There are currently over 1.9 billion people who are obese or overweight, leading to a rise in related health complications, including insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, liver disease, cancer, and neurodegeneration. The finding that obesity and metabolic disorder are accompanied by chronic low-grade inflammation has fundamentally changed our view of the underlying causes and progression of obesity and metabolic syndrome. We now know that an inflammatory program is activated early in adipose expansion and during chronic obesity, permanently skewing the immune system to a proinflammatory phenotype, and we are beginning to delineate the reciprocal influence of obesity and inflammation. Reviews in this series examine the activation of the innate and adaptive immune system in obesity; inflammation within diabetic islets, brain, liver, gut, and muscle; the role of inflammation in fibrosis and angiogenesis; the factors that contribute to the initiation of inflammation; and therapeutic approaches to modulate inflammation in the context of obesity and metabolic syndrome.
Alan R. Saltiel, Jerrold M. Olefsky
Chronic inflammation in adipose tissue, possibly related to adipose cell hypertrophy, hypoxia, and/or intestinal leakage of bacteria and their metabolic products, likely plays a critical role in the development of obesity-associated insulin resistance (IR). Cells of both the innate and adaptive immune system residing in adipose tissues, as well as in the intestine, participate in this process. Thus, M1 macrophages, IFN-γ–secreting Th1 cells, CD8+ T cells, and B cells promote IR, in part through secretion of proinflammatory cytokines. Conversely, eosinophils, Th2 T cells, type 2 innate lymphoid cells, and possibly Foxp3+ Tregs protect against IR through local control of inflammation.
Tracey McLaughlin, Shelley E. Ackerman, Lei Shen, Edgar Engleman
The finding of islet inflammation in type 2 diabetes (T2D) and its involvement in β cell dysfunction has further highlighted the significance of inflammation in metabolic diseases. The number of intra-islet macrophages is increased in T2D, and these cells are the main source of proinflammatory cytokines within islets. Multiple human studies of T2D have shown that targeting islet inflammation has the potential to be an effective therapeutic strategy. In this Review we provide an overview of the cellular and molecular mechanisms by which islet inflammation develops and causes β cell dysfunction. We also emphasize the regulation and roles of macrophage polarity shift within islets in the context of T2D pathology and β cell health, which may have broad translational implications for therapeutics aimed at improving islet function.
Kosei Eguchi, Ryozo Nagai
Over the last years, hypothalamic inflammation has been linked to the development and progression of obesity and its sequelae. There is accumulating evidence that this inflammation not only impairs energy balance but also contributes to obesity-associated insulin resistance. Elevated activation of key inflammatory mediators such as JNK and IκB kinase (IKK) occurs rapidly upon consumption of a high-fat diet, even prior to significant weight gain. This activation of hypothalamic inflammatory pathways results in the uncoupling of caloric intake and energy expenditure, fostering overeating and further weight gain. In addition, these inflammatory processes contribute to obesity-associated insulin resistance and deterioration of glucose metabolism via altered neurocircuit functions. An understanding of the contributions of different neuronal and non-neuronal cell types to hypothalamic inflammatory processes, and delineation of the differences and similarities between acute and chronic activation of these inflammatory pathways, will be critical for the development of novel therapeutic strategies for the treatment of obesity and metabolic syndrome.
Alexander Jais, Jens C. Brüning
Obesity and diabetes are associated with increased chronic low-grade inflammation and elevated plasma glucose levels. Although inflammation in the fat and liver are established features of obesity-associated insulin resistance, the intestine is emerging as a new site for immunologic changes that affect whole-body metabolism. Specifically, microbial and dietary factors incurred by diet-induced obesity influence underlying innate and adaptive responses of the intestinal immune system. These responses affect the maintenance of the intestinal barrier, systemic inflammation, and glucose metabolism. In this Review we propose that an understanding of the changes to the intestinal immune system, and how these changes influence systemic immunity and glucose metabolism in a whole-body integrative and a neuronal-dependent network, will unveil novel intestinal pathologic and therapeutic targets for diabetes and obesity.
Daniel A. Winer, Shawn Winer, Helen J. Dranse, Tony K.T. Lam
Obesity is associated with chronic inflammation, which contributes to insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Under normal conditions, skeletal muscle is responsible for the majority of insulin-stimulated whole-body glucose disposal; thus, dysregulation of skeletal muscle metabolism can strongly influence whole-body glucose homeostasis and insulin sensitivity. Increasing evidence suggests that inflammation occurs in skeletal muscle in obesity and is mainly manifested by increased immune cell infiltration and proinflammatory activation in intermyocellular and perimuscular adipose tissue. By secreting proinflammatory molecules, immune cells may induce myocyte inflammation, adversely regulate myocyte metabolism, and contribute to insulin resistance via paracrine effects. Increased influx of fatty acids and inflammatory molecules from other tissues, particularly visceral adipose tissue, can also induce muscle inflammation and negatively regulate myocyte metabolism, leading to insulin resistance.
Huaizhu Wu, Christie M. Ballantyne
Chronic liver inflammation leads to fibrosis and cirrhosis, which is the 12th leading cause of death in the United States. Hepatocyte steatosis is a component of metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance. Hepatic steatosis may be benign or progress to hepatocyte injury and the initiation of inflammation, which activates immune cells. While Kupffer cells are the resident macrophage in the liver, inflammatory cells such as infiltrating macrophages, T lymphocytes, neutrophils, and DCs all contribute to liver inflammation. The inflammatory cells activate hepatic stellate cells, which are the major source of myofibroblasts in the liver. Here we review the initiation of inflammation in the liver, the liver inflammatory cells, and their crosstalk with myofibroblasts.
Yukinori Koyama, David A. Brenner
An understanding of the events that initiate metabolic inflammation (metainflammation) can support the identification of targets for preventing metabolic disease and its negative effects on health. There is ample evidence demonstrating that the initiating events in obesity-induced inflammation start early in childhood. This has significant implications on our understanding of how early life events in childhood influence adult disease. In this Review we frame the initiating events of metainflammation in the context of child development and discuss what this reveals about the mechanisms by which this unique form of chronic inflammation is initiated and sustained into adulthood.
Kanakadurga Singer, Carey N. Lumeng
There are three dominant contributors to the pathogenesis of dysfunctional adipose tissue (AT) in obesity: unresolved inflammation, inappropriate extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling and insufficient angiogenic potential. The interactions of these processes during AT expansion reflect both a linear progression as well as feed-forward mechanisms. For example, both inflammation and inadequate angiogenic remodeling can drive fibrosis, which can in turn promote migration of immune cells into adipose depots and impede further angiogenesis. Therefore, the relationship between the members of this triad is complex but important for our understanding of the pathogenesis of obesity. Here we untangle some of these intricacies to highlight the contributions of inflammation, angiogenesis, and the ECM to both “healthy” and “unhealthy” AT expansion.
Clair Crewe, Yu Aaron An, Philipp E. Scherer
Obesity-related sub-acute chronic inflammation has been associated with incident type 2 diabetes and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Inflammation is increasingly considered to be a pathologic mediator of these commonly co-occurring diseases. A growing number of preclinical and clinical studies support the inflammatory hypothesis, but clinical trials to confirm the therapeutic potential to target inflammation to treat or prevent cardiometabolic conditions are still ongoing. There are multiple inflammatory signaling pathways. Regulation is complex, with substantial crosstalk across these multiple pathways. The activity of select pathways may be differentially regulated in different tissues. Pharmacologic approaches to diabetes management may have direct or indirect antiinflammatory effects, the latter potentially attributable to an improved metabolic state. Conversely, some antiinflammatory approaches may affect glucose metabolism and cardiovascular health. To date, clinical trials suggest that targeting one portion of the inflammatory cascade may differentially affect dysglycemia and atherothrombosis. Understanding the underlying biological processes may contribute to the development of safe and effective therapies, although a single approach may not be sufficient for optimal management of both metabolic and athrothrombotic disease states.
Allison B. Goldfine, Steven E. Shoelson
Pancreatic β cells have one of the highest protein secretion burdens in the body, as these cells must synthesize and secrete insulin in proportion to postprandial rises in blood glucose. Remarkably, it is now becoming clear that adult β cells retain plasticity and can dedifferentiate into embryonic fates or adopt alternate islet endocrine cell identities. This property is especially important, because changes in cell fate alter β cell function and could form the basis for defects in insulin secretion that occur early in the pathogenesis of the most prevalent form of β cell dysfunction, type 2 diabetes. In this issue, three different studies provide complementary perspectives on how the transcription factors NK2 homeobox 2 (NKX2.2), paired box 6 (PAX6), and LIM domain–binding protein 1 (LDB1) serve to maintain mature adult β cell identity, revealing clues as to how adult β cells can partially dedifferentiate or become reprogrammed into other islet endocrine cells.
Peter Thompson, Anil Bhushan
Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is a complex disorder that manifests with an array of phenotypes, such as hypotonia and difficulties in feeding during infancy and reduced energy expenditure, hyperphagia, and developmental delays later in life. While the genetic cause has long been known, it is still not clear how mutations at this locus produce this array of phenotypes. In this issue of the
Joseph Polex-Wolf, Giles S.H. Yeo, Stephen O’Rahilly
Transfusion of rbc is a routine, often lifesaving procedure that depends on a stored supply of blood. In the US, 42 days is the maximum duration allowed for rbc storage; however, several lines of evidence indicate that patients that receive blood at the upper end of this storage limit are at a higher risk of morbidity and mortality. In this issue of the
Janet S. Lee, Daniel B. Kim-Shapiro
While antiretroviral therapy (ART) has improved the quality of life and increased the life span of many HIV-infected individuals, this therapeutic strategy has several limitations, including a lack of efficacy in fully restoring immune function and a requirement for life-long treatment. Two studies in this issue of the
Steven G. Deeks, Pamela M. Odorizzi, Rafick-Pierre Sekaly
Trevor J. Cunningham, Mary Tabacchi, Jean-Pierre Eliane, Sara Moradi Tuchayi, Sindhu Manivasagam, Hengameh Mirzaalian, Ahu Turkoz, Raphael Kopan, Andras Schaffer, Arturo P. Saavedra, Michael Wallendorf, Lynn A. Cornelius, Shadmehr Demehri
Tumor cells gain metastatic capacity through a Golgi phosphoprotein 3–dependent (GOLPH3-dependent) Golgi membrane dispersal process that drives the budding and transport of secretory vesicles. Whether Golgi dispersal underlies the pro-metastatic vesicular trafficking that is associated with epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) remains unclear. Here, we have shown that, rather than causing Golgi dispersal, EMT led to the formation of compact Golgi organelles with improved ribbon linking and cisternal stacking. Ectopic expression of the EMT-activating transcription factor ZEB1 stimulated Golgi compaction and relieved microRNA-mediated repression of the Golgi scaffolding protein PAQR11. Depletion of PAQR11 dispersed Golgi organelles and impaired anterograde vesicle transport to the plasma membrane as well as retrograde vesicle tethering to the Golgi. The N-terminal scaffolding domain of PAQR11 was associated with key regulators of Golgi compaction and vesicle transport in pull-down assays and was required to reconstitute Golgi compaction in PAQR11-deficient tumor cells. Finally, high PAQR11 levels were correlated with EMT and shorter survival in human cancers, and PAQR11 was found to be essential for tumor cell migration and metastasis in EMT-driven lung adenocarcinoma models. We conclude that EMT initiates a PAQR11-mediated Golgi compaction process that drives metastasis.
Xiaochao Tan, Priyam Banerjee, Hou-Fu Guo, Stephen Ireland, Daniela Pankova, Young-ho Ahn, Irodotos Michail Nikolaidis, Xin Liu, Yanbin Zhao, Yongming Xue, Alan R. Burns, Jonathon Roybal, Don L. Gibbons, Tomasz Zal, Chad J. Creighton, Daniel Ungar, Yanzhuang Wang, Jonathan M. Kurie
Li-Fraumeni syndrome (LFS) is a cancer predisposition disorder caused by germline mutations in
Ping-yuan Wang, Jie Li, Farzana L. Walcott, Ju-Gyeong Kang, Matthew F. Starost, S. Lalith Talagala, Jie Zhuang, Ji-Hoon Park, Rebecca D. Huffstutler, Christina M. Bryla, Phuong L. Mai, Michael Pollak, Christina M. Annunziata, Sharon A. Savage, Antonio Tito Fojo, Paul M. Hwang
Malignant tumors develop through multiple steps of initiation and progression, and tumor initiation is of singular importance in tumor prevention, diagnosis, and treatment. However, the molecular mechanism whereby a signaling network of interacting pathways restrains proliferation in normal cells and prevents tumor initiation is still poorly understood. Here, we have reported that the Hippo, Wnt/β-catenin, and Notch pathways form an interacting network to maintain liver size and suppress hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Ablation of the mammalian Hippo kinases
Wantae Kim, Sanjoy Kumar Khan, Jelena Gvozdenovic-Jeremic, Youngeun Kim, Jason Dahlman, Hanjun Kim, Ogyi Park, Tohru Ishitani, Eek-hoon Jho, Bin Gao, Yingzi Yang
Most patients who initially respond to treatment with the multi–tyrosine kinase inhibitor sunitinib eventually relapse. Therefore, developing a deeper understanding of the contribution of sunitinib’s numerous targets to the clinical response or to resistance is crucial. Here, we have shown that cancer cells respond to clinically relevant doses of sunitinib by enhancing the stability of the antiapoptotic protein MCL-1 and inducing mTORC1 signaling, thus evoking little cytotoxicity. Inhibition of MCL-1 or mTORC1 signaling sensitized cells to clinically relevant doses of sunitinib in vitro and was synergistic with sunitinib in impairing tumor growth in vivo, indicating that these responses are triggered as prosurvival mechanisms that enable cells to tolerate the cytotoxic effects of sunitinib. Furthermore, higher doses of sunitinib were cytotoxic, triggered a decline in MCL-1 levels, and inhibited mTORC1 signaling. Mechanistically, we determined that sunitinib modulates MCL-1 stability by affecting its proteasomal degradation. Dual modulation of MCL-1 stability at different dose ranges of sunitinib was due to differential effects on ERK and GSK3β activity, and the latter also accounted for dual modulation of mTORC1 activity. Finally, comparison of patient samples prior to and following sunitinib treatment suggested that increases in MCL-1 levels and mTORC1 activity correlate with resistance to sunitinib in patients.
Mohamed Elgendy, Amal Kamal Abdel-Aziz, Salvatore Lorenzo Renne, Viviana Bornaghi, Giuseppe Procopio, Maurizio Colecchia, Ravindran Kanesvaran, Chee Keong Toh, Daniela Bossi, Isabella Pallavicini, Jose Luis Perez-Gracia, Maria Dolores Lozano, Valeria Giandomenico, Ciro Mercurio, Luisa Lanfrancone, Nicola Fazio, Franco Nole, Bin Tean Teh, Giuseppe Renne, Saverio Minucci
Krishnaraj S. Rathod, Vikas Kapil, Shanti Velmurugan, Rayomand S. Khambata, Umme Siddique, Saima Khan, Sven Van Eijl, Lorna C. Gee, Jascharanpreet Bansal, Kavi Pitrola, Christopher Shaw, Fulvio D’Acquisto, Romain A. Colas, Federica Marelli-Berg, Jesmond Dalli, Amrita Ahluwalia
The AXL receptor and its activating ligand, growth arrest–specific 6 (GAS6), are important drivers of metastasis and therapeutic resistance in human cancers. Given the critical roles that GAS6 and AXL play in refractory disease, this signaling axis represents an attractive target for therapeutic intervention. However, the strong picomolar binding affinity between GAS6 and AXL and the promiscuity of small molecule inhibitors represent important challenges faced by current anti-AXL therapeutics. Here, we have addressed these obstacles by engineering a second-generation, high-affinity AXL decoy receptor with an apparent affinity of 93 femtomolar to GAS6. Our decoy receptor, MYD1-72, profoundly inhibited disease progression in aggressive preclinical models of human cancers and induced cell killing in leukemia cells. When directly compared with the most advanced anti-AXL small molecules in the clinic, MYD1-72 achieved superior antitumor efficacy while displaying no toxicity. Moreover, we uncovered a relationship between AXL and the cellular response to DNA damage whereby abrogation of AXL signaling leads to accumulation of the DNA-damage markers γH2AX, 53BP1, and RAD51. MYD1-72 exploited this relationship, leading to improvements upon the therapeutic index of current standard-of-care chemotherapies in preclinical models of advanced pancreatic and ovarian cancer.
Mihalis S. Kariolis, Yu Rebecca Miao, Anh Diep, Shannon E. Nash, Monica M. Olcina, Dadi Jiang, Douglas S. Jones II, Shiven Kapur, Irimpan I. Mathews, Albert C. Koong, Erinn B. Rankin, Jennifer R. Cochran, Amato J. Giaccia
Outer retinal and renal glomerular functions rely on specialized vasculature maintained by VEGF that is produced by neighboring epithelial cells, the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) and podocytes, respectively. Dysregulation of RPE- and podocyte-derived VEGF is associated with neovascularization in wet age-related macular degeneration (ARMD), choriocapillaris degeneration, and glomerular thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA). Since complement activation and genetic variants in inhibitory complement factor H (CFH) are also features of both ARMD and TMA, we hypothesized that VEGF and CFH interact. Here, we demonstrated that VEGF inhibition decreases local CFH and other complement regulators in the eye and kidney through reduced VEGFR2/PKC-α/CREB signaling. Patient podocytes and RPE cells carrying disease-associated CFH genetic variants had more alternative complement pathway deposits than controls. These deposits were increased by VEGF antagonism, a common wet ARMD treatment, suggesting that VEGF inhibition could reduce cellular complement regulatory capacity. VEGF antagonism also increased markers of endothelial cell activation, which was partially reduced by genetic complement inhibition. Together, these results suggest that VEGF protects the retinal and glomerular microvasculature, not only through VEGFR2-mediated vasculotrophism, but also through modulation of local complement proteins that could protect against complement-mediated damage. Though further study is warranted, these findings could be relevant for patients receiving VEGF antagonists.
Lindsay S. Keir, Rachel Firth, Lyndsey Aponik, Daniel Feitelberg, Susumu Sakimoto, Edith Aguilar, Gavin I. Welsh, Anna Richards, Yoshihiko Usui, Simon C. Satchell, Valeryia Kuzmuk, Richard J. Coward, Jonathan Goult, Katherine R. Bull, Ruchi Sharma, Kapil Bharti, Peter D. Westenskow, Iacovos P. Michael, Moin A. Saleem, Martin Friedlander
The recognition of β cell dedifferentiation in type 2 diabetes raises the translational relevance of mechanisms that direct and maintain β cell identity. LIM domain–binding protein 1 (LDB1) nucleates multimeric transcriptional complexes and establishes promoter-enhancer looping, thereby directing fate assignment and maturation of progenitor populations. Many terminally differentiated endocrine cell types, however, remain enriched for LDB1, but its role is unknown. Here, we have demonstrated a requirement for LDB1 in maintaining the terminally differentiated status of pancreatic β cells. Inducible ablation of LDB1 in mature β cells impaired insulin secretion and glucose homeostasis. Transcriptomic analysis of LDB1-depleted β cells revealed the collapse of the terminally differentiated gene program, indicated by a loss of β cell identity genes and induction of the endocrine progenitor factor neurogenin 3 (NEUROG3). Lineage tracing confirmed that LDB1-depleted, insulin-negative β cells express NEUROG3 but do not adopt alternate endocrine cell fates. In primary mouse islets, LDB1 and its LIM homeodomain–binding partner islet 1 (ISL1) were coenriched at chromatin sites occupied by pancreatic and duodenal homeobox 1 (PDX1), NK6 homeobox 1 (NKX6.1), forkhead box A2 (FOXA2), and NK2 homeobox 2 (NKX2.2) — factors that co-occupy active enhancers in 3D chromatin domains in human islets. Indeed, LDB1 was enriched at active enhancers in human islets. Thus, LDB1 maintains the terminally differentiated state of β cells and is a component of active enhancers in both murine and human islets.
Benjamin N. Ediger, Hee-Woong Lim, Christine Juliana, David N. Groff, LaQueena T. Williams, Giselle Dominguez, Jin-Hua Liu, Brandon L. Taylor, Erik R. Walp, Vasumathi Kameswaran, Juxiang Yang, Chengyang Liu, Chad S. Hunter, Klaus H. Kaestner, Ali Naji, Changhong Li, Maike Sander, Roland Stein, Lori Sussel, Kyoung-Jae Won, Catherine Lee May, Doris A. Stoffers
Type 2 diabetes is thought to involve a compromised β cell differentiation state, but the mechanisms underlying this dysfunction remain unclear. Here, we report a key role for the TF PAX6 in the maintenance of adult β cell identity and function. PAX6 was downregulated in β cells of diabetic
Avital Swisa, Dana Avrahami, Noa Eden, Jia Zhang, Eseye Feleke, Tehila Dahan, Yamit Cohen-Tayar, Miri Stolovich-Rain, Klaus H. Kaestner, Benjamin Glaser, Ruth Ashery-Padan, Yuval Dor
Loss of β cell identity, the presence of polyhormonal cells, and reprogramming are emerging as important features of β cell dysfunction in patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes. In this study, we have demonstrated that the transcription factor NKX2.2 is essential for the active maintenance of adult β cell identity as well as function. Deletion of
Giselle Domínguez Gutiérrez, Aaron S. Bender, Vincenzo Cirulli, Teresa L. Mastracci, Stephen M. Kelly, Aristotelis Tsirigos, Klaus H. Kaestner, Lori Sussel
Chronic immune activation, immunosuppression, and T cell exhaustion are hallmarks of HIV infection, yet the mechanisms driving these processes are unclear. Chronic activation can be a driving force in immune exhaustion, and type I interferons (IFN-I) are emerging as critical components underlying ongoing activation in HIV infection. Here, we have tested the effect of blocking IFN-I signaling on T cell responses and virus replication in a murine model of chronic HIV infection. Using HIV-infected humanized mice, we demonstrated that in vivo blockade of IFN-I signaling during chronic HIV infection diminished HIV-driven immune activation, decreased T cell exhaustion marker expression, restored HIV-specific CD8 T cell function, and led to decreased viral replication. Antiretroviral therapy (ART) in combination with IFN-I blockade accelerated viral suppression, further decreased viral loads, and reduced the persistently infected HIV reservoir compared with ART treatment alone. Our data suggest that blocking IFN-I signaling in conjunction with ART treatment can restore immune function and may reduce viral reservoirs during chronic HIV infection, providing validation for IFN-I blockade as a potential therapy for HIV infection.
Anjie Zhen, Valerie Rezek, Cindy Youn, Brianna Lam, Nelson Chang, Jonathan Rick, Mayra Carrillo, Heather Martin, Saro Kasparian, Philip Syed, Nicholas Rice, David G. Brooks, Scott G. Kitchen
Despite the efficient suppression of HIV-1 replication that can be achieved with combined antiretroviral therapy (cART), low levels of type I interferon (IFN-I) signaling persist in some individuals. This sustained signaling may impede immune recovery and foster viral persistence. Here we report studies using a monoclonal antibody to block IFN-α/β receptor (IFNAR) signaling in humanized mice (hu-mice) that were persistently infected with HIV-1. We discovered that effective cART restored the number of human immune cells in HIV-1–infected hu-mice but did not rescue their immune hyperactivation and dysfunction. IFNAR blockade fully reversed HIV-1–induced immune hyperactivation and rescued anti–HIV-1 immune responses in T cells from HIV-1–infected hu-mice. Finally, we found that IFNAR blockade in the presence of cART reduced the size of HIV-1 reservoirs in lymphoid tissues and delayed HIV-1 rebound after cART cessation in the HIV-1–infected hu-mice. We conclude that low levels of IFN-I signaling contribute to HIV-1–associated immune dysfunction and foster HIV-1 persistence in cART-treated hosts. Our results suggest that blocking IFNAR may provide a potential strategy to enhance immune recovery and reduce HIV-1 reservoirs in individuals with sustained elevations in IFN-I signaling during suppressive cART.
Liang Cheng, Jianping Ma, Jingyun Li, Dan Li, Guangming Li, Feng Li, Qing Zhang, Haisheng Yu, Fumihiko Yasui, Chaobaihui Ye, Li-Chung Tsao, Zhiyuan Hu, Lishan Su, Liguo Zhang
Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is a devastating form of stroke that results from the rupture of a blood vessel in the brain, leading to a mass of blood within the brain parenchyma. The injury causes a rapid inflammatory reaction that includes activation of the tissue-resident microglia and recruitment of blood-derived macrophages and other leukocytes. In this work, we investigated the specific responses of microglia following ICH with the aim of identifying pathways that may aid in recovery after brain injury. We used longitudinal transcriptional profiling of microglia in a murine model to determine the phenotype of microglia during the acute and resolution phases of ICH in vivo and found increases in TGF-β1 pathway activation during the resolution phase. We then confirmed that TGF-β1 treatment modulated inflammatory profiles of microglia in vitro. Moreover, TGF-β1 treatment following ICH decreased microglial
Roslyn A. Taylor, Che-Feng Chang, Brittany A. Goods, Matthew D. Hammond, Brian Mac Grory, Youxi Ai, Arthur F. Steinschneider, Stephen C. Renfroe, Michael H. Askenase, Louise D. McCullough, Scott E. Kasner, Michael T. Mullen, David A. Hafler, J. Christopher Love, Lauren H. Sansing
Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is caused by a loss of paternally expressed genes in an imprinted region of chromosome 15q. Among the canonical PWS phenotypes are hyperphagic obesity, central hypogonadism, and low growth hormone (GH). Rare microdeletions in PWS patients define a 91-kb minimum critical deletion region encompassing 3 genes, including the noncoding RNA gene
Lisa C. Burnett, Charles A. LeDuc, Carlos R. Sulsona, Daniel Paull, Richard Rausch, Sanaa Eddiry, Jayne F. Martin Carli, Michael V. Morabito, Alicja A. Skowronski, Gabriela Hubner, Matthew Zimmer, Liheng Wang, Robert Day, Brynn Levy, Ilene Fennoy, Beatrice Dubern, Christine Poitou, Karine Clement, Merlin G. Butler, Michael Rosenbaum, Jean Pierre Salles, Maithe Tauber, Daniel J. Driscoll, Dieter Egli, Rudolph L. Leibel
Human NK cell deficiencies are rare yet result in severe and often fatal disease, particularly as a result of viral susceptibility. NK cells develop from hematopoietic stem cells, and few monogenic errors that specifically interrupt NK cell development have been reported. Here we have described biallelic mutations in
Emily M. Mace, Venetia Bigley, Justin T. Gunesch, Ivan K. Chinn, Laura S. Angelo, Matthew A. Care, Sheetal Maisuria, Michael D. Keller, Sumihito Togi, Levi B. Watkin, David F. LaRosa, Shalini N. Jhangiani, Donna M. Muzny, Asbjørg Stray-Pedersen, Zeynep Coban Akdemir, Jansen B. Smith, Mayra Hernández-Sanabria, Duy T. Le, Graham D. Hogg, Tram N. Cao, Aharon G. Freud, Eva P. Szymanski, Sinisa Savic, Matthew Collin, Andrew J. Cant, Richard A. Gibbs, Steven M. Holland, Michael A. Caligiuri, Keiko Ozato, Silke Paust, Gina M. Doody, James R. Lupski, Jordan S. Orange
Fibrotic disease is associated with matrix deposition that results in the loss of organ function. Pericytes, the precursors of myofibroblasts, are a source of pathological matrix collagens and may be promising targets for treating fibrogenesis. Here, we have shown that pericytes activate a TLR2/4- and MyD88-dependent proinflammatory program in response to tissue injury. Similarly to classic immune cells, pericytes activate the NLRP3 inflammasome, leading to IL-1β and IL-18 secretion. Released IL-1β signals through pericyte MyD88 to amplify this response. Unexpectedly, we found that MyD88 and its downstream effector kinase IRAK4 intrinsically control pericyte migration and conversion to myofibroblasts. Specific ablation of MyD88 in pericytes or pharmacological inhibition of MyD88 signaling by an IRAK4 inhibitor in vivo protected against kidney injury by profoundly attenuating tissue injury, activation, and differentiation of myofibroblasts. Our data show that in pericytes, MyD88 and IRAK4 are key regulators of 2 major injury responses: inflammatory and fibrogenic. Moreover, these findings suggest that disruption of this MyD88-dependent pathway in pericytes might be a potential therapeutic approach to inhibit fibrogenesis and promote regeneration.
Irina A. Leaf, Shunsaku Nakagawa, Bryce G. Johnson, Jin Joo Cha, Kristen Mittelsteadt, Kevin M. Guckian, Ivan G. Gomez, William A. Altemeier, Jeremy S. Duffield
Cardiac hypertrophic growth in response to pathological cues is associated with reexpression of fetal genes and decreased cardiac function and is often a precursor to heart failure. In contrast, physiologically induced hypertrophy is adaptive, resulting in improved cardiac function. The processes that selectively induce these hypertrophic states are poorly understood. Here, we have profiled 2 repressive epigenetic marks, H3K9me2 and H3K27me3, which are involved in stable cellular differentiation, specifically in cardiomyocytes from physiologically and pathologically hypertrophied rat hearts, and correlated these marks with their associated transcriptomes. This analysis revealed the pervasive loss of euchromatic H3K9me2 as a conserved feature of pathological hypertrophy that was associated with reexpression of fetal genes. In hypertrophy, H3K9me2 was reduced following a miR-217–mediated decrease in expression of the H3K9 dimethyltransferases EHMT1 and EHMT2 (EHMT1/2). miR-217–mediated, genetic, or pharmacological inactivation of EHMT1/2 was sufficient to promote pathological hypertrophy and fetal gene reexpression, while suppression of this pathway protected against pathological hypertrophy both in vitro and in mice. Thus, we have established a conserved mechanism involving a departure of the cardiomyocyte epigenome from its adult cellular identity to a reprogrammed state that is accompanied by reexpression of fetal genes and pathological hypertrophy. These results suggest that targeting miR-217 and EHMT1/2 to prevent H3K9 methylation loss is a viable therapeutic approach for the treatment of heart disease.
Bernard Thienpont, Jan Magnus Aronsen, Emma Louise Robinson, Hanneke Okkenhaug, Elena Loche, Arianna Ferrini, Patrick Brien, Kanar Alkass, Antonio Tomasso, Asmita Agrawal, Olaf Bergmann, Ivar Sjaastad, Wolf Reik, Hywel Llewelyn Roderick
Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is an autosomal dominant tumor-suppressor gene syndrome caused by inactivating mutations in either
Juxiang Cao, Magdalena E. Tyburczy, Joel Moss, Thomas N. Darling, Hans R. Widlund, David J. Kwiatkowski
Treatment options are limited for severe asthma, and the need for additional therapies remains great. Previously, we demonstrated that integrin αvβ6-deficient mice are protected from airway hyperresponsiveness, due in part to increased expression of the murine ortholog of human chymase. Here, we determined that chymase protects against cytokine-enhanced bronchoconstriction by cleaving fibronectin to impair tension transmission in airway smooth muscle (ASM). Additionally, we identified a pathway that can be therapeutically targeted to mitigate the effects of airway hyperresponsiveness. Administration of chymase to human bronchial rings abrogated IL-13–enhanced contraction, and this effect was not due to alterations in calcium homeostasis or myosin light chain phosphorylation. Rather, chymase cleaved fibronectin, inhibited ASM adhesion, and attenuated focal adhesion phosphorylation. Disruption of integrin ligation with an RGD-containing peptide abrogated IL-13–enhanced contraction, with no further effect from chymase. We identified α5β1 as the primary fibronectin-binding integrin in ASM, and α5β1-specific blockade inhibited focal adhesion phosphorylation and IL-13–enhanced contraction, with no additional effect from chymase. Delivery of an α5β1 inhibitor into murine airways abrogated the exaggerated bronchoconstriction induced by allergen sensitization and challenge. Finally, α5β1 blockade enhanced the effect of the bronchodilator isoproterenol on airway relaxation. Our data identify the α5β1 integrin as a potential therapeutic target to mitigate the severity of airway contraction in asthma.
Aparna Sundaram, Chun Chen, Amin Khalifeh-Soltani, Amha Atakilit, Xin Ren, Wenli Qiu, Hyunil Jo, William DeGrado, Xiaozhu Huang, Dean Sheppard
Francesca Rapido, Gary M. Brittenham, Sheila Bandyopadhyay, Francesca La Carpia, Camilla L’Acqua, Donald J. McMahon, Abdelhadi Rebbaa, Boguslaw S. Wojczyk, Jane Netterwald, Hangli Wang, Joseph Schwartz, Andrew Eisenberger, Mark Soffing, Randy Yeh, Chaitanya Divgi, Yelena Z. Ginzburg, Beth H. Shaz, Sujit Sheth, Richard O. Francis, Steven L. Spitalnik, Eldad A. Hod
Myocardial infarction (MI) results in the generation of dead cells in the infarcted area. These cells are swiftly removed by phagocytes to minimize inflammation and limit expansion of the damaged area. However, the types of cells and molecules responsible for the engulfment of dead cells in the infarcted area remain largely unknown. In this study, we demonstrated that cardiac myofibroblasts, which execute tissue fibrosis by producing extracellular matrix proteins, efficiently engulf dead cells. Furthermore, we identified a population of cardiac myofibroblasts that appears in the heart after MI in humans and mice. We found that these cardiac myofibroblasts secrete milk fat globule-epidermal growth factor 8 (MFG-E8), which promotes apoptotic engulfment, and determined that serum response factor is important for MFG-E8 production in myofibroblasts. Following MFG-E8–mediated engulfment of apoptotic cells, myofibroblasts acquired antiinflammatory properties. MFG-E8 deficiency in mice led to the accumulation of unengulfed dead cells after MI, resulting in exacerbated inflammatory responses and a substantial decrease in survival. Moreover, MFG-E8 administration into infarcted hearts restored cardiac function and morphology. MFG-E8–producing myofibroblasts mainly originated from resident cardiac fibroblasts and cells that underwent endothelial-mesenchymal transition in the heart. Together, our results reveal previously unrecognized roles of myofibroblasts in regulating apoptotic engulfment and a fundamental importance of these cells in recovery from MI.
Michio Nakaya, Kenji Watari, Mitsuru Tajima, Takeo Nakaya, Shoichi Matsuda, Hiroki Ohara, Hiroaki Nishihara, Hiroshi Yamaguchi, Akiko Hashimoto, Mitsuho Nishida, Akiomi Nagasaka, Yuma Horii, Hiroki Ono, Gentaro Iribe, Ryuji Inoue, Makoto Tsuda, Kazuhide Inoue, Akira Tanaka, Masahiko Kuroda, Shigekazu Nagata, Hitoshi Kurose