The triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells-1 (TREM-1) drives inflammatory responses in several cardiovascular diseases but its role in abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) remains unknown. Our objective was to explore the role of TREM-1 in a mouse model of Angiotensin (Ang) II-induced AAA. TREM-1 expression was detected in mouse aortic aneurysm and colocalizes with macrophages. Trem1 gene deletion (Apoe-/-Trem1-/-), as well as TREM-1 pharmacological blockade with LR-12 peptide limited both AAA development and severity. Trem1 gene deletion attenuated the inflammatory response in the aorta, with a reduction of Il1b, Tnfa, Mmp2 and Mmp9 mRNA expression, and led to a decreased macrophage content, due to a reduction of Ly6Chi classical monocyte trafficking. Conversely, antibody-mediated TREM-1 stimulation exacerbated Ly6Chi monocyte aorta infiltration after AngII infusion through CD62L up-regulation and promoted pro-inflammatory signature in the aorta, resulting in worsening AAA severity. AngII infusion stimulated TREM-1 expression and activation on Ly6Chi monocytes through AngII Receptor Type I (AT1R). In human AAA, TREM-1 was detected and TREM1 mRNA expression correlated with SELL mRNA expression. Finally, circulating levels of sTREM-1 were increased in patients with AAA when compared to patients without AAA. In conclusion, TREM-1 is involved in AAA pathophysiology and may represent a promising therapeutic target in human.
Marie Vandestienne, Yujiao Zhang, Icia Santos-Zas, Rida Al-Rifai, Jeremie Joffre, Andreas Giraud, Ludivine Laurans, Bruno Esposito, Florence Pinet, Patrick Bruneval, Juliette Raffort, Fabien Lareyre, Jose Vilar, Amir Boufenzer, Lea Guyonnet, Coralie L. Guerin, Eric Clauser, Jean-Sébastien Silvestre, Sylvie Lang, Laurie Soulat-Dufour, Alain Tedgui, Ziad Mallat, Soraya Taleb, Alexandre Boissonnas, Marc Derive, Giulia Chinetti, Hafid Ait-Oufella
As the interface between the gut microbiota and the mucosal immune system, there has been great interest in the maintenance of colonic epithelial integrity through mitochondrial oxidation of butyrate, a short-chain fatty acid produced by the gut microbiota. Herein, we showed that the intestinal epithelium can also oxidize long-chain fatty acids, and that luminally-delivered acylcarnitines in bile can be consumed via apical absorption by the intestinal epithelium resulting in mitochondrial oxidation. Finally, intestinal inflammation led to mitochondrial dysfunction in the apical domain of the surface epithelium that may reduce the consumption of fatty acids, contributing to higher concentrations of fecal acylcarnitines in murine Citrobacter rodentium-induced colitis and human inflammatory bowel disease. These results emphasized the importance of both the gut microbiota and the liver in the delivery of energy substrates for mitochondrial metabolism by the intestinal epithelium.
Sarah A. Smith, Sayaka A. Ogawa, Lillian Chau, Kelly A. Whelan, Kathryn E. Hamilton, Jie Chen, Lu Tan, Eric Z. Chen, Sue Keilbaugh, Franz Fogt, Meenakshi Bewtra, Jonathan Braun, Ramnik J. Xavier, Clary B. Clish, Barry Slaff, Aalim M. Weljie, Frederic D. Bushman, James D. Lewis, Hongzhe Li, Stephen R. Master, Michael J. Bennett, Hiroshi Nakagawa, Gary D. Wu
Microglia maintain homeostasis in the brain. However, with age, they become primed and respond more strongly to inflammatory stimuli. We show here that microglia from aged mice upregulated mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) complex 1 signaling regulating translation, as well as protein levels of inflammatory mediators. Genetic ablation of mTOR signaling showed a dual, yet contrasting effect on microglia priming: it caused an NF-kB-dependent upregulation of priming genes at mRNA level; however, mice displayed reduced cytokine protein levels, diminished microglia activation and milder sickness behavior. The effect on translation was dependent on reduced phosphorylation of 4EBP1, resulting in decreased binding of eIF4E to eIF4G. Similar changes were present in aged human microglia and in damage-associated microglia, indicating upregulation of mTOR-dependent translation is an essential step licensing microglia priming in aging and neurodegeneration.
Lily Keane, Ignazio Antignano, Sean-Patrick Riechers, Raphael Zollinger, Anaelle A. Dumas, Nina Offermann, Maria E. Bernis, Jenny Russ, Frederike J. Graelmann, Patrick N. McCormick, Julia Esser, Dario Tejera, Ai Nagano, Jun Wang, Claude Chelala, Yvonne Biederbick, Annett Halle, Paolo Salomoni, Michael Thomas Heneka, Melania Capasso
Emerging evidence indicates that early life events can increase the risk for developing chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Using an inducible transgenic mouse model for NF-κB activation in the airway epithelium, we found that a brief period of inflammation during the saccular stage [postnatal day (PN)3 - PN5] but not alveolar stage (PN10 - PN12) of lung development disrupts elastic fiber assembly, resulting in permanent reduction in lung function and development of a COPD-like lung phenotype that progresses through 24 months of age. Neutrophil depletion prevented disruption of elastic fiber assembly and restored normal lung development. Mechanistic studies uncovered a role for neutrophil elastase (NE) in downregulating expression of critical elastic fiber assembly components, particularly fibulin-5 and elastin. Further, both purified human NE and NE-containing exosomes from tracheal aspirates of premature infants with lung inflammation down-regulated elastin and fibulin-5 expression by saccular stage mouse lung fibroblasts. Together, our studies define a critical developmental window for assembling the elastin scaffold in the distal lung, which is required to support lung structure and function throughout the lifespan. While neutrophils play a well-recognized role in COPD development in adults, neutrophilic inflammation may also contribute to early life predisposition to COPD.
John T. Benjamin, Erin Plosa, Jennifer Sucre, Riet van der Meer, Shivangi Dave, Sergey S. Gutor, David Nichols, Peter Gulleman, Christopher Jetter, Wei Han, Matthew K. Xin, Peter C. Dinella, Ashley Catanzarite, Seunghyi Kook, Kalsang Dolma, Charitharth V. Lal, Amit Gaggar, J. Edwin Blalock, Dawn C. Newcomb, Bradley W. Richmond, Jonathan A. Kropski, Lisa R. Young, Susan Guttentag, Timothy S. Blackwell
The mechanism by which inflammasome activation is modulated remains unclear. In this study, we identified an AIM2-interacting protein, the E3 ubiquitin ligase HUWE1, which was also found to interact with NLRP3 and NLRC4 through the HIN domain of AIM2 and the NACHT domains of NLRP3 and NLRC4. The BH3 domain of HUWE1 was important for its interaction with NLRP3, AIM2, and NLRC4. Caspase-1 maturation, IL-1β release, and pyroptosis were reduced in Huwe1-deficient bone marrow–derived macrophages (BMDMs) compared with WT BMDMs in response to stimuli to induce NLRP3, NLRC4, and AIM2 inflammasome activation. Furthermore, the activation of NLRP3, NLRC4, and AIM2 inflammasomes in both mouse and human cells was remarkably reduced by treatment with the HUWE1 inhibitor BI8622. HUWE1 mediated the K27-linked polyubiquitination of AIM2, NLRP3, and NLRC4, which led to inflammasome assembly, ASC speck formation, and sustained caspase-1 activation. Huwe1-deficient mice had an increased bacterial burden and decreased caspase-1 activation and IL-1β production upon Salmonella, Francisella, or Acinetobacter baumannii infection. Our study provides insights into the mechanisms of inflammasome activation as well as a potential therapeutic target against bacterial infection.
Yu Guo, Longjun Li, Tao Xu, Xiaomin Guo, Chaoming Wang, Yihui Li, Yanan Yang, Dong Yang, Bin Sun, Xudong Zhao, Genze Shao, Xiaopeng Qi
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a risk factor for cancer development. However, the role of DM induced hyperglycemic stress (HG) in the development of blood cancer is poorly understood, largely due to lack of appropriate animal models. Epidemiologic studies show that individuals with DM are more likely to possess higher rate of mutations in genes found in pre-leukemic stem and progenitor cells (pre-LHSC/Ps) including in the epigenetic regulator TET2. TET2-mutant pre-LHSC/Ps require additional hits to evolve into a full-blown leukemia and/or aggressive myeloproliferative neoplasm (MPN). Cell intrinsic mutations have been shown to cooperate with Tet2 to promote leukemic transformation. However, the role of extrinsic factors is poorly understood. Utilizing a novel mouse model bearing haploinsufficiency of Tet2, to mimic the human pre-LHSC/P condition and HG stress, in the form of an Ins2Akita/+ mutation, which induces HG and Type-1 DM, we show that the compound mutant mice develop a lethal form of MPN and/or acute myeloid leukemia (AML). RNAseq revealed that this is in part due to upregulation of pro-inflammatory pathways, thereby generating a feedforward loop, including the expression of an anti-apoptotic lncRNA Morrbid. Loss of Morrbid in the compound mutants rescues the lethality and mitigates the development of MPN/AML. Our results describe a novel mouse model for age-dependent AML/MPN and suggest that HG stress acts as an environmental driver for myeloid neoplasm, which could be effectively prevented by reducing the expression of inflammation-related lncRNA Morrbid.
Zhigang Cai, Xiaoyu Lu, Chi Zhang, Sai Nelanuthala, Fabiola Aguilera, Abigail Hadley, Baskar Ramdas, Fang Fang, Kenneth P. Nephew, Jonathan J. Kotzin, Adam Williams, Jorge Henao-Mejia, Laura S. Haneline, Reuben Kapur
While platelets are the cellular mediators of thrombosis, platelets are also immune cells. Platelets interact both directly and indirectly with immune cells, impacting their activation and differentiation, as well as all phases of the immune response. Megakaryocytes (Mks) are the cell source of circulating platelets, and until recently Mks were typically only considered as bone marrow (BM) resident cells. However, platelet producing Mks also reside in the lung, and lung Mks express greater levels of immune molecules compared to BM Mks. We therefore sought to define the immune functions of lung Mks. Using single cell RNA-Seq of BM and lung myeloid enriched cells, we found that lung Mks (MkL) had gene expression patterns that are similar to antigen presenting cells (APC). This was confirmed using imaging and conventional flow cytometry. The immune phenotype of Mks was plastic and driven by the tissue immune environment as evidenced by BM Mks having a MkL like phenotype under the influence of pathogen receptor challenge and lung associated immune molecules, such as IL-33. Our in vitro and in vivo assays demonstrated that MkL internalized and processed both antigenic proteins and bacterial pathogens. Furthermore, MkL induced CD4+ T cell activation in a MHC II dependent manner both in vitro and in vivo. These data indicated that Mks in the lung had key immune regulatory roles dictated in part by the tissue environment.
Daphne N. Pariser, Zachary T. Hilt, Sara K. Ture, Sara K. Blick-Nitko, Mark R. Looney, Simon J. Cleary, Estheany Roman-Pagan, Jerry Saunders II, Steve N. Georas, Janelle M. Veazey, Ferralita Madere, Laura Tesoro Santos, Allison M. Arne, Nguyen PT Huynh, Alison C. Livada, Selena M. Guerrero-Martin, Claire E. Lyons, Kelly A. Metcalf Pate, Kathleen E. McGrath, James Palis, Craig Morrell
BACKGROUND Cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA4) is essential for immune homeostasis. Genetic mutations causing haploinsufficiency (CTLA4h) lead to a phenotypically heterogenous, immune-mediated disease that can include neuroinflammation. The neurological manifestations of CTLA4h are poorly characterized.METHODS We performed an observational natural history study of 50 patients with CTLA4h who were followed at the NIH. We analyzed clinical, radiological, immunological, and histopathological data.RESULTS Evidence for neuroinflammation was observed in 32% (n = 16 of 50) of patients in this cohort by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and/or by cerebrospinal fluid analysis. Clinical symptoms were commonly absent or mild in severity, with headaches as the leading complaint (n = 13 of 16). The most striking findings were relapsing, large, contrast-enhancing focal lesions in the brain and spinal cord observed on MRI. We detected inflammation in the cerebrospinal fluid and leptomeninges before the parenchyma. Brain biopsies of inflammatory lesions from 10 patients showed perivascular and intraparenchymal mixed cellular infiltrates with little accompanying demyelination or neuronal injury.CONCLUSIONS Neuroinflammation due to CTLA4h is mediated primarily by an infiltrative process with a distinct and striking dissociation between clinical symptoms and radiological findings in the majority of patients.FUNDING NIAID, NIH, Division of Intramural Research, NINDS, NIH, Division of Intramural Research, and the National Multiple Sclerosis Society–American Brain Foundation.TRIAL REGISTRATION ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00001355.
Matthew K. Schindler, Stefania Pittaluga, Yoshimi Enose-Akahata, Helen C. Su, V. Koneti Rao, Amy Rump, Steven Jacobson, Irene Cortese, Daniel S. Reich, Gulbu Uzel
Late-onset inflammatory toxicities resembling hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) or macrophage activation syndrome (MAS) occur after chimeric antigen receptor T cell (CAR T cell) infusion and represent a therapeutic challenge. Given the established link between perforin deficiency and primary HLH, we investigated the role of perforin in anti-CD19 CAR T cell efficacy and HLH-like toxicities in a syngeneic murine model. Perforin contributed to both CD8+ and CD4+ CAR T cell cytotoxicity but was not required for in vitro or in vivo leukemia clearance. Upon CAR-mediated in vitro activation, perforin-deficient CAR T cells produced higher amounts of proinflammatory cytokines compared with WT CAR T cells. Following in vivo clearance of leukemia, perforin-deficient CAR T cells reexpanded, resulting in splenomegaly with disruption of normal splenic architecture and the presence of hemophagocytes, which are findings reminiscent of HLH. Notably, a substantial fraction of patients who received anti-CD22 CAR T cells also experienced biphasic inflammation, with the second phase occurring after the resolution of cytokine release syndrome, resembling clinical manifestations of HLH. Elevated inflammatory cytokines such as IL-1β and IL-18 and concurrent late CAR T cell expansion characterized the HLH-like syndromes occurring in the murine model and in humans. Thus, a murine model of perforin-deficient CAR T cells recapitulated late-onset inflammatory toxicities occurring in human CAR T cell recipients, providing therapeutically relevant mechanistic insights.
Kazusa Ishii, Marie Pouzolles, Christopher D. Chien, Rebecca A. Erwin-Cohen, M. Eric Kohler, Haiying Qin, Haiyan Lei, Skyler Kuhn, Amanda K. Ombrello, Alina Dulau-Florea, Michael A. Eckhaus, Haneen Shalabi, Bonnie Yates, Daniel A. Lichtenstein, Valérie S. Zimmermann, Taisuke Kondo, Jack F. Shern, Howard A. Young, Naomi Taylor, Nirali N. Shah, Terry J. Fry
Beclin 2 plays a critical role in metabolic regulation and obesity, but its functions in innate immune signaling and cancer development remain largely unknown. Here, we identified Beclin 2 as a critical negative regulator of inflammation and lymphoma development. Mice with homozygous ablation of BCL2-interacting protein 2 (Becn2) developed splenomegaly and lymphadenopathy and markedly increased ERK1/2 and NF-κB signaling for proinflammatory cytokine production. Beclin 2 targeted the key signaling kinases MEKK3 and TAK1 for degradation through an ATG9A-dependent, but ATG16L/Beclin 1/LC3–independent, autophagic pathway. Mechanistically, Beclin 2 recruited MEKK3 or TAK1 through ATG9A to form a complex (Beclin 2-ATG9A-MEKK3) on ATG9A+ vesicles upon ULK1 activation. Beclin 2 further interacted with STX5 and STX6 to promote the fusion of MEKK3- or TAK1-associated ATG9A+ vesicles to phagophores for subsequent degradation. Importantly, Becn2-deficient mice had a markedly increased incidence of lymphoma development, with persistent STAT3 activation. Myeloid-specific ablation of MEKK3 (Map3k3) completely rescued the phenotypes (splenomegaly, higher amounts of proinflammatory cytokines, and cancer incidence) of Becn2-deficient mice. Hence, our findings have identified an important role of Beclin 2 in the negative regulation of innate immune signaling and tumor development through an ATG9A-dependent, but ATG16L/Beclin 1/LC3–independent, autophagic pathway, thus providing a potential target for the treatment of inflammatory diseases and cancer.
Motao Zhu, Guangtong Deng, Peng Tan, Changsheng Xing, Cuiping Guan, Chongming Jiang, Yinlong Zhang, Bo Ning, Chaoran Li, Bingnan Yin, Kaifu Chen, Yuliang Zhao, Helen Y. Wang, Beth Levine, Guangjun Nie, Rong-Fu Wang
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