FOXP3+ Tregs are central for the maintenance of self-tolerance and can be defective in autoimmunity. In multiple sclerosis and type-1 diabetes, dysfunctional self-tolerance is partially mediated by a population of IFNγ-secreting Tregs. It was previously reported that increased NaCl concentrations promote the induction of proinflammatory Th17 cells and that high-salt diets exacerbate experimental models of autoimmunity. Here, we have shown that increasing NaCl, either in vitro or in murine models via diet, markedly impairs Treg function. NaCl increased IFNγ secretion in Tregs, and reducing IFNγ — either by neutralization with anti-IFNγ antibodies or shRNA-mediated knockdown — restored suppressive activity in Tregs. The heightened IFNγ secretion and loss of Treg function were mediated by the serum/glucocorticoid-regulated kinase (SGK1). A high-salt diet also impaired human Treg function and was associated with the induction of IFNγ-secreting Tregs in a xenogeneic graft-versus-host disease model and in adoptive transfer models of experimental colitis. Our results demonstrate a putative role for an environmental factor that promotes autoimmunity by inducing proinflammatory responses in CD4 effector cells and Treg pathways.
Amanda L. Hernandez, Alexandra Kitz, Chuan Wu, Daniel E. Lowther, Donald M. Rodriguez, Nalini Vudattu, Songyan Deng, Kevan C. Herold, Vijay K. Kuchroo, Markus Kleinewietfeld, David A. Hafler
Wound healing is a complex process that is characterized by an initial inflammatory phase followed by a proliferative phase. This transition is a critical regulatory point; however, the factors that mediate this process are not fully understood. Here, we evaluated microRNAs (miRs) in skin wound healing and characterized the dynamic change of the miRNome in human skin wounds. miR-132 was highly upregulated during the inflammatory phase of wound repair, predominantly expressed in epidermal keratinocytes, and peaked in the subsequent proliferative phase. TGF-β1 and TGF-β2 induced miR-132 expression in keratinocytes, and transcriptome analysis of these cells revealed that miR-132 regulates a large number of immune response– and cell cycle–related genes. In keratinocytes, miR-132 decreased the production of chemokines and the capability to attract leukocytes by suppressing the NF-κB pathway. Conversely, miR-132 increased activity of the STAT3 and ERK pathways, thereby promoting keratinocyte growth. Silencing of the miR-132 target heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor (HB-EGF) phenocopied miR-132 overexpression in keratinocytes. Using mouse and human ex vivo wound models, we found that miR-132 blockade delayed healing, which was accompanied by severe inflammation and deficient keratinocyte proliferation. Together, our results indicate that miR-132 is a critical regulator of skin wound healing that facilitates the transition from the inflammatory to the proliferative phase.
Dongqing Li, Aoxue Wang, Xi Liu, Florian Meisgen, Jacob Grünler, Ileana R. Botusan, Sampath Narayanan, Erdem Erikci, Xi Li, Lennart Blomqvist, Lei Du, Andor Pivarcsi, Enikö Sonkoly, Kamal Chowdhury, Sergiu-Bogdan Catrina, Mona Ståhle, Ning Xu Landén
The NF-κB signaling pathway is implicated in various inflammatory diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis (RA); therefore, inhibition of this pathway has the potential to ameliorate an array of inflammatory diseases. Given that NF-κB signaling is critical for many immune cell functions, systemic blockade of this pathway may lead to detrimental side effects. siRNAs coupled with a safe and effective delivery nanoplatform may afford the specificity lacking in systemic administration of small-molecule inhibitors. Here we demonstrated that a melittin-derived cationic amphipathic peptide combined with siRNA targeting the p65 subunit of NF-κB (p5RHH-p65) noncovalently self-assemble into stable nanocomplexes that home to the inflamed joints in a murine model of RA. Specifically, administration of p5RHH-p65 siRNA nanocomplexes abrogated inflammatory cytokine expression and cellular influx into the joints, protected against bone erosions, and preserved cartilage integrity. The p5RHH-p65 siRNA nanocomplexes potently suppressed early inflammatory arthritis without affecting p65 expression in off-target organs or eliciting a humoral response after serial injections. These data suggest that this self-assembling, largely nontoxic platform may have broad utility for the specific delivery of siRNA to target and limit inflammatory processes for the treatment of a variety of diseases.
Hui-fang Zhou, Huimin Yan, Hua Pan, Kirk K. Hou, Antonina Akk, Luke E. Springer, Ying Hu, J. Stacy Allen, Samuel A. Wickline, Christine T.N. Pham
Rheumatoid arthritis–associated (RA-associated) inflammation is mediated through the interaction between RA IgG immune complexes and IgG Fc receptors on immune cells. Polymorphisms within the gene encoding the human IgG Fc receptor IIA (hFcγRIIA) are associated with an increased risk of developing RA. Within the hFcγRIIA intracytoplasmic domain, there are 2 conserved tyrosine residues arranged in a noncanonical immunoreceptor tyrosine–based activation motif (ITAM). Here, we reveal that inhibitory engagement of the hFcγRIIA ITAM either with anti-hFcγRII F(ab′)2 fragments or intravenous hIgG (IVIg) ameliorates RA-associated inflammation, and this effect was characteristic of previously described inhibitory ITAM (ITAMi) signaling for hFcαRI and hFcγRIIIA, but only involves a single tyrosine. In hFcγRIIA-expressing mice, arthritis induction was inhibited following hFcγRIIA engagement. Moreover, hFcγRIIA ITAMi-signaling reduced ROS and inflammatory cytokine production through inhibition of guanine nucleotide exchange factor VAV-1 and IL-1 receptor–associated kinase 1 (IRAK-1), respectively. ITAMi signaling was mediated by tyrosine 304 (Y304) within the hFcγRIIA ITAM, which was required for recruitment of tyrosine kinase SYK and tyrosine phosphatase SHP-1. Anti-hFcγRII F(ab′)2 treatment of inflammatory synovial cells from RA patients inhibited ROS production through induction of ITAMi signaling. These data suggest that shifting constitutive hFcγRIIA-mediated activation to ITAMi signaling could ameliorate RA-associated inflammation.
Sanae Ben Mkaddem, Gilles Hayem, Friederike Jönsson, Elisabetta Rossato, Erwan Boedec, Tarek Boussetta, Jamel El Benna, Pierre Launay, Jean-Michel Goujon, Marc Benhamou, Pierre Bruhns, Renato C. Monteiro
Activation of the GPCR sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor 1 (S1P1) by sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) regulates key physiological processes. S1P1 activation also has been implicated in pathologic processes, including autoimmunity and inflammation; however, the in vivo sites of S1P1 activation under normal and disease conditions are unclear. Here, we describe the development of a mouse model that allows in vivo evaluation of S1P1 activation. These mice, known as S1P1 GFP signaling mice, produce a S1P1 fusion protein containing a transcription factor linked by a protease cleavage site at the C terminus as well as a β-arrestin/protease fusion protein. Activated S1P1 recruits the β-arrestin/protease, resulting in the release of the transcription factor, which stimulates the expression of a GFP reporter gene. Under normal conditions, S1P1 was activated in endothelial cells of lymphoid tissues and in cells in the marginal zone of the spleen, while administration of an S1P1 agonist promoted S1P1 activation in endothelial cells and hepatocytes. In S1P1 GFP signaling mice, LPS-mediated systemic inflammation activated S1P1 in endothelial cells and hepatocytes via hematopoietically derived S1P. These data demonstrate that S1P1 GFP signaling mice can be used to evaluate S1P1 activation and S1P1-active compounds in vivo. Furthermore, this strategy could be potentially applied to any GPCR to identify sites of receptor activation during normal physiology and disease.
Mari Kono, Ana E. Tucker, Jennifer Tran, Jennifer B. Bergner, Ewa M. Turner, Richard L. Proia
Chondrocytes are the only cells in cartilage, and their death by apoptosis contributes to cartilage loss in inflammatory joint diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA). A putative therapeutic intervention for RA is the inhibition of apoptosis-mediated cartilage degradation. The hormone prolactin (PRL) frequently increases in the circulation of patients with RA, but the role of hyperprolactinemia in disease activity is unclear. Here, we demonstrate that PRL inhibits the apoptosis of cultured chondrocytes in response to a mixture of proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β, and IFN-γ) by preventing the induction of p53 and decreasing the BAX/BCL-2 ratio through a NO-independent, JAK2/STAT3–dependent pathway. Local treatment with PRL or increasing PRL circulating levels also prevented chondrocyte apoptosis evoked by injecting cytokines into the knee joints of rats, whereas the proapoptotic effect of cytokines was enhanced in PRL receptor–null (
Norma Adán, Jessica Guzmán-Morales, Maria G. Ledesma-Colunga, Sonia I. Perales-Canales, Andrés Quintanar-Stéphano, Fernando López-Barrera, Isabel Méndez, Bibiana Moreno-Carranza, Jakob Triebel, Nadine Binart, Gonzalo Martínez de la Escalera, Stéphanie Thebault, Carmen Clapp
Current therapies to treat autoimmune disease focus mainly on downstream targets of autoimmune responses, including effector cells and cytokines. A potentially more effective approach would entail targeting autoreactive T cells that initiate the disease cascade and break self tolerance. The murine MHC class Ib molecule Qa-1b (HLA-E in humans) exhibits limited polymorphisms and binds to 2 dominant self peptides: Hsp60p216 and Qdm. We found that peptide-induced expansion of tetramer-binding CD8+ Tregs that recognize Qa-1–Hsp60p216 but not Qa-1–Qdm strongly inhibited collagen-induced arthritis, an animal model of human rheumatoid arthritis. Perforin-dependent elimination of autoreactive follicular Th (TFH) and Th17 cells by CD8+ Tregs inhibited disease development. Infusion of in vitro–expanded CD8+ Tregs increased the efficacy of methotrexate treatment and halted disease progression after clinical onset, suggesting an alternative approach to this first-line treatment. Moreover, infusion of small numbers of Qa-1–Hsp60p216–specific CD8+ Tregs resulted in robust inhibition of autoimmune arthritis, confirming the inhibitory effects of Hsp60p216 peptide immunization. These results suggest that strategies designed to expand Qa-1–restricted (HLA-E–restricted), peptide-specific CD8+ Tregs represent a promising therapeutic approach to autoimmune disorders.
Jianmei W. Leavenworth, Xiaolei Tang, Hye-Jung Kim, Xiaoyang Wang, Harvey Cantor
Milk fat globule-EGF 8 (MFGE8) plays important, nonredundant roles in several biological processes, including apoptotic cell clearance, angiogenesis, and adaptive immunity. Several recent studies have reported a potential role for MFGE8 in regulation of the innate immune response; however, the precise mechanisms underlying this role are poorly understood. Here, we show that MFGE8 is an endogenous inhibitor of inflammasome-induced IL-1β production. MFGE8 inhibited necrotic cell–induced and ATP-dependent IL-1β production by macrophages through mediation of integrin β3 and P2X7 receptor interactions in primed cells.
Nicolas Deroide, Xuan Li, Dominique Lerouet, Emily Van Vré, Lauren Baker, James Harrison, Marine Poittevin, Leanne Masters, Lina Nih, Isabelle Margaill, Yoichiro Iwakura, Bernhard Ryffel, Marc Pocard, Alain Tedgui, Nathalie Kubis, Ziad Mallat
Low-grade chronic inflammation is a major characteristic of obesity and results from deregulated white adipose tissue function. Consequently, there is interest in identifying the underlying regulatory mechanisms and components that drive adipocyte inflammation. Here, we report that expression of the transcriptional corepressor complex subunits GPS2 and SMRT was significantly reduced in obese adipose tissue, inversely correlated to inflammatory status, and was restored upon gastric bypass surgery–induced weight loss in morbid obesity. These alterations correlated with reduced occupancy of the corepressor complex at inflammatory promoters, providing a mechanistic explanation for elevated inflammatory transcription. In support of these correlations, RNAi-mediated depletion of GPS2 and SMRT from cultured human adipocytes promoted derepression of inflammatory transcription and elevation of obesity-associated inflammatory markers, such as IL-6 and MCP-1. Furthermore, we identified a regulatory cascade containing PPARγ and TWIST1 that controlled the expression of GPS2 and SMRT in human adipocytes. These findings were clinically relevant, because treatment of diabetic obese patients with pioglitazone, an antidiabetic and antiinflammatory PPARγ agonist, restored expression of TWIST1, GPS2, and SMRT in adipose tissue. Collectively, our findings identify alterations in a regulatory transcriptional network in adipocytes involving the dysregulation of a specific corepressor complex as among the initiating events promoting adipose tissue inflammation in human obesity.
Amine Toubal, Karine Clément, Rongrong Fan, Patricia Ancel, Veronique Pelloux, Christine Rouault, Nicolas Veyrie, Agnes Hartemann, Eckardt Treuter, Nicolas Venteclef
Influenza causes substantial morbidity and mortality, and highly pathogenic and drug-resistant strains are likely to emerge in the future. Protease-activated receptor 1 (PAR1) is a thrombin-activated receptor that contributes to inflammatory responses at mucosal surfaces. The role of PAR1 in pathogenesis of virus infections is unknown. Here, we demonstrate that PAR1 contributed to the deleterious inflammatory response after influenza virus infection in mice. Activating PAR1 by administering the agonist TFLLR-NH2 decreased survival and increased lung inflammation after influenza infection. Importantly, both administration of a PAR1 antagonist and PAR1 deficiency protected mice from infection with influenza A viruses (IAVs). Treatment with the PAR1 agonist did not alter survival of mice deficient in plasminogen (PLG), which suggests that PLG permits and/or interacts with a PAR1 function in this model. PAR1 antagonists are in human trials for other indications. Our findings suggest that PAR1 antagonism might be explored as a treatment for influenza, including that caused by highly pathogenic H5N1 and oseltamivir-resistant H1N1 viruses.
Khaled Khoufache, Fatma Berri, Wolfgang Nacken, Annette B. Vogel, Marie Delenne, Eric Camerer, Shaun R. Coughlin, Peter Carmeliet, Bruno Lina, Guus F. Rimmelzwaan, Oliver Planz, Stephan Ludwig, Béatrice Riteau
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