Recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) identified DUSP8, encoding a dual-specificity phosphatase targeting mitogen-activated protein kinases, as a type 2 diabetes (T2D) risk gene. Here, we reveal that Dusp8 is a gatekeeper in the hypothalamic control of glucose homeostasis in mice and humans. Male, but not female, Dusp8 loss-of-function mice, either with global or corticotropin-releasing hormone neuron–specific deletion, had impaired systemic glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity when exposed to high-fat diet (HFD). Mechanistically, we found impaired hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis feedback, blunted sympathetic responsiveness, and chronically elevated corticosterone levels driven by hypothalamic hyperactivation of Jnk signaling. Accordingly, global Jnk1 ablation, AAV-mediated Dusp8 overexpression in the mediobasal hypothalamus, or metyrapone-induced chemical adrenalectomy rescued the impaired glucose homeostasis of obese male Dusp8-KO mice, respectively. The sex-specific role of murine Dusp8 in governing hypothalamic Jnk signaling, insulin sensitivity, and systemic glucose tolerance was consistent with functional MRI data in human volunteers that revealed an association of the DUSP8 rs2334499 risk variant with hypothalamic insulin resistance in men. Further, expression of DUSP8 was increased in the infundibular nucleus of T2D humans. In summary, our findings suggest the GWAS-identified gene Dusp8 as a novel hypothalamic factor that plays a functional role in the etiology of T2D.
Sonja C. Schriever, Dhiraj G. Kabra, Katrin Pfuhlmann, Peter Baumann, Emily V. Baumgart, Joachim Nagler, Fabian Seebacher, Luke Harrison, Martin Irmler, Stephanie Kullmann, Felipe Corrêa-da-Silva, Florian Giesert, Ruchi Jain, Hannah Schug, Julien Castel, Sarah Martinez, Moya Wu, Hans-Ulrich Häring, Martin Hrabe de Angelis, Johannes Beckers, Timo D. Müller, Kerstin Stemmer, Wolfgang Wurst, Jan Rozman, Ruben Nogueiras, Meri De Angelis, Jeffery D. Molkentin, Natalie Krahmer, Chun-Xia Yi, Mathias V. Schmidt, Serge Luquet, Martin Heni, Matthias H. Tschöp, Paul T. Pfluger
Epstein-Barr virus–induced gene 3 (EBI3) is a subunit common to IL-27, IL-35, and IL-39. Here, we explore an intracellular role of EBI3 that is independent of its function in cytokines. EBI3-deficient naive CD4+ T cells had reduced IFN-γ production and failed to induce T cell–dependent colitis in mice. Similarly reduced IFN-γ production was observed in vitro in EBI3-deficient CD4+ T cells differentiated under pathogenic Th17 polarizing conditions with IL-23. This is because the induction of expression of one of the IL-23 receptor (IL-23R) subunits, IL-23Rα, but not another IL-23R subunit, IL-12Rβ1, was selectively decreased at the protein level, but not the mRNA level. EBI3 augmented IL-23Rα expression via binding to the chaperone molecule calnexin and to IL-23Rα in a peptide-dependent manner, but not a glycan-dependent manner. Indeed, EBI3 failed to augment IL-23Rα expression in the absence of endogenous calnexin. Moreover, EBI3 poorly augmented the expression of G149R, an IL-23Rα variant that protects against the development of human colitis, because binding of EBI3 to the variant was reduced. Taken together with the result that EBI3 expression is inducible in T cells, the present results suggest that EBI3 plays a critical role in augmenting IL-23Rα protein expression via calnexin under inflammatory conditions.
Izuru Mizoguchi, Mio Ohashi, Hideaki Hasegawa, Yukino Chiba, Naoko Orii, Shinya Inoue, Chiaki Kawana, Mingli Xu, Katsuko Sudo, Koji Fujita, Masahiko Kuroda, Shin-ichi Hashimoto, Kouji Matsushima, Takayuki Yoshimoto
How T cells integrate environmental cues into signals that limit the magnitude and length of immune responses is poorly understood. Here, we provide data that demonstrate that B55β, a regulatory subunit of protein phosphatase 2A, represents a molecular link between cytokine concentration and apoptosis in activated CD8+ T cells. Through the modulation of AKT, B55β induced the expression of the proapoptotic molecule Hrk in response to cytokine withdrawal. Accordingly, B55β and Hrk were both required for in vivo and in vitro contraction of activated CD8+ lymphocytes. We show that this process plays a role during clonal contraction, establishment of immune memory, and preservation of peripheral tolerance. This regulatory pathway may represent an unexplored opportunity to end unwanted immune responses or to promote immune memory.
Noé Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Iris K. Madera-Salcedo, J. Alejandro Cisneros-Segura, H. Benjamín García-González, Sokratis A. Apostolidis, Abril Saint-Martin, Marcela Esquivel-Velázquez, Tran Nguyen, Dámaris P. Romero-Rodríguez, George C. Tsokos, Jorge Alcocer-Varela, Florencia Rosetti, José C. Crispín
Store-operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE) is the major route of Ca2+ influx in platelets. The Ca2+ sensor stromal interaction molecule 1 (STIM1) triggers SOCE by forming punctate structures with the Ca2+ channel Orai1 and the inositol trisphosphate receptor (IP3R), thereby linking the endo-/sarcoplasmic reticulum to the plasma membrane. Here, we identified the BAR domain superfamily member bridging integrator 2 (BIN2) as an interaction partner of STIM1 and IP3R in platelets. Deletion of platelet BIN2 (Bin2fl/fl,Pf4-Cre mice) resulted in reduced Ca2+ store release and Ca2+ influx in response to all tested platelet agonists. These defects were a consequence of impaired IP3R function in combination with defective STIM1-mediated SOC channel activation, while Ca2+ store content and agonist-induced IP3 production were unaltered. This severely defective Ca2+ signaling translated into impaired thrombus formation under flow and a protection of Bin2fl/fl,Pf4-Cre mice in models of arterial thrombosis and stroke. Our results establish BIN2 as a central regulator of platelet activation in thrombosis and thrombo-inflammatory disease settings.
Julia Volz, Charly Kusch, Sarah Beck, Michael Popp, Timo Vögtle, Mara Meub, Inga Scheller, Hannah S. Heil, Julia Preu, Michael K. Schuhmann, Katherina Hemmen, Thomas Premsler, Albert Sickmann, Katrin G. Heinze, David Stegner, Guido Stoll, Attila Braun, Markus Sauer, Bernhard Nieswandt
Influenza is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Here we show changes in the abundance and activation states of more than 50 immune cell subsets in 35 individuals over 11 time points during human A/California/2009 (H1N1) virus challenge monitored using mass cytometry along with other clinical assessments. Peak change in monocyte, B cell, and T cell subset frequencies coincided with peak virus shedding, followed by marked activation of T and NK cells. Results led to the identification of CD38 as a critical regulator of plasmacytoid dendritic cell function in response to influenza virus. Machine learning using study-derived clinical parameters and single-cell data effectively classified and predicted susceptibility to infection. The coordinated immune cell dynamics defined in this study provide a framework for identifying novel correlates of protection in the evaluation of future influenza therapeutics.
Zainab Rahil, Rebecca Leylek, Christian M. Schürch, Han Chen, Zach Bjornson-Hooper, Shannon R. Christensen, Pier Federico Gherardini, Salil S. Bhate, Matthew H. Spitzer, Gabriela K. Fragiadakis, Nilanjan Mukherjee, Nelson Kim, Sizun Jiang, Jennifer Yo, Brice Gaudilliere, Melton Affrime, Bonnie Bock, Scott E. Hensley, Juliana Idoyaga, Nima Aghaeepour, Kenneth Kim, Garry P. Nolan, David R. McIlwain
Edema is an important target for clinical intervention after traumatic brain injury (TBI). We used in vivo cellular resolution imaging and electrophysiological recording to examine the ionic mechanisms underlying neuronal edema and their effects on neuronal and network excitability after controlled cortical impact (CCI) in mice. Unexpectedly, we found that neuronal edema 48 hours after CCI was associated with reduced cellular and network excitability, concurrent with an increase in the expression ratio of the cation-chloride cotransporters (CCCs) NKCC1 and KCC2. Treatment with the CCC blocker bumetanide prevented neuronal swelling via a reversal in the NKCC1/KCC2 expression ratio, identifying altered chloride flux as the mechanism of neuronal edema. Importantly, bumetanide treatment was associated with increased neuronal and network excitability after injury, including increased susceptibility to spreading depolarizations (SDs) and seizures, known agents of clinical worsening after TBI. Treatment with mannitol, a first-line edema treatment in clinical practice, was also associated with increased susceptibility to SDs and seizures after CCI, showing that neuronal volume reduction, regardless of mechanism, was associated with an excitability increase. Finally, we observed an increase in excitability when neuronal edema normalized by 1 week after CCI. We conclude that neuronal swelling may exert protective effects against damaging excitability in the aftermath of TBI and that treatment of edema has the potential to reverse these effects.
Punam A. Sawant-Pokam, Tyler J. Vail, Cameron S. Metcalf, Jamie L. Maguire, Thomas O. McKean, Nick O. McKean, K.C. Brennan
Antibodies targeting human leukocyte antigen (HLA)/major histocompatibility complex (MHC) proteins limit successful transplantation and transfusion, and their presence in blood products can cause lethal transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI). It is unclear which cell types are bound by these anti-leukocyte antibodies to initiate an immunologic cascade resulting in lung injury. We therefore conditionally removed MHC class I (MHC I) from likely cellular targets in antibody-mediated lung injury. Only the removal of endothelial MHC I reduced lung injury and mortality, related mechanistically to absent endothelial complement fixation and lung platelet retention. Restoration of endothelial MHC I rendered MHC I–deficient mice susceptible to lung injury. Neutrophil responses, including neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) release, were intact in endothelial MHC I–deficient mice, whereas complement depletion reduced both lung injury and NETs. Human pulmonary endothelial cells showed high HLA class I expression, and posttransfusion complement activation was increased in clinical TRALI. These results indicate that the critical source of antigen for anti-leukocyte antibodies is in fact the endothelium, which reframes our understanding of TRALI as a rapid-onset vasculitis. Inhibition of complement activation may have multiple beneficial effects of reducing endothelial injury, platelet retention, and NET release in conditions where antibodies trigger these pathogenic responses.
Simon J. Cleary, Nicholas Kwaan, Jennifer J. Tian, Daniel R. Calabrese, Beñat Mallavia, Mélia Magnen, John R. Greenland, Anatoly Urisman, Jonathan P. Singer, Steven R. Hays, Jasleen Kukreja, Ariel M. Hay, Heather L. Howie, Pearl Toy, Clifford A. Lowell, Craig N. Morrell, James C. Zimring, Mark R. Looney
Although cancer is commonly perceived as a disease of dedifferentiation, the hallmark of early-stage prostate cancer is paradoxically the loss of more plastic basal cells and the abnormal proliferation of more differentiated secretory luminal cells. However, the mechanism of prostate cancer proluminal differentiation is largely unknown. Through integrating analysis of the transcription factors (TFs) from 806 human prostate cancers, we found that ERG was highly correlated with prostate cancer luminal subtyping. ERG overexpression in luminal epithelial cells inhibited those cells’ normal plasticity to transdifferentiate into a basal lineage, and ERG superseded PTEN loss, which favored basal differentiation. ERG KO disrupted prostate cell luminal differentiation, whereas AR KO had no such effects. Trp63 is a known master regulator of the prostate basal lineage. Through analysis of 3D chromatin architecture, we found that ERG bound and inhibited the enhancer activity and chromatin looping of a Trp63 distal enhancer, thereby silencing its gene expression. Specific deletion of the distal ERG binding site resulted in the loss of ERG-mediated inhibition of basal differentiation. Thus, ERG, in its fundamental role in lineage differentiation in prostate cancer initiation, orchestrated chromatin interactions and regulated prostate cell lineage toward a proluminal program.
Fei Li, Qiuyue Yuan, Wei Di, Xinyi Xia, Zhuang Liu, Ninghui Mao, Lin Li, Chunfeng Li, Juan He, Yunguang Li, Wangxin Guo, Xiaoyu Zhang, Yiqin Zhu, Rebiguli Aji, Shangqian Wang, Xinyuan Tong, Hongbin Ji, Ping Chi, Brett Carver, Yong Wang, Yu Chen, Dong Gao
As a hallmark of immunological aging, low-grade, chronic inflammation with accumulation of effector memory T cells contributes to increased susceptibility to many aging-related diseases. While the proinflammatory state of aged T cells indicates a dysregulation of immune homeostasis, whether and how aging drives regulatory T cell (Treg) aging and alters Treg function are not fully understood owing to a lack of specific aging markers. Here, by a combination of cellular, molecular, and bioinformatic approaches, we discovered that Tregs senesce more severely than conventional T (Tconv) cells during aging. We found that Tregs from aged mice were less efficient than young Tregs in suppressing Tconv cell function in an inflammatory bowel disease model and in preventing Tconv cell aging in an irradiation-induced aging model. Furthermore, we revealed that DDB1- and CUL4-associated factor 1 (DCAF1) was downregulated in aged Tregs and was critical to restrain Treg aging via reactive oxygen species (ROS) regulated by glutathione-S-transferase P (GSTP1). Importantly, interfering with GSTP1 and ROS pathways reinvigorated the proliferation and function of aged Tregs. Therefore, our studies uncover an important role of the DCAF1/GSTP1/ROS axis in Treg senescence, which leads to uncontrolled inflammation and immunological aging.
Zengli Guo, Gang Wang, Bing Wu, Wei-Chun Chou, Liang Cheng, Chenlin Zhou, Jitong Lou, Di Wu, Lishan Su, Junnian Zheng, Jenny P.-Y. Ting, Yisong Y. Wan
Mitochondria have emerged as key actors of innate and adaptive immunity. Mitophagy has a pivotal role in cell homeostasis, but its contribution to macrophage functions and host defense remains to be delineated. Here, we showed that lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in combination with IFN-γ inhibited PINK1-dependent mitophagy in macrophages through a STAT1-dependent activation of the inflammatory caspases 1 and 11. In addition, we demonstrated that the inhibition of mitophagy triggered classical macrophage activation in a mitochondrial ROS–dependent manner. In a murine model of polymicrobial infection (cecal ligature and puncture), adoptive transfer of Pink1-deficient bone marrow or pharmacological inhibition of mitophagy promoted macrophage activation, which favored bactericidal clearance and led to a better survival rate. Reciprocally, mitochondrial uncouplers that promote mitophagy reversed LPS/IFN-γ–mediated activation of macrophages and led to immunoparalysis with impaired bacterial clearance and lowered survival. In critically ill patients, we showed that mitophagy was inhibited in blood monocytes of patients with sepsis as compared with nonseptic patients. Overall, this work demonstrates that the inhibition of mitophagy is a physiological mechanism that contributes to the activation of myeloid cells and improves the outcome of sepsis.
Danish Patoli, Franck Mignotte, Valérie Deckert, Alois Dusuel, Adélie Dumont, Aurélie Rieu, Antoine Jalil, Kevin Van Dongen, Thibaut Bourgeois, Thomas Gautier, Charlène Magnani, Naig Le Guern, Stéphane Mandard, Jean Bastin, Fatima Djouadi, Christine Schaeffer, Nina Guillaumot, Michel Narce, Maxime Nguyen, Julien Guy, Auguste Dargent, Jean-Pierre Quenot, Mickaël Rialland, David Masson, Johan Auwerx, Laurent Lagrost, Charles Thomas
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