Calcium and cyclic AMP are important in the stimulation of insulin release. The phosphodiesterase inhibitor 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (IBMX) raises islet cAMP levels and causes insulin release at nonstimulatory glucose concentrations. In isolated rat pancreatic islets maintained for 2 d in tissue culture, the effects of IBMX on insulin release and 45Ca++ fluxes were compared with those of glucose. During perifusion at 1 mM Ca++, 16.7 mM glucose elicited a biphasic insulin release, whereas 1 mM IBMX in the presence of 2.8 mM glucose caused a monophasic release. Decreasing extracellular Ca++ a monophasic release. Decreasing extracellular Ca++ to 0.1 mM during stimulation reduced the glucose effect by 80% but did not alter IBMX-induced release. Both glucose and IBMX stimulated 45Ca++ uptake (5 min). 45Ca++ efflux from islets loaded to isotopic equilibrium (46 h) was increased by both substances. IBMX stimulation of insulin release, of 45Ca++ uptake, and of efflux were not inhibited by blockade of Ca++ uptake with verapamil, whereas glucose-induced changes are known to be inhibited. Because IBMX-induced insulin release remained unaltered at 0.1 mM calcium, it appears that cAMP-stimulated insulin release is controlled by intracellular calcium. This is supported by perifusion experiments at 0 Ca++ when IBMX stimulated net Ca++ efflux. In addition, glucose-stimulated insulin release was potentiated by IBMX. These results suggest that cAMP induced insulin release is mediated by increases in cytosolic Ca++ and that cAMP causes dislocation of Ca++ from intracellular stores.
E G Siegel, C B Wollheim, M Kikuchi, A E Renold, G W Sharp
Ca2+ flux and protein phosphorylation have been implicated as playing an important role in the induction of the platelet release reaction. However, the interactions between Ca2+, protein phosphorylation, and the release reaction have been difficult to study because secretion in human platelets is independent of extracellular Ca2+. Thus, we studied rabbit platelets, which, unlike human platelets, require extracellular Ca2+ for serotonin release to occur. Thrombin, basophil platelet-activating factor (PAF), or ionophore A23187 treatment of intact 32PO43--loaded rabbit platelets resulted in a 200-400% increase in phosphorylation of P7P and P9P, respectively. These peptides were similar in all respects to the peptides phosphorylated in thrombin-treated human platelets. When Ca2+ was replaced in the medium by EGTA, (a) thrombin- and PAF-induced rabbit platelet [3H]serotonin release was inhibited by 60-75%, whereas ionophore-induced release was blocked completely; (b) thrombin-, PAF-, or ionophore-induced P9P phosphorylation was inhibited by 60%; and (c) ionophore-induced P7P phosphorylation was decreased by 60%, whereas that caused by thrombin or PAF was decreased by only 20%. At 0.25-0.5 U/ml of thrombin, phosphorylation preceded [3H]serotonin release with the time for half-maximal release being 26.0 +/- 1.3 s SE (n = 3) and the time for half-maximal phosphorylation being 12.3 +/- 1.3 s SE (n = 3) for P7P and 3.7 +/- 0.17 s SE (n = 3) for P9P. P9P phosphorylation was significantly inhibited (P less than 0.015) by removal by Ca2+ from the medium at a time point before any thrombin- or ionophore-induced serotonin release was detectable. Thus, our data suggest that Ca2+ flux precedes the onset of serotonin secretion and that the rabbit platelet is an appropriate model in which to study the effects of Ca2+ on protein phosphorylation during the platelet release reaction.
R M Lyons, J O Shaw
We investigated the mechanism of gastroesophageal reflux (GER) in 10 health volunteer subjects. Continuous recordings of intraluminal esophageal pH and pressure were obtained on two consecutive nights from 6:00 p.m. to 6:30 a.m. in each subject. During each study, the subject remained recumbent, except to eat a standardized meal after 1 h of basal recording. A manometric assembly with seven recording lumens monitored: (a) lower esophageal sphincter (LES) pressure via a sleeve device 6.5 cm in length, (b) esophageal-body motor activity, (c) swallowing activity in the pharynx, and (d) gastric pressure. An electrode 5 cm above the LES recorded esophageal pH. Sleep was monitored by electroencephalogram. All subjects showed wide variations of basal LES pressure. GER was not related to low steady-state basal LES pressure, but rather occurred during transient 5-30 s episodes of inappropriate complete LES relaxation. The inappropriate LES relaxations were usually either spontaneous or immediately followed appropriate sphincter relaxation induced by swallowing. The majority of GER episodes occurred within the first 3 h after eating. During the night LES relaxation and GER occurred only during transient arousals from sleep or when the subjects were fully awake, but not during stable sleep. After GER the esophagus was generally cleared of refluxed acid by primary peristalsis and less frequently by secondary peristalsis. Nonperistaltic contractions were less effective than peristalsis for clearing acid from the esophagus. We conclude that in asymptomatic recumbent subjects GER is related to transient inappropriate LES relaxations rather than to low steady-state basal LES pressure and also, that primary perstalsis is the major mechanism that clears the esophagus of refluxed material.
J Dent, W J Dodds, R H Friedman, T Sekiguchi, W J Hogan, R C Arndorfer, D J Petrie
Alveolar macrophages are the initial phagocytic cells that encounter foreign material and particulates deposited in the terminal airways. We have examined a mechanism by which these cells, after phagocytic challenge, may control or amplify the inflammatory response in lung parenchyma. Normal human alveolar macrophages (AM) were studied from eight subjects. With in vitro culture, AM produced and released two substances into culture media which have potent chemoattractant activity for blood polymorphonuclear granulocytes (PMN) and negligible activity for mononuclear cells. Release of these factors is maximally stimulated by aggregated human immunoglobulin (Ig)G or zymosan particles; however, simple adhesion of the macrophages to plastic surfaces is also sufficient to stimulate release of these chemotactic substances. The larger substance (10,000 daltons) is immunologically distinct from C5a and interacts with a different PMN membrane receptor than that known to exist for formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine. Its chemotactic activity is sensitive to the enzymatic effect of trypsin. Although producing a single elution peak on gelfiltration chromatography, electrofocusing in polyacrylamide gels yielded five peaks of radioactivity. Chemotactic activity was localized to a fraction with a pI = 5.0. The smaller molecular weight substance has been less well characterized. Thus, the human AM can produce at least two factors which attract PMN and this capability may augment the local inflammatory response in the lung.
W W Merrill, G P Naegel, R A Matthay, H Y Reynolds
After intravenous administration of radiolabeled 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 to rats, approximately 25% of the administered radioactivity appeared in the bile within 24 h. Instillation of the biliary radioactivity into the duodena of other rats was followed by recovery of 15% of the radioactivity in newly secreted bile within 24 h. The process by which products of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 were excreted in bile was not saturable in the dose range tested (0.275-650 ng). The metabolites of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 present in bile were found to be much more polar than 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 and were resolved into three fractions on high performance liquid chromatography. 60% of the radioactivity present in bile was retained selectively by DEAE-cellulose; the radioactive material could be eluted from the gel at a low pH or at high salt concentrations. When bile containing the radiolabeled metabolites was incubated at 37 degrees C and pH 5 with beta-glucuronidase, there was an increase in the amount of radioactivity comigrating with 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3. Treatment of the products of radiolabeled 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 in bile with diazomethane, an agent which converts acids into methyl esters, transformed one of the metabolites into a less polar compound. These results demonstrate that there is a quantitatively important enterophepatic circulation of the products of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 in the rat.
R Kumar, S Nagubandi, V R Mattox, J M Londowski
Both human and mouse bone marrow contain subpopulations of hemopoietic stem cells that greatly vary in their resistance to water exposure: The cells forming erythroid colonies or bursts in methyl cellulose in vitro are most sensitive to hypotonic conditions and are destroyed within 60 s in the hypotonic milieu. The murine pluripotent stem cells assayed by the spleen colony technique, as well as both murine and human myeloid stem cells assayed by the plasma clot diffusion chamber technique, displayed intermediate sensitivity and were nearly completely eliminated by 120 s of exposure to water. Both human and mouse bone marrow stem cells producing myeloid colonies in agar are most resistant to hypotonic conditions. The addition of monocyte-macrophages and lymphoid cells to water-exposed mouse bone marrow cell populations to compensate for losses did not restore either erythroid or myeloid colony formation.
E Niskanen, M J Cline
The concentration of alpha 2-plasmin inhibitor in blood plasma is higher than that in serum obtained from the blood clotted in the presence of calcium ions, but is the same as that in serum obtained in the absence of calcium ions. Radiolabeled alpha2-plasmin inhibitor was covalently bound to fibrin only when calcium ions were present at the time of clotting of plasma or fibrinogen. Whereas, when batroxobin, a snake venom enzyme that lacks the ability to activate fibrin-stabilizing factor, was used for clotting fibrinogen, the binding was not observed. When fibrin-stablizing, factor-deficient plasma was clotted, the specific binding of alpha 2-plasmin inhibitor to fibrin did not occur even in the presence of calcium ions and the concentration of alpha 2-plasmin inhibitor in serum was the same as that in plasma. Monodansyl cadaverine, a fluorescent substrate of the fibrin-stablizing factor, was incorporated into alpha 2-plasmin inhibitor by activated fibrin-stablizing factor. All these findings indicate that alpha 2-plasmin inhibitor is cross-linked to fibrin by activated fibrin-stabilizing factor when blood is clotted. Analysis of alpha 2-plasmin inhibitor-incorporated fibrin by sodium dodecyl sulfate gel electrophoresis showed that the inhibitor was mainly cross-linked to polymerized alpha-chains of cross-linked fibrin. Cross-linking of alpha 2-plasmin inhibitor to fibrin renders fibrin clot less susceptible to fibrinolysis by plasmin.
Y Sakata, N Aoki
Chemotactic factors decrease the negative surface charge of neutrophils (polymorphonuclear leukocytes [PMN]) and this has been speculated to be important in PMN margination and aggregation in vivo. PMN adherence and aggregation are also enhanced by degranulation of lysosomal enzymes. To further assess the possible relationship between degranulation, surface charge, adherence, and aggregation, human peripheral blood PMN (isolated by Hypaque-Ficoll and dextran sedimentation) were exposed to the secretagogues ionophore A23187, phorbol myristate acetate, concanavalin A, and chemotactic factors (partially purified C5a or the synthetic peptide f-met-leu-phe) plus cytochalasin B. Surface charge was measured in a cytopherometer. After incubation of PMN with secretagogues, PMN surface charge was decreased to a greater extent than incubation of PMN with chemotactic factors. The decreased surface charge induced by f-met-leu-phe plus cytochalasin B required both extracellular calcium and magnesium. The ionophore A23187-induced surface charge changes were dependent on extracellular calcium but not magnesium whereas the phorbol myristate acetate effect was only partially dependent on Ca++ and Mg++. The surface charge changes induced by secretagogues were related to both the amount of lysozyme released and to the increased adhesiveness of cells to plastic surfaces. These observations indicate exocytosis of lysosomal granule contents is associated with decreases in neutrophil surface charge, and there appears to be a correlation between decreases in surface charge and facilitation of neutrophil aggregation and adhesiveness. However, a causal relationship between these events has not been established, and the relationship may be simply temporal.
John I. Gallin
We have studied the effects of both impaired prothrombin activation and direct inhibition of thrombin on the platelet release reaction in clotting blood to determine the role of thrombin in this process. In blood from two patients with congenital Factor V deficiency, prothrombin activation during spontaneous in vitro clotting was delayed and decreased. Secretion of platelet Factor 4 was also delayed and was detected only after thrombin formation was initiated. Addition of a small amount of normal plasma to the patients' blood in vitro corrected the abnormalities in both thrombin formation and the platelet release reaction in parallel fashion. A delay in the onset of secretion of platelet Factor 4 was also observed when thrombin generated in normal blood during spontaneous in vitro clotting was inhibited by either purified hirudin or anti-thrombin Fab. These observations suggest that thrombin is the essential stimulus for platelet secretion during in vitro blood clotting.
Marc A. Shuman
To determine if electrical stimulation of autonomic nerves could excite nonadrenergic inhibitory motor pathways in the guinea pig respiratory system in vivo, we studied the effects of electrical stimulation of the cervical vagi and sympathetic nerve trunks on pressure changes (Pp) within an isolated, fluid-filled cervical tracheal segment which reflected changes in trachealis muscle tone. We preserved the innervation and circulation of the segment as evidenced by a rise in Pp with vagus nerve stimulation and a fall in Pp with intravenous isoproterenol.
Sarah E. Chesrown, C. S. Venugopalan, Warren M. Gold, Jeffrey M. Drazen
Heme synthase (ferrochelatase) activity, as determined by the chelation of ferrous iron to protoporphyrin or deuteroporphyrin, is reduced to 10-25% of normal in tissues of patients with protoporphyria. With cultured skin fibroblasts from seven patients with protoporphyria and six normal individuals, the present studies examined the enzymatic defect.
Joseph R. Bloomer
Carbenicillin or penicillin G administered in large doses can cause a bleeding diathesis as a result of platelet dysfunction. These antibiotics also inhibit platelet aggregation in vitro, although several-fold larger concentrations of drug are required to demonstrate this effect. We wondered whether these antibiotics might impair platelet function by interfering with the initial step of platelet activation: the binding of agonists to their specific receptors on the platelet surface.
Sanford J. Shattil, Joel S. Bennett, Margaret McDonough, Judy Turnbull
Plasma 1-norepinephrine and epinephrine contents were strikingly elevated in 70 patients during evolution of myocardial infarction. Propranolol or placebo, 0.1 mg/kg i.v., was administered randomly an average of 10 h after infarction and continued orally for 3 d. Propranolol, but not placebo, acutely decreased 1-norepinephrine contents from 2.24 +/- 1.33 (mean +/- SD) to 1.31 +/- 0.74 microgram/liter, P less than 0.001, and epinephrine contents from 0.97 +/- 0.42 to 0.74 +/- 0.42 microgram/liter, P less than 0.02. Decreases in 1-norepinephrine contents were related to the initial plasma concentrations, r = 0.85, P less than 0.001. A similar, but less strong relationship was observed between the initial epinephrine contents and propranolol-induced changes, r = -0.51, P less than 0.01. Propranolol reduced plasma-free fatty acid contents from 1,121 +/- 315 to 943 +/- 274 mumol/liter, P less than 0.001. Decreases in plasma contents of free fatty acids were related to decreases in epinephrine, r = 0.66, P less than 0.001. Propranolol did not cause significant additional changes in plasma catecholamine contents during the subsequent 3 d. In the placebo group 1-norepinephrine contents had decreased 24 h after infarction from 1.92 +/- 0.99 to 1.37 +/- 0.93 microgram/liter, P less than 0.02. Plasma epinephrine contents did not change. Heart rate remained below the control values during the entire study period in the propranolol, but increased in the placebo group. The data indicate that sympathetic hyperactivity, indirectly reflected by plasma catecholamine contents, is acutely reduced by propranolol during evolution of myocardial infarction.
H S Mueller, S M Ayres
Urinary kallikrein excretion has been reported to be decreased in patients with essential hypertension and elevated in patients with primary aldosteronism as a reflection of mineralocorticoid activity. Low renin essential hypertension (LREH) has been postulated to result from excess production of an unknown mineralocorticoid(s). Urinary kallikrein excretion was compared in outpatients with essential hypertension, mineralocorticoid hypertension (primary aldosteronism and 17α-hydroxylase deficiency), and in normal subjects of the same race. No significant difference in urinary kallikrein excretion of patients with LREH vs. normal renin essential hypertension (NREH) was found for either black (4.1±0.4 vs. 4.8±0.5 esterase units (EU)/24 h, mean±SE, for 27 LREH and 38 NREH, respectively) or white patients (12.2±2.3 vs. 11.7±1.4 EU/24 h for 13 LREH and 25 NREH, respectively). Urinary kallikrein was decreased in black vs. white hypertensive patients and normal subjects. However, in patients with normal renal function (creatinine clearance ≥80 ml/min) urinary kallikrein was not significantly decreased in either black hypertensive vs. black normal subjects (4.3±0.3 vs. 5.4±0.6 EU/24 h) or in white hypertensive vs. white normal subjects (11.9±1.2 vs. 8.4±0.9 EU/24 h). In contrast, hypertensive patients with mild renal insufficiency (creatinine clearance of 41.8±78.5 ml/min) had reduced (P < 0.05) urinary kallikrein (3.3 EU/24 h with creatinine clearance of 63.6±2.0 for 24 black patients and 4.2±0.7 EU/24 h with creatinine clearance of 67.0±3.5 for 6 white patients). These results suggest that a reduction in urinary kallikrein excretion rate is an early accompaniment of hypertensive renal injury. Urinary kallikrein excretion in response to a 6-d 10-meq sodium diet and a 3-d Florinef (0.5 mg b.i.d.) administration was compared in hypertensive patients with normal renal function vs. race and age-matched normal subjects. Stimulation of urinary kallikrein excretion by Florinef was equal in black and white normal subjects vs. hypertensive patients (black normals = 12.3±2.7 [n = 9], NREH = 11.7±1.8 [n = 10], LREH = 10.9±1.5 [n = 12]; white normals = 21.2±2.9 [n = 11], essential hypertension = 20.9±3.2 [10 NREH, 5 LREH]). Stimulation of urinary kallikrein excretion with low sodium diet was decreased (P < 0.05) only in black LREH (black normals = 11.2±2.4 [n = 10], NREH = 10.1±2.7 [n = 10], LREH = 7.4±1.1 [n = 13]; white normals = 19.1±2.7 [n = 13], essential hypertension = 17.5±2.3 [nine NREH, four LREH]). However, during low sodium diet, black patients with LREH had evidence for less sodium depletion as manifested by a decreased rise in urinary aldosterone excretion (16.3±2.7 vs. 33.3±6.4 μg/24 h for black normals) and a failure to achieve metabolic balance in 11/13 patients. Thus, the lesser kallikrein stimulation appeared to result from these two factors. Black and white hypertensives with creatinine clearance <80 ml/min had little increase in urinary kallikrein excretion with Florinef or low sodium diet.
O. Bryan Holland, James M. Chud, Helen Braunstein
Cytotoxic activated macrophages (CM) inhibited the growth of neoplastic L1210 cells in vitro but L1210 cell death was minimal to nonexistent. L1210 cells injured by CM were separated from macrophages and studied in an isolated system. CM-injured L1210 cells had an absolute requirement for glucose or another glycolyzable hexose (mannose or fructose) for at least 40 h after removal from macrophages. If the culture medium lacked sufficient concentration of one of these sugars, CM-injured L1210 cells died within 4 h. Uninjured L1210 cells cultured alone or with peptone-stimulated macrophages had no such requirement and maintained complete viability in hexoseless medium. The hexose requirement of CM-injured L1210 cells could not be fulfilled by other naturally occurring monosaccharides, glucose or mannose derivatives, or substrates that can be oxidized by mitochondria. The concentration requirements for glucose, mannose, and fructose by CM-injured L1210 cells correlated with the concentrations required to support maximal glycolysis of these sugars by other murine ascites cells. A concentration of 2-deoxy-D-glucose which completely inhibited L1210 cell glycolysis also complete prevented the ability of glucose or mannose to maintain viability of CM-injured L1210 cells. Interaction with CM led to inhibition of L1210 cell mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation. This was supported by the findings that: (a) CM-injured L1210 cells had no Pasteur effect; their rate of aerobic glycolysis was the same as the rate of anaerobic glycolysis of uninjured L1210 cells, (b) Endogenous respiration of CM-injured L1210 cells was 15% of normal. Maximal inhibition of uninjured L1210 cell respiration by a specific mitochondrial poison (oligomycin) was nearly the same (13% of normal). It followed that CM-injured L1210 cells required hexose for chemical energy production via the glycolytic pathway. CM-induced mitochondrial injury occurred in five other neoplastic cell lines tested.
D L Granger, R R Taintor, J L Cook, J B Hibbs Jr
Four patients with gyrate atrophy of the choroid and retina were studied, all of whom exhibited the hyperornithinemia characteristic of this disorder. Elevated plasma histidine and diminished plasma lysine and branched-chain amino acids were also noted. The renal clearances of these four amino acids were not sufficiently elevated to explain their low plasma levels. In one subject, an arginine-deficient diet led to progressive reduction in plasma ornithine from 13 times normal to the upper limits of normal, along with the disappearance of ornithinuria and lysinuria. Orally administered alpha-aminoisobutyric acid facilitated the fall in plasma ornithine by increasing renal losses of ornithine. It also increased the clearances of most other amino acids. When plasma ornithine approached normal (less than 200 microM), plasma lysine became normal, plasma arginine became subnormal, and renal clearances of basic amino acids decreased. Long-term (1.5 yr) maintenance with a diet containing 10-20 g of protein plus essential amino acids served to keep plasma ornithine at between 55-355 microM; chorioretinal degeneration did not progress and vision apparently improved.
D Valle, M Walser, S W Brusilow, M Kaiser-Kupfer
Rabbit antisera were produced against pooled living lymphocytes from 25 patients with active systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Lymphocytes collected at plasmapheresis or venipuncture were frozen in liquid nitrogen and later coated with rabbit antibody to normal human tonsils and normal thymocytes immediately before intravenous immunization of rabbits. Antisera were subsequently extensively absorbed with normal human tonsillar cells, thymocytes, peripheral blood lymphocytes, erythrocytes, and leukocytes from patients with myelogeneous and lymphatic leukemia until residual base-line immunofluorescent staining of normal human lymphocytes using F(ab)2' of whole antisera averaged less than 5%. Absorbed pepsin-digested antisera detected membrane antigens which were markedly increased (mean 32%) on lymphocytes from patients with active SLE (P less than 0.05). Membrane antigens reacting with absorbed, pepsin-digested antisera were present on both T and B cells but, in most instances, predominated on T cells. Control observations using absorbed pepsin-digested antisera to normal human lymphocytes or peripheral blood lymphocytes from patients with rheumatoid arthritis showed no similar specificity. SLE patients treated with moderate or high dose corticosteroids or immunosuppressive agents (cytoxan or azathioprine) appeared to lose lymphocyte antigens detected by these reagents. Control studies with other connective tissue disease patients, miscellaneous hospitalized subjects, or normal controls showed low levels of reactivity (2-5%). SLE lymphocyte membrane antigens uniquely increased during active disease; this may represent neoantigens or alterations associated with the disease itself.
R C Williams Jr, G R Hughes, M L Snaith, H F Parry, E Diao, M F Greaves
Factors influencing basophil production from the bone marrow of ovalbumin (OA)-sensitized guinea pigs have been examined in vitro. Autologous co-cultures of marrow and spleen cells from OA-immune animals contained significantly higher numbers of basophils after 7 d of liquid culture in the presence of OA, compared with control co-cultures or with marrow cultures alone (P < 0.005).
Judah A. Denburg, Maureen Davison, John Bienenstock
Relief of unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) of 24 h duration in rats is followed by severe renal vasoconstriction in the postobstructive kidney (POK). The present study examined possible roles of renal prostaglandins (PG) and thromboxanes (TX), as well as the renin-angiotensin system, in this vasoconstriction. Administration of the cyclooxygenase inhibitor indomethacin, which blocks both PG and TX production, failed to improve POK hemodynamics in UUO rats. To explore the possible role of the TX compounds, which include the potent vasoconstrictor thromboxane A2 (TXA2), UUO rats were infused with imidazole, an agent that blocks synthesis of TX, but not of PG. Imidiazole led to two- to threefold increases in the clearance of both inulin and rho-aminohippuric acid by the POK. This effect of imidazole was abolished by indomethacin, suggesting that the amelioration of POK vasoconstriction by imidazole was a result of inhibition of vasoconstrictor TX synthesis (e.g. TXA2), with PG vasodilators (e.g. PGE2 or PG12) still active. Urea, infused in a solution whose osmolality and volume were identical to the imidazole infusion, failed to improve hemodynamics in the POK, making it unlikely that nonspecific effects of volume expansion or osmotic diuresis mediated the beneficial effect of imidazole. Further studies examined the possible role of the renin-angiotensin systems in the vasoconstriction of the POK. UUO rats infused with the angiotensin II antagonist, Saralasin, exhibited no significant improvement in POK function, a finding that might be at least partly attributable to agonist/vasoconstrictor properties of Saralasin. In other experiments, treatment of UUO rats with the angiotensin-converting enzyme blocker SQ 14225 (Captopril), in order to inhibit angiotensin II formation, led to at least twofold increases in the clearance of both inulin and rho-aminohippuric acid in the POK. It is unlikely that Captopril exerted this beneficial effect by potentiating the vasodilator kinins, because the effect was not diminished by administration of either carboxypeptidase B (which destroys the kinins) or Trasylol (which blocks kinin synthesis). Thus, these results suggest that both angiotensin II, as well as metabolites of the PG-TX system, may be important determinants of postobstructive renal hemodynamics in the rat.
W E Yarger, D D Schocken, R H Harris
Plasma from individuals with high molecular weight (HMW) kininogen deficiency has been reported to be deficient in prekallikrein as measured by radial immunodiffusion, prekallikrein coagulant activity, and/or kaolin-activated arginine esterase activity. The discovery that prekallikrein and HMW kininogen circulate as a complex in plasma led us to reevaluate the antigenic and functional properties of prekallikrein in HMW kininogen-deficient plasma as well as in normal plasma.
Cheryl F. Scott, Robert W. Colman
Cellular interactions involved in the pathogenesis of hypogammaglobulinemia were studied in six patients with common variable immunodeficiency. Amounts of immunoglobulin (Ig)G and IgM in the supernate of pokeweed mitogen-stimulated cocultures of normal and immunodeficient mononuclear cells were measured by radioimmunoassays. Mononuclear cells from three of six patients inhibited Ig production of normal B cells (P < 0.005). When purified patient and normal T cells were added to B cells in various autologous or allogeneic combinations, it was observed that immunodeficient T cells (AT) from four patients suppressed normal IgM synthesis. Allogeneic normal T cells did not provide help for B cells from these same immunodeficient patients. In two patients, autologous T cells were able to help autologous B-cell IgM synthesis in vitro. In five patients, AT cells inhibited normal B-cell IgG synthesis. Removal of T cells bearing Ia determinants or T cells with Fc-IgG receptors did not diminish the suppressive effect of AT cells on normal B-cell Ig synthesis. Addition of indomethacin, a prostaglandin synthetase inhibitor, did not abrogate the suppressive effect of immunodeficient mononuclear cells. Addition of hydrocortisone succinate (10 μM) did reverse the suppressive effect of AT cells on IgM production in one patient; however, no in vitro reversal of suppressor cell effect was recorded in five. Suppression by immune-deficient T cells was eliminated by 2,000 rad of x-ray irradiation in three patients. After x-ray irradiation immunedeficient T cells could function as helpers of normal B cells.
T. Morito, A. D. Bankhurst, R. C. Williams Jr.
Herpes simplex virus (HSV) types 1 and 2 have been inactivated in vitro using low concentrations of methylene blue (MB), light (lambda) plus electricity (E), or hematoporphyrin derivative (HPD) plus lambda. Both techniques introduce single strand interruptions into viral DNA, but do not make double strand ruptions into viral DNA, but do not make double strand breaks. MB, lambda plus E-treated virions adsorb normally to and penetrate susceptible cells, whereas HSV inactivated with HPC and light does not. This difference is emphasized by the induction of new viral and cell DNA synthesis after infection with MB, lambda plus E-treated virions, whereas only cell, DNA but no HSV DNA, is made subsequent to HPD and lambda exposure. These observations reflect disparate mechanisms of viral inactivation. A block(s) in viral maturation, subsequent to viral DNA synthesis, occurs as a result of treatment with MB, lambda and E, whereas HPD plus lambda-treated particles fail to enter a susceptible cell, and therefore do not initiate an infection.
L E Schnipper, A A Lewin, M Swartz, C S Crumpacker
The action sites for parathyroid hormone (PTH), salmon calcitonin (SCT), and arginine-vasopressin (AVP) were investigated along the human nephron by measuring adenylate cyclase activity, using a single tubule in vitro microassay. Well-localized segments of tubule were isolated by microdissection from five human kidneys unsuitable for transplantation. PTH (10 IU/ml) increased adenylate cyclase activity in the convoluted and the straight proximal tubule, in the medullary and cortical portions of the thick ascending limb, and in the early portion of the distal convoluted tubule (corresponding stimulated:basal activity ratios were 64, 19, 10, 18, and 22, respectively). SCT (10 ng/ml) increased adenylate cyclase activity in the medullary and cortical portions of the thick ascending limb, in the early portion of the distal convoluted tubule, and, to a lesser extent, in the cortical and the medullay collecting tubule (activity ratios were 7, 14, 15, 3, and 3, respectively). AVP (1 microM) stimulated adenylate cyclase activity in the terminal nephron segments only, i.e., the late portion of the distal convoluted tubule, the cortical and medullary portions of the collecting tubule (activity ratios 81, 51, and 97, respectively). As measured in one experiment, nearly one-half maximal responses were obtained with 0.1 IU/ml PTH or 0.3 ng/ml SCT in thick ascending limbs and with 1 nM AVP in collecting tubules, suggesting that enzyme sensitivity to hormones as well preserved under the conditions used in this study.
D Chabardès, M Gagnan-Brunette, M Imbert-Teboul, O Gontcharevskaia, M Montégut, A Clique, F Morel
The degree of inhibition of [3H]thymidine incorporation into DNA by exogenous deoxyuridine is assayed in a procedure known as the deoxyuridine suppression test. We report studies of the biochemical basis of this phenomenon in phytohemagglutinin-stimulated lymphocytes, which suggest that its mechanism has not been fully understood. Results show that inhibition by deoxyuridine is caused only in part by expansion of the intracellular pools of nonradioactive dTMP and dTTP, which dilutes the specific radioactivity of the [3H]dTMP and [3H]dTTP derived from [3H]thymidine. Increased dTTP levels also inhibit thymidine kinase. In addition, thymidine kinase is competitively inhibited by intracellular deoxyuridine. Inhibition of thymidine kinase activity by both mebolites further decreases the specific radioactivity of [3H]dTMP and [3H]dTTP. Deoxyuridine also inhibits the incorporation of [3H]deoxyadenosine and [3H]deoxyguanosine into DNA in these cells. Exogenous deoxyuridine still inhibits [3H]thymidine incorporation in cells whose de novo thymidylate synthesis has been strongly inhibited by 5-fluorodeoxyuridine or methotrexate. In such drug-treated cells, exposure to high concentrations of exogenous deoxyuridine can partially overcome the inhibition of thymidylate synthetase with resulting increase in the severely depleted dTTP pools. This increase is associated with enhanced DNA synthesis, as measured by incorporation into DNA of labeled deoxyribonucleosides other than [3H]thymidine. We conclude that exogenous deoxyuridine has multiple effects on [3H]thymidine incorporation, which must be considered in interpretations of deoxyurindine suppression test results.
T T Pelliniemi, W S Beck
Isolated fat cells from rat epididymal adipose tissue were preincubated with 50 microU/ml (0.33 nM) 125I-insulin at 23 degrees C to enhance binding while retarding degradation. The fat cells were then perifused at that temperature to remove unbound 125I-insulin, and fractions of perifusate were collected each minute. The temperature of the cells in the perifusion chamber was then rapidly increased to 37 degrees C, and perifusion was continued. The fat cells degraded a portion of the bound 125I-insulin measured by loss of immunoprecipitability with excess antisera to insulin. The percentage of degraded 125I-insulin dissociating from the fat cells increased progressively with time at 37 degrees C, and the rateof dissociation of 125I-insulin degradation products showed a first-order dependence on the amount of degraded 125I-insulin bound to the cells. To explain this first-order dependence it is necessary to postulate a "processing" step after binding and before degradation. The first-order rate constant at 37 degrees C is 0.023 +/- 0.004 min-1. Fast and slow dissociating components can be resolved from kinetic plots of the dissociation of undegraded 125I-insulin (immunoprecipitable) from the isolated fat cells. The antilipolytic activity of the 125I-insulin on epinephrine-stimulated lipolysis is evident over much of the time-course of dissociation. A model for the degradation of insulin bound to isolated fat cells is discussed.
C T Huber, S S Solomon, W C Duckworth
Double-stranded DNA fragments of varying sizes were isolated and tested for binding to systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) antinative DNA antibodies. Fragments of 20-25, 40-50, 90-110, and 160-180 base pairs (bp), along with intermediate-size pieces were isolated by preparative gel electrophoresis of a limited micrococcal nuclease digest of calf thymus DNA. Larger helical polynucleotides of 160-200, 380, 600-1,000, and 1,200 bp were isolated by preparative gel electrophoresis of DNA from chicken erythrocyte nucleosomes and oligonucleosomes. The fragments behaved as base-paired structures as tested by thermal denaturation, resistance to S1 nuclease, and serological assays with antibodies to native or denatured DNA. At a concentration of 0.27 muM, fragments of 20-25 bp were able to react with two SLE sera in competition with native DNA. With these and two other sera, DNA of 40-50 bp was a much more effective competitor. One serum required DNA greater than 180 bp for competition in the concentration range tested. Denatured fragments were much less effective than native fragments. The results emphasize the heterogeneity of SLE antinative DNA antibodies, confirm that secondary structure of the antigen is important for specific binding to these antibodies, and support the suggestion that bivalent binding to one molecule may be important for high functional affinity.
M Papalian, E Lafer, R Wong, B D Stollar
The impact of diabetes on cyclic nucleotide-associated mechanisms regulating skeletal muscle protein and amino acid metabolism was assessed using epitrochlaris preparations from streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. 1 nM epinephrine inhibited alanine and glutamine release from control preparations, but no inhibition was observed from diabetic preparations with <0.1 mM. 10 nM epinephrine stimulated lactate production from control muscle but stimulation in diabetic preparations was observed only at 0.1 mM. Serotonin inhibited amino acid release and stimulated lactate production equally in control and diabetic muscle. 0.1 mM epinephrine increased cyclic (c)AMP levels by 360% in control muscles, but these levels were increased only 83% in diabetic muscle. Basal-, fluoride-, and serotonin-stimulated adenylyl cyclase activities were equal in membrane preparations of diabetic and control muscle, but epinephrine-stimulated adenylyl cyclase was reduced by 60% in diabetic muscle. Carbamylcholine stimulation of alanine and glutamine release was blunted in diabetic preparations. Carbamylcholine increased cGMP levels in control but not in diabetic muscle. In diabetic muscle, guanylyl cyclase activity was 65% of control and the stimulation of cyclase activity by sodium azide was less in diabetic than control preparations. Added cGMP stimulated alanine and glutamine release from control, but not from diabetic muscle. These data suggest a loss of adrenergic and cholinergic responsiveness in diabetic muscle. Because amino acid release also showed a decreased responsiveness to added cAMP and cGMP, the presence of other derangements in the mechanism(s) of cyclic nucleotide regulation of muscle amino acid metabolism also seems likely.
Alan J. Garber
The kinetics of thyroid secretion after termination of stimulation by 100 μU/ml bovine thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) or 5 mM cyclic AMP (cAMP) were studied using perfused canine thyroid lobes. All experiments were performed as paired comparisons, one thyroid lobe acting as a control continuing to receive infusion of the stimulator. 2.5 h after termination of TSH infusion, the secretion of thyroxine (T4), 3,5,3′-triiodothyronine (T3), and 3,3′,5′-triiodothyronine (rT3) was not significantly different from that of the control lobes. After cessation of cAMP infusion, the secretion of T4 continued unaffected for ∼40 min. Then a gradual decline in T4 release occurred. The secretion of T3 and rT3 decreased somewhat earlier leading to a transient phase with increases in the T4:T3 and T4:rT3 ratios in the thyroid effluent.
To study the effects of hyperglycemia on the metabolism of alanine and lactate independent of changes in plasma insulin and glucagon, glucose was infused into five 36-h-fasted dogs along with somatostatin and constant replacement amounts of both insulin and glucagon. Hepatic uptakes of alanine and lactate were calculated using the arteriovenous difference technique. [14C]Alanine was infused to measure the conversion of alanine and lactate into glucose. Hyperglycemia (delta 115 mg/dl) of 2 h duration caused the plasma alanine level to increase by over 50%. This change was caused by an increase in the inflow of alanine into plasma since the net hepatic uptake of the amino acid did not change. Taken together, the above findings indicate that glucose per se can significantly impair the fractional extraction of alanine by the liver. Hepatic extraction of lactate was also affected by hyperglycemia and had fallen to zero within 90 min of starting the glucose infusion. This fall was associated with a doubling of arterial lactate level. Conversion of [14C]-alanine and [14C]lactate into [14C]glucose was suppressed by 60 +/- 11% after 2 h of hyperglycemia, and because this fall could not be entirely accounted for by decreased lactate extraction an inhibitory effect of glucose on gluconeogenesis within the liver is suggested. These studies indicate that the plasma glucose level per se can be an important determinant of the level of alanine and lactate in plasma as well as the rate at which they are converted to glucose.
G I Shulman, W W Lacy, J E Liljenquist, U Keller, P E Williams, A D Cherrington
The neuromorphology and neuropharmacology of the human penis are only briefly described in literature. The present study was undertaken to define the adrenergic and cholinergic neuromorphology of the human corpus cavernosum (CC) and corpus spongiosum and to evaluate the in vitro response of the CC to pharmacologic stimulation. Human penile tissue was obtained from six transsexual patients undergoing penectomy. For morphologic study, the tissue was processed for (a) hematoxylin and eosin staining; (b) smooth muscle staining; (c) acetylcholinesterase localization; (d) glyoxylic acid histofluorescence; (e) electron microscopy; and (f) electron microscopy after glutaraldehyde dichromate fixation. In addition, strips of CC were placed in in vitro muscle chambers and tension changes recorded isometrically after stimulation with norepinephrine (NE) and acetylcholine. The CC contains abundant smooth muscle, numerous glyoxylic acidfluorescent (catecholaminergic) fibers and varicosities, and a scant distribution of acetylcholinesterase-positive fibers. Fewer of all these elements were present in the corpus spongiosum. No “polsters” were observed in the CC. Although glutaraldehyde-fixed controls exhibited no typical adrenergic vesicles (small, dense core, measuring 400-600 Å in diameter), some small, strongly electron-dense vesicles were found in glutaraldehyde dichromate-fixed tissue and were thought to contain NE. A variety of other vesicles were also encountered. The addition of NE to the in vitro muscle chambers caused a dose-related contraction, which was blocked by pretreatment with phentolamine in all CC strips tested. Acetylcholine in high concentration produced minimal contraction in 2 of 24 strips. Our morphologic and pharmacologic data suggest that the sympathetic nervous system may affect erection by acting not only on the penile vasculature but also by direct action on the smooth muscle of the CC itself.
George S. Benson, Joann McConnell, Larry I. Lipshultz, Joseph N. Corriere Jr., Joe Wood
Fever not explained by infection may occur in patients with malignant lymphoma presumably caused by a release of endogenous pyrogen. Although pyrogen has been found in some tumors with a mixed cell population, production of endogenous pyrogen by the neoplastic cells has not been demonstrated. This report documents the apparently spontaneous synthesis and release of such pyrogen by two human tumor cell lines derived from patients with Hodgkin's disease and histiocytic lymphoma. The endogenous pyrogen from the two cell lines was similar and closely resembled that produced by normal human monocytes in antigenic properties as well as heat and pronase sensitivity. The Hodgkin's disease and histiocytic lymphoma cell lines do not require specific stimulation for the production of endogenous pyrogen suggesting that the mechanism of pyrogen release by neoplastic macrophage-related cells differs from that of normal phagocytic cells. The tumor-associated fever in some patients with malignant lymphoma may be caused by a release of endogenous pyrogen by proliferating neoplastic cells.
P Bodel, P Ralph, K Wenc, J C Long
21 patients with Sjögren's syndrome (sicca syndrome) with either glandular or extraglandular involvement, but without other connective tissue diseases, were studied with regard to immunoregulatory T-cell subpopulations, B-cell function, and suppressor cell capabilities. Patients with isolated glandular disease as well as patients with extraglandular disease had normal absolute numbers of total lymphocytes, T cells, and B cells. However, 9 of 11 patients with extraglandular disease and only 3 of 10 patients with glandular disease had decreased relative proportions of T cells bearing receptors for the Fc portion of immunoglobulin (Ig)G (TG) which was explained by a factor that blocked the expression of the IgG Fc receptor on TG cells. This blockage was reversible since the factor could be removed by trypsinizing the T cells before TG determination. Serum from patients with abnormal proportions of TG cells, but not serum from patients with normal proportions of TG cells, blocked the expression of the IgG Fc receptor on normal T cells. The serum factor upon fractionation over Bio-Gel A 1.5 columns as well as over staphylococcal protein A-Sepharose 4B columns was found diffusely within the IgG fraction, and not in the IgM fraction.
Haralampos M. Moutsopoulos, Anthony S. Fauci
When urea and NaCl are employed as the major solutes of high osmolality buffers, the cyclic AMP (cAMP) content of oxygenated slices of rat renal inner medulla increases three- to fivefold as osmolality is decreased from 1,650 to 305 mosM. Incubation of slices in Ca2+-free media containing 2 mM EGTA largely abolished this action of osmolality on cAMP, whereas exclusion of Mg2+ or 5+ from the incubation media was without effect. Addition of Ca2+ to Ca2+-deprived inner medulla incubated at 750 mosM (175 mM Na+, 380 mM urea) significantly increased tissue cAMP and media prostaglandin (PG)E accumulation. Ca2+ also stimulated the release of 14C-fatty acid from Ca2+-deprived slices prelabeled with [14C]arachidonate, but not from those labeled with [14C]palmitate. The divalent cation ionophore A23187 enhanced the actions of Ca2+ to increase tissue cAMP, media PGE accumulation, and the release of [14C]-arachidonate from prelabeled inner medulla. By contrast, when slices were incubated at 1,650 mosM (365 mM Na+, 900 mM urea) in the presence or absence of A23187, all of these actions of Ca2+ were markedly suppressed or abolished. Addition of exogenous arachidonate increased tissue cAMP and media PGE at both 750 and 1,650 mosM, whereas palmitate and stearate had no effect on cAMP at either osmolality. The actions of Ca2+ and arachidonate to increase cAMP and PGE accumulation were abolished by the cyclo-oxygenase inhibitors, indomethacin and meclofenamate. They were also abolished by exclusion of molecular O2, which serves as cosubstrate with arachidonate in prostaglandin synthesis. At maximally effective concentrations, exogenous PGE2 and arachidonate produced similar increases in inner medullary cAMP. The maximal effects of the two agents on cAMP were not additive, but were expressed in the absence of Ca2+ at both 750 and 1,650 mosM. However, in marked contrast to the O2-dependent action of arachidonate, PGE2 increased cAMP in the presence or absence of O2. Comparison of the separate actions of urea and NaCl indicated that suppression of Ca2+-responsive [14C]arachidonate release, PGE, and cAMP accumulation at 1,650 mosM reflected primarily an effect of urea, whereas hypertonic NaCl, mannitol, and sucrose alone stimulated inner medullary cAMP and PGE accumulation by a pathway which did not require extracellular Ca2+. Analogous to the actions of hypertonic urea, tetracaine and mepacrine inhibited the actions of Ca2+ plus A23187 to stimulate [14C]-arachidonate release, PGE, and cAMP accumulation. Inhibition of PGE and cAMP accumulation by tetracaine and mepacrine was also overcome by arachidonate. The results suggest that high osmolaity media with urea as a major solute reduces inner medullary cAMP content, at least in part, through effects on Ca2+-dependent prostaglandin synthesis. Inhibition of PGE synthesis, in turn, may be the result of osmotic suppression of Ca2+-dependent release of arachidonate, the availability of which is often rate limiting to prostaglandin generation.
P A Craven, R Briggs, F R DeRubertis
The role of immune cell products in modulating connective tissue metabolism was investigated. Supernates of both unstimulated and phytohemagglutinin-stimulated human mononuclear cell cultures suppressed fibroblast proliferation (up to 90%) and concomintantly stimulated fibroblast prostaglandin E(PGE) synthesis (20- to 70-fold). The growth suppression was, at least in part, a secondary result of the increased fibroblast PGE synthesis; growth suppression (a) paralled the increased fibroblast PGE synthesis, (b) was reversed by addition of inhibitors of prostaglandin synthesis (indomethacin, meclofenamate, and eicostaetraynoic acid), and (c) was reproduced by addition of exogenous PGE2 to fibroblast cultures. The prostaglandin-stimulatory, growth-suppressive activity was a product of non-T-lymphocyte, adherent cells and was present within 6 h of mononuclear cell culture. The activity was heat (56 degrees C) and trypsin sensitive, nondialyzable, and appeared in the 12,000-20,000 mol wt fractions by Sephadex G-100 chromatography. The activity in supernates of mononuclear cell cultures was removed by incubation with fibroblasts but not by similar incubation with peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Mononuclear cells release a factor(s) which modulates fibroblast proliferation by altering prostaglandin metabolism.
J H Korn, P V Halushka, E C LeRoy
We studied 25 duodenal ulcer patients and 14 age- and sex-matched normal controls to determine whether gastric acid secretion in duodenal ulcer patients is abnormally sensitive to stimulation by gastrin endogenously released in response to meals. Acid response to saline and to 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 4.0, and 8.0% peptone infused into the stomach was measured by 30 min intragastric titration. Total serum gastrin (G-total) and serum heptadecapeptide gastrin (G17), fasting and 30 min after each test meal, were measured by specific radioimmunoassays. In 19 ulcer patients and 11 normal subjects (controls), acid response to graded doses (11, 33, 100, and 300 pmol kg−1 h−1) of G17-I were also measured.
Shiu Kum Lam, Jon I. Isenberg, Morton I. Grossman, Will H. Lane, John H. Walsh
The pathogenesis of valvar calcification, which complicates the course of cardiac valve disease and also affects tissue valve prostheses, is incompletely understood. The present work explores the possible role of the vitamin K-dependent, calcium-binding amino acid, γ-carboxyglutamic acid (Gla) in valve mineralization. Gla is normally found in the vitamin K-dependent clotting factor proteins, and is also present in unique calcium binding proteins in bone, kidney, and lung. Unique Gla-containing proteins have also been isolated from pathologic calcifications including calcium containing renal stones and calcified atherosclerotic plaque. Calcified valves including specimens with calcific aortic stenosis, calcified porcine xenograft valves, and a calcified aortic homograft valve were analyzed for Gla content, complete amino acid analysis, and tissue calcium and phosphorus levels. Normal porcine valves contained protein-bound Gla (2.0-10.6 Gla/104 amino acids): no Gla was present in normal valve leaflets. Furthermore, Gla levels paralleled tissue calcium content in the calcified valves. In addition, complete amino acid analysis indicated a decline in valvar collagen content plus increased acidic proteins in conjunction with valvar calcification and the presence of Gla-containing proteins. These results suggest that calcific valvar disease may result in part from vitamin K-dependent processes.
Robert J. Levy, John A. Zenker, Jane B. Lian