BACKGROUND. Patients undergoing immune-modifying therapies demonstrate a reduced humoral response after COVID-19 vaccination, but we lack a proper evaluation of the impact of such therapies on vaccine-induced T cell responses. METHODS. We longitudinally characterized humoral and Spike-specific T cell responses in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients who are on antimetabolite therapy (azathioprine or methotrexate), TNF inhibitors and/or other biologic treatment (anti-integrin or anti-p40) for up to 6 months after completing two-dose COVID-19 mRNA vaccination. RESULTS. We demonstrated that a Spike-specific T cell response is not only induced in treated IBD patients at levels similar to healthy individuals, but also sustained at higher magnitude for up to 6 months after vaccination, particularly in those treated with TNF inhibitor therapy. Furthermore, the Spike-specific T cell response in these patients is mainly preserved against mutations present in SARS-CoV-2 B.1.1.529 (Omicron) and characterized by a Th1/IL-10 cytokine profile. CONCLUSION. Despite the humoral response defects, patients under immune-modifying therapies demonstrated a favorable profile of vaccine-induced T cell responses that might still provide a layer of COVID-19 protection. FUNDING. This study was funded by the National Centre for Infectious Diseases NCID Catalyst Grant (FY2021ES) and the National Research Fund Competitive Research Programme (NRF-CRP25-2020-0003). The funders played no role in the design, conduct, or reporting of this study.
Martin Qui, Nina Le Bert, Webber Pak Wo Chan, Malcolm Tan, Shou Kit Hang, Smrithi Hariharaputran, Jean Xiang Ying Sim, Jenny Guek Hong Low, Weiling Ng, Wei Yee Wan, Tiing Leong Ang, Antonio Bertoletti, Ennaliza Salazar
Caffeine is the most consumed psychoactive substance worldwide. Strikingly, molecular pathways engaged by its regular consumption remain unclear. We herein addressed the mechanisms associated with habitual (chronic) caffeine consumption in the mouse hippocampus using untargeted orthogonal-omics techniques. Our results revealed that chronic caffeine exerts concerted pleiotropic effects in the hippocampus, at the epigenomic, proteomic and metabolomic levels. Caffeine lowers metabolic-related processes in the bulk tissue, while it induces neuronal-specific epigenetic changes at synaptic transmission/plasticity-related genes and increased experience-driven transcriptional activity. Altogether, these findings suggest that regular caffeine intake improves the signal-to-noise ratio during information encoding, in part through a fine-tuning of metabolic genes while boosting the salience of information processing during learning in neuronal circuits.
Isabel Paiva, Lucrezia Cellai, Céline Meriaux, Lauranne Poncelet, Ouada Nebie, Jean-Michel Saliou, Anne-Sophie Lacoste, Anthony Papegaey, Hervé Drobecq, Stéphanie Le Gras, Marion Schneider, Enas M. Malik, Christa E. Müller, Emilie Faivre, Kevin Carvalho, Victoria Gomez-Murcia, Didier Vieau, Bryan Thiroux, Sabiha Eddarkaoui, Thibaud Lebouvier, Estelle Schueller, Laura Tzeplaeff, Iris Grgurina, Jonathan Seguin, Jonathan Stauber, Luisa V. Lopes, Luc Buee, Valerie Buée-Scherrer, Rodrigo A. Cunha, Rima Ait-Belkacem, Nicolas Sergeant, Jean-Sébastien Annicotte, Anne-Laurence Boutillier, David Blum
Wnt signaling regulates the balance between stemness and differentiation in multiple tissues and in cancer. RNF43-mutant pancreatic cancers are dependent on Wnt production, and pharmacologic blockade of the pathway, e.g., by PORCN inhibitors, leads to tumor differentiation. However, primary resistance to these inhibitors has been observed. To elucidate potential mechanisms, we performed in vivo CRISPR screens in PORCN inhibitor-sensitive RNF43-mutant pancreatic cancer xenografts. As expected, genes in the Wnt pathway whose loss conferred drug resistance were identified, including APC, AXIN1, and CTNNBIP1. Unexpectedly, the screen also identified the histone acetyltransferase EP300 (p300), but not its paralog CREBBP (CBP). We found that EP300 is silenced due to genetic alterations in all the existing RNF43-mutant pancreatic cancer cell lines that are resistant to PORCN inhibitors. Mechanistically, loss of EP300 directly down-regulated GATA6 expression, thereby silencing the GATA6-regulated differentiation program and leading to a phenotypic transition from the classical subtype to the dedifferentiated basal-like/squamous subtype of pancreatic cancer. EP300 mutation and loss of GATA6 function bypassed the anti-differentiation activity of Wnt signaling, rendering these cancer cells resistant to Wnt inhibition.
Zheng Zhong, Nathan Harmston, Kris C. Wood, Babita Madan, David M. Virshup
Microglia, the parenchymal tissue macrophages in the brain, surround amyloid plaques in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) but are ineffective at clearing amyloid to mitigate disease progression. Recent studies in mice indicate that microglia are exclusively derived from primitive yolk-sac hematopoiesis and self-renew without contribution from ontogenically-distinct monocytes/macrophages of definitive ‘adult’ hematopoietic origin. Using genetic fate-mapping to label cells of definitive hematopoietic-origin throughout the life-span, we discovered that circulating monocytes contribute 6% of plaque-associated macrophages in aged AD mice. Moreover, peripheral monocytes contributed to a higher fraction of macrophages in the choroid plexus, meninges and perivascular spaces of aged AD mice versus wild-type controls, indicating enrichment at potential sites for entry into the brain parenchyma. Splenectomy, which markedly reduced circulating Ly6Chi monocytes, also reduced abundance of plaque-associated macrophages of definitive-hematopoietic origin, resulting in increased amyloid plaque load. Together, these results indicate that peripherally-derived monocytes invade the brain parenchyma, targeting amyloid plaques to reduce plaque load.
Ping Yan, Ki-Wook Kim, Qingli Xiao, Xiucui Ma, Leah R. Czerniewski, Haiyan Liu, David R. Rawnsley, Yan Yan, Gwendalyn J. Randolph, Slava Epelman, Jin-Moo Lee, Abhinav Diwan
Fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva (FOP) is a rare genetic disorder whose most debilitating pathology is progressive and cumulative heterotopic ossification (HO) of skeletal muscles, ligaments, tendons, and fascia. FOP is caused by mutations in the type I BMP receptor gene ACVR1, which enable ACVR1 to utilize its natural antagonist, Activin A, as an agonistic ligand. The physiological relevance of this property is underscored by the fact that HO in FOP is exquisitely dependent on activation of FOP-mutant ACVR1 by Activin A, an effect countered by inhibition of Activin A via monoclonal antibody treatment. Hence, we surmised that ACVR1 antibodies that block activation of ACVR1 by ligand should also inhibit HO in FOP and provide an additional therapeutic option for this condition. Therefore, we generated ACVR1 monoclonal antibodies that block ACVR1’s activation by its ligands. Surprisingly, in vivo, these ACVR1 antibodies stimulate HO and activate signaling of FOP-mutant ACVR1. This property is restricted to FOP-mutant ACVR1 and results from ACVR1 antibody-mediated dimerization of ACVR1. Conversely, wild type ACVR1 is inhibited by ACVR1 antibodies. These results uncover an additional novel property of FOP-mutant ACVR1 and indicate that ACVR1 antibodies should not be considered as therapeutics for FOP.
Senem Aykul, Lily Huang, Lili Wang, Nanditha M. Das, Sandra Reisman, Yonaton Ray, Qian Zhang, Nyanza J. Rothman, Kalyan C. Nannuru, Vishal Kamat, Susannah Brydges, Luca Troncone, Laura Johnsen, Paul B. Yu, Sergio Fazio, John Lees-Shepard, Kevin Schutz, Andrew J. Murphy, Aris N. Economides, Vincent Idone, Sarah J. Hatsell
Antigen-presenting cells (APC) integrate signals emanating from local pathology and program appropriate T cell responses. In allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (alloHCT), recipient conditioning releases Damage-Associated Molecular Patterns (DAMPs) that generate pro-inflammatory APC that secrete IL-12, which is a driver of donor Type 1 T helper (Th1) responses causing graft vs. host disease (GVHD). Nevertheless, other mechanisms exist to initiate alloreactive T cells responses, as recipients with disrupted DAMP signaling or lacking IL-12 develop GVHD. We established that tissue damage signals are perceived directly by donor CD4+ T cells and promoted T cell expansion and differentiation. Specifically, the fibroblastic reticular cell-derived DAMP, IL-33, is increased by recipient conditioning and is critical for the initial activation, proliferation, and differentiation of alloreactive Th1 cells. IL-33-stimulation of CD4+ T cell was not required for lymphopenia-induced expansion, however. IL-33 promoted IL-12-independent expression of Tbet and generation of Th1 cells that infiltrated GVHD target tissues. Mechanistically, IL-33 augmented CD4+ T cell TCR-associated signaling pathways in response to alloantigen. This enhanced T cell expansion and Th1 polarization, but inhibited the expression of regulatory molecules like IL-10 and Foxp3. These data established an unappreciated role for IL-33 as a costimulatory signal for donor Th1 generation after alloHCT.
Gaelen K. Dwyer, Lisa R. Mathews, Jose A. Villegas, Anna Lucas, Anne Gonzalez de Peredo, Bruce R. Blazar, Jean-Philippe Girard, Amanda C. Poholek, Sanjiv A. Luther, Warren Shlomchik, Hēth R. Turnquist
Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell expansion and persistence represent key factors to achieve complete responses and prevent relapses. These features are typical of early memory T cells, which can be highly enriched through optimized manufacturing protocols. Here, we investigated the efficacy and safety profiles of CAR T-cell products generated from pre-selected naive/stem memory T cells (TN/SCM), as compared to unselected T cells (TBULK). Notwithstanding their reduced effector signature in vitro, limiting CAR TN/SCM doses showed superior antitumor activity and the unique ability to counteract leukemia re-challenge in hematopoietic stem/precursor cell-humanized mice, featuring increased expansion rates and persistence, together with an ameliorated exhaustion and memory phenotype. Most relevantly, CAR TN/SCM proved to be intrinsically less prone to induce severe cytokine release syndrome, independently of the costimulatory endodomain employed. This safer profile was associated with milder T-cell activation, which translated in reduced monocyte activation and cytokine release. These data suggest that CAR TN/SCM are endowed with a wider therapeutic index compared to CAR TBULK.
Silvia Arcangeli, Camilla Bove, Claudia Mezzanotte, Barbara Camisa, Laura Falcone, Francesco Manfredi, Eugenia Bezzecchi, Rita El Khoury, Rossana Norata, Francesca Sanvito, Maurilio Ponzoni, Beatrice Greco, Marta Angiola Moresco, Matteo G. Carrabba, Fabio Ciceri, Chiara Bonini, Attilio Bondanza, Monica Casucci
The major therapeutic goal for immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) is to restore normal platelet counts using drugs to promote platelet production or by interfering with mechanisms responsible for platelet destruction. 80% of patients possess anti-integrin αIIbβ3 (GPIIbIIIa) IgG autoantibodies causing platelet opsonization and phagocytosis. The spleen is considered the primary site of autoantibody production by autoreactive B cells and platelet destruction. The immediate failure in ~50% of patients to recover a normal platelet count after anti-CD20 Rituximab-mediated B cell depletion and splenectomy suggest that autoreactive, rituximab-resistant, IgG-secreting B cells (IgG-SC) reside in other anatomical compartments. We analyzed >3,300 single IgG-SC from spleen, bone marrow and/or blood of 27 patients with ITP revealing high inter-individual variability in affinity for GPIIbIIIa with variations over 3 logs. IgG-SC dissemination and range of affinities were however similar per patient. Longitudinal analysis of autoreactive IgG-SC upon treatment with anti-CD38 mAb daratumumab demonstrated variable outcomes, from complete remission to failure with persistence of high-affinity anti-GPIIbIIIa IgG-SC in the bone marrow. This study demonstrates the existence and dissemination of high-affinity autoreactive plasma cells in multiple anatomical compartments of patients with ITP that may cause the failure of current therapies.
Pablo Canales-Herrerias, Etienne Crickx, Matteo Broketa, Aurélien Sokal, Guilhem Chenon, Imane Azzaoui, Alexis Vandenberghe, Angga Perima, Bruno Iannascoli, Odile Richard-Le Goff, Carlos Castrillon, Guillaume Mottet, Delphine Sterlin, Ailsa Robbins, Marc Michel, Patrick England, Gael A. Millot, Klaus Eyer, Jean Baudry, Matthieu Mahevas, Pierre Bruhns
Bone metastases are frequent complications of malignant melanoma leading to reduced quality of life and significant morbidity. Regulation of immune cells by the gut microbiome influences cancer progression, but the role of the microbiome in tumor growth in bone is unknown. Using intracardiac or intratibial injections of B16-F10 melanoma cells in mice we showed that gut microbiome depletion by broad-spectrum antibiotics accelerated intraosseous tumor growth and osteolysis. Microbiome depletion blunted melanoma-induced expansion of intestinal natural killer (NK) cells and T helper 1 (Th1) cells and their migration from the gut to tumor bearing bones. Demonstrating the functional relevance of immune cell trafficking from the gut to the bone marrow (BM) in bone metastasis, blockade of S1P-mediated NK and Th1 cells intestinal egress, or inhibition of their CXCR3/CXCL9-mediated influx into the BM prevented expansion of BM NK and Th1 cells and accelerated tumor growth and osteolysis. Using a mouse model, this study revealed mechanisms of microbiota-mediated gut-bone crosstalk that are relevant to the immunological restraint of melanoma metastasis and tumor growth in bone. Microbiome modifications induced by antibiotics might have negative clinical consequences in melanoma patients.
Subhashis Pal, Daniel S. Perrien, Tetsuya Yumoto, Roberta Faccio, Andreea Stoica, Jonathan Adams, Craig M. Coopersmith, Rheinallt M. Jones, M. Neale Weitzmann, Roberto Pacifici
Patients with high-risk non muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) frequently relapse after standard intravesical BCG therapy and may have a dismal outcome. Resistance mechanisms to such immunotherapy remain misunderstood. Here, using cancer cell lines, freshly resected human bladder tumors and cohorts of bladder cancer patients pre- and post-BCG therapy, we demonstrate two distinct patterns of immune subversion upon BCG relapse. In the first pattern, intracellular BCG infection of cancer cells induced a post-transcriptional downregulation of HLA-I membrane expression via an inhibition of the autophagy flux. Patients with HLA-I deficient cancer cells post-BCG therapy displayed a myeloid immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment with epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) characteristics and dismal outcomes. Conversely, patients with HLA-I proficient cancer cells post-BCG therapy presented with CD8+ T cell tumor infiltrates, upregulation of inflammatory cytokines and inhibitory immune checkpoint molecules. Those patients had a very favorable outcome. We surmise that HLA-I expression in bladder cancers at relapse post-BCG does not result from immunoediting but rather from an immune subversion process directly induced by BCG on cancer cells, which predicts dismal prognosis. Cancer cells HLA-I scoring by immunohistochemistry (IHC) staining can be easily implemented by pathologists in routine practice in order to stratify future urothelial cancer patient treatment strategies.
Mathieu Rouanne, Julien Adam, Camélia Radulescu, Diane Letourneur, Delphine Bredel, Severine Mouraud, Anne-Gaelle Goubet, Marion Leduc, Noah Chen, Tuan Zea Tan, Nicolas Signolle, Amélie E. Bigorgne, Michael Dussiot, Lambros Tselikas, Sandrine Susini, François-Xavier Danlos, Anna K. Schneider, Roman M. Chabanon, Sophie Vacher, Ivan Bièche, Thierry Lebret, Yves Allory, Jean-Charles Soria, Nicholas Arpaia, Guido Kroemer, Oliver Kepp, Jean Paul Thiery, Laurence Zitvogel, Aurélien Marabelle
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