Inherited retinal degenerations (IRDs) are characterized by the progressive loss of photoreceptors and represent one of the most prevalent causes of blindness among working-age populations. Cyclic nucleotide dysregulation is a common pathological feature linked to numerous forms of IRD, yet the precise mechanisms through which this contributes to photoreceptor death remain elusive. Here we demonstrate that cAMP induced upregulation of the dependence receptor neogenin in the retina. Neogenin levels were also elevated in both human and murine degenerating photoreceptors. We found that overexpressing neogenin in mouse photoreceptors was sufficient to induce cell death, whereas silencing neogenin in degenerating murine photoreceptors promoted survival, thus identifying a pro-death signal in IRDs. A possible treatment strategy is modeled whereby peptide neutralization of neogenin in Rd1, Rd10, and Rho P23H–knockin mice promotes rod and cone survival and rescues visual function as measured by light-evoked retinal ganglion cell recordings, scotopic/photopic electroretinogram recordings, and visual acuity tests. These results expose neogenin as a critical link between cAMP and photoreceptor death, and identify a druggable target for the treatment of retinal degeneration.
Jason Charish, Alireza P. Shabanzadeh, Danian Chen, Patrick Mehlen, Santhosh Sethuramanujam, Hidekiyo Harada, Vera L. Bonilha, Gautam Awatramani, Rod Bremner, Philippe P. Monnier
Type I interferon (IFN) is a key cytokine that curbs viral infection and cell malignancy. Previously, we demonstrated a potent IFN immunogenicity of nucleic acid–containing (NA-containing) amyloid fibrils in the periphery. Here, we investigated whether IFN is associated with β-amyloidosis inside the brain and contributes to neuropathology. An IFN-stimulated gene (ISG) signature was detected in the brains of multiple murine Alzheimer disease (AD) models, a phenomenon also observed in WT mouse brain challenged with generic NA-containing amyloid fibrils. In vitro, microglia innately responded to NA-containing amyloid fibrils. In AD models, activated ISG-expressing microglia exclusively surrounded NA+ amyloid β plaques, which accumulated in an age-dependent manner. Brain administration of rIFN-β resulted in microglial activation and complement C3-dependent synapse elimination in vivo. Conversely, selective IFN receptor blockade effectively diminished the ongoing microgliosis and synapse loss in AD models. Moreover, we detected activated ISG-expressing microglia enveloping NA-containing neuritic plaques in postmortem brains of patients with AD. Gene expression interrogation revealed that IFN pathway was grossly upregulated in clinical AD and significantly correlated with disease severity and complement activation. Therefore, IFN constitutes a pivotal element within the neuroinflammatory network of AD and critically contributes to neuropathogenic processes.
Ethan R. Roy, Baiping Wang, Ying-wooi Wan, Gabriel Chiu, Allysa Cole, Zhuoran Yin, Nicholas E. Propson, Yin Xu, Joanna L. Jankowsky, Zhandong Liu, Virginia M.-Y. Lee, John Q. Trojanowski, Stephen D. Ginsberg, Oleg Butovsky, Hui Zheng, Wei Cao
Visceral adipose tissue plays a critical role in numerous diseases. Although imaging studies often show adipose involvement in abdominal diseases, their outcomes may vary from being a mild self-limited illness to one with systemic inflammation and organ failure. We therefore compared the pattern of visceral adipose injury during acute pancreatitis and acute diverticulitis to determine its role in organ failure. Acute pancreatitis–associated adipose tissue had ongoing lipolysis in the absence of adipocyte triglyceride lipase (ATGL). Pancreatic lipase injected into mouse visceral adipose tissue hydrolyzed adipose triglyceride and generated excess nonesterified fatty acids (NEFAs), which caused organ failure in the absence of acute pancreatitis. Pancreatic triglyceride lipase (PNLIP) increased in adipose tissue during pancreatitis and entered adipocytes by multiple mechanisms, hydrolyzing adipose triglyceride and generating excess NEFAs. During pancreatitis, obese PNLIP-knockout mice, unlike obese adipocyte-specific ATGL knockouts, had lower visceral adipose tissue lipolysis, milder inflammation, less severe organ failure, and improved survival. PNLIP-knockout mice, unlike ATGL knockouts, were protected from adipocyte-induced pancreatic acinar injury without affecting NEFA signaling or acute pancreatitis induction. Therefore, during pancreatitis, unlike diverticulitis, PNLIP leaking into visceral adipose tissue can cause excessive visceral adipose tissue lipolysis independently of adipocyte-autonomous ATGL, and thereby worsen organ failure.
Cristiane de Oliveira, Biswajit Khatua, Pawan Noel, Sergiy Kostenko, Arup Bag, Bijinu Balakrishnan, Krutika S. Patel, Andre A. Guerra, Melissa N. Martinez, Shubham Trivedi, Ann McCullough, Dora M. Lam-Himlin, Sarah Navina, Douglas O. Faigel, Norio Fukami, Rahul Pannala, Anna Evans Phillips, Georgios I. Papachristou, Erin E. Kershaw, Mark E. Lowe, Vijay P. Singh
Induction of the inflammasome protein cryopyrin (NLRP3) in visceral adipose tissue (VAT) promotes release of the proinflammatory cytokine IL-1β in obesity. Although this mechanism contributes to peripheral metabolic dysfunction, effects on the brain remain unexplored. We investigated whether visceral adipose NLRP3 impairs cognition by activating microglial IL-1 receptor 1 (IL-1R1). After observing protection against obesity-induced neuroinflammation and cognitive impairment in NLRP3-KO mice, we transplanted VAT from obese WT or NLRP3-KO donors into lean recipient mice. Transplantation of VAT from a WT donor (TRANSWT) increased hippocampal IL-1β and impaired cognition, but VAT transplants from comparably obese NLRP3-KO donors (TRANSKO) had no effect. Visceral adipose NLRP3 was required for deficits in long-term potentiation (LTP) in transplant recipients, and LTP impairment in TRANSWT mice was IL-1 dependent. Flow cytometric and gene expression analyses revealed that VAT transplantation recapitulated the effects of obesity on microglial activation and IL-1β gene expression, and visualization of hippocampal microglia revealed similar effects in vivo. Inducible ablation of IL-1R1 in CX3CR1-expressing cells eliminated cognitive impairment in mice with dietary obesity and in transplant recipients and restored immunoquiescence in hippocampal microglia. These results indicate that visceral adipose NLRP3 impairs memory via IL-1–mediated microglial activation and suggest that NLRP3/IL-1β signaling may underlie correlations between visceral adiposity and cognitive impairment in humans.
De-Huang Guo, Masaki Yamamoto, Caterina M. Hernandez, Hesam Khodadadi, Babak Baban, Alexis M. Stranahan
Few therapies are currently available for patients with KRAS-driven cancers, highlighting the need to identify new molecular targets that modulate central downstream effector pathways. Here we found that the microRNA (miRNA) cluster including miR181ab1 is a key modulator of KRAS-driven oncogenesis. Ablation of Mir181ab1 in genetically engineered mouse models of Kras-driven lung and pancreatic cancer was deleterious to tumor initiation and progression. Expression of both resident miRNAs in the Mir181ab1 cluster, miR181a1 and miR181b1, was necessary to rescue the Mir181ab1-loss phenotype, underscoring their nonredundant role. In human cancer cells, depletion of miR181ab1 impaired proliferation and 3D growth, whereas overexpression provided a proliferative advantage. Lastly, we unveiled miR181ab1-regulated genes responsible for this phenotype. These studies identified what we believe to be a previously unknown role for miR181ab1 as a potential therapeutic target in 2 highly aggressive and difficult to treat KRAS-mutated cancers.
Karmele Valencia, Oihane Erice, Kaja Kostyrko, Simone Hausmann, Elizabeth Guruceaga, Anuradha Tathireddy, Natasha M. Flores, Leanne C. Sayles, Alex G. Lee, Rita Fragoso, Tian-Qiang Sun, Adrian Vallejo, Marta Roman, Rodrigo Entrialgo-Cadierno, Itziar Migueliz, Nerea Razquin, Puri Fortes, Fernando Lecanda, Jun Lu, Mariano Ponz-Sarvise, Chang-Zheng Chen, Pawel K. Mazur, E. Alejandro Sweet-Cordero, Silvestre Vicent
Acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is initially triggered by alloreactive T cells, which damage peripheral tissues and lymphoid organs. Subsequent transition to chronic GVHD involves the emergence of autoimmunity, although the underlying mechanisms driving this process are unclear. Here, we tested the hypothesis that acute GVHD blocks peripheral tolerance of autoreactive T cells by impairing lymph node (LN) display of peripheral tissue–restricted antigens (PTAs). At the initiation of GVHD, LN fibroblastic reticular cells (FRCs) rapidly reduced expression of genes regulated by DEAF1, an autoimmune regulator-like transcription factor required for intranodal expression of PTAs. Subsequently, GVHD led to the selective elimination of the FRC population, and blocked the repair pathways required for its regeneration. We used a transgenic mouse model to show that the loss of presentation of an intestinal PTA by FRCs during GVHD resulted in the activation of autoaggressive T cells and gut injury. Finally, we show that FRCs normally expressed a unique PTA gene signature that was highly enriched for genes expressed in the target organs affected by chronic GVHD. In conclusion, acute GVHD damages and prevents repair of the FRC network, thus disabling an essential platform for purging autoreactive T cells from the repertoire.
Simone Dertschnig, Pamela Evans, Pedro Santos e Sousa, Teresa Manzo, Ivana R. Ferrer, Hans J. Stauss, Clare L. Bennett, Ronjon Chakraverty
Spondyloarthritis (SpA) represents a family of inflammatory diseases of the spine and peripheral joints. Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is the prototypic form of SpA in which progressive disease can lead to fusion of the spine. Therapeutically, knowledge of type 3 immunity has translated into the development of IL-23– and IL-17A–blocking antibodies for the treatment of SpA. Despite being able to provide symptomatic control, the current biologics do not prevent the fusion of joints in AS patients. Thus, there is an unmet need for disease-modifying drugs. Genetic studies have linked the Janus kinase TYK2 to AS. TYK2 is a mediator of type 3 immunity through intracellular signaling of IL-23. Here, we describe and characterize a potentially novel small-molecule inhibitor of TYK2 that blocked IL-23 signaling in vitro and inhibited disease progression in animal models of SpA. The effect of the inhibitor appears to be TYK2 specific, using TYK2-inactive mice, which further revealed a duality in the induction of IL-17A and IL-22 by IL-23. Specifically, IL-22 production was TYK2/JAK2/STAT3 dependent, while IL-17A was mostly JAK2 dependent. Finally, we examined the effects of AS-associated TYK2 SNPs on TYK2 expression and function and correlated them with AS disease progression. This work provides evidence that TYK2 inhibitors have great potential as an orally delivered therapeutic for SpA.
Eric Gracey, Dominika Hromadová, Melissa Lim, Zoya Qaiyum, Michael Zeng, Yuchen Yao, Archita Srinath, Yuriy Baglaenko, Natalia Yeremenko, William Westlin, Craig Masse, Mathias Müller, Birgit Strobl, Wenyan Miao, Robert D. Inman
The major risk factor for kidney stone disease is idiopathic hypercalciuria. Recent evidence implicates a role for defective calcium reabsorption in the renal proximal tubule. We hypothesized that claudin-2, a paracellular cation channel protein, mediates proximal tubule calcium reabsorption. We found that claudin-2–null mice have hypercalciuria due to a primary defect in renal tubule calcium transport and papillary nephrocalcinosis that resembles the intratubular plugs in kidney stone formers. Our findings suggest that a proximal tubule defect in calcium reabsorption predisposes to papillary calcification, providing support for the vas washdown hypothesis. Claudin-2–null mice were also found to have increased net intestinal calcium absorption, but reduced paracellular calcium permeability in the colon, suggesting that this was due to reduced intestinal calcium secretion. Common genetic variants in the claudin-2 gene were associated with decreased tissue expression of claudin-2 and increased risk of kidney stones in 2 large population-based studies. Finally, we describe a family in which males with a rare missense variant in claudin-2 have marked hypercalciuria and kidney stone disease. Our findings indicate that claudin-2 is a key regulator of calcium excretion and a potential target for therapies to prevent kidney stones.
Joshua N. Curry, Matthew Saurette, Masomeh Askari, Lei Pei, Michael B. Filla, Megan R. Beggs, Peter S.N. Rowe, Timothy Fields, Andre J. Sommer, Chizu Tanikawa, Yoichiro Kamatani, Andrew P. Evan, Mehdi Totonchi, R. Todd Alexander, Koichi Matsuda, Alan S.L. Yu
Meal ingestion increases body temperature in multiple species, an effect that is blunted by obesity. However, the mechanisms responsible for these phenomena remain incompletely understood. Here we show that refeeding increases plasma leptin concentrations approximately 8-fold in 48-hour-fasted lean rats, and this normalization of plasma leptin concentrations stimulates adrenomedullary catecholamine secretion. Increased adrenal medulla–derived plasma catecholamines were necessary and sufficient to increase body temperature postprandially, a process that required both fatty acids generated from adipose tissue lipolysis and β-adrenergic activation of brown adipose tissue (BAT). Diet-induced obese rats, which remained relatively hyperleptinemic while fasting, did not exhibit fasting-induced reductions in temperature. To examine the impact of feeding-induced increases in body temperature on energy balance, we compared rats fed chronically by either 2 carbohydrate-rich boluses daily or a continuous isocaloric intragastric infusion. Bolus feeding increased body temperature and reduced weight gain compared with continuous feeding, an effect abrogated by treatment with atenolol. In summary, these data demonstrate that leptin stimulates a hypothalamus–adrenal medulla–BAT axis, which is necessary and sufficient to induce lipolysis and, as a result, increase body temperature after refeeding.
Rachel J. Perry, Kun Lyu, Aviva Rabin-Court, Jianying Dong, Xiruo Li, Yunfan Yang, Hua Qing, Andrew Wang, Xiaoyong Yang, Gerald I. Shulman
Angiopoietin-2 (Ang2), a ligand of the endothelial Tie2 tyrosine kinase, is involved in vascular inflammation and leakage in critically ill patients. However, the role of Ang2 in demyelinating central nervous system (CNS) autoimmune diseases is unknown. Here, we report that Ang2 is critically involved in the pathogenesis of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), a rodent model of multiple sclerosis. Ang2 expression was induced in CNS autoimmunity, and transgenic mice overexpressing Ang2 specifically in endothelial cells (ECs) developed a significantly more severe EAE. In contrast, treatment with Ang2-blocking Abs ameliorated neuroinflammation and decreased spinal cord demyelination and leukocyte infiltration into the CNS. Similarly, Ang2-binding and Tie2-activating Ab attenuated the development of CNS autoimmune disease. Ang2 blockade inhibited expression of EC adhesion molecules, improved blood-brain barrier integrity, and decreased expression of genes involved in antigen presentation and proinflammatory responses of microglia and macrophages, which was accompanied by inhibition of α5β1 integrin activation in microglia. Taken together, our data suggest that Ang2 provides a target for increasing Tie2 activation in ECs and inhibiting proinflammatory polarization of CNS myeloid cells via α5β1 integrin in neuroinflammation. Thus, Ang2 targeting may serve as a therapeutic option for the treatment of CNS autoimmune disease.
Zhilin Li, Emilia A. Korhonen, Arianna Merlini, Judith Strauss, Eleonoora Wihuri, Harri Nurmi, Salli Antila, Jennifer Paech, Urban Deutsch, Britta Engelhardt, Sudhakar Chintharlapalli, Gou Young Koh, Alexander Flügel, Kari Alitalo
No posts were found with this tag.