J L Seifter, P S Aronson
Antibodies reactive with heterologous neural tissue were detected by indirect immunofluorescence microscopy in the sera of 17 of 34 patients with retinitis pigmentosa, one of 30 normal control sera, and a variable percentage of sera derived from subjects with diverse ocular and neurological diseases. These antibodies were also found both in disease-free first degree relatives and in spouses of patients with retinitis pigmentosa. Analytical sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of human spinal cord components followed by immunoblots with sera under study revealed that the serum antibody was specific for the high molecular weight protein subunit of neurofilaments. No correlation was found between the presence of these antibodies and other immunological and clinical parameters in retinitis pigmentosa. These findings suggest that release of piled-up neurofilaments from damaged neurones in retinitis pigmentosa triggers B lymphocytes autoreactive to neurofilament antigens.
G M Galbraith, D Emerson, H H Fudenberg, C J Gibbs, D C Gajdusek
In spite of a striking pulsatile pattern of luteinizing hormone (LH) secretion, testosterone (T) fluctuations in peripheral blood in normal adult men are irregular and of low amplitude. To determine whether T secretion by the human testis is episodic, T was measured in blood samples drawn at 15-min intervals for 4 h through a catheter placed in the testicular vein of six men with varicocele-associated infertility. Estradiol (E2) concentrations were also determined in each sample. Each subject released testosterone in well-defined pulses. Gonadal vein T levels ranged from 1 to 1,540 ng/ml. Mean (+/- SE) pulse amplitude was 176 +/- 42 ng/ml, with a frequency of 4.0 +/- 0.3 pulses per 4 h. Testicular vein E2 levels ranged from 0.01 to 6.8 ng/ml. E2 secretory episodes were generally coincident with T pulses, and their amplitudes were highly positively correlated (r = 0.90, P less than 0.01). These results indicate that T secretion by the adult human testis is pulsatile, and suggest a functional relationship between intermittent LH secretion and normal testicular steroidogenesis in men. The failure to appreciate these fluctuations as hormone pulses in peripheral blood may relate to their absolute amplitude and frequency. The concordance between E2 and T pulses suggests that the Leydig cell, under LH control, is the source of most of the E2 secreted by the adult human testis.
S J Winters, P Troen
Mechanically harvested lymphocytes invading an irreversibly rejected human kidney allograft were seeded at limiting dilution to calculate the frequency of growing precursors. Optimal growth frequency (1/13) was obtained when Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-transformed donor B lymphocytes were used as stimulators (D-BLCL) in the presence of interleukin 2 (IL-2). The 55 clones analyzed were all T11+ and T3+, and all expressed DR antigens (45% were T8+ and 55% T4+). Only one clone had a double-labeled (T4+ T8+) surface. All cells proliferated significantly against D-BLCL, although T4+ clones had a significantly shorter average doubling time than T8+ clones. Nearly all T8+ clones were specifically cytotoxic for D-BLCL, while both T4 and T8 did not react against K562, autologous EBV-BLCL, and third-party EBV-BLCL. Detectable IL-2 was found in the culture supernatants of only a minority of clones (all T4+).
J F Moreau, M Bonneville, M A Peyrat, A Godard, Y Jacques, C Desgranges, J P Soulillou
Amyloid fibrils were isolated from cardiac tissue of two brothers who died from familial amyloidotic polyneuropathy (FAP) type II. Sequence analysis on peptides derived from proteolytic cleavage with trypsin and fragmentation with cyanogen bromide reveal that the fibril subunit protein is derived from plasma transthyretin (prealbumin). About two-thirds of the fibril subunit protein was found to contain an amino acid substitution at position 84 where the normal isoleucine residue has been replaced by serine. Sequence analysis of the plasma transthyretin (prealbumin) from the two brothers as well as two clinically diagnosed FAP type II family members and two of four children of affected individuals showed the presence of serine at position 84. The presence of this substitution also correlates with low serum levels of retinol-binding protein and thus transthyretin (prealbumin) position 84 may be involved with the interaction of these two proteins.
F E Dwulet, M D Benson
To explore the induction of monocyte/macrophage procoagulant activity in autoimmune disease, the BXSB murine model of systemic lupus erythematosus was studied. Splenic macrophage procoagulant activity rose coincident with age and the development of glomerulonephritis from 38 +/- 6 mU/10(6) macrophages at 1 mo to a maximum of 29,000 +/- 15,000 mU at 4 mo. Macrophages from 1-mo-old mice could be induced to express a 1,000-fold increase in monocyte/macrophage procoagulant activity when incubated with lymphocytes or lymphocyte supernatants from 5-mo-old mice. Plasma from 5-mo-old but not from 1-mo-old mice was able to induce the production of the lymphokine by cells from 1-mo-old animals. This lymphokine was not interleukin 1,2, or gamma interferon. We conclude that induction of monocyte/macrophage procoagulant activity parallels disease development in the male BXSB mouse, is dependent on the interaction between lymphocytes and plasma factors, and may be important in mediation of injury in lupus nephritis.
E H Cole, J Sweet, G A Levy
Transforming growth factor-alpha (TGF-alpha) is synthesized by a variety of tumor cell lines and stimulates osteoclastic bone resorption in vitro. The mechanism by which TGF-alpha increases osteoclast activity is unknown. We used a human marrow culture system that forms osteoclast-like multinucleated cells (MNCs) to determine the effects of recombinant human TGF-alpha on MNC formation. Addition of 0.01 ng/ml TGF-alpha for the 1st week followed by 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1,25(OH)2D3] for the subsequent 2 wk significantly increased MNCs. Treatment of these cultures with TGF-alpha without later addition of 1,25(OH)2D3 did not increase MNC formation. Autoradiographic studies revealed that TGF-alpha stimulated proliferation of precursors for MNCs, and 1,25(OH)2D3 increased their rate of fusion into MNCs. Addition of murine epidermal growth factor (EGF) (0.1 ng/ml) followed by 1,25(OH)2D3 also significantly stimulated MNC formation. These data suggest that TGF-alpha and EGF may stimulate bone resorption by increasing the proliferation of osteoclast precursors, which leads to increased numbers of osteoclasts.
N Takahashi, B R MacDonald, J Hon, M E Winkler, R Derynck, G R Mundy, G D Roodman
The hypothesis that preweaning nutrition influences adult fat cell number and adiposity was tested in baboons. Newborn baboons were fed Similac formulas with caloric densities of 40.5 kcal (underfed), 67.5 kcal (fed normally), and 94.5 kcal (overfed) per 100 g formula. From weaning (16 wk) until necropsy at 5 yr of age all baboons were fed the same diet. At necropsy, fat cell number and fat cell size in 10 fat depots were measured. Female baboons overfed as infants had markedly greater fat depot mass, primarily because of fat cell hypertrophy, than normally fed or underfed females. Overfed male baboons had a greater fat mass in 4 of 10 depots compared with males underfed or fed normally as infants. Underfeeding did not affect body weight, nor adipose mass of either sex. The results show that infant food intake does not have a major influence on the fat cell number of young adult baboons.
D S Lewis, H A Bertrand, C A McMahan, H C McGill Jr, K D Carey, E J Masoro
The effect of plasma on degradation of human growth hormone-releasing hormone (GRH) was examined in vitro and in vivo using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), radioimmunoassay (RIA), and bioassay. When GRH(1-44)-NH2 was incubated with human plasma, the t1/2 of total GRH immunoreactivity was 63 min (RIA). However, HPLC revealed a more rapid disappearance (t1/2, 17 min) of GRH(1-44)-NH2 that was associated with the appearance of a less hydrophobic but relatively stable peptide that was fully immunoreactive. Sequence analysis indicated its structure to be GRH(3-44)-NH2. Identity was also confirmed by co-elution of purified and synthetic peptides on HPLC. Biologic activity of GRH(3-44)-NH2 was less than 10(-3) that of GRH(1-44)-NH2. After intravenous injection of GRH(1-44)-NH2 in normal subjects, a plasma immunoreactive peak with HPLC retention comparable to GRH(3-44)-NH2 was detected within 1 min and the t1/2 of GRH(1-44)-NH2 (HPLC) was 6.8 min. The results provide evidence for GRH inactivation by a plasma dipeptidylaminopeptidase that could limit its effect on the pituitary.
L A Frohman, T R Downs, T C Williams, E P Heimer, Y C Pan, A M Felix
DNA from a tertiary mouse cell transformant containing amplified human sequences encoding a human myeloid membrane glycoprotein, gp150, was used to construct a bacteriophage lambda library. A single recombinant phage containing 12 kilobases (kb) of human DNA was isolated, and molecular subclones were then used to isolate the complete gp150 gene from a human placental genomic DNA library. The intact gp150 gene, assembled from three recombinant phages, proved to be biologically active when transfected into NIH 3T3 cells. Molecular probes from the gp150 locus annealed with a 4.0-kb polyadenylated RNA transcript derived from human myeloid cell lines and from tertiary mouse cell transformants. The gp150 gene was assigned to human chromosome 15, and was subchromosomally localized to bands q25-26 by in situ hybridization. The chromosomal location of the gp150 gene coincides cytogenetically with the region assigned to the c-fes proto-oncogene, another human gene specifically expressed by myeloid cells.
A T Look, S C Peiper, M B Rebentisch, R A Ashmun, M F Roussel, R S Lemons, M M Le Beau, C M Rubin, C J Sherr
Muscle hypertrophy due to enlarged muscle fibers was accompanied by kappa light chain myeloma in a 62-yr-old man. Immunofluorescence showed kappa light chain deposits around muscle fibers. We hypothesized that a circulating growth factor may be involved in the pathogeny of this muscular hypertrophy. Patient serum cultured with muscle cells showed that (a) the patient's serum exhibited a trophic effect on human muscle cells in culture, (b) this trophic effect increased the differentiation and did not influence the proliferation of human muscle cells, and (c) the fraction of the patient's serum immunoadsorbed on antihuman kappa chain antibodies exhibited the same in vitro effect on the muscle cells, whereas the fraction immunoadsorbed on antihuman lambda chain antibodies did not. These results support the hypothesis that the patient's kappa light chains have a specific enhancing effect on human muscle cell differentiation, perhaps leading to an acquired muscular hypertrophy.
C Delaporte, B Varet, M Fardeau, D Nochy, A Ract
Data obtained in vitro suggest that the ability to mobilize fat decreases with age. We determined lipolytic rates in vivo in normal weight young adult (22-33 yr) and elderly (65-77 yr) subjects using a simultaneous infusion of [1,2-13C2]palmitate and [2H5]glycerol. The subjects were studied after a 12-h fast and again after 60-82 h of fasting. When lipolysis was expressed per unit of adipose tissue the values for the young adults were more than double those for the elderly (P less than 0.05). However, the amount of body fat in the elderly was twice that of the young adults, so that lipolysis per unit of body weight was similar in both groups. These results demonstrate that lipolysis per unit of adipose tissue is lower in elderly subjects. This may be due to their increase in body fat, however, since the total amount of potential energy mobilized from adipose tissue was similar to that of the young adults.
S Klein, V R Young, G L Blackburn, B R Bistrian, R R Wolfe
Using immunoblots, we identified proteins of Borrelia burgdorferi bound by IgM and IgG antibodies during Lyme disease. In 12 patients with early disease alone, both the IgM and IgG responses were restricted primarily to a 41-kD antigen. This limited response disappeared within several months. In contrast, among six patients with prolonged illness, the IgM response to the 41-kD protein sometimes persisted for months to years, and late in the illness during arthritis, a new IgM response sometimes developed to a 34-kD component of the organism. The IgG response in these patients appeared in a characteristic sequential pattern over months to years to as many as 11 spirochetal antigens. The appearance of a new IgM response and the expansion of the IgG response late in the illness, and the lack of such responses in patients with early disease alone, suggest that B. burgdorferi remains alive throughout the illness.
J E Craft, D K Fischer, G T Shimamoto, A C Steere
We studied a 32-yr-old man with a benign paraproteinemia (IgA) affected by severe nonfamilial hypercholesterolemia. In vitro experiments demonstrated that lipoprotein-deficient serum (LPDS) from the patient inhibited the binding of low density lipoprotein (LDL) to human skin fibroblasts cultured in vitro (up to 70%) whereas LPDS from controls had no effect. Removal of IgA from the patient's serum by immunoprecipitation with mono-specific antisera abolished the inhibition of LDL binding. IgA isolated from the serum of the patient by affinity chromatography inhibited, in a dose-dependent manner, the binding of LDL to human skin fibroblasts in vitro, thus showing an IgA-mediated effect. Ligand-blotting experiments demonstrated that the paraprotein directly interacts with the LDL receptor, thus inhibiting the binding of the lipoprotein. Treatment of the receptor protein with reducing agents blocked the interaction of the antibody with the LDL receptor. From these data we speculate that this autoantibody may be responsible for the severe nonfamilial hypercholesterolemia of the patient.
A Corsini, P Roma, D Sommariva, R Fumagalli, A L Catapano
Apolipoprotein (apo)E is an important protein determinant in cholesterol homeostasis in man. The protein is synthesized by the liver as well as by a number of extrahepatic tissues. In the present study, immunohistochemical techniques were used to identify apoE in specific cells in various baboon organs. In the 11 tissues studied, the following cell types have been found to harbor apoE immunoreactivity: cerebral astrocytes; thyroid follicular cells; alveolar type II pneumocytes; hepatocytes, and Kupffer cells; adrenocortical cells in zona fasciculata and zona reticularis; adrenal medullary cells; some renal tubular epithelia; some pancreatic islet cells; histiocytic macrophages in lymph nodes and the spleen; some gastric mucosal epithelia; and ovarian oocytes. These observations indicate the wide distribution of apoE in many organs and suggest that the protein might perform other important functions such as regulation of local hormonal homeostasis in addition to its role in cholesterol metabolism.
C T Lin, Y F Xu, J Y Wu, L Chan
Bone marrow transplant donors were immunized with tetanus/diphtheria toxoids 6-7 d before bone marrow donation to investigate the role of B cell subpopulations in reconstitution of humoral immunity. Lymphoblastoid B cells spontaneously producing IgG antitetanus and/or antidiphtheria toxoid were detected in the donor marrows at the time of transplantation. Recipients rapidly demonstrated 3-90-fold increases in serum IgG antitetanus and antidiphtheria toxoid levels. Antidiphtheria fragment A antibody in three donor/recipient pairs demonstrated spectrotypic identity indicating transfer of the donors' response. Reimmunization of three recipients 64-154 d after transplant revealed an IgG antibody response associated with reappearance of spontaneous antibody-producing B cells and an antidiphtheria fragment A response characteristics of the donor's immune response. These observations extend the understanding of the role of B cell subpopulations and provide a basis for specific modulation of immunity in the setting of bone marrow transplantation.
A Saxon, R Mitsuyasu, R Stevens, R E Champlin, H Kimata, R P Gale
The interaction of fibrinogen with monocytes was studied. After stimulation with ADP (10 microM) or thrombin (1 U/ml), platelet-free suspensions of human monocytes bind 125I-fibrinogen with two different affinities in a specific and Ca2+-dependent reaction with saturation at 5.80-7.35 X 10(-7) M of added protein. The binding of fibrinogen to specific receptors on monocytes induces the procoagulant activity of these cells. Thrombasthenic cells or normal monocytes preincubated with a monoclonal antibody to the platelet glycoprotein IIb/IIIa complex (10E5) do not bind fibrinogen and have no procoagulant activity. Metabolic studies with [35S]methionine revealed that cultured monocytes actually synthesize a surface antigen precipitated by 10E5 antibody as a major band with 92,000 relative molecular weight. Our data indicate that monocytes express receptors for fibrinogen only in part related to the platelet glycoprotein IIb/IIIa complex. Furthermore, the binding of fibrinogen to monocytes enhances the cooperation of these cells in hemostasis.
D C Altieri, P M Mannucci, A M Capitanio
We studied levels of erythrocyte C3b receptors (E-CR1) and correlated them to the level of circulating immune complexes (CIC) and complement activation in patients with or at risk for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). A significant reduction was found in patients with AIDS (185 +/- 93 CR1/cell), AIDS-related complex, and generalized lymphadenopathy, whereas healthy male homosexuals or normal controls had 434 +/- 193 and 509 +/- 140 CR1/cell, respectively (P less than 0.001). Family studies indicate that this defect is acquired. Reduction in E-CR1 was associated with increased levels of CIC when assayed by binding to Raji cells, but not when tested by C1q binding. Complement activation was assessed by levels of C3bi/C3d-g in plasma, measured with a monoclonal antibody specific for a neoantigen in C3d. AIDS patients had increased C3 activation (2.68 +/- 1.67%) when compared with normal controls (0.9 +/- 0.22%) (P less than 0.01). The decreased E-CR1, the presence of CIC, and C3 activation suggest that complement activation by immune complexes may play a role in the clinical expression of the disease.
F A Tausk, A McCutchan, P Spechko, R D Schreiber, I Gigli
We present a method for the examination of antiidiotypic cell-mediated reactivity during chronic human infections. Pooled and individual sera from patients with schistosomiasis mansoni were purified on immunoaffinity columns of schistosomal egg antigens (SEA). The eluates contained anti-SEA antibodies, but not SEA. These antibody preparations, and their F(ab)2 fragments, stimulated dose-dependent proliferation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMN) and T lymphocytes from some, but not all active or former schistosomiasis mansoni patients, and could do so autologously. Stimulation required presentation by plastic-adherent cells. The eluates did not stimulate PBMN from persons who had never had schistosomiasis. Affinity-purified anti-SEA antibodies from former patients (cured for greater than 10 yr) did not stimulate PBMN from patients with active infections. Reabsorption on SEA columns removed stimulatory activity from the eluates. We propose that multiclonal, SEA-related idiotypes expressed by some anti-SEA antibodies stimulate proliferation of T lymphocytes that express antiidiotypic specificities.
M S Lima, G Gazzinelli, E Nascimento, J C Parra, M A Montesano, D G Colley
We determined whether a spontaneous luminal disequilibrium pH, pHdq (pH measured - pH equilibrium), was present in isolated perfused rabbit S2 and S3 proximal tubules. Luminal pH was measured by perfusing with the fluorescent pH probe 1,4-DHPN, and the equilibrium pH was calculated from the measured collected total CO2 and dissolved CO2 concentrations. S2 tubules failed to generate a spontaneous pHdq. S3 tubules generated a spontaneous acidic pHdq of -0.46 +/- 0.15 (P less than 0.05), which was obliterated following the addition of carbonic anhydrase (0.1 mg/ml) to the perfusate. In S3 tubules perfused and bathed in 4 mM total ammonia, luminal total ammonia rose from 4.08 +/- 0.05 mM (perfusate) to 4.95 +/- 0.20 mM (collected fluid) (P less than 0.02). Carbonic anhydrase added to the perfusate prevented the rise in the collected total ammonia concentration. We conclude that the rabbit S3 proximal tubule lacks functional luminal carbonic anhydrase. The acidic pHdq in the S3 segment enhances the diffusion of NH3 into the lumen. In contrast, the S2 segment has functional luminal carbonic anhydrase.
I Kurtz, R Star, R S Balaban, J L Garvin, M A Knepper
We investigated the biosynthesis of electron transfer flavoprotein (ETF) in a cell-free system. Both alpha-(alpha-ETF, 32,000 molecular weight [mol wt]) and beta-subunits (beta-ETF, 27,000 mol wt) were nuclear-coded, and synthesized in the cytosol. alpha-ETF was synthesized as a precursor (p alpha-ETF), 3,000 mol wt larger than its mature counterpart, and was translocated into the mitochondria and processed to the mature alpha-ETF. The newly synthesized beta-ETF was the same as the mature beta-ETF. Using [35S]methionine labeling, we also studied the biosynthesis in cultured normal human fibroblasts. p alpha-ETF was detected when the cells were labeled in the presence of dinitrophenol or rhodamine 6G. Among six glutaric aciduria type II (GAII) and two ethylmalonic-adipic aciduria cell lines, defective p alpha-ETF synthesis was observed in three GAII cell lines, and beta-ETF synthesis was normal. In one of them, no p alpha-ETF was synthesized at all, while in another, a faint p alpha-ETF band of normal size was detected, and was efficiently processed. In the third line, alpha-EFT was 1,000 mol wt smaller than the normal counterpart, both as the precursor and as the mature form.
Y Ikeda, S M Keese, K Tanaka
Successful viral infection involves a series of interactions between the virus and the host cell. The outcome of viral infection is, in fact, dependent on intact cellular function; it is required for viral binding, internalization, and uncoating. To determine the potential importance of lysosomal processing on the outcome of infection with a nonenveloped virus, we have studied the effects of NH4Cl on the course of reovirus infection on a beta-cell tumor in culture. Addition of 10 mM NH4C1 to the medium inhibited viral growth by greater than 80% and reduced toxic effects of the virus on cell viability, protein, and DNA synthesis by 30-45%. In addition, synthesis of viral proteins was markedly decreased. Uptake of virus prelabeled with [35S]methionine was not affected by the ammonium; however, cleavage of mu1C, an outer capsid protein of the virus whose cleavage appears to be required for viral replication, was delayed. These results suggest that intracellular processing of reovirus is dependent on a lysosomal pathway and that disruption of this pathway can alter the course of viral infection.
E Maratos-Flier, M J Goodman, A H Murray, C R Kahn
We have previously shown that insulin suppresses growth hormone (GH) messenger (m) RNA levels in rat pituitary cells. To further delineate the molecular mechanism of insulin action, the effect of insulin treatment on GH gene transcription rates was examined in GH3 pituitary cells grown in serum-free defined medium. A transcriptional run-off assay was performed when intact isolated nuclei were allowed to continue RNA synthesis in an in vitro reaction. Specific incorporation of [32P]GTP into RNA was quantified by hybridization to rat GH complementary (c) DNA. Hybridization efficiency was measured with an internal [3H]cRNA standard and ranged from 30 to 48%. Alpha-amanitin (1 microgram/ml) inhibited total transcription, and excess unlabeled rat pituitary mRNA (250 ng) competitively inhibited GH mRNA hybridization by greater than 80%. Insulin (0.7 nM) inhibited new GH mRNA synthesis, and maximal inhibition (30% of control) was observed with 7 nM insulin after 4 h treatment. The inhibitory effects of insulin on new GH mRNA synthesis were abolished by both insulin-receptor-antiserum and by guinea-pig anti-insulin serum. The results show that insulin exerts a rapid suppression of new GH mRNA synthesis. These data provide evidence for the direct transcriptional regulation of the GH gene by insulin.
S Yamashita, S Melmed
We assessed the roles of the pulmonary and bronchial circulations as potential heat sources to the pulmonary airways during respiratory heat loss, by observing the changes in airstream temperature that accompanied temporary occlusion of the pulmonary or bronchial circulations. Baseline end-expiratory and end-inspiratory airstream temperatures were 35.4 +/- 0.2 degrees C (SEM) and 30.9 +/- 0.3 degrees C, respectively, among all trials. With occlusion of the lower lobe pulmonary arteries for 3 min ipsilateral end-expiratory and end-inspiratory airstream temperatures fell by 2.8 +/- 0.2 and 1.1 +/- 0.2 degrees C, respectively, during hyperpnea with room temperature air, and by 3.5 +/- 0.5 and 1.8 +/- 0.2 degrees C, respectively, during hyperpnea with frigid air. In marked contrast, interruption of the bronchial circulation for 3 min had no effect on airstream temperatures. These data indicate that under these conditions, the pulmonary circulation, but not the bronchial circulation, serves as an important local heat source for respiratory heat exchange within the pulmonary airways.
J Solway, A R Leff, I Dreshaj, N M Munoz, E P Ingenito, D Michaels, R H Ingram Jr, J M Drazen
A 16,600-D outer membrane protein is present in all strains of Haemophilus influenzae and antibodies to this protein are present in human serum. This study was designed to assess the role of this outer membrane protein (P6) in nontypeable H. influenzae as a target for human serum bactericidal antibody. P6 was isolated and coupled to an affinity column. Depleting normal human serum of antibodies to P6 by affinity chromatography resulted in reduced bactericidal activity of that serum for nontypeable H. influenzae. Immunopurified antibodies to P6 from human serum were bactericidal. Finally, preincubation of bacteria with a monoclonal antibody that recognizes a surface epitope on P6, inhibited human serum bactericidal killing. Taken together, these experiments establish that P6 is a target for human bactericidal antibodies. This observation provides evidence that P6 plays a potentially important role in human immunity to infection by nontypeable H. influenzae.
T F Murphy, L C Bartos, P A Rice, M B Nelson, K C Dudas, M A Apicella
The ontogenesis of pancreatic thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) in the human fetal gland was studied by radioimmunoassay or immunocytochemistry. The highest TRH concentrations (1,508.5 +/- 382.3 pg/mg wet wt) were detected between 6 and 8 wk of gestation. From 9 to 12 wk, TRH declined to 365.2 +/- 127.4 pg/mg wet wt and remained low thereafter (96.1 +/- 28.9 pg/mg wet wt). The immunocytochemical procedure was performed on semithin and thin sections from 12- to 19-wk-old human fetuses. At the light microscope level, TRH was found interspersed among the islet cell clusters (12 wk), and later (16 wk) inside the typical islets of Langerhans. Consecutive semithin sections treated by TRH and insulin antisera showed the same immunoreactive cells. Electron microscopy showed TRH in B cell secretory granules. These results are consistent with an eventual implication of TRH in the endocrine regulation of metabolism or in the fetal development of pancreas.
P Leduque, S Aratan-Spire, P Czernichow, P M Dubois
We probed epidermal basement membranes (EBM) of acid-urea denatured skin from members of kindreds with Alport-type familial nephritis (FN) for the presence of antigens reactive with Goodpasture sera (GPS) and serum (FNS) from an Alport patient who developed anti-glomerular basement membrane (GBM) nephritis in a renal allograft. By immunoblotting, GPS reacted primarily with the 28,000 molecular weight (mol wt) monomer but also the 24,000 mol wt and 26,000 mol wt monomers of the noncollagenous globular domain (NC1) of type IV collagen from normal human GBM, while FNS identified only the 26,000-mol wt monomer. FNS reacted with EBM of 12 controls and nine unaffected male kindred members but not EBM of eight affected males. Five affected females exhibited interrupted reactivity of FNS with EBM. GPS showed variable reactivity with EBM and was not discriminating with respect to Alport-type FN. FNS did not stain renal basement members of five affected males. However, the EBM, tubular basement membrane, and Bowman's capsules of affected males contained antigens reactive with GPS. These immunochemical studies suggest that the FNS antigen is distinct from Goodpasture antigen(s). The expression of FNS antigen located on the NC1 domain of type IV collagen is altered in basement membranes of patients with Alport-type FN, and the distribution of this antigenic anomaly within kindreds suggests X-linked dominant transmission of a defective gene.
C Kashtan, A J Fish, M Kleppel, K Yoshioka, A F Michael
The purpose of this study was to determine whether or not caffeine would exacerbate renovascular hypertension. Therefore, we examined the effects of chronic caffeine administration on arterial blood pressure in rats subjected to either unilateral renal artery clipping (2K-1C rats) or sham-operation. Animals in each group were randomly assigned to receive either 0.1% caffeine in their drinking water or normal drinking water, and systolic blood pressure was monitored for 6 wk. Caffeine markedly exacerbated the severity of hypertension in 2K-1C rats and caused histological changes consistent with malignant hypertension. 6 wk after surgery, systolic blood pressure, plasma renin activity, and creatinine clearance in control 2K-1C rats were 169 +/- 5 mmHg (mean +/- SEM), 4.4 +/- 0.5 ng AI X ml-1 X h-1, and 2.9 +/- 0.2 ml/min, respectively; as compared with 219 +/- 4 mmHg, 31.8 +/- 7.8 ng AI X ml-1 X h-1, and 1.4 +/- 0.3 ml/min, respectively, in 2K-1C rats receiving caffeine (all values were significantly different compared with control 2K-1C). Chronic caffeine administration did not alter systolic blood pressure, plasma renin activity, or creatinine clearance in sham-operated rats or spontaneously hypertensive rats. Chronic treatment with enalapril (a converting enzyme inhibitor) prevented the development of hypertension in control 2K-1C rats and caffeine-treated 2K-1C rats; however, withdrawal of enalapril precipitated a rapid rise in systolic blood pressure in caffeine-treated 2K-1C rats, but not in control 2K-1C rats. These experiments indicate that caffeine specifically exacerbates experimental renovascular hypertension and might worsen the hypertensive process in patients with renovascular hypertension.
A Ohnishi, R A Branch, K Jackson, R Hamilton, I Biaggioni, G Deray, E K Jackson
We examined insulin's effects on glucose transport and on subcellular transporter distribution in isolated human omental adipocytes of various sizes. Insulin stimulated 3-O-methylglucose transport by twofold in small cells, while a smaller and insignificant effect was measured in large cells. In the small cells, basal concentrations of glucose transporters were 2.9 and 17.2 pmol/mg membrane protein in the plasma and the low density microsomal membranes, respectively. Increasing cell size was associated with a 50% decrease in the concentration of transporters in each fraction, with no change in their total number per cell. Insulin stimulated the translocation of transporters from the intracellular pool to the plasma membranes, irrespective of cell size. Thus, insulin resistance at the postreceptor level, observed in human obesity, may be associated with a relative depletion of total transporters per cell together with a reduction in their intrinsic activity at the plasma membrane level.
E Karnieli, A Barzilai, R Rafaeloff, M Armoni
The effects of the cholecystokinin (CCK)-receptor antagonist proglumide, the protease inhibitor gabexate, and the hormones secretin and cholecystokinin-octapeptide (CCK-8) were studied in a model of acute hemorrhagic pancreatitis induced by feeding mice a choline-deficient, ethionine-supplemented (CDE) diet. Injections of gabexate and proglumide from initiation of CDE diet (before induction of pancreatitis) increased survival from 37% (diet alone) to 85 and 75%, respectively, and also ameliorated histological alterations and increases in serum amylase concentration and pancreatic activated trypsin. Secretin had no major beneficial effect. When proglumide or gabexate were given after induction of pancreatitis, proglumide still increased survival to 75%, whereas gabexate no longer did. Injection of nontoxic doses of CCK-8 before proglumide or gabexate injections completely abolished all beneficial effects and also increased the severity of pancreatitis due to CDE diet alone. Blockade of CCK receptors and early inhibition of protease activity may be beneficial in severe acute pancreatitis. Cholecystokinin appears to play a contributory role in the development of pancreatitis.
C Niederau, R A Liddle, L D Ferrell, J H Grendell
In cultured hepatocytes conversion of [4-14C]cholesterol into bile acids was dose dependently reduced by the antimycotic drug ketoconazole, giving half-maximal inhibition at 10 microM ketoconazole in rat hepatocytes and at 1 microM in human hepatocytes. No change was observed in the ratio of produced cholic, beta-muricholic, and chenodeoxycholic acid with increasing amounts of the drug. Conversion of [4-14C]7 alpha-hydroxycholesterol, an intermediate of bile acid pathway, to bile acids was not affected by ketoconazole. These results together with kinetic studies with rat liver microsomes, demonstrating noncompetitive inhibition (Ki = 0.4 microM), indicate that cholesterol 7 alpha-hydroxylase is the main site of inhibition. In bile-diverted rats a single dose of ketoconazole (50 mg/kg) dramatically impaired bile flow and biliary bile acid output (92% inhibition). A similar blockade was observed using [4-14C]cholesterol as precursor for bile acid synthesis. Therefore, treatment of patients with this drug may inhibit bile acid synthesis, resulting in a reduction of the bile acid pool size after long-term ketoconazole therapy.
H M Princen, C M Huijsmans, F Kuipers, R J Vonk, H J Kempen
The deposition of platelets on subendothelium of rabbit aortic segments exposed to non-anticoagulated human blood increased progressively with increasing wall shear rates (50-2,600 s-1), whereas fibrin deposition decreased. Studies in normal subjects and patients with platelet disorders suggested that, under the conditions used, platelets were essential for fibrin deposition at intermediate (650 s-1) but not low (50 s-1) shear rates. Fibrin deposition was markedly diminished in a patient with Scott syndrome whose platelets have a diminished capacity to bind Factor Xa and activate Factors IX and II. In glycoprotein IIb-IIIa deficiency, fibrin deposition was normal (or somewhat increased), whereas in glycoprotein Ib deficiency the association of fibrin with platelets, but not subendothelium, was decreased. The findings indicate that platelets, perhaps through surface localization of coagulation proteins, promote fibrin deposition on subendothelium at arterial shear rates and suggest that agents directed against platelet coagulant properties could be antithrombotic.
H J Weiss, V T Turitto, H R Baumgartner
Changes in Ca absorption have been described in the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) compared with Wistar-Kyoto (WKy) rats. In 3.5-wk-old SHR and age-matched WKy controls, we measured direct arterial blood pressure, Ca absorption, and serum 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1,25(OH)2D3] levels and small intestine brush border membrane (BBM) fluidity and lipid composition. The two objectives were (a) to define the nature of the absorptive changes before detectable hypertension and (b) to evaluate the potential mechanism(s). We found that even at this normotensive stage (106 +/- 4 vs. 107 +/- 2 torr for the female and 109 +/- 3 vs. 104 +/- 3 torr for the male), the SHR (a) absorbed more Ca (1.46 +/- 0.06 vs. 1.14 +/- 0.08 mmol/d and 1.53 +/- 0.06 vs. 1.28 +/- 0.06 mmol/d, respectively) and retained more Ca, (b) had higher serum 1,25(OH)2D3 levels (340 +/- 36 vs. 160 +/- 18 pg/ml and 230 +/- 25 vs. 150 +/- 16 pg/ml, respectively), and (c) possessed BBM with increased fluidity and with reduced fatty acyl saturation index owing to decreased stearic (32.2 +/- 2.6% vs. 38.2 +/- 0.9%) but increased linoleic acids (12.2 +/- 2.0% vs. 7.6 +/- 1.6%). These results demonstrate increased Ca absorption in prehypertensive SHR associated with increased serum 1,25(OH)2D3 levels, increased intestinal BBM fluidity, and reduced saturation index, which singly or in combination could produce the changes in intestinal Ca transport.
K Lau, C B Langman, U Gafter, P K Dudeja, T A Brasitus
We have studied the effect of glucagon on the expression of a triiodothyronine (T3) and carbohydrate-inducible mRNA sequence (mRNA-S14) in rat liver that undergoes a threefold diurnal variation (peak, 2200 h; nadir, 0800 h). Glucagon injection into euthyroid rats (25 micrograms/100 g body wt i.p., three doses at 15-min intervals) during the nocturnal plateau of mRNA-S14 caused a monoexponential disappearance of this sequence (t1/2, 90 min) accompanied by a 90% reduction in the transcriptional rate in a nuclear run-off assay, indicative of a near total reduction of synthesis. This effect was markedly attenuated in rats treated with T3 (200 micrograms/100 g body wt i.p.) 24 h before glucagon injection. When T3 was given 15 min after glucagon, the glucagon-initiated decline in mRNA-S14 was reversed within 90 min, suggesting a rapid interaction between the two hormones in the evening. Curiously, administration of T3 alone at this hour did not affect a significant increase in mRNA-S14. At 0800 h, however, T3 caused the expected brisk induction of this sequence, whereas glucagon was without effect. In essence, glucagon affected mRNA-S14 synthesis only in the evening, while T3 increased levels of this sequence above the baseline only in the morning. T3, however, reversed the effect of prior glucagon injection at night. The observed alterations in hormonal responsivity could underly the diurnal variation of mRNA-S14 expression. Moreover, the data suggest the hypothesis that T3 may act on S14 gene expression by antagonizing factors that inhibit its transcription.
W B Kinlaw, H L Schwartz, H C Towle, J H Oppenheimer
Hypocalcemia is the main factor responsible for the genesis of secondary hyperparathyroidism in chronic renal disease. Studies with parathyroid cells obtained from uremic patients indicate that there is a shift in the set point for calcium-regulated hormone (parathyroid hormone [PTH] secretion. Studies were performed in dogs to further clarify this new potential mechanism. Hypocalcemia was prevented in uremic dogs by the administration of a high calcium diet. Initially, ionized calcium was 4.79 +/- 0.09 mg/dl and gradually increased up to 5.30 +/- 0.05 mg/dl. Despite a moderate increase in ionized calcium, immunoreactive PTH (iPTH) increased from 64 +/- 7.7 to 118 +/- 21 pg/ml. Serum 1,25(OH)2D3 decreased from 25.4 +/- 3.8 to 12.2 +/- 3.6 pg/ml. Further studies were performed in two other groups of dogs. One group received 150-200 ng and the second group 75-100 ng of 1,25(OH)2D3 twice daily. The levels of 1,25(OH)2D3 increased from 32.8 +/- 3.5 to a maximum of 69.6 +/- 4.4 pg/ml. In the second group the levels of serum 1,25(OH)2D3 after nephrectomy remained normal during the study. Amino-terminal iPTH did not increase in either of the two groups treated with 1,25(OH)2D3. In summary, the dogs at no time developed hypocalcemia; however, there was an 84% increase in iPTH levels, suggesting that hypocalcemia, per se, may not be the only factor responsible for the genesis of secondary hyperparathyroidism.
S Lopez-Hilker, T Galceran, Y L Chan, N Rapp, K J Martin, E Slatopolsky
An antiplatelet monoclonal antibody, PMI-1, reacts with glycoproteins (GP) GPIIb, free GPIIb, and the GPIIb-IIIa complex. This antibody binds to 40,900 sites per platelet, with a Kd = 0.95 microM, and its binding is inhibited by the presence of magnesium or calcium in the suspending medium (50% suppression at approximately 0.5 mM divalent cation). Regulation of the PMI-1 epitope is independent of disassembly of the GPIIb-IIIa heterodimer, because it occurred at 22 degrees C and in response to mM magnesium as well as calcium. PMI-1 binding inversely correlated with fibrinogen binding. In addition, we identified a variant of Glanzmann's thrombasthenia with near-normal platelet content of the GPIIb-IIIa heterodimer as judged by crossed immunoelectrophoresis and surface labeling. Binding of PMI-1 to these patients' platelets was not dependent on reduction of the divalent cation concentration. These data suggest that the surface orientation of GPIIb is important in the capacity of platelets to bind fibrinogen.
M H Ginsberg, A Lightsey, T J Kunicki, A Kaufmann, G Marguerie, E F Plow
von Willebrand protein was found to promote the incorporation of platelets into evolving fibrin thrombi. Using formalin-treated or fresh platelets, both the initial rate and extent of platelet incorporation into polymerizing fibrin were dependent on von Willebrand protein. von Willebrand protein was incorporated into evolving fibrin thrombi in parallel with platelets. Soluble fibrin monomer covalently linked to acrylonitrile beads (Matrex 102) bound von Willebrand protein specifically and saturably with an apparent approximate dissociation constant (KD) of 15 micrograms/ml. Glycocalicin, the water-soluble proteolytic fragment of glycoprotein Ib, bound to fibrin monomer in this system specifically and saturably, as well, with an apparent approximate KD of 5 micrograms/ml, but only in the presence of saturating concentrations of von Willebrand protein. These data demonstrate that the initial rate and extent of platelet incorporation into evolving fibrin thrombi are dependent on von Willebrand protein; von Willebrand protein serves as a link between polymerizing fibrin and platelet surface glycoprotein Ib; and von Willebrand protein binds to fibrin monomer and is thereby able to bind to platelet surface glycoprotein Ib in the absence of ristocetin.
J Loscalzo, A Inbal, R I Handin
Interleukin 1 (IL-1) possesses multiple biological activities that may be blocked selectively by different inhibitors. Some known inhibitors block the lymphocyte activating factor (LAF/IL-1) but not the mononuclear cell factor (MCF/IL-1) measured by its capacity to stimulate prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and collagenase production. The presence of IL-1 in vivo may be difficult to detect due to the presence of inhibitor(s) and the level of the inhibitor(s) may vary depending upon pathological conditions. We have found that urine from three patients with monocytic leukemia (M5) contained high levels of inhibitor(s) of MCF/IL-1, whereas urine of normal subjects did not contain significant amounts. Urine from two patients with other blood neoplasic diseases also contained little inhibitory activity. The MCF/IL-1 inhibitor(s), which also acts on human recombinant IL-1 beta, is approximately 25-35 kD, is not retained on concanavalin A-Sepharose column and can be partially destroyed with urea and boiling. At this stage of the purification the fraction containing the MCF/IL-1 inhibitor(s) also inhibits the LAF/IL-1 assay. However, this inhibitor(s) is probably distinct from other inhibitors already described.
J F Balavoine, B de Rochemonteix, K Williamson, P Seckinger, A Cruchaud, J M Dayer
In human reticulocytes, the critical balancing of alpha- and beta-globin synthesis may be controlled in part by differential translation of the three major adult globin messenger RNAs (mRNAs), alpha 1, alpha 2, and beta. In this study, we determined, as a parameter of translational efficiency, the relative ribosome loading of these three mRNAs. Using oligonucleotide probes specific for the alpha 1- and alpha 2-globin mRNAs, we find that these two mRNAs have identical translational profiles. Their distribution contrasts with that of beta-globin mRNA, which is present on heavier polyribosomes and is less prevalent in pre-80S messenger ribonucleoprotein fractions. The relative distribution of alpha- vs. beta-globin mRNA is consistent with more efficient beta-globin translation. In contrast, the parallel distributions of alpha 1- and alpha 2-globin mRNAs suggests they are translated with equal efficiencies. Considering the relative concentrations of the two alpha-globin mRNAs in normal reticulocytes, this result predicts a dominant role for the alpha 2-globin locus in human alpha-globin expression.
S H Shakin, S A Liebhaber