Chia, Wang and colleagues report that HMGA1 induces FGF19 to drive pancreatic carcinogenesis and stroma formation, demonstrating that FGF19 receptor blockade decreases both tumorigenesis and desmoplasia in murine models of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. The cover image shows a dense desmoplastic stroma within a pancreatic tumor from a KPC mouse model with both Hmga1 alleles intact stained for podoplanin (green), α-smooth muscle actin (red), and nuclei (blue).
Xi Chen, Ajit Varki
Connexins are crucial cardiac proteins that form hemichannels and gap junctions. Gap junctions are responsible for the propagation of electrical and chemical signals between myocardial cells and cells of the specialized conduction system in order to synchronize the cardiac cycle and steer cardiac pump function. Gap junctions are normally open, while hemichannels are closed, but pathological circumstances may close gap junctions and open hemichannels, thereby perturbing cardiac function and homeostasis. Current evidence demonstrates an emerging role of hemichannels in myocardial ischemia and arrhythmia, and tools are now available to selectively inhibit hemichannels without inhibiting gap junctions as well as to stimulate hemichannel incorporation into gap junctions. We review available experimental evidence for hemichannel contributions to cellular pro-arrhythmic events in ventricular and atrial cardiomyocytes, and link these to insights at the level of molecular control of connexin-43–based hemichannel opening. We conclude that a double-edged approach of both preventing hemichannel opening and preserving gap junctional function will be key for further research and development of new connexin-based experimental approaches for treating heart disease.
Luc Leybaert, Maarten A.J. De Smet, Alessio Lissoni, Rosalie Allewaert, H. Llewelyn Roderick, Geert Bultynck, Mario Delmar, Karin R. Sipido, Katja Witschas
HIV-1 replication can be suppressed with antiretroviral therapy (ART), but individuals who stop taking ART soon become viremic again. Some people experience extended times of detectable viremia despite optimal adherence to ART. In this issue of the JCI, White, Wu, and coauthors elucidate a source of nonsuppressible viremia (NSV) in treatment-adherent patients — clonally expanded T cells harboring HIV-1 proviruses with small deletions or mutations in the 5′-leader, the UTR that includes the major splice donor site of viral RNA. These mutations altered viral RNA-splicing efficiency and RNA dimerization and packaging, yet still allowed production of detectable levels of noninfectious virus particles. These particles lacked the HIV-1 Env surface protein required for cell entry and failed to form the mature capsid cone required for infectivity. These studies improve our understanding of NSV and the regulation of viral functions in the 5′-leader with implications for rationalized care in individuals with NSV.
Ann Emery, Sarah B. Joseph, Ronald Swanstrom
A subset of the neurodegenerative disease frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) is caused by mutations in the progranulin (GRN) gene. In this issue of the JCI, Marsan and colleagues demonstrate disease-specific transcriptional profiles in multiple glial cell lineages — astrocytes, microglia, and oligodendroglia — that are highly conserved between patients with FTLD-GRN and the widely used Grn–/– mouse model. Additionally, the authors show that Grn–/– astrocytes fail to adequately maintain synapses in both mouse and human models. This study presents a compelling argument for a central role for glia in neurodegeneration and creates a rich resource for extending mechanistic insight into pathophysiology, identifying potential biomarkers, and developing therapeutic approaches.
Emile S. Pinarbasi, Sami J. Barmada
Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the causative agent of tuberculosis (TB), infects primarily macrophages, causing them to differentiate into lipid-laden foamy macrophages that are a primary source of tissue destruction in patients with TB. In this issue of the JCI, Bedard et al. demonstrate that 1-tuberculosinyladenosine, a virulence factor produced by M. tuberculosis, caused lysosomal dysfunction associated with lipid storage in the phagolysosome of macrophages in a manner that mimicked lysosomal storage diseases. This work sheds light on how M. tuberculosis manipulates host lipid metabolism for its survival and opens avenues toward host-directed therapy against TB.
Yoann Rombouts, Olivier Neyrolles
COVID-19 in immunocompromised hosts has emerged as a difficult therapeutic management problem. Immunocompromised hosts mount weak responses to SARS-CoV-2 and manifest infection outcomes ranging from severe disease to persistent infection. Weakened immune systems mean greater viral loads and increased opportunities for viral evolution. Gupta, Konnova, et al. report the emergence of resistant SARS-CoV-2 variants in immunocompromised patients after monoclonal antibody (mAb) therapy. mAbs target only a single determinant in the viral Spike protein, which is a weakness of such therapy when treating a mutagenic and variable virus. Hence, the emergence of mAb resistance could have been anticipated, but its documentation is important because it has major public health implications, since such resistant variants have the potential to spread and escape vaccine immunity. For immunocompromised patients, these findings suggest the need for combination therapy with antiviral drugs and the use of polyclonal antibody preparations such as convalescent plasma.
Arturo Casadevall, Daniele Focosi
Alice E. Hughes, Elisa De Franco, Rachel M. Freathy, Fetal Insulin and Growth Consortium, Sarah E. Flanagan, Andrew T. Hattersley
Uncontrolled inflammation occurred in sepsis results in multiple organ injuries and shock, which contributes to the death of patients with sepsis. However, the regulatory mechanisms that restrict excessive inflammation are still elusive. Here, we identified an Ig-like receptor called signaling lymphocyte activation molecular family 7 (SLAMF7) as a key suppressor of inflammation during sepsis. We found that the expression of SLAMF7 on monocytes/macrophages was significantly elevated in patients with sepsis and in septic mice. SLAMF7 attenuated TLR-dependent MAPK and NF-κB signaling activation in macrophages by cooperating with Src homology 2–containing inositol-5′‑phosphatase 1 (SHIP1). Furthermore, SLAMF7 interacted with SHIP1 and TNF receptor–associated factor 6 (TRAF6) to inhibit K63 ubiquitination of TRAF6. In addition, we found that tyrosine phosphorylation sites within the intracellular domain of SLAMF7 and the phosphatase domain of SHIP1 were indispensable for the interaction between SLAMF7, SHIP1, and TRAF6 and SLAMF7-mediated modulation of cytokine production. Finally, we demonstrated that SLAMF7 protected against lethal sepsis and endotoxemia by downregulating macrophage proinflammatory cytokines and suppressing inflammation-induced organ damage. Taken together, our findings reveal a negative regulatory role of SLAMF7 in polymicrobial sepsis, thus providing sights into the treatment of sepsis.
Yongjian Wu, Qiaohua Wang, Miao Li, Juanfeng Lao, Huishu Tang, Siqi Ming, Minhao Wu, Sitang Gong, Linhai Li, Lei Liu, Xi Huang
High mobility group A1 (HMGA1) chromatin regulators are upregulated in diverse tumors where they portend adverse outcomes, although how they function in cancer remains unclear. Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas (PDACs) are highly lethal tumors characterized by dense desmoplastic stroma composed predominantly of cancer-associated fibroblasts and fibrotic tissue. Here, we uncover an epigenetic program whereby HMGA1 upregulates FGF19 during tumor progression and stroma formation. HMGA1 deficiency disrupts oncogenic properties in vitro while impairing tumor inception and progression in KPC mice and subcutaneous or orthotopic models of PDAC. RNA sequencing revealed HMGA1 transcriptional networks governing proliferation and tumor-stroma interactions, including the FGF19 gene. HMGA1 directly induces FGF19 expression and increases its protein secretion by recruiting active histone marks (H3K4me3, H3K27Ac). Surprisingly, disrupting FGF19 via gene silencing or the FGFR4 inhibitor BLU9931 recapitulates most phenotypes observed with HMGA1 deficiency, decreasing tumor growth and formation of a desmoplastic stroma in mouse models of PDAC. In human PDAC, overexpression of HMGA1 and FGF19 defines a subset of tumors with extremely poor outcomes. Our results reveal what we believe is a new paradigm whereby HMGA1 and FGF19 drive tumor progression and stroma formation, thus illuminating FGF19 as a rational therapeutic target for a molecularly defined PDAC subtype.
Lionel Chia, Bowen Wang, Jung-Hyun Kim, Li Z. Luo, Shuai Shuai, Iliana Herrera, Sophia Y. Chen, Liping Li, Lingling Xian, Tait Huso, Mohammad Heydarian, Karen Reddy, Woo Jung Sung, Shun Ishiyama, Gongbo Guo, Elizabeth Jaffee, Lei Zheng, Leslie M. Cope, Kathy Gabrielson, Laura Wood, Linda Resar
Tick bites have been shown to transmit a novel form of severe food allergy, the galactose-α-1,3-galactose (α-Gal) syndrome (AGS). Cellular responses to α-Gal in patients with AGS have, to date, not been thoroughly scrutinized. Therefore, we investigated T and B cell proliferation, activation, and cytokine profiles in response to tick protein extract (TE) and α-Gal-free TE in patients with AGS and in healthy controls. T and B cells from both patients and controls proliferated in response to TE, but significantly more in patients with AGS. B cell proliferation, but not T cell proliferation, in patients with AGS was reduced by removing α-Gal from the TE. In addition, TE induced a clear Th2 cytokine profile in patients with AGS. Expression of CD23 by B cells correlated only to T cell proliferation. However, both B cell proliferation and CD23 expression were reduced when CD40L and IL-4 were blocked. A large portion of the IgG1 and IgE antibodies binding TE in patients with AGS were directed against the α-Gal epitope. We have, for what we believe to be the first time, investigated T and B cell responses to α-Gal carrying tick proteins in patients with AGS, which will be essential for the understanding of the immune response against an allergenic carbohydrate transmitted by ticks.
Danijela Apostolovic, Jeanette Grundström, Mensiena B. Gea Kiewiet, Marija Perusko, Carl Hamsten, Maria Starkhammar, Staffan Paulie, Marianne van Hage
Treatment options for alcohol use disorders (AUDs) have minimally advanced since 2004, while the annual deaths and economic toll have increased alarmingly. Phosphodiesterase type 4 (PDE4) is associated with alcohol and nicotine dependence. PDE4 inhibitors were identified as a potential AUD treatment using a bioinformatics approach. We prioritized a newer PDE4 inhibitor, apremilast, as ideal for repurposing (i.e., FDA approved for psoriasis, low incidence of adverse events, excellent safety profile) and tested it using multiple animal strains and models, as well as in a human phase IIa study. We found that apremilast reduced binge-like alcohol intake and behavioral measures of alcohol motivation in mouse models of genetic risk for drinking to intoxication. Apremilast also reduced excessive alcohol drinking in models of stress-facilitated drinking and alcohol dependence. Using site-directed drug infusions and electrophysiology, we uncovered that apremilast may act to lessen drinking in mice by increasing neural activity in the nucleus accumbens, a key brain region in the regulation of alcohol intake. Importantly, apremilast (90 mg/d) reduced excessive drinking in non–treatment-seeking individuals with AUD in a double-blind, placebo-controlled study. These results demonstrate that apremilast suppresses excessive alcohol drinking across the spectrum of AUD severity.
Kolter B. Grigsby, Regina A. Mangieri, Amanda J. Roberts, Marcelo F. Lopez, Evan J. Firsick, Kayla G. Townsley, Alan Beneze, Jessica Bess, Toby K. Eisenstein, Joseph J. Meissler, John M. Light, Jenny Miller, Susan Quello, Farhad Shadan, Michael Skinner, Heather C. Aziz, Pamela Metten, Richard A. Morrisett, John C. Crabbe, Marisa Roberto, Howard C. Becker, Barbara J. Mason, Angela R. Ozburn
Myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) are characterized by the activated JAK2/STAT pathway. Pleckstrin-2 (Plek2) is a downstream target of the JAK2/STAT5 pathway and is overexpressed in patients with MPNs. We previously revealed that Plek2 plays critical roles in the pathogenesis of JAK2-mutated MPNs. The nonessential roles of Plek2 under physiologic conditions make it an ideal target for MPN therapy. Here, we identified first-in-class Plek2 inhibitors through an in silico high-throughput screening approach and cell-based assays, followed by the synthesis of analogs. Plek2-specific small-molecule inhibitors showed potent inhibitory effects on cell proliferation. Mechanistically, Plek2 interacts with and enhances the activity of Akt through the recruitment of downstream effector proteins. The Plek2-signaling complex also includes Hsp72, which protects Akt from degradation. These functions were blocked by Plek2 inhibitors via their direct binding to the Plek2 dishevelled, Egl-10 and pleckstrin (DEP) domain. The role of Plek2 in activating Akt signaling was further confirmed in vivo using a hematopoietic-specific Pten-knockout mouse model. We next tested Plek2 inhibitors alone or in combination with an Akt inhibitor in various MPN mouse models, which showed significant therapeutic efficacies similar to that seen with the genetic depletion of Plek2. The Plek2 inhibitor was also effective in reducing proliferation of CD34-positive cells from MPN patients. Our studies reveal a Plek2/Akt complex that drives cell proliferation and can be targeted by a class of antiproliferative compounds for MPN therapy.
Xu Han, Yang Mei, Rama K. Mishra, Honghao Bi, Atul D. Jain, Gary E. Schiltz, Baobing Zhao, Madina Sukhanova, Pan Wang, Arabela A. Grigorescu, Patricia C. Weber, John J. Piwinski, Miguel A. Prado, Joao A. Paulo, Len Stephens, Karen E. Anderson, Charles S. Abrams, Jing Yang, Peng Ji
Pathogens and inflammatory conditions rapidly induce the expression of immune-responsive gene 1 (IRG1) in cells of myeloid lineage. IRG1 encodes an aconitate decarboxylase (ACOD1) that produces the immunomodulatory metabolite itaconate (ITA). In addition to rapid intracellular accumulation, ITA is also secreted from the cell, but whether secreted ITA functions as a signaling molecule is unclear. Here, we identified ITA as an orthosteric agonist of the GPCR OXGR1, with an EC50 of approximately 0.3 mM, which was in the same range as the physiological concentration of extracellular ITA upon macrophage activation. ITA activated OXGR1 to induce Ca2+ mobilization, ERK phosphorylation, and endocytosis of the receptor. In a mouse model of pulmonary infection with bacterial Pseudomonas aeruginosa, ITA stimulated Oxgr1-dependent mucus secretion and transport in respiratory epithelium, the primary innate defense mechanism of the airway. Our study thus identifies ITA as a bona fide ligand for OXGR1 and the ITA/OXGR1 paracrine signaling pathway during the pulmonary innate immune response.
Yi-Rong Zeng, Jun-Bin Song, Dezheng Wang, Zi-Xuan Huang, Cheng Zhang, Yi-Ping Sun, Gang Shu, Yue Xiong, Kun-Liang Guan, Dan Ye, Pu Wang
Induction of lipid-laden foamy macrophages is a cellular hallmark of tuberculosis (TB) disease, which involves the transformation of infected phagolysosomes from a site of killing into a nutrient-rich replicative niche. Here, we show that a terpenyl nucleoside shed from Mycobacterium tuberculosis, 1-tuberculosinyladenosine (1-TbAd), caused lysosomal maturation arrest and autophagy blockade, leading to lipid storage in M1 macrophages. Pure 1-TbAd, or infection with terpenyl nucleoside–producing M. tuberculosis, caused intralysosomal and peribacillary lipid storage patterns that matched both the molecules and subcellular locations known in foamy macrophages. Lipidomics showed that 1-TbAd induced storage of triacylglycerides and cholesterylesters and that 1-TbAd increased M. tuberculosis growth under conditions of restricted lipid access in macrophages. Furthermore, lipidomics identified 1-TbAd–induced lipid substrates that define Gaucher’s disease, Wolman’s disease, and other inborn lysosomal storage diseases. These data identify genetic and molecular causes of M. tuberculosis–induced lysosomal failure, leading to successful testing of an agonist of TRPML1 calcium channels that reverses lipid storage in cells. These data establish the host-directed cellular functions of an orphan effector molecule that promotes survival in macrophages, providing both an upstream cause and detailed picture of lysosome failure in foamy macrophages.
Melissa Bedard, Sanne van der Niet, Elliott M. Bernard, Gregory Babunovic, Tan-Yun Cheng, Beren Aylan, Anita E. Grootemaat, Sahadevan Raman, Laure Botella, Eri Ishikawa, Mary P. O’Sullivan, Seónadh O’Leary, Jacob A. Mayfield, Jeffrey Buter, Adriaan J. Minnaard, Sarah M. Fortune, Leon O. Murphy, Daniel S. Ory, Joseph Keane, Sho Yamasaki, Maximiliano G. Gutierrez, Nicole van der Wel, D. Branch Moody
Stimulator of IFN genes type I (STING-Type I) IFN signaling in myeloid cells plays a critical role in effective antitumor immune responses, but STING agonists as monotherapy have shown limited efficacy in clinical trials. The mechanisms that downregulate STING signaling are not fully understood. Here, we report that protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A), with its specific B regulatory subunit Striatin 4 (STRN4), negatively regulated STING-Type I IFN in macrophages. Mice with macrophage PP2A deficiency exhibited reduced tumor progression. The tumor microenvironment showed decreased immunosuppressive and increased IFN-activated macrophages and CD8+ T cells. Mechanistically, we demonstrated that Hippo kinase MST1/2 was required for STING activation. STING agonists induced dissociation of PP2A from MST1/2 in normal macrophages, but not in tumor conditioned macrophages. Furthermore, our data showed that STRN4 mediated PP2A binding to and dephosphorylation of Hippo kinase MST1/2, resulting in stabilization of YAP/TAZ to antagonize STING activation. In human patients with glioblastoma (GBM), YAP/TAZ was highly expressed in tumor-associated macrophages but not in nontumor macrophages. We also demonstrated that PP2A/STRN4 deficiency in macrophages reduced YAP/TAZ expression and sensitized tumor-conditioned macrophages to STING stimulation. In summary, we demonstrated that PP2A/STRN4-YAP/TAZ has, in our opinion, been an unappreciated mechanism that mediates immunosuppression in tumor-associated macrophages, and targeting the PP2A/STRN4-YAP/TAZ axis can sensitize tumors to immunotherapy.
Winson S. Ho, Isha Mondal, Beisi Xu, Oishika Das, Raymond Sun, Pochin Chiou, Xiaomin Cai, Foozhan Tahmasebinia, Caren Yu-Ju Wu, Zhihao Wu, William Matsui, Michael Lim, Zhipeng Meng, Rongze Olivia Lu
The tumor suppressor TP53 is the most frequently mutated gene in human cancers. Mutant p53 (mutp53) proteins often accumulate to very high levels in human cancers to promote cancer progression through the gain-of-function (GOF) mechanism. Currently, the mechanism underlying mutp53 accumulation and GOF is incompletely understood. Here, we identified TRIM21 as a critical E3 ubiquitin ligase of mutp53 by screening for specific mutp53-interacting proteins. TRIM21 directly interacted with mutp53 but not WT p53, resulting in ubiquitination and degradation of mutp53 to suppress mutp53 GOF in tumorigenesis. TRIM21 deficiency in cancer cells promoted mutp53 accumulation and GOF in tumorigenesis. Compared with p53R172H knockin mice, which displayed mutp53 accumulation specifically in tumors but not normal tissues, TRIM21 deletion in p53R172H knockin mice resulted in mutp53 accumulation in normal tissues, an earlier tumor onset, and a shortened life span of mice. Furthermore, TRIM21 was frequently downregulated in some human cancers, including colorectal and breast cancers, and low TRIM21 expression was associated with poor prognosis in patients with cancers carrying mutp53. Our results revealed a critical mechanism underlying mutp53 accumulation in cancers and also uncovered an important tumor-suppressive function of TRIM21 and its mechanism in cancers carrying mutp53.
Juan Liu, Cen Zhang, Dandan Xu, Tianliang Zhang, Chun-Yuan Chang, Jianming Wang, Jie Liu, Lanjing Zhang, Bruce G. Haffty, Wei-Xing Zong, Wenwei Hu, Zhaohui Feng
Background Relatlimab plus nivolumab (anti–lymphocyte-activation gene 3 plus anti–programmed death 1 [anti–LAG-3+anti–PD-1]) has been approved by the FDA as a first-line therapy for stage III/IV melanoma, but its detailed effect on the immune system is unknown.Methods We evaluated blood samples from 40 immunotherapy-naive or prior immunotherapy–refractory patients with metastatic melanoma treated with anti–LAG-3+anti–PD-1 in a phase I trial using single-cell RNA and T cell receptor sequencing (scRNA+TCRαβ-Seq) combined with other multiomics profiling.Results The highest LAG3 expression was noted in NK cells, Tregs, and CD8+ T cells, and these cell populations underwent the most significant changes during the treatment. Adaptive NK cells were enriched in responders and underwent profound transcriptomic changes during the therapy, resulting in an active phenotype. LAG3+ Tregs expanded, but based on the transcriptome profile, became metabolically silent during the treatment. Last, higher baseline TCR clonality was observed in responding patients, and their expanding CD8+ T cell clones gained a more cytotoxic and NK-like phenotype.Conclusion Anti–LAG-3+anti–PD-1 therapy has profound effects on NK cells and Tregs in addition to CD8+ T cells.Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT01968109)Funding Cancer Foundation Finland, Sigrid Juselius Foundation, Signe and Ane Gyllenberg Foundation, Relander Foundation, State funding for university-level health research in Finland, a Helsinki Institute of Life Sciences Fellow grant, Academy of Finland (grant numbers 314442, 311081, 335432, and 335436), and an investigator-initiated research grant from BMS.
Jani Huuhtanen, Henna Kasanen, Katriina Peltola, Tapio Lönnberg, Virpi Glumoff, Oscar Brück, Olli Dufva, Karita Peltonen, Johanna Vikkula, Emmi Jokinen, Mette Ilander, Moon Hee Lee, Siru Mäkelä, Marta Nyakas, Bin Li, Micaela Hernberg, Petri Bono, Harri Lähdesmäki, Anna Kreutzman, Satu Mustjoki
Mutations in the human progranulin (GRN) gene are a leading cause of frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD). While previous studies implicate aberrant microglial activation as a disease-driving factor in neurodegeneration in the thalamocortical circuit in Grn–/– mice, the exact mechanism for neurodegeneration in FTLD-GRN remains unclear. By performing comparative single-cell transcriptomics in the thalamus and frontal cortex of Grn–/– mice and patients with FTLD-GRN, we have uncovered a highly conserved astroglial pathology characterized by upregulation of gap junction protein GJA1, water channel AQP4, and lipid-binding protein APOE, and downregulation of glutamate transporter SLC1A2 that promoted profound synaptic degeneration across the two species. This astroglial toxicity could be recapitulated in mouse astrocyte-neuron cocultures and by transplanting induced pluripotent stem cell–derived astrocytes to cortical organoids, where progranulin-deficient astrocytes promoted synaptic degeneration, neuronal stress, and TDP-43 proteinopathy. Together, these results reveal a previously unappreciated astroglial pathology as a potential key mechanism in neurodegeneration in FTLD-GRN.
Elise Marsan, Dmitry Velmeshev, Arren Ramsey, Ravi K. Patel, Jiasheng Zhang, Mark Koontz, Madeline G. Andrews, Martina de Majo, Cristina Mora, Jessica Blumenfeld, Alissa N. Li, Salvatore Spina, Lea T. Grinberg, William W. Seeley, Bruce L. Miller, Erik M. Ullian, Matthew F. Krummel, Arnold R. Kriegstein, Eric J. Huang
Background Antiretroviral therapy (ART) halts HIV-1 replication, decreasing viremia to below the detection limit of clinical assays. However, some individuals experience persistent nonsuppressible viremia (NSV) originating from CD4+ T cell clones carrying infectious proviruses. Defective proviruses represent over 90% of all proviruses persisting during ART and can express viral genes, but whether they can cause NSV and complicate ART management is unknown.Methods We undertook an in-depth characterization of proviruses causing NSV in 4 study participants with optimal adherence and no drug resistance. We investigated the impact of the observed defects on 5′-leader RNA properties, virus infectivity, and gene expression. Integration-site specific assays were used to track these proviruses over time and among cell subsets.Results Clones carrying proviruses with 5′-leader defects can cause persistent NSV up to approximately 103 copies/mL. These proviruses had small, often identical deletions or point mutations involving the major splicing donor (MSD) site and showed partially reduced RNA dimerization and nucleocapsid binding. Nevertheless, they were inducible and produced noninfectious virions containing viral RNA, but lacking envelope.Conclusion These findings show that proviruses with 5′-leader defects in CD4+ T cell clones can give rise to NSV, affecting clinical care. Sequencing of the 5′-leader can help in understanding failure to completely suppress viremia.Funding Office of the NIH Director and National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research, NIH; Howard Hughes Medical Institute; Johns Hopkins University Center for AIDS Research; National Institute for Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), NIH, to the PAVE, BEAT-HIV, and DARE Martin Delaney collaboratories.
Jennifer A. White, Fengting Wu, Saif Yasin, Milica Moskovljevic, Joseph Varriale, Filippo Dragoni, Angelica Camilo-Contreras, Jiayi Duan, Mei Y. Zheng, Ndeh F. Tadzong, Heer B. Patel, Jeanelle Mae C. Quiambao, Kyle Rhodehouse, Hao Zhang, Jun Lai, Subul A. Beg, Michael Delannoy, Christin Kilcrease, Christopher J. Hoffmann, Sébastien Poulin, Frédéric Chano, Cécile Tremblay, Jerald Cherian, Patricia Barditch-Crovo, Natasha Chida, Richard D. Moore, Michael F. Summers, Robert F. Siliciano, Janet D. Siliciano, Francesco R. Simonetti
Background The role of host immunity in emergence of evasive SARS-CoV-2 Spike mutations under therapeutic monoclonal antibody (mAb) pressure remains to be explored.Methods In a prospective, observational, monocentric ORCHESTRA cohort study, conducted between March 2021 and November 2022, mild-to-moderately ill COVID-19 patients (n = 204) receiving bamlanivimab, bamlanivimab/etesevimab, casirivimab/imdevimab, or sotrovimab were longitudinally studied over 28 days for viral loads, de novo Spike mutations, mAb kinetics, seroneutralization against infecting variants of concern, and T cell immunity. Additionally, a machine learning–based circulating immune-related biomarker (CIB) profile predictive of evasive Spike mutations was constructed and confirmed in an independent data set (n = 19) that included patients receiving sotrovimab or tixagevimab/cilgavimab.Results Patients treated with various mAbs developed evasive Spike mutations with remarkable speed and high specificity to the targeted mAb-binding sites. Immunocompromised patients receiving mAb therapy not only continued to display significantly higher viral loads, but also showed higher likelihood of developing de novo Spike mutations. Development of escape mutants also strongly correlated with neutralizing capacity of the therapeutic mAbs and T cell immunity, suggesting immune pressure as an important driver of escape mutations. Lastly, we showed that an antiinflammatory and healing-promoting host milieu facilitates Spike mutations, where 4 CIBs identified patients at high risk of developing escape mutations against therapeutic mAbs with high accuracy.Conclusions Our data demonstrate that host-driven immune and nonimmune responses are essential for development of mutant SARS-CoV-2. These data also support point-of-care decision making in reducing the risk of mAb treatment failure and improving mitigation strategies for possible dissemination of escape SARS-CoV-2 mutants.Funding The ORCHESTRA project/European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation program.
Akshita Gupta, Angelina Konnova, Mathias Smet, Matilda Berkell, Alessia Savoldi, Matteo Morra, Vincent Van averbeke, Fien H.R. De Winter, Denise Peserico, Elisa Danese, An Hotterbeekx, Elda Righi, mAb ORCHESTRA working group, Pasquale De Nardo, Evelina Tacconelli, Surbhi Malhotra-Kumar, Samir Kumar-Singh
Jong-Seok Moon, Seonmin Lee, Mi-Ae Park, Ilias I. Siempos, Maria Haslip, Patty J. Lee, Mijin Yun, Chun K. Kim, Judie Howrylak, Stefan W. Ryter, Kiichi Nakahira, Augustine M.K. Choi
Sylviane Lagarrigue, Isabel C. Lopez-Mejia, Pierre-Damien Denechaud, Xavier Escoté, Judit Castillo-Armengol, Veronica Jimenez, Carine Chavey, Albert Giralt, Qiuwen Lai, Lianjun Zhang, Laia Martinez-Carreres, Brigitte Delacuisine, Jean-Sébastien Annicotte, Emilie Blanchet, Sébastien Huré, Anna Abella, Francisco J. Tinahones, Joan Vendrell, Pierre Dubus, Fatima Bosch, C. Ronald Kahn, Lluis Fajas