Cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy, subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL) is the most common monogenic form of small vessel disease characterized by migraine with aura, leukoaraiosis, strokes and dementia. CADASIL mutations cause cerebrovascular dysfunction in both animal models and humans. Here, we show that two different human CADASIL mutations (Notch3 R90C or R169C) worsen ischemic stroke outcomes in transgenic mice, explained by a higher blood flow threshold to maintain tissue viability. Both mutants developed larger infarcts and worse neurological deficits compared with wild type regardless of age or sex after filament middle cerebral artery occlusion. However, full-field laser speckle flowmetry during distal middle cerebral artery occlusion showed comparable perfusion deficits in mutants and their respective wild type controls. Circle of Willis anatomy and pial collateralization also did not differ among the genotypes. In contrast, mutants had a higher cerebral blood flow threshold below which infarction ensued, suggesting increased sensitivity of brain tissue to ischemia. Electrophysiological recordings revealed a 1.5- to 2-fold higher frequency of peri-infarct spreading depolarizations in CADASIL mutants. Higher extracellular K+ elevations during spreading depolarizations in the mutants implicated a defect in extracellular K+ clearance. Altogether, these data reveal a novel mechanism of enhanced vulnerability to ischemic injury linked to abnormal extracellular ion homeostasis and susceptibility to ischemic depolarizations in CADASIL.
Fumiaki Oka, Jeong Hyun Lee, Izumi Yuzawa, Mei Li, Daniel von Bornstaedt, Katharina Eikermann-Haerter, Tao Qin, David Y. Chung, Homa Sadeghian, Jessica L. Seidel, Takahiko Imai, Doga Vuralli, Rosangela F.M. Platt, Mark T. Nelson, Anne Joutel, Sava Sakadzic, Cenk Ayata
Glutamate is the predominant excitatory neurotransmitter in the mammalian central nervous system (CNS). Excitatory Amino Acid Transporters (EAATs) regulate extracellular glutamate by transporting it into cells, mostly glia, to terminate neurotransmission and to avoid neurotoxicity. EAATs are also chloride (Cl-) channels, but the physiological role of Cl- conductance through EAATs is poorly understood. Mutations of human EAAT1 (hEAAT1) have been identified in patients with episodic ataxia type 6 (EA6). One mutation showed increased Cl- channel activity and decreased glutamate transport, but the relative contributions of each function of hEAAT1 to mechanisms underlying the pathology of EA6 remain unclear. Here we investigated the effects of five additional EA6-related mutations on hEAAT1 function in Xenopus laevis oocytes, and on CNS function in a Drosophila melanogaster model of locomotor behavior. Our results indicate that mutations resulting in decreased hEAAT1 Cl- channel activity but with functional glutamate transport can also contribute to the pathology of EA6, highlighting the importance of Cl- homeostasis in glial cells for proper CNS function. We also identified a novel mechanism involving an ectopic sodium (Na+) leak conductance in glial cells. Together, these results strongly support the idea that EA6 is primarily an ion channelopathy of CNS glia.
Qianyi Wu, Azman Akhter, Shashank Pant, Eunjoo Cho, Jin Xin Zhu, Alastair R. Garner, Tomoko Ohyama, Emad Tajkhorshid, Donald J. van Meyel, Renae M. Ryan
Gastrointestinal motility disorders involve alterations to the structure and/or function of the enteric nervous system (ENS) but the causal mechanisms remain unresolved in most cases. Homeostasis and disease in the ENS are processes that are regulated by enteric glia. Signaling mediated through type I lysophosphatidic acid receptors (LPAR1) has recently emerged as an important mechanism that contributes to disease, in part, through effects on peripheral glial survival and function. Enteric glia express LPAR1 but its role in ENS function and motility disorders is unknown. We used a combination of genetic, immunohistochemical, calcium imaging, and in vivo pharmacological approaches to investigate the role of LPAR1 in enteric glia. LPAR1 was enriched in enteric glia in mice and humans and LPA stimulated intracellular calcium responses in enteric glia, subsequently recruiting activity in a subpopulation of myenteric neurons. Blocking LPAR1 in vivo with AM966 attenuated gastrointestinal motility in mice and produced marked enteric neuro- and gliopathy. Samples from humans with chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction (CIPO), a severe motility disorder, showed reduced glial LPAR1 expression in the colon and ileum. These data suggest that enteric glial LPAR1 signaling regulates gastrointestinal motility through enteric glia and could contribute to severe motility disorders in humans such as CIPO.
Mohammad M. Ahmadzai, Jonathon L. McClain, Christine Dharshika, Luisa Seguella, Fiorella Giancola, Roberto De Giorgio, Brian D. Gulbransen
Dysfunction of protein trafficking has been intensively associated with neurological diseases, including neurodegeneration, but whether and how protein transport contributes to oligodendrocyte maturation and myelin repair in white matter injury remains unclear. ER-to-Golgi trafficking of newly synthesized proteins is mediated by the coat protein complex II (COPII) complex. Here we demonstrate that COPII component Sec13 is essential for oligodendrocyte differentiation and postnatal myelination. Ablation of Sec13 in oligodendrocyte lineage prevented OPC differentiation and inhibited myelination and remyelination after demyelinating injury in central nervous system (CNS), while improving protein traffic by tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA) or ectopic expression of COPII components accelerated myelination. COPII components were upregulated in oligodendrocyte lineage cells after demyelinating injury. Loss of Sec13 altered the secretome of oligodendrocytes and inhibited the secretion of PTN, which was identified to function as an autocrine factor to promote oligodendrocyte differentiation and myelin repair. These data suggest that Sec13-dependent protein transport is essential for oligodendrocyte differentiation and Sec13-mediated PTN autocrine signaling is required for proper myelination and remyelination.
Zhixiong Liu, Minbiao Yan, Wanying Lei, Rencai Jiang, Wenxiu Dai, Jialin Chen, Chaomeng Wang, Li Li, Mei Wu, Ximing Nian, Daopeng Li, Di Sun, Xiaoqi Lv, Chaoying Wang, Changchuan Xie, Luming Yao, Caiming Wu, Jin Hu, Naian Xiao, Wei Mo, Zhanxiang Wang, Liang Zhang
BACKGROUND. The heterogeneity of tinnitus is thought to underlie the lack of objective diagnostic measures. METHODS. Longitudinal data from 20,349 participants of the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health (SLOSH) cohort from 2008 to 2018 was used to understand the dynamics of transition between occasional and constant tinnitus. The second part of the study included electrophysiological data from 405 participants of the Swedish Tinnitus Outreach Project (STOP) cohort. RESULTS. We determined that with increasing frequency of the occasional perception of self-reported tinnitus, the odds of reporting constant tinnitus after 2 years increases from 5 for previous tinnitus (sometimes) to 30 for previous tinnitus (often). When previous tinnitus was reported to be constant, the odds of reporting it as constant after 2 years rose to 603, suggesting that once transitioned to constant tinnitus, the likelihood of tinnitus to persist was much greater. Auditory brainstem responses (ABRs) from subjects reporting non-tinnitus (controls), occasional tinnitus, and constant tinnitus show that wave V latency increased in constant tinnitus when compared to occasional tinnitus or non-tinnitus. The ABR from occasional tinnitus was indistinguishable from that of the non-tinnitus controls. CONCLUSIONS. Our results support the hypothesis that the transition from occasional to constant tinnitus is accompanied by neuronal changes in the midbrain leading to a persisting tinnitus, which is then less likely to remit. TRIAL REGISTRATION. Not applicable FUNDING. This study was supported by the GENDER-Net Co-Plus Fund (GNP-182), the European Union’s Horizon 2020 Grant No. 848261 (UNITI) and No. 722046 (ESIT).
Niklas K. Edvall, Golbarg Mehraei, Martin Claeson, Andra Lazar, Jan Bulla, Constanze Leineweber, Inger Uhlén, Barbara Canlon, Christopher R. Cederroth
Neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis type 7 (CLN7) disease is a lysosomal storage disease caused by mutations in the facilitator superfamily domain containing 8 (MFSD8) gene, which encodes a membrane-bound lysosomal protein MFSD8. To test the effectiveness and safety of adeno-associated viral (AAV) gene therapy, an in vitro study demonstrated that AAV2/MFSD8 dose-dependently rescued lysosomal function in fibroblasts from a CLN7 patient. An in vivo efficacy study using intrathecal administration of AAV9/MFSD8 to Mfsd8-/- mice at postnatal day (p)7-10 or p120 with high or low dose led to clear age- and dose-dependent effects. A high dose of AAV9/MFSD8 at p7-10 resulted in widespread MFSD8 mRNA expression, tendency of amelioration of subunit c of mitochondrial ATP synthase accumulation and glial fibrillary acidic protein immunoreactivity, normalization of impaired behaviors, doubled median lifespan, and extended normal body weight gain. In vivo safety studies in rodents concluded that intrathecal administration of AAV9/MFSD8 was safe and well-tolerated. In summary, these results demonstrated that the AAV9/MFSD8 vector is both effective and safe in preclinical models. Investigational New Drug application #19766 to initiate a Phase I intrathecal gene transfer trial for AAV9/MFSD8 was approved by the US FDA and the trial is enrolling CLN7 patients at Children’s Health in Dallas, TX in collaboration with UTSW Medical Center (clinicaltrials.gov NCT04737460).
Xin Chen, Thomas Dong, Yuhui Hu, Frances C. Shaffo, Nandkishore R. Belur, Joseph R. Mazzulli, Steven J. Gray
BACKGROUND. Presbyosmia, or aging related olfactory loss, occurs in a majority of humans over age 65 years, yet remains poorly understood, with no specific treatment options. The olfactory epithelium (OE) is the peripheral organ for olfaction, and is subject to acquired damage, suggesting a likely site of pathology in aging. Adult stem cells reconstitute the neuroepithelium in response to cell loss under normal conditions. In aged OE, patches of respiratory-like metaplasia have been observed histologically, consistent with a failure in normal neuroepithelial homeostasis. METHODS. Accordingly, we have focused on identifying cellular and molecular changes in presbyosmic OE. The study combined psychophysical testing with olfactory mucosa biopsy analysis, single cell RNA-sequencing (scRNA-seq), and culture studies. RESULTS. We identified evidence for inflammation-associated changes in the OE stem cells of presbyosmic patients. The presbyosmic basal stem cells exhibited increased expression of genes involved in response to cytokines or stress, or the regulation of proliferation and differentiation. Using a culture model, cytokine exposure drove increased TP63, a transcription factor acting to prevent OE stem cell differentiation. CONCLUSIONS. Our data suggest aging-related inflammatory changes in OE stem cells may contribute to presbyosmia, via the disruption of normal epithelial homeostasis. OE stem cells may represent a therapeutic target for restoration of olfaction. TRIAL REGISTRATION. Not applicable FUNDING. National Institutes of Health grants DC018371 (BJG), NS121067 (EAM), DC016224 (HM);Office of Physician-Scientist Development, Burroughs-Wellcome Fund Research Fellowship for Medical Students Award, Duke University School of Medicine (AO).
Allison D. Oliva, Rupali Gupta, Khalil Issa, Ralph Abi Hachem, David W. Jang, Sebastian A. Wellford, E. Ashley Moseman, Hiroaki Matsunami, Bradley J. Goldstein
Exposure to addictive substances impairs flexible decision-making. Cognitive flexibility is mediated by striatal cholinergic interneurons (CINs). However, how chronic alcohol drinking alters cognitive flexibility through CINs remains unclear. Here, we report that chronic alcohol consumption and withdrawal impaired reversal of instrumental learning. Chronic alcohol consumption and withdrawal also caused a long-lasting (21 d) reduction of excitatory thalamic inputs onto CINs and reduced pause response of CINs in the dorsomedial striatum (DMS). CINs are known to inhibit glutamatergic transmission in dopamine D1 receptor-expressing medium spiny neurons (D1-MSNs) but facilitate this transmission in D2-MSNs, which may contribute to flexible behavior. We discovered that chronic alcohol drinking impaired CIN-mediated inhibition in D1-MSNs and facilitation in D2-MSNs. Importantly, in vivo optogenetic induction of long-term potentiation of thalamostriatal transmission in DMS CINs rescued alcohol-induced reversal learning deficits. These results demonstrate that chronic alcohol drinking reduces thalamic excitation of DMS CINs, compromising their regulation of glutamatergic transmission in MSNs, which may contribute to alcohol-induced impairment of cognitive flexibility. These findings provide a neural mechanism underlying inflexible drinking in alcohol use disorder.
Tengfei Ma, Zhenbo Huang, Xueyi Xie, Yifeng Cheng, Xiaowen Zhuang, Matthew J. Childs, Himanshu Gangal, Xuehua Wang, Laura N. Smith, Rachel J. Smith, Yubin Zhou, Jun Wang
BACKGROUND. Care management of Parkinson’s disease (PD) patients currently remains symptomatic, mainly because diagnosis relying on the expression of the cardinal motor symptoms is made too late. Earlier detecting PD therefore represents a key step for developing therapies able to delay or slow down its progression. METHODS. We investigated metabolic markers in three different animal models of PD, mimicking different phases of the disease assessed by behavioral and histological evaluation, and in 3 cohorts of de novo PD patients and matched controls (n = 129). Serum and brain tissue samples were analyzed by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and data submitted to advanced multivariate statistics. RESULTS. Our translational strategy reveals common metabolic dysregulations in serum of the different animal models and PD patients. Some of them were mirrored in the tissue samples, possibly reflecting pathophysiological mechanisms associated with PD development. Interestingly, some metabolic dysregulations appeared before motor symptom emergence, and could represent early biomarkers of PD. Finally, we built a composite biomarker with a combination of 6 metabolites. This biomarker discriminated animals mimicking PD from controls, even from the first, non-motor signs and very interestingly, also discriminated PD patients from healthy subjects. CONCLUSION. From our translational study which included three animal models and three de novo PD patient cohorts, we propose a promising biomarker exhibiting a high accuracy for de novo PD diagnosis and may possibly predict early PD development, before motor symptoms appearance. FUNDINGS. ANR, DOPALCOMP, Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale, Université Grenoble Alpes.
David Mallet, Thibault Dufourd, Mélina Decourt, Carole Carcenac, Paola Bossù, Laure Verlin, Pierre-Olivier Fernagut, Marianne Benoit-Marand, Gianfranco Spalletta, Emmanuel L. Barbier, Sebastien Carnicella, Véronique Sgambato, Florence Fauvelle, Sabrina Boulet
Oligodendrocytes are the primary target of demyelinating disorders and progressive neurodegenerative changes may evolve in the CNS. DNA damage and oxidative stress are considered key pathogenic events, but the underlying molecular mechanisms remain unclear. Moreover, animal models do not fully recapitulate human diseases, complicating the path to effective treatments. Here we report that mice with cell autonomous deletion of the nuclear COP9 signalosome component CSN5 (JAB1) in oligodendrocytes develop DNA damage and defective DNA repair in myelinating glial cells. Interestingly, oligodendrocytes lacking JAB1 expression underwent a senescence-like phenotype that fostered chronic inflammation and oxidative stress. These mutants developed progressive CNS demyelination, microglia inflammation and neurodegeneration, with severe motor deficits and premature death. Notably, blocking microglia inflammation did not prevent neurodegeneration, whereas the deletion of p21CIP1 but not p16INK4a pathway ameliorated the disease. We suggest that senescence is key to sustaining neurodegeneration in demyelinating disorders and may be considered a potential therapeutic target.
Cristina Rivellini, Emanuela Porrello, Giorgia Dina, Simona Mrakic-Sposta, Alessandra Vezzoli, Marco Bacigaluppi, Giorgia Serena Gullotta, Linda Chaabane, Letizia Leocani, Silvia Marenna, Emanuela Colombo, Cinthia Farina, Jia Newcombe, Klaus-Armin Nave, Ruggero Pardi, Angelo Quattrini, Stefano C. Previtali