Products secreted by Streptococcus intermedius were studied for their effects on the immune response. Three different preparations of crude extracellular products from S. intermedius (CEP-Si) were found to have powerful suppressor activity in vitro as shown by inhibition of human lymphocyte proliferation (uptake of [3H]thymidine) and protein synthesis in response to a wide variety of stimulants, including mitogens and antigens, and suppression of plaque formation by human cells in response to sheep erythrocytes. CEP-Si was noncytotoxic, because cells incubated with high concentrations of CEP-Si and subsequently washed were viable and recovered their ability to respond to mitogens, and because leukocyte migration was not inhibited by CEP-Si, nor was the release of leukocyte migration inhibitory factor from sensitized lymphocytes. The possibility of antigen or mitogen competition was excluded. The effects of CEP-Si in vitro were time dependent and did not require the presence of monocytes. Cells pretreated with CEP-Si and then washed suppressed plaque formation by fresh autologous cells in highly stimulated cultures. CEP-Si injected into C57BL/6 mice also strongly suppressed their immune response to sheep erythrocytes, and the in vivo suppression was correlated with the effects of CEP-Si in vitro.
M P Arala-Chaves, T B Higerd, M T Porto, J Munoz, J M Goust, H H Fudenberg, C B Loadholt
Human Factor X was isolated from Cohn fraction III and characterized by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, amino acid composition, and isoelectric focusing. Two molecular forms with biological activity were observed at isoelectric points of 4.8 and 5.0. Antisera generated to Factor X was monospecific and used to establish an equilibrium competitive inhibition radioimmunoassay. This assay was specific for human Factor X and did not cross-react with human prothrombin or bovine Factor X within the sensitivity range of 6-300 ng Factor X antigen/ml. The mean concentration of Factor X based on the antigen was 11.9 μg/ml, whereas concentration values based on coagulant activity was 7.8 μg/ml. This 30% difference in measurement appears to result from the presence of a subpopulation of Factor X molecules devoid of coagulant activity. The radioimmunoassay was used to qualitatively and quantitatively compare purified Factor X to plasmic Factor X obtained from normal, warfarintreated, acquired Factor X-deficient, and congenitaldeficient patients. In all but one case, the Factor X present in these plasmas was immunochemically identical to the purified Factor X and permitted precise quantitation of these abnormal Factor X molecules. Factor X procoagulant activity was analyzed relative to Factor X antigen and the specific activities were used to characterize normal and abnormal Factor X molecules. Reduced Factor X activity in plasmas from warfarin-treated and acquired Factor X-deficient patients was attributed to both decreases in Factor X antigen and decreased function of the Factor X molecules. Congenitally deficient patients, in general, showed a reduction in Factor X antigen in parallel with Factor X procoagulant activities resulting from comparable decreases in specific biological activity of the molecules.
Daryl S. Fair, Edward F. Plow, Thomas S. Edgington
The effects of varying temperatures from 25 degrees to 37 degrees C on calcium binding characteristics of sarcoplasmic reticulum from malignant hyperthermia-susceptible (MHS) and control pig muscle were examined. Two groups of MHS pigs were included: those with high susceptibility to malignant hyperthermia (MHS group) and a cross-bred, less susceptible group (MHX). At 25 degrees C, calcium binding was lower for MHS than for controls and MHX. As temperature was increased by 2 degrees C jumps, calcium binding decreased in all sarcoplasmic reticulum fractions. At 35 degrees C a sharp decrease in calcium binding occurred in the MHS and MHX fractions. The sharp decrease in calcium binding at 35 degrees C differentiated the MHS and MHX fractions from controls. The initial velocity (Vi) for calcium binding was lower in MHS fractions between 25 degrees and 35 degrees C when compared with MHX and controls. All fractions had increased Vi values as temperature increased from 25 degrees to 35 degrees C. From 35 degrees to 39 degrees Vi for controls increased markedly. In contrast, Vi for the MHX fraction decreased as temperature exceeded 35 degrees C. These temperature effects on calcium binding characteristics of sarcoplasmic reticulum from MHS and MHX muscle may be indicative of a membrane transition that impairs calcium binding.
T E Nelson, D E Bee
The objectives of these studies were to quantify the amounts of immunoglobulin (Ig)G bound to peripheral blood neutrophils from patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and to determine the contributions of soluble immune complexes or anticell antibodies to the levels of IgG neutrophil-binding activity in SLE sera. Neutrophil-bound IgG, determined by a sensitive antiglobulin inhibition assay, was elevated in 7 out of 14 SLE patients compared with values obtained in 23 normal controls. The levels of IgG neutrophil-binding activity in sera were elevated in 22 of 38 patients with SLE over the values seen with 36 normal sera. No correlation was found between the peripheral blood neutrophil counts in the SLE patients and the values for IgG adherent to the cells or serum cell-binding activity. The sera from 18 patients with SLE were fractionated by gel filtration. Elevated levels of IgG neutrophil-binding activity were found in 11 of the 18 G-200 excluded pools and in 13 of the G-200 IgG pools. In nine sera elevated levels were observed in both pools. F(ab')2 fragments of IgG from SLE sera bound to normal polymorphonuclear leukocytes in greater amounts than F(ab')2 fragments of IgG from normal sera. A significant correlation existed between the values of IgG neutrophil-binding activity found in SLE sera and those obtained with both the G-200 excluded and IgG pools. Sucrose density gradient fractionation of four sera from SLE patients confirmed the presence of both large (greater than 19S) and intermediate-sized (7S-19S) cell-binding immune complexes as well as of monomeric IgG antibodies to neutrophils. The levels of IgG neutrophil-binding activity in the SLE sera correlated well with the results obtained with the Raji cell assay for immune complexes as well as with the titer of antibodies to nuclear antigens. These data indicate that circulating neutrophils from patients with SLE commonly have increased amounts of cell-bound IGG. The elevated levels of IgG neutrophil-binding activity in the sera of these patients are caused by both soluble immune complexes and antibodies reactive with neutrophils.
G Starkebaum, W P Arend
Polymorphonuclear leukocytes may modulate the acute inflammatory response by the secretion of enzymes capable of inactivating mediators of inflammation. The ability of the myeloperoxidase-H2O2-halide system of the neutrophil to inactivate chemoattractants was examined using both a radioassay and a morphologic assay of chemotaxis. Incubation of either a complement-derived agent, C5a, or a synthetic formyl-methionyl peptide chemoattractant with the myeloperoxidase system for 15 min at 37°C resulted in essentially complete loss of chemotactic activity. Inactivation was dependent on enzymatically active myeloperoxidase, H2O2 or a peroxide-generating enzyme system, and a halide cofactor. It was blocked by agents which inhibit peroxidase (azide) or degrade H2O2 (catalase). Inactivation of chemoattractants was time-dependent, reaching maximal levels within 1-5 min, and temperature-dependent with no significant inactivation occurring at 0°C. H2O2 alone had no significant inactivating ability at concentrations as high as 10 mM, whereas in the presence of myeloperoxidase and a halide, 0.1 μM H2O2 showed significant activity and 10 μM H2O2 caused complete inactivation. On a molar basis, the order of effectiveness of the halide cofactors was Br− > I− > Cl−, although only chloride was fully active at physiologic concentrations. Neutrophils stimulated by phagocytosis or by membraneperturbing agents secrete enzymatic constituents, including myeloperoxidase, and metabolic products such as H2O2. Thus, it is suggested that the myeloperoxidase system acting at an extracellular site serves as an inflammatory control mechanism by virtue of its ability to inactivate neutrophil chemoattractants.
Robert A. Clark
To assess potential abnormalities in collagen metabolism in systemic scleroderma, skin fibroblast lines from patients with this disease were established and compared to control cell lines derived from healthy subjects. For studies on the biosynthesis of procollagen, the cells were incubated with [14C]proline in a medium supplemented with ascorbic acid and β-aminopropionitrile, and the synthesis of nondialyzable [14C]hydroxyproline, in relation to DNA or cell protein, was taken as an index of procollagen formation. Five of eight scleroderma fibroblast cell lines demonstrated procollagen biosynthesis rates significantly higher than the controls, and the mean rate of procollagen synthesis by scleroderma fibroblasts was about twice that of the control cells. Control experiments demonstrated that the specific activity of the intracellular free proline was not different in scleroderma and control fibroblasts, and the mean population doubling times of the scleroderma and the control fibroblast cell lines were the same. The relative synthesis of the genetically distinct procollagens was examined by isolating type I and type III procollagens from the cell culture medium using DEAE-cellulose chromatography. The ratios of type I/III procollagens in scleroderma cell lines did not differ from the controls. The helical stability of the collagenous portion of type I and type III procollagens, estimated by the resistance of 14C-collagen to limited proteolytic digestion with pepsin under nondenaturing conditions, was the same in both scleroderma and control cultures. The capacity of the cells to synthesize enzymatically active and immunologically reacting collagenase was also studied; no marked differences in these parameters could be observed. The results suggest that cultured skin fibroblasts from patients with scleroderma demonstrate a metabolic abnormality expressed as increased synthesis of type I and type III procollagens in a normal ratio. This abnormality may play a role in the excessive accumulation of collagen in the skin and other organs affected in scleroderma.
Jouni Uitto, Eugene A. Bauer, Arthur Z. Eisen
Bloodstream infections with staphylococci are accompanied by thromboembolic complications. We have studied the mechanism of the interaction of staphylococci with human blood platelets.
Jack Hawiger, Sylvia Steckley, Dianne Hammond, Charles Cheng, Sheila Timmons, Alan D. Glick, Roger M. Des Prez
Serologic cross-reactivity among allelic gene products commonly occurs in the HLA complex, but the molecular basis of these serologic phenomena is incompletely characterized. Because of strong cross-reactivity among antigens comprising the B7 cross-reactive group (i.e., HLA-B7, Bw22, B27, B40, and Bw42) and because of the association of several antigens of this group with spondyloarthropathies, we initiated a study of the chemical basis of cross-reactivity among this group of antigens. Using classic serologic procedures, 125I-Protein A binding assay, and chemical immunoprecipitation techniques, we have defined a new antigenic determinant, tentatively designated "X", which is present on certain HLA-B molecules. By a series of sequential immunoprecipitation experiments, X was shown to be a "public" antigenic determinant distinct from the "private" determinants B7, Bw22, B27, and B40, but present on the same 44,000-dalton glycoprotein molecules. The implications of this finding regarding disease predisposition and HLA typing as a diagnostic aid are discussed.
B D Schwartz, L K Luehrman, G E Rodey
Three lysosomal glycosidases, β-glucuronidase (EC 188.8.131.52), β-galactosidase (EC 184.108.40.206), and N-acetyl-β-glucosaminidase (EC 220.127.116.11) have been investigated in bile that was freshly collected from rats through a complete bile fistula. Assay conditions have been established on the basis of appropriate kinetic studies. The biliary excretion patterns for these enzymes were found to vary considerably from rat to rat during the 24-h collection period. In a given animal, however, the three hydrolases were excreted in parallel and showed a gradual increase in activity with time, most marked after 10- 12 h of collection. 24-h biliary outputs of the three hydrolases averaged ≅3% of their respective contents in total liver, and bile diversion had no effect on hepatic glycosidase activity or total protein content. Other enzymes known to be associated primarily with mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum, and cell sap were also detected in bile, generally in smaller amounts. The biliary excretion of the plasma membrane markers, alkaline phosphodiesterase I and 5′-nucleotidase, however, was comparable to that of the lysosomal hydrolases. Biliary excretion of total protein was relatively constant and corresponded to 3.0% of the total hepatic protein content per day, whereas biliary bile acid secretion decreased during the first 12 h and then remained constant. Exocytic bulk discharge of hepatocyte lysosomes is proposed as the most likely mechanism for the biliary excretion of lysosomal enzymes. These results call attention to the possible pathophysiologic significance of biliary excretion of hepatic lysosomal contents as a means of residue disposal.
Nicholas F. Larusso, Stanley Fowler
The major renal adaptive changes in response to selective dietary phosphate restriction are a marked reduction in urinary excretion of phosphate and an increased urinary excretion of calcium; at the cellular level, there is selective increase in renal cortical brush border membrane phosphate uptake and increase in specific activity of alkaline phosphatase. In the present study we examined whether these functional and biochemical adaptive changes could be blocked by drugs known to inhibit protein synthesis.
Sudhir V. Shah, Stephen A. Kempson, Thomas E. Northrup, Thomas P. Dousa
Clearer definition of the recognitive structures of human T lymphocytes for antigens will be required to elucidate the molecular basis of diseases and immunological responses induced or regulated by normal or abnormal T-cell function. For this purpose we have investigated the cellular requirements for immune responses in vitro to trinitrophenyl-conjugated peripheral blood mononuclear cells. The responding cell was characterized as a T cell on the basis of rosetting with sheep erythrocytes. T-cell recognition of hapten in proliferative responses depended upon presentation of antigen in an appropriate stimulator-cell context. Neither autologous hapten-modified erythrocytes nor T cells restimulated responses of in vitro-primed lymphocytes. Moreover, hapten-conjugated non-T cells were more effective than modified unfractionated cells in restimulating proliferative responses. Both macrophages and non-T lymphocytes effectively restimulated hapten-conjugate responses.
Michael F. Seldin, Robert R. Rich, Stuart L. Abramson
To study the metabolic fate of chylomicron phospholipid and apoproteins, 15 mg of doubly labeled ([3H]leu, [32P]phospholipid) rat mesenteric lymph chylomicrons were injected as an intravenous bolus into conscious rats. The specific radioactivity, composition, pool size, and morphology of the plasma lipoproteins were determined after 2-60 min. After injection of chylomicrons, there was a rapid transfer of radioactivity into high density lipoproteins (HDL). At peak specific activity in HDL (2-5 min), 35% of injected apoprotein and 25% of phospholipid radioactivity were recovered in HDL (d 1.063-1.21 g/ml), with smaller recoveries in other lipoproteins and liver. There was an initial rapid rise of 32P specific activity in HDL and d 1.02-1.063 lipoproteins (low density lipoproteins [LDL]), but whereas LDL specific activity subsequently converged with that of d < 1.02 lipoproteins, HDL specific activity decayed more rapidly than LDL or d < 1.02 lipoproteins.
Alan R. Tall, Peter H. R. Green, Robert M. Glickman, John W. Riley
Newborns are unable to produce normal amounts of immunoglobulin despite the presence of circulating lymphocytes with surface immunoglobin (Ig). This study was designed to examine the cellular basis of such impaired Ig synthesis in the newborn infant. An in vitro assay for IgG and IgM synthesis was employed which measured the Ig present in the supernates of pokeweed mitogen-stimulated cord blood and/or adult peripheral mononuclear cells (MNC). Results were as follows: (a) the addition of cord blood MNC to adult MNC suppressed both normal IgG and IgM production; (b) addition of a suspension of adult thymus-derived (T) cells to cord bone marrow-derived (B) cells did not enhance the production of Ig; (c) the addition of cord T cells to adult B cells did not enhance normal Ig production but did significantly depress IgM and IgG synthesis; and (d) irradiation of cord T cells with 2,000 rads removed the suppressive effect of cord T cells on adult MNC. A similar reversal of the suppressive effect exerted by cord MNC was also seen in the presence of 10 microM of hydrocortisone. It appears that the inability of newborn infants to make normal amounts of Ig is a result of a combined B-cell defect and the presence of a steroid-sensitive and radiosensitive suppressor cord T cell.
T Morito, A D Bankhurst, R C Williams Jr
The ability of highly purified human leukocytic pyrogen (LP) to stimulate neutrophil oxygen-dependent metabolism was studied. Human peripheral blood neutrophils exposed to leukocytic pyrogen in vitro demonstrated an increase in the percentage of neutrophils reducing nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT) dye and a marked stimulation of superoxide dismutase inhibitable reduction of ferricytochrome c. LP stimulation of neutrophil oxygen-dependent metabolism was dose and time dependent. Procedures that destroyed the pyrogenicity of LP also abolished the effects on neutrophil metabolism. Neutrophil hexose monophosphate shunt activity was also stimulated by LP. In a rabbit model, the effect of in vivo LP on neutrophil superoxide generation was also studied. There was a consistent increase in the percent and absolute number of NBT positive neutrophils. Peak stimulation of neutrophil metabolism occurred after defervescence suggesting several possible mechanisms. The observations reported here may, in part, explain the nonspecificity of the NBT test in febrile, noninfected patients and provide further understanding of neutrophil physiology during acute inflammation.
M S Klempner, C A Dinarello, W R Henderson, J I Gallin
Previous studies have suggested that dihydrotestosterone accumulation in the prostate may be involved in the pathogenesis of prostatic hyperplasia in man and dog. However, the fact that the administration of 10 mg dihydrotestosterone/d to castrated, mongrel dogs (0.5 mg/kg body wt) causes little growth in the prostate, whereas identical doses of 3α- androstanediol regularly induce prostatic hyperplasia (> 14 g weight) has raised the possibility that the dihydrotestosterone accumulation may be the result rather than the cause of the pathology. To investigate the mechanism of this phenomenon, we measured the levels of dihydrotestosterone and 3α-androstanediol in prostates from 75 dogs. In both naturally occurring and 3α-androstanediol-induced prostatic hyperplasia, the levels of dihydrotestosterone were high (>5 ng/g), whereas in immature glands and glands from dihydrotestosterone-treated animals, levels were similar (2.1 and 2.6 ng/g, respectively). 3α-Androstanediol levels were no different in animals treated with dihydrotestosterone or 3α-androstanediol.
Ronald J. Moore, John M. Gazak, James F. Quebbeman, Jean D. Wilson
Insulin binding to monocytes was examined in trained athletes (long distance runners) and in sedentary control subjects in the resting state and after 3 h of exercise at 40% of maximal aerobic power. At rest, specific binding of 125-I-insulin to monocytes was 69% higher in athletes than in sedentary controls and correlated with maximal aerobic power. The increase in insulin binding was primarily due to an increase in binding capacity. During acute exercise, insulin binding fell by 31% in athletes but rose by 35% in controls. The athletes had a smaller decline in plasma glucose and a lower respiratory exchange ratio during exercise than did controls. We conclude that physical training increases insulin binding to monocytes in the resting state but results in a fall in insulin binding during acute exercise. Changes in insulin binding in athletes thus may account for augmented insulin sensitivity at rest as well as a greater shift from carbohydrate to fat usage during exercise than is observed in untrained controls.
V A Koivisto, V Soman, P Conrad, R Hendler, E Nadel, P Felig
The liver has been shown to remove parathyroid hormone (PTH) from its arterial circulation by a mechanism that is selective for the intact form of the peptide (PTH 1-84). The present studies demonstrate that PTH has biologic effects on the liver in vivo. Bovine PTH 1-84 stimulated hepatic glucose release in dogs with indwelling hepatic vein catheters from basal values of 31±8 to 68±9 mg/min per kg after bolus injections of PTH. The effect on hepatic glucose release was apparent by 5 min and persisted for the 80 min of observation. The NH2-terminal PTH fragment (syn b-PTH 1-34) had no effect. Bovine PTH 1-84 administered in doses designed to produce circulating levels of immunoreactive PTH similar to the endogenous levels observed in uremic dogs also increased the incorporation of 14C from infused [14C]alanine into glucose, and increased estimated hepatic uptake of both chemical and [14C]alanine, while increasing hepatic glucose release. Thus, administration of “physiologic levels” of b-PTH 1-84 stimulated hepatic glucose release in part through increased gluconeogenesis in vivo, whereas syn b-PTH 1-34 had no demonstrable effect. Circulating levels of insulin rose after PTH administration, an increase which presumably represents a secondary response to the rise in glucose release.
Keith A. Hruska, Joan Blondin, Raymond Bass, Julio Santiago, Lorraine Thomas, Paul Altsheler, Kevin Martin, Saulo Klahr
The rarity of hemoglobin (Hb) H disease in combination with sickle trait may be due in part to the absence of actual Hb H in individuals who, nonetheless, have inherited the deletion of three α-globin genes. We describe here a boy with persistent microcytic, hypochromic anemia despite adequate iron stores, who exhibited splenomegaly with a normal reticulocyte count and only rare inclusions in circulating erythrocytes. Starch gel electrophoresis and isoelectric focusing at age 5 yr showed 21% Hb S, persistent Hb Bart's, but no Hb H. Recticulocyte α/non-α globin chain synthesis ratio was 0.58 at age 5. The mother (Asian) had laboratory evidence of α-thalassemia trait and the father (Black) had sickle trait. The nature of α-thalassemia in this patient was investigated both by liquid hybridization and by the Southern method of gene mapping, in which DNA is digested with restriction endonucleases and the DNA fragments that contained the α-globin structural gene identified by hybridization with complementary DNA. The patient had only one α-globin structural gene, located in a DNA fragment shorter than that found in normal or α-thalassemia trait individuals, but similar to that present in other patients with Hb H disease. Morphologic studies of bone marrow by light and electron microscopy revealed erythroid hyperplasia with inclusions in polychromatic and orthochromatic erythroblasts, suggesting early precipitation of an unstable hemoglobin. The lack of demonstrable Hb H may be the result of both diminished amounts of βA available for Hb H formation (since one β-globin gene is βS) and the greater affinity of α-chains for βA than βS-globin chains leading to the formation of relatively more Hb A than Hb S. The presence of a βS gene may thus modify the usual clinical expression of Hb H disease.
Katherine K. Matthay, William C. Mentzer Jr., Andree M. Dozy, Yuet Wai Kan, Dorothy F. Bainton
As a renal function declines in patients and experimental animals with chronic renal disease, potassium homeostasis is maintained by a progressive increase in potassium secretion by the surviving nephrons, a phenomenon known as potassium adaptation. To determine the nephron site and the underlying mechanisms responsible for this phenomenon, studies were performed on normal and 75% nephrectomized rabbits maintained on normal or high-potassium diets. Cortical collecting tubules (CCT) were dissected from the normal and remnant kidneys and perfused in vitro in an artificial solution. In normal CCT mean (+/- SE) net K secretion, JK, (peq/cm per s) was 1.26 +/- 0.43 (normal diet) and 3.27 +/- 0.66 (high-K diet). In uremic CCT, JK was 3.55 +/- 0.60 (normal diet) and 6.83 +/- 0.58 (high-K diet). By reducing the dietary intake of potassium in proportion to the reduction of renal mass in these uremic animals, the adaptation in K secretion was prevented (JK: 1.22 +/- 0.40). Transepithelial potential difference was similar in CCT from normal and uremic animals on a normal diet despite the fact that JK was significantly greater in the latter group. However, in both normal and uremic CCT, the increase in JK caused by potassium loading was associated with an increase in luminal negativity. Uremic CCT underwent significant compensatory hypertrophy regardless of the dietary intake or potassium secretory rates. Plasma aldosterone levels were elevated only in the uremic-high potassium rabbits suggesting that a mineralocorticoid effect on the CCT may be exaggerated when potassium loading is superimposed upon decreased excretory capacity. The activity of Na-K ATPase was comparable in normal and uremic CCT from rabbits on either normal or high-K diets indicating that potassium adaptation may occur independently of changes in the activity of this enzyme. Intracellular potassium content measured chemically and by 42K exchange, was not significantly altered in either normal or uremic CCT when dietary potassium intake was increased, despite the fact the JK was increased under these circumstances. These data indicate that the CCT is an important site of potassium adaptation in the surviving nephrons of animals with reduced renal mass. This adaptation is an intrinsic property of the CCT and is expressed in the absence of a uremic milieu. Potassium adaptation by the uremic CCT is not fixed according to the degree of compensatory hypertrophy but varies according to the excretory requirements of the animal. Transepithelial potential difference and circulating aldosterone levels contribute to the adaptation but neither factor can entirely account for the phenomenon. Potassium adaptation by the CCT occurs in the absence of changes in Na-K ATPase activity and intracellular potassium content.
L G Fine, N Yanagawa, R G Schultze, M Tuck, W Trizna
Secretion of intrinsic factor (IF) has previously been demonstrated in isolated rabbit fundic mucosa maintained in organ culture. We have now investigated the possibility that cyclic nucleotides may play a role in IF secretion. A phosphodiesterase inhibitor, 3-isobutyl methylxanthine (IBMX), stimulated IF secretion nearly fourfold while increasing tissue levels of both cyclic AMP (cAMP) and cyclic GMP (cGMP). Peak IF secretion in response to IBMX was not reached until after tissue cAMP levels were maximal. Dibutyryl cAMP and 8-Br-cAMP increased secretion by the same order of magnitude as did IBMX, whereas corresponding analogues of cGMP had no such effect. Histamine increased secretion of IF. In the presence of 40 microM IBMX, histamine elevated tissue levels of cAMP, but not of cGMP, and the stimulating effect of 10 microM histamine on IF secretion was potentiated. An H2 receptor antagonist, cimetidine, blocked the increases in IF secretion and tissue cAMP levels due to histamine, and the increase in IF secretion due to IBMX. These observations are consistent with a role for cAMP in the secretion of IF by isolated gastric mucosa.
C R Kapadia, D E Schafer, R M Donaldson Jr, E R Ebersole
We have examined the mechanisms of abnormal gas exchange in seven patients with chronic obliteration of the pulmonary vascular bed secondary to recurrent pulmonary emboli or idiopathic pulmonary hypertension. All of the patients had a widened alveolar-arterial oxygen gradient and four were significantly hypoxemic with arterial partial presssures of oxygen less than 80 torr. Using the technique of multiple inert gas elimination, we found that ventilation-perfusion (VA/Q) relationships were only minimally abnormal with a mean of 10% (range, 2--19%) of cardiac output perfusing abnormal units. These units consisted of shunt and units with VA/Q ratios less than 0.1. In addition, the dead space was found to be normal in each patient. There was no evidence for diffusion impairment, and the widened alveolar-arterial oxygen gradient was completely explained by VA/ inequality. Significant hypoxemia occurred only when VA/Q inequality was combined with a low mixed venous oxygen content.
D R Dantzker, J S Bower
Factor VII can be activated, to a molecule giving shorter clotting times with tissue factor, by incubating plasma with kaolin or by clotting plasma. The mechanisms of activation differ. With kaolin, activated Factor XII (XIIa) was the apparent principal activator. Thus, Factor VII was not activated in Factor XII-deficient plasma, was partially activated in prekallikrein and high-molecular weight kininogen (HMW kininogen)-deficient plasmas, but was activated in other deficient plasmas. After clotting, activated Factor IX (IXa) was the apparent principal activator. Thus, Factor VII was not activated in Factor XII-,HMW kininogen-, XI-, and IX-deficient plasmas, but was activated in Factor VIII-, X-, and V-deficient plasmas. In further studies, purified small-fragment Factor XIIa (β-XIIa), kallikrein, and Factor IXa were added to partially purified Factor VII and to plasma. High concentrations of β-XIIa activated Factor VII in a purified system; much lower concentrations of β-XIIa activated Factor VII in normal plasma but not in prekallikrein or HWM kininogen-deficient plasmas. Kallikrein alone failed to activate partially purified Factor VII but did so when purified Factor IX was added. Kallikrein also activated Factor VII in normal, Factor XII-, and Factor IX-deficient plasmas. Purified Factor IXa activated partially purified Factor VII and had no additional indirect activating effect in the presence of plasma. These results demonstrate that both Factor XIIa and Factor IXa directly activate human Factor VII, whereas kallikrein, through generation of Factor XIIa and Factor IXa, functions as an indirect activator of Factor VII.
Uri Seligsohn, Bjarne Østerud, Stephen F. Brown, John H. Griffin, Samuel I. Rapaport
The development of a species specific radioimmunoassay for rabbit luteinizing hormone (LH) has permitted the direct demonstration of LH feedback control of LH secretion (short-loop feedback control). In previous studies we showed that small bolus injections of human LH (hLH) intravenously administered to castrate female rabbits suppressed rabbit LH for 20-30 min. Human LH had no effect on rabbit follicle-stimulating hormone secretion. This control system was responsive to amounts of hLH estimated to be present in blood of eugonadal men and women. These studies were designed to determine whether this feedback control was exerted at a pituitary or hypothalamic level. Two groups of studies were carried out: (a) in vivo studies: Rabbit LH was quantified in the blood of castrated female New Zealand White rabbits receiving either constant hLH perfusion (2.75 IU/min) or saline perfusion, plus a bolus injection of 0.5, 6, or 20 μg of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH). Human LH decreased the response to 6 and 20 μg of GnRH by 31 and 36%, respectively, and abolished the response to 0.5 μg, GnRH. (b) in vitro studies: Rabbit pituitary slices were incubated in the presence of medium alone, medium plus hLH (25 mIU/ml), medium plus GnRH (20 μg/ml), and medium plus both GnRH and hLH. hLH decreased basal rabbit LH release into the medium and abolished GnRH-stimulated rabbit LH release. hLH had no effect on rabbit follicle-stimulating hormone release. From these results we conclude that a direct and specific feedback control of LH on LH exists at a pituitary level.
Nilsa Patritti-Laborde, Ada R. Wolfsen, David Heber, William D. Odell
The testicular luteinizing hormone (LH) receptors of the rhesus monkey and human have many features in common, including high equilibrium association constant, marked species specificity, and relatively low binding capacity. We have, therefore, used rhesus monkeys as models for human LH-receptor regulation in vivo during gonadotropin treatment. In four adult male monkeys, treated with 10,000 IU human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), serum and testicular steroidogenic responses were monitored at 24-h intervals during the following 4 d, and LH-receptor concentrations were measured by 125I-hCG binding to 15,000-g particles prepared from testis biopsy specimens. In treated animals, serum hCG was maximal on day 1 at 322±16 ng/ml and declined to 24.4±2.3 ng/ml by day 4. Serum testosterone was increased threefold during the subsequent 4 d (from 6.5±2.0 to 18.6±4.4 ng/ml) but serum progesterone remained unchanged. In contrast, serum 17α-hydroxyprogesterone increased 12-fold to 5.5±0.5 ng/ml at day 1 and was increased fourfold during the subsequent 3 d. The LH-receptor binding capacity of the primate testis was reduced by 18.3±6.0% on day 1, 51.7±7.4% on day 2, and 45.3±2.4% on day 4. Occupancy of the LH receptors by endogenously bound hCG was significant on day 1 but was negligible by day 4. These data demonstrate that gonadotropin-induced LH-receptor depletion occurs in the rhesus testis and indicate that primate gonadotropin receptors are susceptible to the regulatory processes recently described in the rat. In addition, the simultaneous and disproportionate accumulation of 17α-hydroxyprogesterone indicates that 17,20-desmolase was rate-limiting under these conditions in the primate testis Leydig cell.
Terry F. Davies, Gary D. Hodgen, Maria L. Dufau, Kevin J. Catt
Characterization of the temporal evolution of resting segmental function and inotropic reserve after coronary occlusion may be important in evaluating attempts to salvage ischemic but non-necrotic myocardium. Accordingly, we chronically implanted up to six pairs of pulse-transit piezoelectric crystals in the left ventricular myocardium of dogs to measure segmental wall thickness. Segments were separated into groups according to the loss of net systolic thickening (NET) at 5 min postocclusion of the left anterior descending coronary artery in awake, unsedated dogs. Group 1 included segments with NET values of 67--100+ (percent control); group 2 between 67 and 0; and group 3 less than 0 (paradoxical motion). 5 min after coronary occlusion, group 1 NET was 92 +/- 5% (SEM) although significant decreases occurred in NET in group 2 (36 +/- 4%) and group 3 segments (-33 +/- 5%). Between 5 min and 24 h after coronary occlusion, no further significant changes occurred in NET in groups 1, 2, and 3 crystals. Some segments underwent further functional deterioration between 24 h and 1 wk after left anterior descending coronary artery occlusion, although no overall change occurred in segments with mild to moderate ischemic dysfunction. Segments with NET less than 0 at 24 h, on the other hand, exhibited a reduction in aneurysmal bulging between 24 h and 1 wk from -41 +/- 10 to -23 +/- 11% (n = 12, P = 0.02). Inotropic reserve was assessed with postextrasystolic potentiation (PESP) in 14 dogs, and with infusions of dopamine (11 dogs), and isoproterenol (13 dogs). PESP was the most potent intervention and produced a significant augmentation in NET in group 2 crystals at 1, 2, 4, 6,8, and 24 h after coronary occlusion but only at 1 and 2 h in NET in group 3 crystals. Thus, following experimental coronary occlusion, the evolution of ischemic segmental dysfunction is dynamic and variable. A significant degree of inotropic reserve, as assessed by PESP, dopamine, and isoproterenol, exists in segments with moderate ischemic dysfunction for 24 h but for only 2 h after coronary occlusion in those segments with the most severe ischemic dysfunction. In addition, at least some segmental sites with mild to moderate ischemic dysfunction at 24 h deteriorate further between 24 h and 1 wk after experimental coronary occlusion.
P Roan, F Scales, S Saffer, L M Buja, J T Willerson
An increase in folate catabolism has been suggested as the cause of the folate deficiency observed in many clinical conditions, including chronic anticonvulsant therapy. Previous studies have shown that the radioactive catabolites, excreted after an equilibration period of 3 d, consisted exclusively of folates that had been cleaved to produce pteridines and p-aminobenzoylglutamate, most of which was excreted as acetamidobenzoylglutamate. We have developed an experimental animal model using mice to determine the rate of catabolism of [3H]pteroylglutamate (folic acid) by the quantitative estimation of [3H]p-aminobenzoylglutamate and [3H]acetamidobenzoylglutamate in urine. Administration of diphenylhydantoin at three different doses (0.5, 20, and 50 mg/kg) significantly increased the rate of catabolism as measured by an increase in both the mean daily excretion and the cumulative excretion of these catabolites. Administration of intramuscular phenobarbitone on the other hand, did not affect the rate of catabolism, when compared with controls.
D Kelly, D Weir, B Reed, J Scott
To identify the site of stimulation of sucrase by a sucrose diet, changes in sucrase-specific activity of jejunal mucosa were studied after introduction of sucrose diet to carbohydrate-deprived rats. Results were correlated with simultaneous changes in villus gradients of sucrase-specific activity. Simultaneous with the introduction of sucrose diet, [3H]thymidine (100 μCi) was administered intravenously, and rates of cell migration measured during adaptation to the new diet. After a 72-h fast, rats fed sucrose diet for 6, 12, or 18 h showed no change in sucrase-specific activity in either whole mucosa or villus gradients. However, within 18-24 h after starting a sucrose diet, there was a marked rise in whole mucosal sucrase-specific activity above fasting values (99 ± 14 vs. 38 ± 4 μM glucose/min per g protein, P < 0.001) in association with the development of a region of increased activity at the lower villus (154 ± 22 vs. 60 ± 9 μM glucose/min per g protein, P < 0.02, but with no change in villus tip activity (56 ± 5 vs. 46 ± 8 μM glucose/min per g protein). Similar changes were seen in animals fed 24 h of sucrose diet after a 72-h carbohydratefree diet. Fasted animals fed sucrose diet for 36 h had increased sucrase-specific activity at the villus tip (144 ± 11 μM glucose/min per g protein) as well as at the lower villus region, and this pattern persisted at 1 wk of sucrose diet. Maximal activity patterns for isomaltase and maltase paralleled those for sucrase, but the villus gradients for lactase were unaffected by sucrose diet. The region of maximal sucrase-specific activity always coincided with or followed the leading edge of radioactivity as determined by liquid scintillation counting. Therefore, sucrose-mediated changes in sucrase activity of the jejunal mucosa in the rat appear to be initiated at the level of the crypt epithelial cell and are expressed after a latent period of 18-24 h during which these cells mature and migrate toward the villus tip.
Martin H. Ulshen, Richard J. Grand
Chlorozotocin is a chloroethyl nitrosourea with a glucose carrier that has curative activity for the murine L1210 leukemia, but is nonmyelosuppressive in mice. To determine the mechanism for this unique property of reduced bone marrow toxicity, comparative studies were conducted with chlorozotocin and CCNU, a myelotoxic chloroethyl nitrosourea.
Lawrence C. Panasci, Dianna Green, Philip S. Schein
Anticonvulsant therapy of seizure disorders in man is associated with the development of complications involving bone and mineral metabolism including hypocalcemia, elevated serum immunoreactive parathyroid hormone levels, and increased amounts of unmineralized bone or osteoid. The latter has been attributed to a reduction in serum-25-hydroxycholecalciferol levels resulting from increased hepatic metabolism of vitamin D. Using an in vitro recycling hepatic perfusion system, we have demonstrated that 5 d of phenobarbital treatment increases the hepatic production of [3H]25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (4.3±0.3 vs. 3.3±0.2%/h, P <0.025) without affecting the biliary excretion of radioactivity. Furthermore, rachitic livers perfused with blood obtained from animals treated with phenobarbital for 5 d also manifested an increase in [3H]25-hydroxyvitamin D3 production (4.6±0.5 vs. 3.3±0.2%/h, P < 0.02). Addition of phenobarbital or its major metabolite, p-hydroxyphenobarbital, directly to the perfusion apparatus had no effect on [3H]25-hydroxyvitamin D3 production. Phenobarbital treatment was also attended by a decrease in the intrahepatic content of [3H]vitamin D3 (11.7±0.4 vs. 17.5±0.7 dpm/mg liver protein, P < 0.001) without alterations in the content of [3H]25-hydroxyvitamin D3. The data collectively suggest that the increased hepatic conversion of [3H]vitamin D3 to [3H]25-hydroxyvitamin D3 attending phenobarbital treatment is secondary to stimulation of the hepatic 25-hydroxylation system(s) by a metabolite of phenobarbital other than p-hydroxyphenobarbital and/or by metabolic alterations resulting from phenobarbital therapy.
Daniel T. Baran, Aurora C. Fausto, Marilyn L. Roberts, Irene Karl, Louis V. Avioli
A nonspecific opsonin function has been ascribed to human alpha 2 HS glycoprotein. Its serum level has been shown to be decreased in trauma patients. Recent studies from this laboratory revealed a heterogeneity among the products obtained in the course of the preparation of the protein. To date, no definitive agreement existed with regard to a molecular homogeneous entity of alpha 2 HS glycoprotein (Ba-alpha 2 glycoproteins). The purpose of the current work was to study the variations in serum level of alpha 2 HS in patients suffering from an acute inflammatory process of bacterial etiology and to determine whether a decrease in alpha 2 HS was accompanied by the appearance of fragments of this protein in the serum. A method of preparing alpha 2 HS was thus developed, using an immune absorbent as a final purification step. In an intermediary step of the preparation, alpha 2 HS was found to bind zinc when metal chelate affinity chromatography was employed. Immunologically and physico-chemically pure alpha 2 HS was obtained. The protein consists of a unique polypeptide chain of about 50,000 daltons and has a unique amino-terminal residue, alanine. However, the protein maintained its molecular integrity with difficulty, and spontaneous fragments ranging from 30,000 to less than 10,000 daltons were produced in some of the preparations. No major modification in the molecular structure of the protein was noted in the sera of subjects suffering from an acute inflammatory process. Serum level of alpha 2 HS and alpha 1 antitrypsin (AT)was determined in 23 patients. When the acute-phase (AP-)reactant alpha 1 AT was increased (difference with normal mean greater than +2 or +3 SD), the sera showed a large decrease in alpha 2 HS (difference with normal mean less than -2 or -3 SD). The serum level of alpha 2 HS, albumin, alpha 2 macroglobulin, and of positive AP-reactants, orosomucoidinal study of seven patients. The results were submitted to a principal components analysis. Alpha 2 HS showed a negative correlation with the AP-reactants alpha 1 AT, orosomucoid, and haptoglobin (P less than 0.05) and a positive correlation with albumin (P less than 0.05); these findings indicate that alpha 2 HS is a negative AP-reactant. In addition, analysis of the principal components confirms thestrong analogy between alpha 2 HS and albumin and indicates that serum level behavior of the AP-reactants during the course of the disease closely depends on the protein studied.
J P Lebreton, F Joisel, J P Raoult, B Lannuzel, J P Rogez, G Humbert
Inherited deficiency of the purine salvage enzyme adenosine deaminase (ADA) gives rise to a syndrome of severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID). We have studied a 2.5-yr-old immunologically normal child who had been found to lack ADA in his erythrocytes during New York State screening of normal newborns. His erythrocytes were not detectably less deficient in ADA than erythrocytes of ADA−-SCID patients. In contrast, his lymphocytes and cultured long-term lymphoid cells contained appreciably greater ADA activity than those from patients with ADA−-SCID. This residual ADA activity had a normal molecular weight and Km but was markedly unstable at 56°C. His residual erythrocytes-ADA activity also appeared to have diminished stability in vivo. ADA activity in lymphoid line cells of a previously reported erythrocyte-ADA-deficient!Kung tribesman was found to contain 50% of normal activity and to exhibit diminished stability at 56°C. ATP content of erythrocytes from both partially ADA-deficient individuals was detectably greater than normal (12.3 and 6.1 vs. normal of 2.6 nmol/ml packed erythrocytes). However, the dATP content was insignificant compared to that found in erythrocytes of ADA−-SCID patients (400-1,000 nmol/ml packed erythrocytes). The New York patient, in contrast to normals, excreted detectable amounts of deoxyadenosine, but this was <2% of deoxyadenosine excreted by ADA−-SCID patients. Thus, the residual enzyme in cells other than erythrocytes appears to be sufficient to almost totally prevent accumulation of toxic metabolites.
Rochelle Hirschhorn, Vivien Roegner, Trefor Jenkins, Carol Seaman, Sergio Piomelli, William Borkowsky