Homogenates of kidneys from hydropenic and volume-expanded rats were subjected to gel filtration with Sephadex G-25. A fraction of the eluate coincident with the fourth UV peak was injected into the aorta of rats with one kidney excluded. A fraction eluting before the albumin peak was utilized as a control. Significant natriuresis and diuresis were observed after infusion of the fraction obtained from volume-expanded kidneys but not after infusion of the fraction from hydropenic kidneys or the control fraction. The natriuresis occurred in in the absence of changes in mean blood pressure, hematocrit, plasma sodium and potassium, glomerular filtration rate, and potassium excretion. The response was apparent immediately after infusion and persisted for up to 150 min. These results verify the existence of a low molecular weight natriuretic substance which may be preferentially bound to the kidney after its volume-stimulated release into the circulation.
H C Gonick, L F Saldanha
The effect of prostaglandin E1 (PGE1) on osmotic water flow across toad bladder and cyclic AMP content of the mucosal epithelial cells has been determined under basal conditions and in the presence of either theophylline or antidiuretic hormone (ADH); Under basal conditions and with PGE1 concentrations from 10(-8) to 10(-5) M no evidence of stimulation of water flow was observed, and with 10(-7) M PGE1 a significant inhibition was foundmcyclic AMP content under control conditions was 8 pmol/mg protein. It was 9 at 10(-8) M PGE1, 13 at 10(-7) M, 16 at 10(-6) M, and 23 at 10(-5) M. In the presence of theophylline, 10(-8) and 10(-7) M PGE1 inhibited the theophylline-induced water flow as expected. In contrast, 10(-6) and 10(-5) M PGE1 enhanced the rate of water flow. Theophylline increased cyclic AMP content from 8 to 18 pmol/mg protein. PGE1 in the presence of theophylline caused marked increases in cyclic AMP content; The content was 23 at 10(-7) M, 41 at 10(-6) M, and 130 at 10(-5) M; Thus PGE1 stimulates theophylline-induced water flow at cyclic AMP concentrations somewhere between 23 and 41 pmol/mg. Further evidence along these lines was obtained from experiments in which the effects of PGE1 on ADH-induced water flow were studied. Inhibitory effects of PGE1 were not observed at concentrations of PGE1 which raised the level of intracellular cyclic AMP to 30 pmol/mg protein or higher. These results were obtained despite the fact that all four concentrations of PGE1 tested were found capable of inhibiting ADH-induced water flow under appropriate conditions or, in other words, were inhibiting the adenylate cyclase controlling water flow, Thus the increase in cyclic AMP content in response to PGE1 is not derived from this enzyme. Thus the stimulation of water flow by PGE1 in the presence of theophylline is thought to be caused by cyclic AMP spilling over from one compartment to the water flow compartment. No evidence was obtained to directly suggest spillover into the sodium transport compartment. Furthermore evidence is discussed to suggest that most of the cyclic AMP generated in the tissue does not originate from the enzyme controlling sodium transport. As cyclic AMP-stimulated water flow and sodium transport are thought to occur in one cell type, the granular cells, distinct pools of cyclic AMP are thought to be present in one and the same cell type. Thus one pool controls water flow and one controls sodium transport. With high concentrations of PGE1 in the presence of theophylline or high concentrations of ADH, the adenylate cyclase responsible for water flow is inhibited; However, PGE1 can stimulate a tissue adenylate cyclase to sufficiently high levels that cyclic AMP spills over into the "water flow compartment" and thus stimulates water flow.
J Flores, P A Witkum, B Beckman, G W Sharp
The present study is an attempt to determine (a) if the lung actively secretes protein into the surface-active fraction of lung lavage returns; (b) if there are interspecies differences in this secretory activity; and (c) if the amount of nonradioactive protein in the lavage surface-active fraction shows interspecies variation. I found that pilocarpine stimulates the release of radioactive protein into the lavage surface-active fraction of rabbits and that this pilocarpine effect is completely blocked by atropine. Inhibition of lung oxygen consumption by iodoacetate is associaged with a dose-dependent inhibition of the pilocarpine-induced secretion. Microtubules may be involved in this secretory process because colchicine inhibits the pilocarpine effect. Of the radioactive protein in the total surface-active fraction (tissue plus lavage returns), a greater percent appears in the lavage surface-active fraction at 2 and 4 h, after a pulsed injection [U-14C] leucine, in the mouse than in the rat, which in turn has a greater amount than the rabbit. There is also a difference in the amount of nonradioactive protein per square meter of alveolar surface area in the lavage surface-active fraction of different species: mouse greater than rabbit greater than cat greater than dog. The amount of nonradioactive protein per square meter of alveolar surface area in the lavage surface-active fraction is directly proportional to the species respiratory rate; the log of the nonradioactive protein in the lavage surface-active fraction is inversely proportional to the log of the species alveolar diameter. I conclude that the lung actively secretes protein into the lavage surface-active fraction, that this secretion is under neurohumoral regulation, and that respiratory rate and alveolar size may influence this secretory activity and the amount of protein in this surface-active fraction.
The presence of human thyroglobulin (HTg) in serum of patients was identical by immunological criteria to the serum standard used in the radioimmunoassay. The serum thyroglobulin levels in untreated patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma ranged from 22.0 to 445.0 ng/ml with a mean of 144.3 +/- 46.5 ng/ml (SEM) (n = 10). The mean serum thyroglobulin measured postoperatively in seven of these patients was 6.4 +/- 1.5 ng/ml, not statistacally different from the mean level of 5.1 +/- 0.49 ng/ml (range 0-20.7 ng/ml) observed in 71 out of 95 control subjects with detectable HTg levels. By contrast serum HTg levels were normal or undetectable in subjects with medullary carcinoma of the thyroid. HTg levels were within normal limits in sera of patients who had previously undergone successful therapy for a differentiated thyroid carcinoma and in whom no metastases could be documented. The mean level for this group was 4.9 +/- 0.51 ng/ml (n = 43). In contrast, patients with documented metastases had a mean serum thyroglobulin level of 464.9 +/- 155.6 ng/ml (n = 6). The data support the thesis that in differentiated thyroid carcinoma serum thyroglobulin levels are elevated when metastases develop after initial treatment. It is proposed that the measurement of thyroglobulin in the serum represents a simple and valuable adjunct in the posttreatment follow-up of patients with differentiated thyroid cancer.
A J Herle, R P Uller
The influence of acute myocardial depression on ventricular stiffness and on its elastic and viscous components was studied in 19 dogs. After the animals were placed on cardiopulmonary bypass, stiffness was measured by sinusoidally injecting volume changes of 0.5 ml (deltaV) at 22 Hz into paced, isovolumically (deltaP) of the sinusoidal pressure response. Stiffness was linearly related to pressure (P) throughout the cardiac cycle, so that deltaP/delta V = alpha P + beta, where alpha and beta are constants. Myocardial depression was induced in one of three different ways: by coronary artery ligation, by administration of propranolol (Inderal), or by administration of pentobarbital. All three interventions caused significant increases in the slope, alpha, of the stiffness-pressure relationship, while the intercept, beta, remained unchanged. Release of the coronary occlusion or administration of acetylstrophantidin partially reversed depression and the change in alpha; Approximation of the mechanical nature of the left ventricle in terms of a linear second-order mechanical system permitted the division of stiffness into its elastic and viscous components. Like total stiffness, both the elastic and the viscous components were linearly related to ventricular pressure. Elastic stiffness was not changed, but the slope of the line relating viscous stiffness to pressure was significantly increased during ischemic depression, indicating that a change in viscosity was primarily responsible for the increase in total ventricular stiffness.
G H Templeton, K Wildenthal, J T Willerson, J H Mitchell
The influence of dietary salt on the levels of plasma bicarbonate and on the characteristics of bicarbonate reabsorption was studied in experimental chronic renal failure. Chronic renal failure was produced in rats by sequential partial nephrectomies. The control group received a diet constant in salt content throughout the progression of renal failure; the other group (PRNa), at each stage of renal failure, received salt intake reduced in direct proportion to the fall in glomerular filtration rate (GFR). In the steady state, the quantities of urinary sodium closely approximated intake in obth groups of animals. The adaptive increased natriuresis per nephron exhibited by the control animals was prevented in the PRNa animals. The PRNa group had (a) higher plasma bicarbonate levels, (b) increased bicarbonate thresholds, and (c) increased maximal tubular reabsorptive capacity for bicarbonate. As renal failure progresses, dietary salt can become a determining factor of the levels at which plasma bicarbonate is maintained. Proportional reduction of dietary salt results in bicarbonate conservation in rats with experimental progressive renal failure.
G H Espinel
Intact human erythrocytes were cross-linked with glutaraldehyde (GA) or dimethyladipimidate (DMA) and tested for their ability to bind [125I]-IgG anti-Rh0(D) and to undergo antibody-mediated hemagglutination. There was no decrease in antibody binding after treatment with GA concentrations up to 1.25% and DMA concentrations up to 1%. Red cells treated with these concentrations of GA and DMA did not agglutinate. The techniques employed to induce agglutination of the cross-linked red cells involved "incomplete" IgG anti-Rho (D) in albumin, "complete" IgM anti-D Rho (D) in saline, and the antiglobulin (Coombs) reaction. The agglutinability of the chemically modified red cells was inversely correlated with the extent of fixation. The dissociation of antibody binding from agglutinability in cross-linked erythrocytes suggests that Rho (D) antigen mobility is required for red cell agglutination. Antigen mobility was manifested by the transition from a relatively monodisperse distribution pattern of Rho (D) antigen sites to one of large aggregates or clusters when agglutination was induced by IgM anti-Rho (D), IgG anti-Rho (D) agglutination of protease modified red cells, and by anti-IgG agglutination of IgG anti-Rho (D)-coated red cells. Antigen clustering was not as prominent in red cells agglutinated by IgG anti-Rho (D) in the presence of albumin. Even though antigen mobility is a prerequisite for antibody-mediated hemagglutination, clustering does not appear to be an absolute requirement. The degree of antigen clustering differs with varying types of agglutination.
E J Victoria, E A Muchmore, E J Sudora, S P Masouredis
Congenital chloride diarrhea (CCD) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder, characterized by watery stools with C1- concentration around 150 meq/liter. We have perfused the colon of three patients and their three healthy siblings with different salt solutions containing 36C1- to determine the nature of the colonic defect in CCD. In the controls, net absorption of Na+ and C1- occurred against steep concentration gradients. The influx (lumen-to-plasms flux) of C1- was twice the effux. Omission of HCO3- from the perfusate caused a clear decrease in C1- efflux which suggests a coupling of C1- effux to HCO3- influx. In CCD, net Na+ absorption occurred normally when HCO3- was present in the lumen. However, Na+ absorption was always impaired when the luminal contents were acid, a situation that prevails in CCD. Net K+ secretion was clearly increased. Both influx and efflux of C1- were practically absent. Only slight net secretion occurred along a steep gradient. Net appearance of HCO3- was not observed, in contrast to controls. These findings and earlier studies of ileal function in CCD are best explained by a defect in the C1-/HCO3- exchange mechanism, which operates in both directions in the normal ileum and colon.
C Holmberg, J Perheentupa, K Launiala
Longitudinal studies have shown that individuals lose bone mineral at unequal rates with aging. It has been postulated that individuals with the more rapid rates of loss constitute a separate population having an increased risk for developing fractures, i.e., osteoporosis. To examine this postulate, we made a search for a separate population of elderly women using a precise and objective measurement technique of bone mineral, photon absorptiometry. Bone mineral content (BMC) was measured in the radius of 571 Caucasian females who were age 50 or older. It was found that BMC values adjusted for width had a normal distribution in all decades and the variation in BMC values did not increase with age. Subjects with vertebral fractures (n = 108) were estimated to be losing bone mineral at the same rate as those without vertebral fractures (n= 161). Thus evidence for a separate population of rapid losers of bone mineral was not found. Reconciliation of longitudinal studies which show unequal rates of loss with the present population survey, in which evidence for unequal rates was not found, would require that (a) the rate of loss of bone mineral for an individual is not constant and/or (b) the rate of mineral loss is proportional to the amount of mineral present at maturity. The incidence of vertebral fractures was inversely proportional to BMC values. In a group of 278 women followed for 470 subject-yr, the incidence of all fractures during the study (n = 31) was also inversely proportional to BMC. These data suggest that the BMC values of osteoporotics would be at the lower end of normally distributed values for the population.
D M Smith, M R Khairi, C C Johnston Jr
The ability of antibiotics to prevent Streptococcus sanguis endocarditis was tested in rabbits. Only vancomycin or a combination of penicillin G plus streptomycin always prevented infection when administered as a single dose. A loading dose of 30 mg/kg of phenoxymethyl penicillin (penicillin V) followed by additional 7.5 mg/kg doses for 48 h proved to be the only successful prophylactic program that could be given orally to man. Cefazolin alone or with streptomycin in multiple doses was also an effective alternative to penicillin or penicillin derivatives. Erythromycin uniformly failed to protect animals from bacterial endocarditis but showed greater prophylactic efficacy when a low inoculum of streptococci was used.
L L Pelletier Jr, D T Durack, R G Petersdorf
Immunoglobulins were detected on the membranes of human leukemic cells by a microcytotoxicity technique. A significant percentage of lymphocytes from normal donors failed to react with goat antisera to human heavy chain determinants or to lambda-light chains. Lymphocytes from some normal donors, however, did react with antisera to k-light chains. A high percentage (50-90) of cells from some leukemia patients were killed by antisera to light chains and by one or more antisera to heavy chain determinants. Trypsin treatment of leukemic cells resulted in a loss of cytotoxic activity with all immunoglobulin antisera. Reactivity with the k-light chain antiserum was detectable 2 h after trypsinization of chronic myeloid leukemic (CML) cells and 8 h after treatment of acute lymphocytic leukemic (ALL) cells. Reactivity with the antisera to heavy chain determinants and lambda-light chains could not be detected 8 and 48 h after trypsinization of CML and ALL cells, respectively. The cytotoxic activity of the immunoglobulin antisera to heavy chains was abolished by absorption with the specific immunoglobulin used to define the antisera by precipitation. Eluates (pH 3.2) prepared from leukemic cells which reacted by cytotoxicity with the immunoglobulin antisera were shown to contain immunoglobulins of different heavy chain classes. In addition, some of the eluates had cytotoxic antibody activity to human leukemia cells. The specificity of the eluted antibodies is similar to the specificity previously described for cytophilic antibodies from leukemic patients and nonhuman primate antisera to human leukemia cells. The possible in vitro detection and in vivo significance of the eluted non-complement-fixing antibodies is considered.
R S Metzgar, T Mohanakumar, D S Miller
This study was designed to elucidate the mechanism of elevation of plasma cyclic AMP in uremic man. Plasma cyclic AMP was measured in 15 normal subjects and in 18 patients with severe renal failure. In some members from both groups the kinetic parameters of the metabolism of extracellular cyclic AMP were measured. Plasma cyclic AMP was elevated from 23 nM in control subjects to 59 nM in uremic patients, regardless of the presence or absence of the kidneys or parathyroid glands. A single pass of uremic blood through a Kiil hemodialyzer decreased plasma cyclic AMP from 58 to 30 nM. The clearance of cyclic AMP by the dialyzer correlated directly with the blood flow passing through the machine. Hemodialysis for 6 h decreased plasma cyclic AMP levels in the systemic circulation by only 12%. Studies with tritiated cyclic AMP revealed a plasma clearance rate of 624 ml/min in normal subjects and of 344 ml/min in patients with uremia. Such a large decrease in plasma clearance rate cannot be explained by a failure of urinary excretion of cyclic AMP and suggests impairment of "metabolic clearance." In addition, the "plasms production rate" of cyclic AMP was 65% higher in patients with renal failure than in normal subjects. It is concluded that the elevation of plasma cyclic AMP in uremic man is due to a combination of: (a) lack of urinary excretion, (b) decreases metabolic clearance, and (c) increased production of plasma cyclic AMP.
P Hamet, D A Stouder, H E Ginn, J G Hardman, G W Liddle
Potassium has been shown to suppress plasma renin activity (PRA). This study was designed to study the role of increased aldosterone production in the mediation of such a response. Five patients with adrenal insufficiency were placed on a diet of 60 meq potassium and 100-150 meq of sodium while receiving a constant amount of cortisone acetate and Florinef. Upright PRA was determined each day for 2-3 days in the control period and then for 3-4 days after potassium intake had been increased to 200-300 meq/day. Potassium loading induced a natriuresis. Hence, patients were either sodium replaced (six studies in four patients) or allowed to become sodium depleted (three patients). Potassium loading without replacement was associated with a decrease in weight, negative sodium balance, hyperkalemia, and a positive potassium balance. PRA rose during the experimental period. Potassium loading with sodium replacement was associated with little change in weight or sodium balance. Hyperkalemia and positive potassium balance were present to the same degree as found in the studies without sodium replacement. When all PRA values are considered (both morning and evening values) there was no significant change with potassium loading (+ 1.31 ng/ml per h; range + 6.9 to -2.0). We conclude that hyperkalemia or a positive potassium balance did not suppress PRA in Addisonian man in these studies when sodium balance was maintained, nor did it prevent a rise in PRA when sodium balance was negative.
P D Miller, C Waterhouse, R Owens, E Cohen
The contribution of the intrapulmonary lobar veins to the increase in pulmonary vascular resistance in response to sympathetic stimulation was studied under conditions of controlled blood flow in the anesthetized dog in which vascular pressures were measured simultaneously in the perfused lobar artery, an intrapulmonary lobar vein 2-3 mm in diameter and in the left atrium. Stimulation of the stellate ganglia at 3, 10, and 30 cycles/s increased pressure in the lobar artery and small vein in a stimulus-related manner but decreased pressure in the left atrium. Injection of norepinephrine into the perfused lobar artery also increased pressure in the lobar artery and small vein but decreased pressure in the left atrium. The increase in lobar arterial and venous pressure in response to either injected norepinephrine or to nerve stimulation was antagonized by an alpha receptor blocking agent. The rise in pressure in both labor artery and small vein with nerve stimulation but not administered norepinephrine was inhibited by an adrenergic nerve terminal blocking agent. The results suggest that under conditions of steady flow, sympathetic nerve stimulation increases the resistance to flow in the lung by constricting pulmonary veins and vessels upstream to the small veins, and that at each stimulus-frequency studied approximately 50% of the total increase in resistance may be due to venoconstriction. It is concluded that the increase in resistance to flow in the lung in response to nerve stimulation is thre result of activation of alpha adrenergic receptors by norephinephrine liberated from adrenergic nerve terminals in venous segments and in vessels upstream to samll veins, presumed to be small arteries.
P J Kadowitz, P D Joiner, A L Hyman
COOH-terminal octapeptide of cholecystokinin (CCK-octapeptide) and the cholinergic agent carbamylcholine each produced a fourfold stimulation of calcium outflux in guinea pig isolated pancreatic acinar cells. Neither agent altered calcium influx. Stimulation of calcium outflux was rapid and specific, was abolished by reducing the incubation temperature to 4 degrees C, and was a saturable function of the secretagogue concentration. The concentrations of CCK-octapeptide and carbamylcholine that produced half-maximal stimulation of calcium outflux were 3.1 x 10(-10) M and 4.9 x 10(-5) M, respectively. The cholinergic antagonist antropine competitively inhibited carbamylcholine stimulation of calcium outflux but did not alter stimulation produced by CCK-octapeptide. Stimulation of calcium outflux by maximal concentrations of carbamycholine plus CCK-octapeptide was the same as that produced by a maximal concentration of either agent alone.Calcium outflux became refractory to stimulation by secretagogues, and incubation with either CCK-ostapeptide or carbamylcholine produced a refractoriness to both agents. The relative potencies with CCK and its related fragments stimulated calcium outflux were CCK-octapeptide greater than heptapeptide greater than CCK greater than hexapeptide = gastrin. Secretin, glucagon, and vasoactive intestinal peptide, at concentrations as high as 10(-5) M, failed to alter calcium outflux and did not affect stimulation by CCK-octapeptide or by carbamycholine.
J D Gardner, T P Conlon, H L Kleveman, T D Adams, M A Ondetti
These studies compared the ability of specific secretory IgA (sIgA) and IgG antibodies to promote phagocytosis of viable pseudomonas aeruginosa by human alveolar macrophages. Macrophages were obtained by lung lavage of normal adult smoker and nonsmoker volunteers and were maintained as in vitro cell monolayers. Both immune sIgA and IgG agglutinating antibodies were demonstrated to coat and opsonize viable bacteria, whereas similar nonimmune immunoglobulin preparations did not. When alveolar macrophages were challenged with viable opsonized 14C-labeled Pseudomonas IgG-reacted bacteria were ingested better and killed more readily than sIgA-opsonized organisms. Phagocytic responses were not significantly different between macrophages obtained from smokers and nonsmokers. Although sIgA and IgG antibodies can be found in respiratory secretions and both are undoubtedly important in pulmonary host defense, IgG opsonic antibody was superior in enhancing the uptake of Pseudomonas by in vitro-cultured alveolar macrophages. It may be the more important respiratory antibody for certain bacterial infections.
H Y Reynolds, J A Kazmierowski, H H Newball
Human T lymphocytes from patients with ragweed hay fever, when exposed to ragweed antigen E (AgE) in vitro, produced an activity that, in the presence of antigen, induced B cells from AgE-sensitive donors to synthesize and secrete IgE and IgG antibodies to AgE. Anti-AgE specificity was assessed both in vitro and in vivo. B lymphocytes from ragweed-sensitive individuals exposed in vitro to AgE alone failed to transform or to secrete antibody to AgE. The T cells activity had no effect on B cells of individuals not sensitive to AgE. The results of this study suggest that the human reaginic antibody response requires T and B cell cooperation. The experimental approach used may be a useful model for the investigation of the antibody responses of allergic individuals.
R S Geha, H R Colten, E Schneeberger, E Merler
When rats with desoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA)-induced potassium chloride deficiency are given sodium chloride there is simultaneously a partial correction of metabolic alkalosis and a marked reduction in urinary citrate excretion and renal citrate content. To examine DOCA's role in this phenomenon and to determine how sodium chloride alters renal metabolism, rats were made KC1 deficient using furosemide and a KC1-deficient diet. Renal citrate and ammonia metabolism were then studied after chronic oral sodium chloride administration or acute volume expansion with isotonic mannitol. Although both maneuvers partially corrected metabolic alkalosis, sodium chloride raised serum chloride concentration while mannitol significantly decreased it. Urinary citrate excretion decreased to 10% of control in rats given NaCl and to 50% of control in rats infused with mannitol. The filtered load of citrate was constant or increased indicating increased tubular citrate reabsorption. Renal cortical citrate content also decreased approximately 50%. Renal cortical slices from KCl-deficient rats incubated in low or normal chloride media produced equal amounts of 14CO2 from (1, 5-14C) citrate. In addition, urinary ammonia excretion increased by over 300% in both groups. This occurred in the mannitol group despite increased urinary pH and flow rate indicating a rise in renal ammonia production. It seems that neither DOCA nor an increase in serum chloride concentration explains the experimental results. Rather, it appears that volume expansion is responsible for increased renal tubular citrate reabsorption and renal ammonia production. As these renal metabolic responses ordinarily occur in response to acidosis, the data are consistent with the hypothesis that volume expansion reduces renal cell pH in 3KCl-deficient rats.
S Adler, B Zett, B Anderson, D S Fraley
The saluretic effect of the thiazide diuretics has been attributed to inhibition of sodium reabsorption in the distal nephron of the kidney. Recent micropuncture studies have shown, however, that chlorothiazide administration can also inhibit sodium reabsorption in the proximal convolution. To clarify the site of the saluretic effect of chlorothiazide, these micropuncture studies examined the effect of chlorothiazide on chloride transport in the nephron. The effect of chlorothiazide on chloride transport was studied because chlorothiazide's effectiveness as a saluretic is largely due to its ability to enhance sodium chloride excretion; if only changes in sodium transport are examined, it would be then difficult to determine if sodium as bicarbonate or as chloride is affected, since chlorothiazide can inhibit carbonic anhydrase. One group of rats was studied before and after 15 mg/kg per h chlorothiazide. For comparison, another group of rats was studied before and after 2 mg/kg per h benzolamide, a carbonic anhydrase inhibitor. Fractional chloride delivery from the proximal tubule was similarly increased in both groups from 59.4 to 71.0% by chlorothiazide administration, Pless than 0.0001, and from 54.3 to 68.2% by benzolamide administration, P less than 0.001. The increased delivery very of chloride from the proximal tubule was largely reabsorbed before the early distal tubule as fractional chloride delivery to this site increased only from 5.08 to 7.40% after chlorothiazide administration, P less than 0.001, and from 4.50 to 6.29% after benzolamide administration, P less than 0.01. Benzolamide had no effect on chloride reabsorption in the distal convoluted tubule. However, chlorothiazide administration resulted in a marked decrease in distal tubular chloride reabsorption, the fraction of filtered chloride present at the late distal tubule incresing from 1.24 to 6.25%, P less than 0.001. Fractional chloride excretion in the urine increased from 0.29 to 3.44%, P less than 0.001, after chlorothiazide, but did not change after benzolamide. The influence of chlorothiazide on proximal chloride transport presumably is related to its ability to inhibit renal carbonic anhydrase. However, it is not the effect of chlorothiazide in the proximal convolution but rather its effect in the distal convoluted tubule which is primarily responsible for its ability to be an effective saliuretic.
R T Kunau Jr, D R Weller, H L Webb
The effects of osteoclast activating factor (OAF) released by normal human peripheral blood leukocytes cultured with phytohemagglutinin have been examined in organ culture. Like parathyroid hormone (PTH), OAF causes a rapid increased in the release of previously incorporated 45Ca from fetal rat bone after brief or continuous exposure; the bones also lose stable calcium and collagen content. The resorption response to OAF also resembles that of PTH in having a steep dose response curve and being only transiently inhibited by calcitonin and partially inhibited by increasing medium phosphate concentration. OAF-stimulated resorption was inhibited more effectively by cortisol than was PTH stimulation. The response to maximally effective doses of OAF was not enhanced by PTH or prostaglandin E2, but submaximal doses gave additive effects. Both OAF and PTH inhibit collagen synthesis in fetal rat calvaria at the concentrations that stimulate bone resorption.
L G Raisz, R A Luben, G R Mundy, J W Dietrich, J E Horton, C L Trummel
In patients with chronic renal failure, NaHCO3 therapy may correct or prevent acidemia. It has been proposed that the NaHCO3 required will not result in clinically significant Na retention comparable to that from similar increases in NaC1 intake. In each of ten patients with chronic renal failure, creatinine clearance (Ccr) range 2.5-16.8 ml/min, on an estimated 10-meq Na and C1 diet, electrolyte excretion was compared on NaHCO3 vs NaC1 supplements of 200 meq/day. Periods of NaHCO3 and NaC1 (in alternate order for successive patients) lasted 4 days, separated by reequilibration to base-line weight. Mean +/- SEM excretion (ex) of Na, C1, and HCO3 and deltaCcr and deltaweight (day 4-1) are compared below for the 4th day of NaC1 vs. NaHCO3 intake. Mean Ccr +/-SEM on day 4 of NaC1 and NaHCO3 were 10.8 +/-1.6 and 9.0 +/-1.4 ml/min, respectively (P less than 0.02). Mean systolic blood pressure (but not diastolic) increased significantly on NaC1 (P less than 0.05). No significant blood pressure changes were seen on NaHCO3. Net positive HCO3 balance occurred on NaHCO3 as indicated above and reflected a rise in mean serum HCO3 from 19 to 30 meq/liter (day 1 vs. 4) (P less than 0.01). Mechanisms for the greater excretion of Na on NaHCO3 may relate to C1 wasting as noted above on low C1 intake and limited HCO3 reabsorptive capacity. Thus, Na excretion by day 4 was greater on NaHCO3 than on NaHCO3 did Na excretion near intake (210 meq/day).
F C Husted, K D Nolph, J F Maher
These studies were undertaken to examine whether an antagonism between vasopressin and prostaglandin occurs in vivo in the mammalian kidney. All experiments were performed in steroid-replaced hypophysectonized dogs undergoing a water diuresis. In the first group of studied the effect of two consecutive intravenous doses (100 mU) of vasopressin was examined. The second dose of vasopressin was preceded by an injection of the carrier solution for solubilizing indomethacin or neclofenamate. No enhancement of the antidiuretic effect of the second dose of vasopressin was observed as urinary osmolality (Uosm) increased from 92 +/- 5 to 252 +/- 18 mosmol/kg H2O (P less than 0.0001) after the first dose and from 109 +/- 8 to 209 +/- 10 mosmol/kg H2O (P less than 0.001) after the second dose of vasopressin. In another group of studies the second dose of vasopressin was preceded by the administration of a potent inhibitor of prostaglandin synthesis, indomethacin (2 mg/kg). The Uosm increased from 93 +/- 9 to 244 +/- 33 mosmol/kg H2O (P less than 0.001) after the first dose of vasopressin, but after the second dose of vasopressin the Uosm increased to a significantly greater degree from 106 +/- 14 to 702 +/- 69 mosmol/kg H2O (P less than 0.001). In a third group of studies the antidiuretic effect of the same 100-mU dose of vasopressin was examined before and after the administration of meclofenamate (2 mg/kg), an inhibitor of prostaglandin synthesis which is chemically dissimilar from indomethacin. Uosm increased from 83+/-7 to 216+/-16 mosmol/kg H2O (P less than 0.001) after the first dose and from 101 +/- 8 to 734 +/- 86 mosomol/kg H2O (P less than 0.001) after the second dose of vasopressin. As in the indomethacin studies this enhancement in the antidiuretic effects of vasopressin after inhibition of prostaglanding synthesis was highly significant (P less than 0.001). These results therefore implicate a physiological role of prostaglandin in modulating the hydroosmotic effect of vasopressin in the mammalian kidney.
R J Anderson, T Berl, K D McDonald, R W Schrier
Renal biopsies and sera from 41 consecutive patients were studied to determine if antiglobulins were found more frequently in patients with severely diseased glomeruli. Patients were classified into three groups: A, 12 patients with normal renal function and minimal histological evidence of glomerular disease; B, 18 patients with normal renal function but distinctly abnormal biopsies (16 cases) or proteinuria greater than 16 g/24 h (2 cases); and C, 11 patients with both decreased function and abnormal histology. Positive latex fixation tests for rheumatoid factor were found in none of group A, four (22%) of group B, and five (45%) of group C patients. Sera heated 56 degrees C for 30 min contained precipitins reactive with heat-aggregated IgG in none of seven group A, five of ten (50%) group B, and four of ten (40%) group C patients. The quantity of 135I-labeled patient globulin which bound to immunoadsorbents coated with Cohn fraction II in competition with an equal quantity of 131I-labeled globulin from pooled plasma of normal donors was also measured. Patient globulins bound in significantly greater quantity (greater than or equal 2 SD) than the control in none of the group A, 7 of 18 (39%) group B, and 7 of 11 (64%) group C patients. Renal biopsies from 18 patients were also studied for the ability to fix fluorescein-conjugated heat-aggregated and native human IgG. None of nine tissue specimens from group A or B patients fixed either fluorescein-conjugated protein whereas tissue from eight of nine group C patients showed glomerular localization of one or both reagents. Severity of disease as judged by renal function and glomerular histology correlated with the presence of tissue-fixed and serum antiglobulins. Thus, detection of antiglobulins in glomeruli and sera of patients with glomerulonephritis may indicate a relatively poor prognosis and raises the possibility that antiglobulins may be implicated in some way in the pathophysiology of human glomerulonephritis.
R D Rossen, M A Reisberg, J T Sharp, W N Sucki, F X Schloeder, L L Hill, G Eknoyan
Thrombin converts fibrinogen to fibrin monomer by cleaving fibrinopeptides A and B (FPA and FPB) from the amino terminal ends of the A (alpha) and B (beta) chains. A radioimmunoassay capable of measuring the A peptide in human blood as an index of thrombin action in vivo has been described previously. This paper describes the development of a radioimmunoassay for FPB and the use of both assays in the demonstration of distinctive patterns of cleavage of the amino terminal ends of the A (alha) and B (beta) chains of fibrinogen by various enzymes. Antisera were raised in rabbits to a synthetic analogue of FPB coupled to bovine serum albumin. FPB analogue was couple to desaminotyrosine and radiolabeled with 125I by the chloramine-T technique. The radiolabeled peptide was bound by the antiserum, and binding was inhibited by synthetic or native FPB. Unbound tracer was separated from bound tracer by charcoal adsorption. The senistivity of the assay was such that 50% inhibition of binding of the tracer was caused by 1.25 ng of the native FPB. Fibrinogen was treated with thrombin, plasmin, trypsin, Reptilase, and an extract of the venom from Ancistrodon contortrix contortrix (ACC). After ethanol precipitation and centrifugation, dialysates of enzymatically altered fibrinogen were assayed for FPA and FPB. The action of thrombin on fibrinogen resulted in a rapid release of FPA and a slower release of FPB. Plasmin cleaved a segment(s) of the B (beta) chain which included FPB but cleaved no detectable FPA-containing material for the first 2 h of incubation. In the case of plasmin-treated fibrinogen, the dialysates had been further treated with thrombin before being assayed for FPA and FPB. Trypsin rapidly cleaved both peptides, the B before the A. Reptilase cleaved only FPA in 24 h. ACC cleaved FPB at a rapid rate, with a slowere cleavage of FPA. The distinctive cleavage patterns produced by the serine proteases may be useful in interpreting the levels of FPA and FPB measured in human blood and in studying the generation of FPA and FPB in clinical blood samples.
S B Bilezikian, H L Nossel, V P Butler Jr, R E Canfield
This study shows that tritiated thymidine labeled DNA prepared from mammalian cells by the Marmur technique is a pure preparation of nucleic acid that is composed essentially of two populations of molecules. One molecular population consists of primarily double-standed nucleic acid, while the other population is of double-stranded nucleic acid with significant single-stranded regions. The double-stranded DNA with single-stranded regions can, depending upon the length of the single strand, behave as "native" DNA or "denatured" DNA on methylated albumin kieselguhr (MAK) column chromatography, Using MAK chromatography we have separated the DNA into a saltelutable fraction composed of primarily double-stranded molecules and an alkaline-elutable fraction containing double-stranded nucleic acid with variable length, single-stranded regions. Endonuclease enzyme removal of the single-stranded regions from the alkaline fraction DNA yield nucleic acid that behaves identically to the salt elutable DNA. Exonuclease removal of the single-stranded regions suggests they are located primarily at the ends of the molecules. Our data show that the alkaline-elutable DNA differs from salt-elutable DNA only in that the former has significant single-stranded regions. Sera of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) selected for anti-DNA by hemagglutination bind significantly less to the alkaline fraction DNA than the sale fraction DNA. This difference in binding clearly does not represent simply an affinity for double-stranded vs. single-stranded nucleic acid since the alkaline fraction DNA contains predominately double-stranded nucleic acid. A model for antibody-DNA binding is suggested from the present data and information contained in the literature.
R J Samaha, W S Irvin
Evidence for the presence of immune complexes in blood, synovial fluid, and tisues of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) includes low complement levels in blood and effusions, deposition of immunoreactants in tissues and vessel walls, precipitate formation after addition of monoclonal rheumatoid factor (mRF) to serum or synovial fluid. To quantitate immune complex-like material in RA patients, we developed a radioimmunoassay based on inhibition by test samples of the interaction of (125I)aggregated IgG (agg IgG) and mRF coupled to cellulose. This method could measure immune complexes of human antibody with hemocyanine prepared in vitro. The assay was not influenced by presence of polyclonal RF in test samples, nor by freezing and thawing. Normal levels of immune complex-like material in serum were less than 25 mug agg IgG EQ/ML. 12 of 51 RA sera examined (26%) contained more than 25 mug/ml. The presence of this material in RA sera was found to correlate with severity of disease, as measured by anatomical stage and functional class. There was an inverse correlation of the material with serum C4 level. Rheumatoid synovial fluids generally contained higher levels than serum, and five of 23 contained very much higher levels. The frequency of elevated levels of immune complex-like material in sera of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (2 of 29) and with miscellaneous vasculitides (2 of 21 was much lower than in RA, suggesting that mRF exhibits a specificity for only certain kinds of immune complexes. The reason for this apparent specificity may explain such distinctive features of RA as the high frequency of polyclonal RF, the lack of immune complex nephritis, and the generally normal levels of serum complement.
H S Luthra, F C McDuffie, G G Hunder, E A Samayoa
Irradiated leukocytes or mononuclear leukocytes, from 16 out of 30 patients with Hodgkin's disease and from one patient with the Sézary syndrome, stimulated in culture subnormal (3H)thymidine incorporation by allogeneic lymphocytes from normal individuals. This abnormality was not demonstrated in any of 30 other patients with non-Hodgkin's lymphomas. Subnormal mixed leukocyte culture reaction activation was caused by suppression of the mixed leukocyte reaction by patients' cells. Inhibition of the reaction by patient mononuclear leukocytes was corrected when adherent cells were removed or when protein synthesis was inhibited with cycloheximide. The inhibitory cells were probably lymphocytes since selective removal of phagocytic cells did not remove the inhibition by other patient mononuclear leukocytes. The presence in culture of as few as 2,500 granulocytes per mm3 also reduced responses when target cells were from patients with Hodgkin's disease. Patient cells no longer suppressed the mixed leukocyte reaction after patients entered clinical remission which suggests that suppression is a reversible, disease-related abnormality. Thus, the immune deficiency with advance Hodgkin's disease caused by ly lymphocyte depletion may be compounded by a relative excess of suppressor lymphocytes. The overall immunodeficiency may be further compounded by suppression of immune response by granulocytes at even physiologic concentrations.
J J Twomey, A H Laughter, S Farrow, C C Douglass
The mechanical characteristics of the circular muscle of the human lower esophageal sphincter and esophagus were studied in subjects with competent and incompetent sphincters. Pressure-diameter curves were constructed by producing various degrees of circumferential stretch with pressure-measuring probes of increasing diameter. The circumferential membrane tension (force of closure) and the circumferential stress (muscle tension) of the circular muscle layer were also calculated from these data. The pressure-diameter curves of competent and incompetent sphincters were different in magnitude and shape. Incompetent sphincters had lower pressures at all diameters, with pressure gradually increasing with larger probe diameter. In contrast for competent sphincters the pressure was highest near closure, with an initial decline and then an increase in pressure with increasing probe diameter. Both shape and magnitude of pressure-diameter curves of competent and incompetent sphincters were interchangeable when manipulated by pharmacologic agents. Urecholine increased the pressures and changed the incompetent pressure-diameter curve to the levels of the competent sphincter; conversely. Pro-Banthine decreased pressures and changed the shape of the competent pressure-diameter curve to the levels of the incompetent sphincter. Force of closure and circular muscle tension curves of competent and incompetent sphincters were similar in shape but were higher at all diameters for competent sphincters. Force of closure and circular muscle tension increased with larger probe diameter. However, the diameter of optimal tension development was larger than the largest probe used and certainly far from closure. Fundoplication increased the magnitude and changed the shape of the incompetent pressure-diameter curve to one similar to a competent curve. This pressure change was associated with an increase in the force of closure, suggesting that fundopliation modified the length-force of closure characteristics of the incompetent spincter.
P Biancani, M P Zabinski, J Behar
A comparison study of several vasoconstrictor and vasodilator agents was conducted measuring changes in intestinal blood flow and oxygen consumption during 10-min periods of intra-arterial infusion. Blood flow was measured in a branch of the superior mesenteric artery of anesthetized dogs with an electromagnetic blood flow meter, and the arteriovenous oxygen content difference across the gut segment was determined photometrically. Vasopressin (4 x 10(-3) and 7x 10(-4) U/kg-min) diminished blood flow 60 and 28% and reduced oxygen consumption 54 and 22%, respectively (all P less than 0.001). In a dose which did not lower blood flow, vasopressin still caused a decline in oxygen consumption (P less than 0.01). Epinephrine (5 x 10(-2) mug/kg-min) decreased blood flow 19% (P less than 0.001) but did not reduce oxygen consumption. After beta-adrenergic blockade, however, the same dose of epinephrine decreased blood flow 41% and oxygen consumption 33% (both P less than 0.001). Responses to angiotension II, calcium chloride, and prostaglandin F2alpha resembled effects of vasopressin rather than those of epinephrine, namely decreased blood flow and decreased oxygen consumption. The vasodilator agents, prostaglandin E1, is isoproterenol, and histamine, increased (P less than 0.001) both blood flow (130, 80, and 98%, respectively) and oxygen consumption (98, 64, and 70%, respectively). Vasopressin, angiotensin II, calcium chloride, and prostaglandin F2alpha appear to contract arteriolar and precapillary sphincteric smooth muscle indiscriminately to evoke both intestinal ischemia and hypoxia. Epinephrine is the exceptional constrictor in this case, producing diminished blood flow without a reduction in oxygen uptake.
W Pawlik, A P Shepherd, E D Jacobson
Treatment of human platelets with purified bovine Factor VIII caused three types of aggregation: (a) primary agglutination; (b) secondary aggregation involving the platelet release reaction; and (c) super-aggregation, in which the platelets were gathered into only a few large clumps. Removal of calcium ions or treatment with p-hydroxymercuiriphenyl sulfonate blocked the release reaction, but not primary agglutination or super-aggregation. Platelets treated with formalin were not aggregated by ADP, thrombin, or collagen, but were agglutinated by bovine Factor VIII, although they did not show super-aggregation. For malin-treated platelets were agglutinated by phytohemagglutinin P less extensively and less rapidly than by bovine Factor VIII. Treatment of platelets and Factor VIII with neuraminidase released 60 and 53%, respectively, of the sialic acid residues without affecting the agglutination reaction or the procoagulant activity of the Factor VIII. Agglutination was inhibited by high salt concentrations, dextran sulfate, and heparin. During agglutination, both the procoagulant and platelet-agglutinating activities of Factor VIII became bound to the platelet surface.
E P Kirby, D C Mills
Bacterial infection may complicate pulmonary oxygen (O2) toxicity, and animals exposed to high O2 concentrations show depressed in vivo pulmonary bacterial inactivation. Therefore, in vitro studies were undertaken to define the mechanism by which O2 alters pulmonary antibacterial activity. Normal and BCG pretreated rabbits were exposed to 100% O2 for 24, 48, and 72-h periods. Pulmonary alveolar macrophages (PAM) were obtained from the experimental animals and from nonoxygen exposed controls by bronchopulmonary lavage. O2 exposure did not alter cell yield or morphology. PAMs were suspended in 10% serum-buffer, and phagocytosis of (14C)Staphylococcus aureus 502A and (14C)Pseudomonas aeruginosa was measured. Comparison of the precent uptake of the 14C-labeled S. aureus after a 60-min incubation period demonstrated that normal PAMs exposed to O2 for 48 h showed a statistically significant increase in phagocytosis when compared to their controls (43.5 vs. 29.2%). A similar, but smaller increase was seen after 24-h O2 exposures. 48 and 72-h O2 exposures produced no significant changes in phagocytosis in PAMs from BCG-stimulated rabbits. Normal PAMs also showed an increased phagocytosis of Ps. aeruginosa after 48-h oxygen exposure. No impairment of in vitro bactericidal activity against either S. aureus 502A or Ps. aeruginosa could be demonstrated in PAMs from normal rabbits exposed to O2 for 48 h. These results indicate that the in vitrophagocytic and bactericidal capacity of the rabbit PAM is relatively resistant to the toxic effects of oxygen, and that imparied in vivo activity may possibly be mediated by effects other than irreversible metabolic damage to these cells. The mechanism for the observed stimulation of phagocytosis remains to be determined.
S A Murphey, J S Hyams, A B Fisher, R K Root
Circulating DNA has been associated with several human disorders, including the nephritis of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), in which it is thought to play an etiological role. However, it remains unclear whether its appearance in the circulation is truly pathological. Several reports, each generally based on a single assay method, have disagreed as to whether DNA may circulate in normals. Some, but not all, of this disagreement may be explained by the recently described appearance of DNA in serum, but not plasma, apparently as the result of release from leukocytes in vitro. In the present report an attempt is made to clarify this problem. Normal plasma and serum samples were examined by four assays for DNA that were newly modified to enhance their specificity and/or sensitivity. Plasma DNA was undetectable by all four methods, the most sensitive of which could detect 0.05 mug/ml of native DNA (nDNA) or 0.1 mug/ml of single-stranded DNA (ssDNA). Serum DNA was present in 14 of 16 samples tested in variable concentrations with an estimated mean of 1.9 mug/ml. It is concluded that the appearance of DNA in adult human plasma is a pathological event. Presumably, previous reports describing detection of DNA in normal plasma were based on the measurement of non-DNAase-sensitive interfering substance. Furthermore, it is emphasized that the use of serum in studies dependent on sensitive assays for DNA (or anti-DNA antibody) introduces an ambiguity that may be avoided by substitution of carefully collected plasma for serum.
C R Steinman
In hypophysectomized rats given dietary regimens either rich or deficient in iodine, the increase in thyroid cyclic AMP concentration induced acutely by a single dose of TSH was significantly less in iodine-enriched than in iodine-deficient animals. Direct assays revealed that this difference was because the thyroid adenylate cyclase response to TSH was less in the iodine-enriched animals, phosphodiesterase activity being no different in the two groups. This effect may explain the inhibitory action of dietary iodine enrichment on diverse functional and anatomical responses of the thyroid to TSH.
B Rapoport, M N West, S H Ingbar