contribution of specific chemokines, macrophage inflammatory protein 1 alpha (MIP-1 alpha) and macrophage inflammatory protein 2 (MIP-2), and interleukin 10 (IL-10) during the evolution of type II collagen-induced arthritis (CIA). Detectable levels of chemotactic cytokine protein for MIP-1 alpha and MIP-2 were first observed between days 32 and 36, after initial type II collagen challenge, while increases in IL-10 were found between days 36 and 44. CIA mice passively immunized with antibodies directed against either MIP-1 alpha or MIP-2 demonstrated a delay in the onset of arthritis and a reduction of the severity of arthritis. On the contrary, CIA mice receiving neutralizing anti-IL-10 antibodies demonstrated an acceleration of the onset and an increase in the severity of arthritis. Interestingly, anti-IL-10 treatment increased the expression of MIP-1 alpha and MIP-2, as well as increased myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity and leukocyte infiltration in the inflamed joints. These data suggest that MIP-1 alpha and MIP-2 play a crucial role in the initiation and maintenance, while IL-10 appears to play a regulatory role during the development of experimental arthritis.
T Kasama, R M Strieter, N W Lukacs, P M Lincoln, M D Burdick, S L Kunkel
Two classes of receptors for IgG, Fc gamma RIIa and Fc gamma RIIIb, both of which exist in two allelic forms, are expressed on human neutrophils. Neutrophils from normal donors, homozygous for the different allelic phenotypes of Fc gamma RIIIb, have significantly different levels of Fc gamma receptor-mediated phagocytosis of IgG-opsonized erythrocytes (EA). However, the observation that Fc gamma RIIIb mediates phagocytosis of specific mAb-targeted erythrocytes poorly suggests that this receptor may influence EA internalization by Fc gamma RIIa in an allele-sensitive fashion. Donors homozygous for the NA1 allele of Fc gamma RIIIb showed greater activation of Fc gamma RIIa after Fc gamma RIIIb cross-linking than donors homozygous for the NA2 allele of Fc gamma RIIIb. This increase in receptor-specific internalization reflects both an increase in ligand binding by Fc gamma RIIa and an increase in internalization efficiency of targets bound. Activation of Fc gamma RIIa by Fc gamma RIIIb is transferable by supernatants from activated cells and is blocked by inhibitors of reactive oxygen species and the H2O2-myeloperoxidase-chloride system and by serine protease inhibitors. Thus, cross-linking of Fc gamma RIIIb, which leads to neutrophil degranulation and the generation of reactive oxygen intermediates, in turn alters Fc gamma RIIa avidity and efficiency. These oxidant-mediated changes in Fc gamma RIIa function provide a novel mechanism for receptors to collaborate in both an autocrine and paracrine fashion. The allele sensitivity of these effects suggests that Fc gamma receptor polymorphisms may be inherited disease susceptibility factors in host defense against infection and in the development of autoimmunity.
J E Salmon, S S Millard, N L Brogle, R P Kimberly
Interleukin-6 is an essential mediator of the bone loss caused by loss of estrogens. Because loss of androgens also causes bone loss, we have examined whether the IL-6 gene is regulated by androgens, and whether IL-6 plays a role in the bone loss caused by androgen deficiency. Both testosterone and dihydrotestosterone inhibited IL-6 production by murine bone marrow-derived stromal cells. In addition, testosterone, dihydrotestosterone, and adrenal androgens inhibited the expression of a chloramphenicol acetyl transferase reporter plasmid driven by the human IL-6 promoter in HeLa cells cotransfected with an androgen receptor expression plasmid; however, these steroids were ineffective when the cells were cotransfected with an estrogen receptor expression plasmid. In accordance with the in vitro findings, orchidectomy in mice caused an increase in the replication of osteoclast progenitors in the bone marrow which could be prevented by androgen replacement or administration of an IL-6 neutralizing antibody. Moreover, bone histomorphometric analysis of trabecular bone revealed that, in contrast to IL-6 sufficient mice which exhibited increased osteoclast numbers and bone loss following orchidectomy, IL-6 deficient mice (generated by targeted gene disruption) did not. This evidence demonstrates that male sex steroids, acting through the androgen-specific receptor, inhibit the expression of the IL-6 gene; and that IL-6 mediates the upregulation of osteoclastogenesis and therefore the bone loss caused by androgen deficiency, as it does in estrogen deficiency.
T Bellido, R L Jilka, B F Boyce, G Girasole, H Broxmeyer, S A Dalrymple, R Murray, S C Manolagas
Animal studies indicate that nonadrenal tissues may synthesize epinephrine (E). Here we demonstrate phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase (PNMT) and/or nonspecific N-methyltransferase (NMT) enzymatic activity in human lung, kidney, heart, liver, spleen, and pancreas. There was a significant overall correlation (r = 0.34) between tissue PNMT and E. PNMT and NMT in human tissues differed in substrate and inhibitor specificity, thermal stability, and antigenicity. By these criteria, PNMT in human lung and in human bronchial epithelial cells were indistinguishable from adrenal PNMT. PNMT and/or NMT activity were present in red blood cells (RBCs), and cancer cell lines. Human kidney, lung, and pancreas showed immunohistochemical staining with an antibody to adrenal PNMT. RBC PNMT activity was lower in males than females and was increased in hyperthyroidism and decreased in hypothyroidism. PNMT activity in a human bronchial epithelial cell line was dramatically increased by incubation with dexamethasone. E and 3H-E levels in plasma and urine during an intravenous infusion of 3H-E into humans indicated that kidney may synthesize half of urinary E. We conclude that PNMT and NMT are widely distributed in human tissues, that they may synthesize E in vivo and are influenced by glucocorticoid and thyroid hormones.
B Kennedy, T D Bigby, M G Ziegler
Hydrolysis of glucosylceramides (GlcCer) by beta-glucocerebrosidase generates ceramides, critical components of the epidermal permeability barrier. Ceramides also are involved in the regulation of cellular proliferation and differentiation in a variety of cell types. Whereas most studies have focused on ceramides and their sphingoid base metabolites as growth inhibitors, GlcCer apparently acts oppositely (i.e., as a mitogen). To determine whether enhancement of GlcCer content stimulates epidermal mitogenesis, we examined the response of hairless mouse epidermis to alterations in endogenous and/or exogenous GlcCer. Topical applications of conduritol B epoxide, a specific irreversible inhibitor of beta-glucocerebrosidase, increased epidermal GlcCer levels twofold, an alteration localized largely to the basal, proliferative cell layer (fourfold increase); and stimulated epidermal proliferation (2.3-fold elevation in [3H]thymidine incorporation; P < or = 0.001), localized autoradiographically again to the basal layer, and resulting in epidermal hyperplasia. Intracutaneous administration of GlcCer (2.0 mg) also stimulated epidermal DNA synthesis, while simultaneous treatment with conduritol B epoxide plus GlcCer resulted in an additive increase in DNA synthesis. These increases in epidermal proliferation could not be attributed either to altered epidermal permeability barrier function, or to nonspecific irritant effects, as determined by four separate criteria. These results strongly suggest that GlcCer directly stimulates epidermal mitogenesis.
N L Marsh, P M Elias, W M Holleran
Recent evidence links osteoporosis, a disease of bone remodeling, to changes in the dynamics of parathyroid hormone secretion. We use nonlinear and linear time series prediction to characterize the secretory dynamics of parathyroid hormone in both healthy human subjects and patients with osteoporosis. Osteoporotic patients appear to lack the periods of high predictability found in normal humans. Our results may provide an explanation for why an intermittent administration of parathyroid hormone is effective in restoring bone mass in osteoporotic patients.
K Prank, S J Nowlan, H M Harms, M Kloppstech, G Brabant, R D Hesch, T J Sejnowski
Vertical transmission of human T-lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I) depends primarily on breast-feeding; substitution of bottle-feeding has reduced the transmission rate from 20% in breast-fed children to 3% among bottle-fed. To determine the correlates of transmission for long breast-feeding (> or = 6 mo), short breast-feeding (< 6 mo), and bottle-feeding mothers, the antibody titers of transmitter (T) mothers and non-transmitter (nT) mothers were analyzed by using synthetic and recombinant epitopes representing the immunodominant epitopes of gag (Gag1a, r24), env (Env1/5, MTA1, RE3), and tax (Tax8/22-24) proteins. Seroreactivity to gag and tax epitopes was not significantly different except for anti-r24 antibody titer, which was significantly higher among T-mothers (geometric mean 134) when compared with nT-mothers (62) in the long-feeding group (P < 0.001). Profiles of antibody titers against env epitopes were different. Within the long-feeding group, Env1/5, MTA1, and RE3 titers were significantly higher among T-mothers (258, 1,476, and 738, respectively) when compared with nT-mothers (106, 279, and 320, respectively) (P < 0.01 for all three epitopes). In contrast, within the bottle-feeding group, antibody titers to Env1/5 (269) and RE3 (418) among nT-mothers were significantly higher than those among T-mothers (80 and 113, respectively) (P < 0.01). These data confirm that high-titered anti-HTLV-I antibodies in the long-feeding group correlate with milk-borne transmission of HTLV-I and, more importantly, imply that maternal anti-env antibodies may reduce the risk of non-milkborne infection.
S Hino, S Katamine, T Miyamoto, H Doi, Y Tsuji, T Yamabe, J E Kaplan, D L Rudolph, R B Lal
To elucidate the mechanism of insulin's anticatabolic effect in humans, protein dynamics were evaluated in the whole-body, splanchnic, and leg tissues in six C-peptide-negative type I diabetic male patients in the insulin-deprived and insulin-treated states using two separate amino acid models (leucine and phenylalanine). L-(1-13C,15N)leucine, L-(ring-2H5)phenylalanine, and L-(ring-2H2) tyrosine were infused intravenously, and isotopic enrichments of [1-13C,15N]-leucine, (13C)leucine, (13C)ketoisocaproate, (2H5)phenylalanine, [2H4]tyrosine, (2H2)tyrosine, and 13CO2 were measured in arterial, hepatic vein, and femoral vein samples. Whole-body leucine flux, phenylalanine flux, and tyrosine flux were decreased (< 0.01) by insulin treatment, indicating an inhibition of protein breakdown. Moreover, insulin decreased (< 0.05) the rates of leucine oxidation and leucine transamination (P < 0.01), but the percent rate of ketoisocaproate oxidation was increased by insulin (P < 0.01). Insulin also reduced (< 0.01) whole-body protein synthesis estimated from both the leucine model (nonoxidative leucine disposal) and the phenylalanine model (disposal of phenylalanine not accounted by its conversion to tyrosine). Regional studies demonstrated that changes in whole body protein breakdown are accounted for by changes in both splanchnic and leg tissues. The changes in whole-body protein synthesis were not associated with changes in skeletal muscle (leg) protein synthesis but could be accounted for by the splanchnic region. We conclude that though insulin decreases whole-body protein breakdown in patients with type I diabetes by inhibition of protein breakdown in splanchnic and leg tissues, it selectively decreases protein synthesis in splanchnic tissues, which accounted for the observed decrease in whole-body protein synthesis. Insulin also augmented anabolism by decreasing leucine transamination.
K S Nair, G C Ford, K Ekberg, E Fernqvist-Forbes, J Wahren
We tested the hypothesis that liver protein kinase C (PKC) is increased in non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). To this end we examined the distribution of PKC isozymes in liver biopsies from obese individuals with and without NIDDM and in lean controls. PKC isozymes alpha, beta, epsilon and zeta were detected by immunoblotting in both the cytosol and membrane fractions. Isozymes gamma and delta were not detected. There was a significant increase in immunodetectable PKC-alpha (twofold), -epsilon (threefold), and -zeta (twofold) in the membrane fraction isolated from obese subjects with NIDDM compared with the lean controls. In obese subjects without NIDDM, the amount of membrane PKC isozymes was not different from the other two groups. We next sought an animal model where this observation could be studied further. The Zucker diabetic fatty rat offered such a model system. Immunodetectable membrane PKC-alpha, -beta, -epsilon, and -zeta were significantly increased when compared with both the lean and obese controls. The increase in immunodetectable PKC protein correlated with a 40% elevation in the activity of PKC at the membrane. Normalization of circulating glucose in the rat model by either insulin or phlorizin treatment did not result in a reduction in membrane PKC isozyme protein or kinase activity. Further, phlorizin treatment did not improve insulin receptor autophosphorylation nor did the treatment lower liver diacylglycerol. We conclude that liver PKC is increased in NIDDM, a change that is not secondary to hyperglycemia. It is possible that PKC-mediated phosphorylation of some component in the insulin signaling cascade contributes to the insulin resistance observed in NIDDM.
R V Considine, M R Nyce, L E Allen, L M Morales, S Triester, J Serrano, J Colberg, S Lanza-Jacoby, J F Caro
The interaction of mucosal lymphocytes and intestinal epithelial cells is thought to be important in regulating immune response in the intestinal mucosa, but conclusive evidence is limited. Here we demonstrate the expression of IL-7 mRNA in human intestinal mucosa by combined reverse transcription PCR and Southern blot hybridization. Immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization confirm the presence of IL-7 in intestinal epithelial cells, especially in epithelial goblet cells. Moreover, IL-7 receptor expression in mucosal lymphocytes is demonstrated by immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization, as well as by Southern blot and flow cytometric analysis of freshly isolated lamina propria lymphocytes. In contrast, IL-7 receptor could not be detected in the cell surface of freshly isolated PBLs. The functional activity of IL-7 receptor is demonstrated by the utility of recombinant IL-7 to stimulate the growth of lamina propria lymphocytes, and conversely inhibit CD3-dependent proliferation of these cells. In contrast, IL-7 caused no significant increase in DNA synthesis and cell numbers when added to PBLs. These findings suggest that human intestinal epithelial cells and epithelial goblet cells produce IL-7, and locally produced IL-7 may serve as a potent regulatory factor for intestinal mucosal lymphocytes.
M Watanabe, Y Ueno, T Yajima, Y Iwao, M Tsuchiya, H Ishikawa, S Aiso, T Hibi, H Ishii
The development of arteriosclerotic lesions in the Lewis to F344 rat model of chronic cardiac rejection is characterized by macrophage adhesion to the vessel lumen and macrophage infiltration in the neointima prior to smooth muscle cell accumulation. We report the cloning and characterization of allograft inflammatory factor-1 (AIF-1), a novel cDNA that is expressed early and persistently in chronically rejecting cardiac allografts but is absent in cardiac syngrafts and host hearts. The full-length cDNA codes for a hydrophilic polypeptide of 17 kD that contains a 12-amino acid region similar to an EF-hand (calcium-binding) domain. In cardiac allografts AIF-1 transcripts and protein localized to infiltrating mononuclear cells. Analysis of isolated cell populations confirmed that AIF-1 was selectively expressed in macrophages and neutrophils and demonstrated that AIF-1 transcripts could be upregulated by sixfold after stimulation with the T cell-derived cytokine IFN-gamma. Treatment with a diet deficient in essential fatty acids (which attenuates arteriosclerosis) or CTLA-4 Ig (which blocks lymphocyte activation) significantly decreased AIF-1 transcript levels. Upregulation of AIF-1 in the setting of T cell activation suggests that it may play a role in macrophage activation and function.
U Utans, R J Arceci, Y Yamashita, M E Russell
Previous studies have shown that pulmonary mesenchyme is required to maintain epithelial viability and to support branching morphogenesis and cytodifferentiation. We have examined whether pulmonary mesenchyme can be replaced by a medium containing a combination of soluble factors. Day 13-14 fetal rat distal lung epithelium was enzymatically separated from its mesenchyme, enrobed in EHS tumor matrix, and cultured for 5 d in medium containing concentrated bronchoalveolar lavage, EGF, acidic fibroblast growth factor, cholera toxin, insulin, and FBS (TGM), or in control medium containing only FBS. After 5 d in culture, marked growth and morphological changes occurred in epithelial rudiments cultured in TGM, whereas no changes were seen in controls. [3H]Thymidine incorporation and nuclear labeling indices during the last 24 h of culture confirmed that epithelial rudiments cultured in TGM had significant proliferative capacities. Evaluation of surfactant protein gene expression by Northern analysis, in situ hybridization, and immunocytochemistry demonstrated that distal lung epithelial differentiation progressed in TGM. Ultrastructural analysis demonstrated that fetal distal lung epithelium cultured in TGM contained lamellar bodies and deposited a basal lamina. These results are the first demonstration that sustained proliferation and differentiation of glandular stage distal pulmonary epithelium can proceed in the absence of mesenchyme.
R R Deterding, J M Shannon
The present study shows that recombinant human megakaryocyte growth and development factor (r-HuMGDF) behaves both as a megakaryocyte colony stimulating factor and as a differentiation factor in human progenitor cell cultures. Megakaryocyte colony formation induced with r-HuMGDF is synergistically affected by stem cell factor but not by interleukin 3. Megakaryocytes stimulated with r-HuMGDF demonstrate progressive cytoplasmic and nuclear maturation. Measurable levels of megakaryocyte growth and development factor in serum from patients undergoing myeloablative therapy and transplantation are shown to be elaborated in response to thrombocytopenic stress. These data support the concept that megakaryocyte growth and development factor is a physiologically regulated cytokine that is capable of supporting several aspects of megakaryopoiesis.
J L Nichol, M M Hokom, A Hornkohl, W P Sheridan, H Ohashi, T Kato, Y S Li, T D Bartley, E Choi, J Bogenberger
CD4+ T cell lines were generated from the spleens of diabetic NOD mice against crude membrane preparations derived from a rat insulinoma. Adoptive transfer of these lines into neonatal mice confirms that overt diabetes is induced by gamma-IFN-secreting Th1 cells, whereas transfer of IL-4-secreting Th2 cells resulted in a nondestructive peri-islet insulitis. Analysis of the antigens recognized by individual T cell clones from the Th1 line included reactivity against an insulinoma membrane fraction enriched in proteins of approximately 38 kD. Immune responses to the same antigen preparation have been associated with T cell clones derived from human insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. The specificity of Th2 cells includes reactivity to a fraction enriched in proteins of 30 kD. The data suggest that in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus the balance between beta cell destruction, associated with intra-islet infiltration, and nondestructive (potential protective) peri-islet insulitis may depend on both the antigens recognized, and the prevailing cytokine environment.
D Healey, P Ozegbe, S Arden, P Chandler, J Hutton, A Cooke
R V Considine, E L Considine, C J Williams, M R Nyce, S A Magosin, T L Bauer, E L Rosato, J Colberg, J F Caro