Bloom's syndrome is a rare autosmal recessive disorder, first characterized by growth retardation and asum-sensitive facial telangiectasia and more recently demonstarted to have increased chromosome instability, a predisposition to malignancy, and increased susecptibitily to infection. The present report ocncern the immune function of Bloom's syndrom lymphoctes in vitro. Four affected homozgotes and five heterozygotes were studied. An abnormal serum concentartion of at least one class of immunoglobin was present in three out of four homozgotes. Affected homozgotes were shown capable of both a humoral and cellular response after antigenic challenge, the responses in general being weak but detectable. Blood lymphocytes from Bloom's syndrome individuals were cultured in impaired proliferavite response and synthesized less immunoglobulin at the end of 5 days than did normal controls. In contrast, they had a normal proliferative response to phytohemagglutinin except at highest concentrations of the mitogen. In the mixed lymphocte culture, Bloom's syndrome lymphocytes proved to be poor responder cells but normal stimulator cells. Lmyphoctes from the heterozgotes produced normal responses in these three systems. Distrubed immunity appears to be on of several major consequences of homozygosity for the Bloom's syndrome gene. Although the explanation for this pleiotropism is at present obscure, the idea was advanced that the aberrant immune function is, along with the major clincial feature-small body size, amanifestation of defect in cellular proliferation.
T H Hütteroth, S D Litwin, J German
The mechanism of endocytosis in resealed human erythrocyte ghosts was studied. The energy for endocytosis or micropinocytosis appears to be derived from Mg-ATP, and membrane internalization is preceded by activation of a membrane-associated Ca,Mg-ATPase and by the active efflux of Ca. Endocytosis, Ca,Mg-ATPase activity, and active Ca efflux all require the presence of Mg. Furthermore, these three phenomena, endocytosis, Ca,Mg-ATPase activity, and active Ca extrusion, all have a concentration dependence on Ca such that low concentrations stimulate and higher concentrations inhibit the phenomena. The optimal concentration of Ca is identical for endocytosis, active Ca efflux, and Ca,Mg-ATPase. Morphologic studies indicated that while active Ca efflux and activation of the Ca,Mg-ATPase activity occurred promptly upon onset of incubation, there was a significant time delay before endocytosis occurred, which suggests that endocytosis additionally involved a more slowly functioning mechanicochemical mechanism. Ruthenium red, a specific inhibitor of Ca,Mg-ATPase and Ca transport, inhibited endocytosis in a concentration-related manner. Prostaglandins E1 and E2 had no measurable effect on ghost endocytosis, active Ca efflux, or Ca,Mg-ATPase activity.
S L Schriei, K G Bensch, M Johnson, I Junga
Weak solutions of CHOH alter tissue properties, probably by forming intermolecular cross-linkages. The maximum length (Lmax) to which alveolar wall can be extended is reduced. If exposed to CHOH while extended, the resting length (LO) of alveolar wall increases. Maximum extensibility (Lambdamax equal to Lmax/LO) decreases. Similar changes are found in the alveolar wall of man with aging and are significantly more marked in patients with irreversible obstructive pulmonary syndromes. A reduction in the energy loss of the length-tension cycle (hysteresis) was seen after exposure to CHOH, however, that does not occur with age or in obstructive syndromes. Because an exposure of alveolar wall to elastase increases LO and hysteresis, we used a staged exposure to CHOH followed by elastase. Tissue suitably prepared by exposure to CHOH followed by elastolysis better simulates the tissue changes of age and irreversible obstructive syndromes.
T Sugihara, C J Martin
An alternative fibrinolytic system, active at physiological pH, is present in peripheral blood leukocytes. The fibrinolytic proteases localized predominantly in the leukocyte granules are capable of degrading both fibrinogen and fibrin, and plasmin activity does not contribute significantly to this proteolytic event. The specificity of the alternative fibrinolytic proteases for fibrinogen and the characteristics of the derivative cleavage fragments are clearly distinguishable from the classical plasmin system. The high molecular weight derivatives of fibrinogen, generated by the alternative system, under physiological conditions, are larger than the plasmin-generated X fragment, exhibit immunoelectrophoretic mobility comparable to native fibrinogen, and are not coagulable by thrombin. Analysis of the constituent polypeptide chains of the fragments reveals cleavage of the Aalpha, Bbeta, and gamma chains of fibrinogen. The lower molecular weight derivatives of fibrinogen, generated by the alternative system, are structurally distinct from previously described fibrinogen degradation products and exhibit potent anticoagulant activity. This anticoagulant activity can be attributed to interference with normal fibrin polymerization. The proteases of the alternative fibrinolytic systems are actively secreted by leukocytes when stimulated to undergo a nonlytic release reaction. These results provide direct evidence for a fibrinolytic system resident in leukocyte granules that is associated with the leukocyte release reaction and is capable of generating unique fibrinogen cleavage fragments.
E F Plow, T S Edgington
The role of the kidney in the metabolism of parathyroid hormone (PTH) was examined in the dog. Studies were performed in awake normal and uremic dogs after administration of bovine parathyroid hormone (b-PTH) or synthetic amino terminal tetratricontapeptide of b-PTH (syn b-PTH 1-34). The renal clearance of immunoreactive PTH was determined from the product of renal plasma flow and the percent extraction of PTH immunoreactivity by the kidney. Blood levels of circulating immunoreactive PTH were determined by radioimmunoassay. The normal dog kidney extracted 20 plus or minus 1% of the immunoreactive b-PTH delivered to it, and renal clearance (RC) of immunoreactivity was 60 ml/min. When RC was compared to an estimate of total metabolic clearance (MCR) of immunoreactivity, it accounted for 61% of the total. Both MCR and RC were markedly decreased in dogs with chronic renal disease. However, the percent extraction of immunoreactive PTH was unchanged in chronic renal disease, and the observed decrease in RC was due to changes in renal plasma flow. The largest portion of the reduction in total MCR was accounted for by the decrease in RC, and there was no compensation for the decrease in RC by extrarenal sites of PTH metabolism.
K A Hruska, R Kopelman, W E Rutherford, S Klahr, E Slatopolsky, A Greenwalt, T Bascom, J Markham
Microtubule involvement in secretory events of the parathyroid gland was investigated in rats treated with colchicine and/or phosphorus, agents which have been shown to modify parathyroid secretion. Quantitative ultrastructural techniques were used in an effort to assess the cytoplasmic microtubule and secretory granule content of chief cells 3 h after treatment, when hypocalcemia was well established. After cochicine administration, the chief cells appeared to have lost all assembled microtubules and accumulated greater than normal amounts of cytoplasmic secretory granules. On the other hand, phosphorus treatment was associated with increased microtubule content although the cytoplasmic content of secretory granules remained unchanged. When colchicine and phosphorus were given concomitantly, microtubules were again absent, but the secretory granule content of the cells was markedly increased. These data provide direct evidence that colchicine disrupts assembled microtubules in chief cells of rat parathyroids; the consequence of this effect appears to be a blockage of hormone release which is reflected in the accumulation of secretory granules in the cell. The fact that microtubules also show a significant increase in content when hormone release from chief cells is presumed to increase, suggests that microtubules may participate in the physiological control of parathyroid hormone secretion.
E P Reaven, G M Reaven
It is generally recognized that chronic left ventricular (LV) pressure overload results primarily in wall thickening and concentric hypertrophy, while chronic LV volume overload is characterized by chamber enlargement and an eccentric pattern of hypertrophy. To assess the potential role of the hemodynamic factors which might account for these different patterns of hypertrophy, we measured LV wall stresses throughout the cardiac cycle in 30 patients studied at the time of cardiac catheterization. The study group consisted of 6 subjects with LV pressure overload, 18 with LV volume overload, and 6 with no evidence of heart disease (control). LV pressure, meridional wall stress (sigman), wall thickness (h), and radius (R) were measured in each patient throughout the cardiac cycle. For patients with pressure overload, LV peak systolic and end diastolic pressures were significantly increased (220 plus or minus 6/23 plus or minus 3 mm Hg) compared to control (117 plus or minus 7/10 plus or minus 1 mm Hg, P less than 0.01 for each). However, peak systolic and end diastolic (sigman) were normal (161 plus or minus 24/23 plus or minus 3 times 10-3 dyn/cm-2) compared to control (151 plus or minus 14/17 plus or minus 2 times 10-3 dyn/cm-2, NS), reflecting the fact that the pressure overload was exactly counterbalanced by increased wall thickness (1.5 plus or minus 0.1 cm for pressure overload vs. 0.8 plus or minus 0.1 cm for control, P less than 0.01). For patients with volume overload, peak systolic (sigman) was not significantly different from control, but end diastolic (sigmam) was consistently higher than normal (41 plus or minus 3 times 10-3 dyn/cm-2 for volume overload, 17 plus or minus 2 times 10-3 dyn/cm-2 for control, P less than 0.01). LV pressure overload was associated with concentric hypertrophy, and an increased value for the ratio of wall thickness to radius (h/R ratio). In contrast, LV volume overload was associated with eccentric hypertrophy, and a normal h/R ratio. These data suggest the hypothesis that hypertrophy develops to normalize systolic but not diastolic wall stress. We propose that increased systolic tension development by myocardial fibers results in fiber thickening just sufficient to return the systolic stress (force per unit cross-sectional area) to normal. In contrast, increased resting or diastolic tension appears to result in gradual fiber elongation or lengthening which improves efficiency of the ventricular chamber but cannot normalize the diastolic wall stress.
W Grossman, D Jones, L P McLaurin
The characteristics of cyclophosphamide-induced suppression of established ccll mediated immunity were studied in guinea pigs previously senstized to tuberculin. Cyclophosphamide treatment for 5 days produced a dose-dependent peripheral lymphoctopenia and disproportionatley greater neutrophenia which was particularly striking at high doses of 20 mg/kg per day(approximaetly 200 mg/kg-2 per day). Lymphoctes remianing in the circulation of cyclophosphamide treeated aniamls showed a doses-dependent reduction to both in vitro proliferactive and macrophage migration inhibitory factor responses to tuberculin compared to lymphocte responses of controls. Proliferative responses to phytohemaggultinin and concanavalin a were not significatly suppressed. Additional studies showed that cyclophosphamide suppressed the porliferactive and migration inhibitroy factor responses to tuberculin of lymph node and splenic as well as cirulating lymphocte populations. These studies showed that relatively short-term cyclophospamide administration produced immunosuppresion by quantitative as well as qualitative changes in lymphocyte populations. Significant suppresion of lymphocte function, howerver, was achived only with doses of cyclophoshamide which also produced a severe neutropenia.
J E Balow, D L Hurley, A S Fauci
To determine the effect of prolonged digitoxin administration on contractile function of nonfailing myocardium, right ventricular papillary muscle mechanics were examined after 6 or 24 wk of glycoside administration to control and pulmonary artery banded cats. Resting length-tension relations were not affected by digitoxin; however, isometrically developed force and the maximal rate of force development at the peak of the length-tension curve were increased in all treated groups. In untreated animals, banding resulted in a 28% incidence of deaths from heart failure. 6 wk after constriction, contractile function was depressed whereas normal function was observed 24 wk after banding. Digitoxin significantly reduced mortality from heart failure and enhanced the recovery of contractile function; contractile function in the 6 wk banded treated group approached that of untreated control and 24-wk banded groups. The long-term effects of digitoxin on contractile function were not importantly related to the temporal association between banding and institution of glycoside administration. Development of myocardial hypertrophy was comparable in treated and untreated banded groups.These results demonstrate that a significant positive inotropic effect persists in both normal and nonfailing hypertrophied myocardium during chronic digitoxin administration.
J F Williams, R D Potter
A protein with the electrophoretic, immunologic, and hormone-binding properties of thyroxine-binding globulin (TBG) has been prepared from human plasma and labeled with radioiodine (125-I) by an enzymatic method of iodination. The [125-I]TBG retained the electrophoretic and immunologic characteristics of unlabeled TBG but exhibited a partial loss of thyroxine-binding activity, as assessed by affinity chromatography. The in vivo behavior of [125I]TBG was studied in six euthyroid subjects (controls) with normal serum levels of TBG as measured both by radioimmunoassay and by determination of maximal T4-binding capacity and in four male patients with untreated primary hyperthyroidism, three of whom had elevated serum TBG. The half-time of the final slope of the plasma disappearance curve averaged 5.0 days plus or minus 1.2 (SD) in the controls and ranged from 3.9 to 109 days in the hypothyroid patients. The distribution volume was similar in the two groups, 6.7 plus or minus 1.3 vs. 7.1 plus or minus 2.1 liters. The catabolic clearance rate averaged 0.99 plus or minus 0.33 liters plasma/24 h in the controls and 0.92 plus or minus 0.46 in the hypothyroids. The absolute turnover rate of TBG, calculated from the catabolic clearance rate multiplied by the serum concentration of radioimmunoassayable TBG, averaged 17.8 plus or minus 2.1 mg/day in the controls and ranged from 14.8 to 33.2 mg/day in the hypothyroids. Among the entire group of subjects there was no correlation between the serum TBG concentration and the absolute turnover rate of TBG.
R R Cavalieri, F A McMahon, J N Castle
Radiation therapy to either mediastinum or pelvis causes a rapid decrease in circulating lymphocytes of both B and T types and in addition an impairment in the function of the remaining lyphocytes, as measured by their ability to proliferate in response to mitogens. The acute depression is short-lived. Substantial recovery is apparent within 3 wk after cessation of therapy; however, most patients show a modest, chronic depression in both numbers and functional capacities of circulating lymphocytes. T cells are somewhat more sensitive than B cells, but both are affected. Irradiation of the thymus per se seems to have little influence on the acute changes which occur, as patients receiving pelvic and mediastinal (including thymic) radiotherapy show a similiar degree of lymphopenia and depression of lymphocyte responsiveness.
J A Stratton, P E Byfield, J E Byfield, R C Small, J Benfield, Y Pilch
This study was undertaken to determine the proportions and in vitro immune capacities of lymphocyte populations in the bone marrows of normal humans. Relatively pure mononuclear cell suspensions were obtained from bone marrow aspirates by linear sucrose gradient centrifugations. Simultaneous peripheral blood and bone marrow specimens from each individual were assayed for lymphocyte surface markers and mitogen responsiveness. Maximal possible contamination of bone marrow aspirates by peripheral blood was determined by performing aspirates on individuals who had received 51chromium-labeled autologous erythrocytes. Rhymus-derived (T) lymphocytes, as determined by the sheep red blood cell (E) rosette assay, comprised 8.6-(plus or minus 1.6)% of the total bone marrow lymphocyte pool. Bone marrow-derived (B) lymphocytes, as determined by the presence of a complement receptor, made up 15.4-(plus or minus 1.9)% of the lymphocyte pool whereas 74.6 (plus or minus 2.4)% of mononuclear cells lacked easily detectable surface markers. These findings could not be explained by contamination with peripheral blood lymphocytes since contamination was corrected for in the calculations. Lymphocyte-enriched suspensions of bone marrow cells responded to stimulation with phytohemagglutinin, concanalin A, and particularly pokeweed mitogen. In vitro incubations of bone marrow and peripheral blood lymphocytes with tritiated thymidine followed by determinations of E and erythrocyte antibody complement (EAC) rosettes were performed. Simultaneous rosetteradioautographs demonstrated that the proliferative potential of bone marrow B lymphocytes was greater than peripheral blood B lymphocytes (P less than 0.01). On the other hand, the proliferative potential of bone marrow T lymphocytes was the same as that of peripheral blood T lymphocytes. These findings demonstrate that in addition to containing B lymphocytes the normal bone marrow contains a small fraction of T lymphocytes similar to the mature T lymphocyte pool found in the peripheral blood. These T cells most probably enter the bone marrow parenchyma as part of the normal recirculating lymphocyte pool.
A S Fauci
Three components of complement and six other serum proteins were assayed in synovial fluid and serum samples from 25 patients with acute rheumatic fever in Trinidad. The resulting data indicate a relative decrease in both early and late components of complement within the synovial fluids which suggests local activation by immune complexes. Such activation of complement within the joint spaces may play a primary role in development of the inflammatory arthritis of acute rheumatic fever.
M Svartman, E V Potter, T Poon-King, D P Earle
The metabolic clearance rate (MCR) of human luteinizing hormone (hLH) has been determined in 10 normal men, 3 normal women, and in 12 women with ovulatory disorders resulting in oligomenorrhea or amenorrhea. The MCR was determined by the constant infusion technique using either iodinated or unlabeled highly purified hLH, and these results were compared to MCR determined by using crude pituitary preparations containing both follicle-stimulating hormone and hLH. Both preparations produced essentially similar results for the MCR of hLH and virtually identical results were obtained when complete or incomplete immunoprecipitation of the infused material was achieved. The MCR/body surface area of hLH was significantly greater in normal men (25.6 plus or minus 3.6 ml/min-m-2) than in normal premenopausal (19.2 plus or minus 0.9 ml/min-m-2) or postmenopausal women (17.4 plus or minus 1.9 ml/min-m-2). No difference was noted in the MCR of hLH in women with oligomenorrhea or amenorrhea. Production rates (PRs) were calculated by using a pituitary standard, the values being 85.1 plus or minus 21.5 IU/24 h in normal men, 39.9 plus or minus 12.6 IU/24 h in normal premenopausal women, and 294.6 plus or minus 61.9 IU/24 h in normal postmenopausal women. The initial half-times of disappearance of the alpha- and beta-subunits of hLH were measured in two normal men and found to be 15-18 min, respectively. The half-time of intact hLH was twice as great.
R J Pepperell, D M Kretser, H G Burger
The hypothesis that clinical and biochemical essential fatty acid deficiency (EFA) might occur from the feeding of eucaloric, fat-free diets was tested in two experiments in healthy men. In Study I, eight men were given fat-free, eucaloric diets containing 80% of calories as glucose and 20% as amino acid hydrolysates by a constant drip over a 24-h period. The diets were fed in succession for periods of 2 wk each, either through a superior vena cava catheter or via a nasogastric tube. EFA deficiency was detected by decreases in linoleic acid and by the appearance of 5, 8, 11-eicosatrienoic acid in lipid fractions of plasma. Linoleic acid decreased significantly during 2 wk of the fat-free diet given intravenously from 48.8 to 9.8% (percent of total fatty acids) in cholesterol esters, from 21.2 to 3.2% in phospholipids, from 9.6 to 2.0% in free fatty acids, and from 14.1 to 2.6% in triglycerides. Eicosatrienoic acid, normally undetectable, appeared 0.6% in cholesterol esters, 2.5% in phospholipids, 0.2% in free fatty acids, and 2.3% in triglycerides. EFA deficiency occurred similarly during the nasogastric feeding. In Study II a subject received the same diet continuously by the nasogastric route for 10 days followed by a 24-h fast. He was then given the fat-free diet intermittently in three meals per day for 3 days. Finally, he was repleted with a diet containing 2.6% linoleic acid. By the 3rd day of the continuous nasogastric feeding, linoleic acid had fallen significantly and eicosatrienoic acid had appeared in plasma lipid fractions as in Study I. These findings were accentuated by day 10. Adipose tissue fatty acid composition did not change. Free fatty acid outflow from adipose tissue was presumably suppressed during the 10 days of continuous feeding. With increased free fatty acid outflow during fasting and intermittent feeding, linoleic acid rose and eicosatrienoic acid decreased. After 13 days of repletion with dietary linoleic acid, the EFA deficiency readily develops when fat-free diets containing glucose are given intravenously or orally as constant 24-h infusions. These diets are similar to the hyperalimentation formulas now being used clinically.
J D Wene, W E Connor, L DenBesten
Gel filtration studies on Bio-Gel P-10 columns of a 50-fold purified porcine duodenal extract revealed a main peak of glucagon-like immunoreactivity (GLI) in the 2,900 mol wt zone and a smaller peak in the 3,500 mol wt zone, the same zone as the pancreatic glucagon marker. Like pancreatic glucagon, samples of 3,500 mol wt material gave essentially identical measurements in radioimmunoassays employing the pancreatic glucagon-specific antiserum 30K and the GLI crossreacting antiserum 78J, whereas the 2,900 mol wt peptide gave 60-fold higher readings in the 78J assay. On disk gel electrophoresis, the 3,500 mol wt fraction, like pancreatic glucagon, migrated at pH 8.3, whereas the 2,900 mol wt peptide remained at the origin; at pH 4.7, the 2,900 mol wt peptide migrated while the 3,500 mol wt immunoreactive peptide and glucagon remained at the origin. Isoelectric focusing revealed the 3,500 mol wt moiety to have an isoelectric point (pI) of 6.2, the same as pancreatic glucagon, whereas the 2,900 mol wt peptide had an pI greater than 10. The glycogenolytic activity of the 3,500 mol wt peptide in the perfused rat liver did not differ significantly from glucagon, and its adenylate cyclase stimulating activity in partially purified liver cell membranes was comparable to that of glucagon; the 2,900 mol wt peptide had less than 20% of these activities. In samples of 3,500 mol wt material subjected to isoelectric focusing, adenylate cyclase-stimulating activity was confirmed to fractions containing 30K immunoreactivity with a pI of 6.2. In samples of 2,900 mol wt material subjected to isoelectric focusing, adenylate cyclase-stimulating activity was confined to fractions containing 78J immunoreactivity with an pI greater than 10. Displacement of [125-I]glucagon from the membranes was limited to these two biologically active fractions. However, the affinity of both pancreatic glucagon and the 3,500 mol wt peptide was an order of magnitude greater than of the 2,900 mol wt peptide. Thus, by all of several biologic, physiocochemical, and immunometric techniques, the 3,500 mol wt gut immunoreactive peptide could not be distinguished from pancreatic glucagon, while the 2,900 mol wt peptide was readily differentiated by all these techniques. "True" A-cells, ultrastructurally indistinguishable from pancreatic A-cells but differing from the A-like cells of the lower bowel, were identified in the gastric fundus of dogs. Their distribution corresponded to that of the 3,500 mol wt immunoreactivity resembling pancreatic glucagon, while the distribution of "A-like cells" in the lower small intestine corresponded to that of GLI.
H Sasaki, B Rubalcava, D Baetens, E Blazquez, C B Srikant, L Orci, R H Unger
Cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP were measured in rat adrenal glands after either hypophysectomy alone or after hypophysectomy and treatment with ACTH. Adrenal cyclic GMP levels rise in acutely hypophysectomized rats to a maximum at 1 h of approximately 200% of control levels; there is a return to base line at 4-12 h after hypophysectomy. In contrast, adrenal cyclic AMP falls immediately to about 50% of control levels after hypophysectomy and remains at approximately 1 pmol per mg tissue. Doses of ACTH beyond the physiological range markedly suppress adrenal cyclic GMP while producing a 50-fold or greater rise in cyclic AMP in hypophysectomized rats. This pattern of adrenal cyclic GMP rise was unchanged in acutely hypophysectomized animals treated with desamethasone. N-6-2'-0 dibutyryl cyclic AMP acted similarly to the effect of ACTH in bringing about a suppression of adrenal cyclic GMP levels. Physiological i.v. pulse doses of ACTH produced a rapid dose related increase in adrenal cyclic GMP. In vitro incubation of quartered adrenal pairs with 500 mU ACTH produced elevated cyclic AMP levels and suppression of cyclic GMP. Whereas adrenal cyclic AMP fell rapidly to 50% of control levels after hypophysectomy and remained at about 1 pmol per mg tissue for 7 days, adrenal cyclic GMP showed a biphasic rhythm in long-term hypophysectomized animals. After an initial peak at 1 h after hypophysectomy, adrenal cyclic GMP declined to baseline at 4-12 h but thereafter progressively rose with time, eventually reaching levels over 1 pmol per mg tissue. Fluorescent immunocytochemical staining of rat adrenal zona fasciculata showed cyclic AMP largely confined to cytoplasmic elements with little fluorescence contained in nuclei. In constant, cyclic GMP was found discretely positioned in nuclei with prominent fluorescence in nucleoli in addition to cytoplasmic localization. It is concluded that in hypophysectomized rats ACTH, either directly or in conjunction with altertion of adrenal cyclic AMP, appears to be one factor which regulates adrenal cyclic GMP. The direction of cyclic GMP change and the different subcellular localization of the nucleotides suggest divergent roles for cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP in adrenocortical function. Furthermore, our observations suggest a role for adrenal cyclic GMP in nuclear directed events.
T H Whitley, N W Stowe, S H Ong, R L ey, A L Steiner
The synthesis and release of human prolactin (hPRL) in the human fetus was assessed by radioimmunoassay analysis of the content and concentration of hPRL in 82 pituitary glands and the concentration of serum hPRL in 47 fetuses of gestational age 68 days to term. Fetal hPRL exhibited parallelism with the reference standard (Lewis 203-1). hPRL was detected by 68 days of gestation (10 wk), the earliest fetal pituitary gland studied; 8 out of 33 pituitaries had a prolactin (PRL) content above 2.0 ng between 10-15 wk gestation. The mean ocntent of PRL in the pituitary gland increased sharply from 14.8 plus or minus 4.6 ng at 15-19 wk to 405 plus or minus 142 ng at 20-24 wk and 542 plus or minus ng at 25-29 wk gestation. By term, the mean content was 2,039 plus or minus 459 (range 493-3,689) and the mean concentration 15.9 plus or minus 2.4 ng/mg (range 7-20). There was a significant positive correlation (P less than 0.001) between the hPRL and human growth hormone (hGH) content of fetal pituitary glands; at term the hPRL/hGH ratio was 1/290. The concentration of serum hPRL between 12 and 24 wk ranged from 2.9 to 67 ng/ml, mean 19.5 plus or minus 2.5 ng/ml )n = 21); by 26 wk fetal serum hPRL increased sharply and attained levels of 300-500 ng/ml in late gestation. At delivery, the mean plasma concentration of hPRL was 167 plus or minus 14.2 ng/ml in 36 umbilical venous specimens and 111.8 plus or minus 12.3 ng/ml in the matched maternal venous specimens. No correlation between serum hPRL and the pituitary content or concentration of hPRL was demonstrable in 12 matched fetal specimens. In five anencephalic infants, umbilical venous hPRL levels were between 65 and 283 ng/ml. In two anencephalic infants, thyrotropin releasing factor (TRF) (200 mug IV) evoked a rise in serum hPRL in one patient from 43 to 156 ng/ml at 30 min, and in the other from 65 to 404 ng/ml at 120 min. In both patients, plasma thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) rose from undetectable base-line levels to peak levels of 97 and 380 muU/ml, respectively. The pattern of change in serum hPRL in the human fetus contrasts sharply with that of serum hGH, luteinizing hormone, or follicle-stimulating hormone. These observations in the fetus and in anencephalic infants suggest that the striking elevation of serum PRL in the fetus is neither mediated by a putative PRL releasing factor or by TRF, nor is a consequence of suppression or absence of PRL release inhibiting factor alone, as a functional hypothalamus is not required to attain the high PRL concentration at term. Several lines of evidence support the view that high plasma estrogen levels characteristic of gestation act directly on the fetal anterior hypophysis to stimulate PRL secretion or to sensitize the secretory mechanism of the lactotrope, increasing its responsiveness to other stimuli.
M J Aubert, M M Grumbach, S L Kaplan
A dynamic estimation of the involvement of the complement system in various diseases was obtained by the direct quantitation of breakdown products of C3 and of properdin factor B. The methods used were based, first on the separation of native and fragmented molecules according to their molecular size through a precipitation with polyethylene glycol and, secondly, on an immunochemical quantitation, using specific antisera for the major antigens of C3 and factor B. The sensitivity and the specificity of these methods were demonstrated by activation of complement in vitro with generation of C3 and factor B fragments. A clinical investigation was carried out in 41 patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), 31 with membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis (MPGN), 26 with other types of glomerulonephritis, and 6 with severe alcoholic cirrhosis of the liver. The following observations were made: (a) an elevated plasma level of C3d fragment of C3 was found in 68% of SLE patients, in 87% of MPGN patients, in 62% of patients with other hypocomplementemic nephritis, and in 15% of those with normocomplementemic nephritis, but in only 33% of patients with liver cirrhosis and very low levels of C3; (b) a significant difference was observed between the levels of C3 obtained with either anti-"native" C3 or anti-C3c sera for immunochemical quantitation, in patients with SLE or MPGN, indicating the presence of "altered" or fragmented C3 in plasma; (c) an elevated plasma level of Ba fragment of properdin factor B was found in 46% of SLE patients, in 67% of MPGN patients, in 50% of patients with other hypocomplementemic nephritis, and in 9% of patients with normocomplementemic nephritis, while the level of properdin factor B was only slightly decreased in these diseases; (d) in SLE and MPGN there was an inverse correlation between the levels of C3d and Ba and the level of C3 in plasma. The level of these fragments was directly correlated with the clinical manifestations of SLE; (e) some patients with a normal C3 level exhibited an elevated plasma concentration of C3 and factor B fragments, suggesting the coexistence of an increased synthesis with a hypercatabolism of complement components. Therefore, the quantitation of complement breakdown products by simple immunochemical methods provides additional information concerning the involvement of complement in disease and new features for the evaluation of the intensity of immune reactions during immune complex diseases.
L H Perrin, P H Lambert, P A Miescher
Thyroxine-binding globulin (TBG) and partially desialylated or slow TBG (STBG) were purified from human serum by affinity chromatography. Purified TBG was identical to TBG present in serum by the criteria of electrophoretic mobility, affinity for thyroxine (T4), and heat-inactivation response. Purified STBG had slower electrophoretic mobility and lower affinity for T4. Both bound T4 in an equimolar ratio, were immunoprecipitable, and had similar inactivation t1/2 at 61 degrees C. TBG and STBG were iodinated by the chloramine-T-catalyzed reaction. An average of from 0.02 to 6 atoms I could be incorporated per molecule of the protein by adjusting the conditions of the reaction (time, protein and iodide concentrations). 125-I, 131-I, and 127-I were used. Iodination increased the anodal mobility of TBG but did not affect the reversible T4-binding, precipitation by antiserum, or the heat-inactivation properties. "Heavily" and "lightly" iodinated TBG had identical disappearance half-times from serum in the rabbit. 15 min after the intravenous administration of [131-I]-STBG and [125-I]TBG mixture to rats, more than 90% of the injected 131-I dose was in the liver, and the liver 131-I/125-I ratio was 32-fold that of serum. Selective uptake of STBG by the liver was also observed in the rabbit and in man. The serum [125-I]STBG/[131-I]TBG ratio declined from 1 to 0.2 in 10 min in the intact rabbit but remained unchanged for 1 h in the acutely hepatectomized animal. In the rabbit, t 1/2 was approximately 3 min for STBG and 0.8-3.4 days for TBG. The radioiodine derived from the iodinated proteins is partly excreted in bile but the bulk was precipitable with specific antibodies. Some isotope in the form of iodide appeared in blood and was excreted in the urine. Since radioiodinated TBG and STBG preserve their biologic and immunologic properties they are useful as tracer materials for metabolic studies. In rat, rabbit, and man STBG is rapidly cleared from serum by the liver. Conversion of TBG to STBG may be the limiting step in the regulation of TBG metabolism.
S Refetoff, V S Fang, J S Marshall
The ultrastructure and adenine nucleotide metabolism of platelets from patients with acute leukemia were studied to elucidate possible mechanisms for the platelet dysfunction observed in this clinical setting. Nonstimulated (resting) platelets from leukemic patients varied greatly in size; exhibited marked variation in the number of alpha granules present per cell; had poorly delineated circumferential bands of microtubules; and often grossly dilated open channel systems or cytoplasmic vacuolization. The intracellular concentrations of ATP and ADP were significantly below normal, and the specific radioactivity of ATP and ADP of nonstimulated platelets in leukemia was equivalent to or exceeded that seen in stimulated normal platelets. Addition of ADP or collagen to platelets from leukemic patients was followed by retarded and incomplete shape change, delayed and incomplete centripetal migration of subcellular organelles, impaired degranulation, and the formation of loose aggregates composed of relatively few platelets. Stimulation of "leukemic" platelets with collagen led to the release of significantly subnormal amounts of ATP and ADP and no significant change in the specific radioactivity of the intracellular nucleotides. In contrast to the results in normal platelets, the conversion of ATP to inosine monophosphate and hypoxanthine in platelets in leukemia failed to increase significantly with collagen stimulation. The results indicate that abnormalities exist in the storage pool of adenine nucleotides and the release mechanism of platelets in acute leukemia. These defects appear to contribute to an impairment in the release reaction in these platelets. Many of the ultrastructural and metabolic defects seen in acute leukemia occur in platelets in preleukemia.
D H Cowan, R C Graham Jr, D Baunach
The chemical modification of hemoglobin by aspirin (ASA) has been studied, both in intact human red cells and in purified hemoglobin solutions. After incubation of red cells with 20 mM [acetyl-1minus14C]ASA, incorporation of radioactivity into hemoglobin was observed in agreement with the results of Klotz and Tam (1973. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 70: 1313-1315). In contrast, no labeling of hemoglobin was seen when [carbosyl-14-C]ASA was used. These results indicate that ASA acetylates hemoglobin. The acetylated hemoglobin was readily separated from unmodified hemoglobin by both gel electrofocusing and by column chromatography. Quantitation of the extent of acetylation by densitometric scanning of gels agreed very well with estimates obtained from radioactivity measurements. Hemolysates prepared from red cells incubated with ASA showed normal oxygen affinity and heme-heme interaction. Purified acetylated hemoglobin had a slightly increased oxygen affinity and decreased heme-heme interaction. There was no difference in the rate of acetylation of oxy- and deoxyhemoglobin. ASA acetylated column-purified hemoglobin A more readily than hemoglobin in crude hemolysate, but less rapidly than purified human serum albumin. The rate of acetylation of hemoglobulin increased with pH up to approximately pH 8,5. Structural studies were done on hemoglobin incubated with 2.0 mM and 20 mM [acetyl-1-14-C]ASA. Alpha- and beta-chains were acetylated almost equally. Tryptic digests of purified acetylated subunits were fingerprinted on cellulose thin layer plates and autoradiographed. Both alpha- and beta-chains showed a number of radioactive spots that were either ninhydrin negative or weakly ninhydrin positive. These results indicate that hemoglobin is acetylated at a number of sites, probably at the epislon-amino group of lysine residues. To determine whether ASA acetylates hemoglobin in vivo, hemolysates of 14 patients on long-term high-dose ASA therapy were analyzed by gel electrofocusing and compared to specimens of individuals not receiving ASA. The ASA-treated group had a twofold increase in a minor hemoglobin component having an isoelectric point lower than that of hemoglobin A, and indistinguishable from the minoe component which appears when hemoglobin is incubated with ASA in vitro.
K R Bridges, G J Schmidt, M Jensen, A Cerami, H F Bunn
Studies were undertaken to characterize the renal responses to acute unilateral renal denervation and the mechanisms involved in these responses. Denervation was produced in anesthetized nondiuretic rats by application of phenol to the left renal artery. Studies were also performed in sham-denervated nondiuretic rats. Whole kidney and individual nephron studies were performed before and after denervation or sham denervation. Denervation increased urine volume from the left kidney to about twice its control value (P less than 0.001) and increased urinary sodium excretion from 332 neq min minus -1 to 1,887 neq min minus -1 (P less than 0.001). Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and renal plasma flow (RPF) remained unchanged in both kidneys after the procedure. The innervated right kidney showed no changes in urine volume or in sodium excretion. After denervation, late proximal ratio of tubular fluid inulin concentration to that of plasma [(F/P)In] decreased from 2.23 to 1.50 (P less than 0.001) while single nephron GFR remained unchanged. Absolute reabsorption decreased from 16.5 to 9.9 n. min minus -1 (P less than 0.001). (F/P)In ratios were also decreased in early distal (from 6.21 to 3.18, P less 0.001) and late distal convolutions (from 16.41 to 8.33, P less than 0.001) during the experimental period. (F/P)Na ratios remained unchanged in the early distal convolutions, but increased from 0.18 to 0.38 (P less than 0.01) in late distal convolutions after denervation. Absolute Na reabsorption after denervation increased in the loop of Henle, distal convolution, and collecting ducts. Any changes in intrarenal hydrostatic pressures after denervation were always small. There were no changes in GFR, RPF, urine volume, urinary sodium excretion, or late proximal (F/P)In after sham denervation. We conclude that the diuresis and natriuresis seen after acute renal denervation were caused by a marked depression of sodium and water reabsorption in the proximal tubule with partial compensation in more distal nephron segments. These responses appeared to be unrelated to systemic or intrarenal hemodynamic changes. The results demonstrate an effect of the renal nerves on proximal tubular function.
E Bello-Reuss, R E Colindres, E Pastoriza-Muñoz, R A Mueller, C W Gottschalk
Bolus injections of gastrin or pentagastrin (PG) cause a marked elevation in lower esophageal sphincter pressure (LESP), and it has been suggested that serum gastrin concentration is the main physiological and pathophysiological regulator of LESP. We evaluated this hypothesis by measuring LESP and gastric acid secretion simultaneously in normal subjects during continuous infusion of PG (0.004-12 mjg/kg per h), since continuous infusion of a hormone probably simulates physiological hormone release better than bolus injection. In groups of 8-13 subjects there was no statistically significant increase in average LESP with any of seven PG infusion rates. However, a bolus of PG superimposed on the continuous infusion of PG resulted in a 20-mm Hg increase in LESP. Examination of results in individual subjects suggested that PG by infusion might be stimulating LESP in some subjects and inhibiting it in others. Therefore, individual dose-response studies were performed in two normal subjects. These revealed that 0.9 mug/kg per h PG by infusion elevated LESP by 10-12 mm Hg. This dose of PG also elicited maximal rates of gastric acid secretion. In one of the subjects an infusion of PG calculated to give one-half maximal acid secretion (D50) elevated LESP by 8 mm Hg; in the other the PG-D50 for acid secretion had no effect on sphincter pressure. Infusion of smaller amounts of PG had no effect on LESP, even though gastric acid secretion was stimulated submaximally. Thus, the parietal cells are more sensitive than the lower esophageal sphincter to the effect of PG by infusion. We conclude that PG by continuous infusion elevates LESP to only a modest degree (compared with the contraction that occurs after bolus injections of PG) and that the contraction occurs only within a narrow dose range between the D50 and D100 for acid secretion. Higher doses cause transient relaxation of LESP. Additional studies showed that basal LESP varied between 16 and 71 mm Hg in two subjects studied on 29 separate occasions, but there was no correlation with basal acid secretion. This suggests that the wide day-to-day fluctuations in basal LESP are not due to changing concentrations of gastrin in serum. The results of these experiments cast doubt on the hypothesis that serum gastrin concentration is the major determinant of LESP.
C O Walker, S A Frank, J Manton, J S Fordtran
To study the role of C25-HYDROXY BILE ALCOHOLS AS PRECURSORS OF CHOlic acid, [G-3-H]5beta-cholestane-3alpha,7alpha12alpha,25-tetrol was administered intravenously to two subjects with cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis (CTX) and two normal individuals. One day after pulse labeling, radioactivity was present in the cholic acid isolated from the bile and feces of the subjects with CTX and the bile of the normal individuals. In the two normal subjects, the sp act decay curves of [G-3-H]-cholic acid were exponential, and no traces of [G-3-H]-5beta-cholestane-3alpha,7alpha,12alpha,25-tetrol were detected. In contrast, appreciable quantities of labeled 5beta-cholestane-3alpha,-7aopha,12alpha,25-tetrol were present in the bile and feces of the CTX subjects. The sp act vs. time curves of fecal [G-3-H]5beta-cholestane-3alpha,7alpha,12alpha,25-tetrol and [G-3-H]-cholic acid showed a precursor-product relationship. Although these results suggest that 5beta-cholestane-3alpha,7alpha,12alpha,25-tetrol may be a precursor of cholic acid in man, the possibility that C26-hydroxy intermediates represent the normal pathway can not be excluded.
G Salen, S Shefer, T Setoguchi, E H Mosbach
Micropuncture studies were performed in the rabbit to determine nephron filtration rate and absolute fluid reabsorption in the proximal tubule in order to compare the latter value with data obtained with the in vitro microperfusion technique. New Zealand white rabbits, 2-2.8 kg, were studied. Nephron filtration rate was 21 nl/min (n equal to 48) and absolute reabsorption along the length of the accesible portion of the proximal convoluted tubule was 10.3 nl/min. Correcting this value for tubular length gives a fluid reabsorption of approximately 1.9 nl/mm per min. In view of the marked difference between the in vivo and in vitro techniques and the various sources of error with each, this is reasonably similiar to the value of 1.3 nl/mm per min obtained in the isolated proximal convoluted tubule.
A M Chonko, R W Osgood, A E Nickel, T F Ferris, J H Stein
An IgG antibody found in the serum of a thrombasthenic patient reacted in complement fixation with platelets from 350 normal individuals but was nonreactive with platelets from eight other thrombasthenic patients. ADP-induced aggregation of normal platelets was inhibited by the patient's antibody. Family studies using the quantitative complement fixation test showed that healthy heterozygotes were easily distinguishable from normal or thrombasthenic individuals since their platelets had an intermediate amount of the reactive antigen. Indirect immunoprecipitation tests using this serum and soluble membrane antigens labeled with iodine-125 that had been extracted from normal platelets by the detergent Nonidet P-40 gave a single radioactive peak at 120,000 mol wt in sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. A similar estimate of the molecular weight was obtained from Sephadex G-200 filtration of the soluble antigens extracted from normal platelets by spontaneous release or chaotropic agents and tested in complement fixation with the patient's serum. These findings strongly suggest that the molecule recognized by this antibody is absent or structurally modified in thrombasthenia cases and that it may be involved in platelet aggregation.
L Degos, A Dautigny, J C Brouet, M Colombani, N Ardaillou, J P Caen, J Colombani
Binding of prothrombin and activation intermediates 1 and 2 to human platelets was tested with 125-I-labeled protein preparations. None of these precursors of thrombin bound to platelets under conditions in which high affinity binding of thrombin was observed,nor did they cause platelet aggregation or serotonin release. The molecular conformation required for binding to platelets as well as for induction of platelet aggregation and release is present, therefore, only after the final step in prothrombin activation.
D M Tollefsen, C M Jackson, P W Majerus