W J Koopman
To assess the postulated role of plasminogen activation in tumor invasion, we have investigated the cellular sites of synthesis for urokinase-type (uPA) and tissue-type (tPA) plasminogen activators and their inhibitors (PAI-1 and PAI-2) in two human cutaneous neoplasia that differ in their metastatic potential. The combined use of zymography on tissue sections and in situ hybridization demonstrates that uPA is produced by malignant cells of squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) but not by basal cell carcinomas (BCC), whereas tPA is detected exclusively in nonmalignant dermal tissue. In addition, we show that SCC neoplastic cells simultaneously produce variable amounts of PAI-1, and that PAI-1 production correlates inversely with uPA enzymatic activity. These observations establish that invasive human malignant cells in vivo can activate plasminogen through uPA production during the early phases of tumor growth; they also demonstrate that the proteolytic activity of tumor cells can be modulated by the concomitant production of PAI-1. Because SCC have a higher invasive and metastatic potential than BCC, our findings lend further support to the involvement of plasminogen activation in malignant behavior.
A P Sappino, D Belin, J Huarte, S Hirschel-Scholz, J H Saurat, J D Vassalli
Although lactoferrin has antimicrobial activity, its mechanism of action is not full defined. Recently we have shown that the protein alters the Gram-negative outer membrane. As this membrane protects Gram-negative cells from lysozyme, we have studied whether lactoferrin's membrane effect could enhance the antibacterial activity of lysozyme. We have found that while each protein alone is bacteriostatic, together they can be bactericidal for strains of V. cholerae, S. typhimurium, and E. coli. The bactericidal effect is dose dependent, blocked by iron saturation of lactoferrin, and inhibited by high calcium levels, although lactoferrin does not chelate calcium. Using differing media, the effect of lactoferrin and lysozyme can be partially or completely inhibited; the degree of inhibition correlating with media osmolarity. Transmission electron microscopy shows that E. coli cells exposed to lactoferrin and lysozyme at 40 mOsm become enlarged and hypodense, suggesting killing through osmotic damage. Dialysis chamber studies indicate that bacterial killing requires direct contact with lactoferrin, and work with purified LPS suggests that this relates to direct LPS-binding by the protein. As lactoferrin and lysozyme are present together in high levels in mucosal secretions and neutrophil granules, it is probable that their interaction contributes to host defense.
R T Ellison 3rd, T J Giehl
In vivo most extracellular iron is bound to transferrin or lactoferrin in such a way as to be unable to catalyze the formation of hydroxyl radical from superoxide (.O2-) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). At sites of Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection bacterial and neutrophil products could possibly modify transferrin and/or lactoferrin forming catalytic iron complexes. To examine this possibility, diferrictransferrin and diferriclactoferrin which had been incubated with pseudomonas elastase, pseudomonas alkaline protease, human neutrophil elastase, trypsin, or the myeloperoxidase product HOCl were added to a hypoxanthine/xanthine oxidase .O2-/H2O2 generating system. Hydroxyl radical formation was only detected with pseudomonas elastase treated diferrictransferrin and, to a much lesser extent, diferriclactoferrin. This effect was enhanced by the combination of pseudomonas elastase with other proteases, most prominently neutrophil elastase. Addition of pseudomonas elastase-treated diferrictransferrin to stimulated neutrophils also resulted in hydroxyl radical generation. Incubation of pseudomonas elastase with transferrin which had been selectively iron loaded at either the NH2- or COOH-terminal binding site yielded iron chelates with similar efficacy for hydroxyl radical catalysis. Pseudomonas elastase and HOCl treatment also decreased the ability of apotransferrin to inhibit hydroxyl radical formation by a Fe-NTA supplemented hypoxanthine/xanthine oxidase system. However, apotransferrin could be protected from the effects of HOCl if bicarbonate anion was present during the incubation. Apolactoferrin inhibition of hydroxyl radical generation was unaffected by any of the four proteases or HOCl. Alteration of transferrin by enzymes and oxidants present at sites of pseudomonas and other bacterial infections may increase the potential for local hydroxyl radical generation thereby contributing to tissue injury.
B E Britigan, B L Edeker
We have been exploring the role of iron in the pathogenesis of the intracellular bacterial pathogen Legionella pneumophila. In previous studies, we have demonstrated that L. pneumophila intracellular multiplication in human monocytes is iron dependent and that IFN gamma-activated monocytes inhibit L. pneumophila intracellular multiplication by limiting the availability of iron. In this study, we have investigated the effect on L. pneumophila intracellular multiplication of lactoferrin, an iron-binding protein which is internalized via specific receptors on monocytes, and of nonphysiologic iron chelates which enter monocytes by a receptor-independent route. Apolactoferrin completely inhibited L. pneumophila multiplication in nonactivated monocytes, and enhanced the capacity of IFN gamma-activated monocytes to inhibit L. pneumophila intracellular multiplication. In contrast, iron-saturated lactoferrin had no effect on the already rapid rate of L. pneumophila multiplication in nonactivated monocytes. Moreover, it reversed the capacity of activated monocytes to inhibit L. pneumophila intracellular multiplication, demonstrating that L. pneumophila can utilize iron from the lactoferrin-lactoferrin receptor pathway. The capacity of iron-lactoferrin to reverse monocyte activation was dependent upon its percent iron saturation and not just its total iron content. Similarly, the nonphysiologic iron chelates ferric nitrilotriacetate and ferric ammonium citrate completely reverse and ferric pyrophosphate partially reversed the capacity of IFN gamma-activated monocytes to inhibit L. pneumophila intracellular multiplication, demonstrating that L. pneumophila can utilize iron derived from nonphysiologic iron chelates internalized by monocytes independently of the transferrin and lactoferrin endocytic pathways. This study suggests that at sites of inflammation, lactoferrin may inhibit or promote L. pneumophila intracellular multiplication in mononuclear phagocytes depending upon its degree of iron saturation. In addition, this study suggests a potential role for PMN in host defense against L. pneumophila--providing apolactoferrin to infected monocytes--and it supports the concept that PMN and monocytes may cooperate in host defense against intracellular parasites and other pathogens.
T F Byrd, M A Horwitz
Although alterations in T lymphocyte subset distribution and function in the peripheral blood of HIV-infected humans are well defined, the extent to which these reflect changes in other lymphoid compartments is unclear. We have characterized the coincident changes in PBL and lymph nodes (LN)1 after simian immunodeficiency virus of macaques (SIVmac) infection of rhesus monkeys. Whereas no consistent change in CD8+ PBL was noted during the first 60 d after infection, CD8+ lymphocytes increased significantly in number in LN. These CD8+ LN lymphocytes exhibited an increased expression of MHC class II and a decreased expression of leukocyte adhesion molecule-1, suggesting that they were activated, but interestingly did not express CD25 (IL-2 receptor). Moreover, there was no evidence that these CD8+ LN cells were proliferating, suggesting that they had migrated to the LN. These changes in the LN CD8+ lymphocyte population preceded any detectable change in the light microscopic appearance of the LN. When SIVmac-specific effector T cell responses were assessed, the magnitude of virus-specific effector activity was nearly identical in the PBL and LN of each monkey studied. However, the presence of SIVmac-specific effector cells in the LN did not correlate with the presence of CD8+, MHC class II+ cells. These findings suggest that this numerically important CD8+ lymphocyte subpopulation may serve a regulatory function.
K A Reimann, G B Snyder, L V Chalifoux, B C Waite, M D Miller, H Yamamoto, O Spertini, N L Letvin
Monocytes appear to be central to atherogenesis both as the progenitors of foam cells and as a potential source of growth factors mediating intimal hyperplasia, but the chemical messages which stimulate the influx of monocytes into human atheroma remain unknown. Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) is a recently described molecule with powerful monocyte chemotactic activity expressed by monocytes, vascular endothelial cells, and smooth muscle cells in culture. To begin to address the role of MCP-1 in vivo, we examined 10 normal arteries and 14 diseased human arteries for MCP-1 expression by in situ hybridization. MCP-1 mRNA was detected in 16% of 10,768 cells counted in human carotid endarterectomy specimens with highest expression seen in organizing thrombi (33%) and in macrophage rich areas bordering the necrotic lipid core (24%) as compared to the fibrous cap (8%) and the necrotic lipid core itself (5%). Based on immunohistochemical staining of serial sections and on cell morphology, MCP-1 mRNA appeared to be expressed by vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC), mesenchymal appearing intimal cells (MICs), and macrophages. By contrast, few cells expressing MCP-1 mRNA were found in normal arteries (less than 0.1%). These data suggest a potential role for MCP-1 in mediating monocytic infiltration of the artery wall.
N A Nelken, S R Coughlin, D Gordon, J N Wilcox
The aggregation of cells bearing recombinant integrin alpha IIb beta 3 (platelet GPIIb-IIIa) has been analyzed by two-color flow cytometry. As in normal platelets, aggregation requires functional alpha IIb beta 3, "activation" of alpha IIb beta 3, and fibrinogen (fg) binding to alpha IIb beta 3. Cellular aggregation required that both interacting cells express functional alpha IIb beta 3, because a binding defective mutant, alpha IIb beta 3 (D119----Y), failed to support interaction with wild type alpha IIb beta 3-bearing cells. In addition, cells bearing resting alpha IIb beta 3 were incorporated into aggregates formed by cells bearing a constitutively active mutant, alpha IIb beta 3 (beta 1-2), indicating that only one of the cells in an interacting pair must be activated. Finally, heterotypic interactions occurred between cells bearing activated alpha IIb beta 3 and cells bearing alpha V beta 3, a fg-binding integrin present on endothelial and tumor cells. Thus, ligand bridging between fg-binding integrins represents a mechanism of cell-cell interaction, cells bearing resting alpha IIb beta 3 (e.g., resting platelets) may be incorporated into aggregates formed by cells bearing activated alpha IIb beta 3, and alpha IIb beta 3 mediates heterotypic interactions with cells bearing other fg receptors.
M P Gawaz, J C Loftus, M L Bajt, M M Frojmovic, E F Plow, M H Ginsberg
HCO3- exit across the basolateral membrane of the kidney proximal tubule cell is mediated via an electrogenic Na+:HCO3- cotransporter. In these experiments, we have studied the effect of internal pH on the activity of the Na+:HCO3- cotransport system in basolateral membrane vesicles isolated from rabbit renal cortex. Equilibrium thermodynamics predicts that in the presence of constant intravesicular concentration of Na+, an increasing concentration of HCO3- will be associated with an increasing driving force for Na+:HCO3- cotransport across the vesicles. Our experimental approach was to preequilibrate the membrane vesicles with 1 mM 22Na+ at pHi 6.8-8.0 and known concentrations of HCO3-. The vesicles were diluted 1:100 into Na(+)-free solution at pH 7.4 and the net flux of 22Na+ was assayed over 5 s. The results demonstrate that the net flux of Na+ was significantly higher at pHi 7.2 than pHi 8.0 despite much higher [HCO3-] at pHi 8.0. This suggests that an internal pH-sensitive site regulates the activity of the Na+:HCO3- cotransporter. This modifier site inhibits the cotransporter at alkaline pH despite significant base concentration and is maximally functional around physiologic pH. The combination of modifier sites on the luminal Na+/H+ exchanger and the basolateral Na+:HCO3- cotransporter should help maintain intracellular pH in a narrow range with changes in extracellular pH.
M Soleimani, G A Lesoine, J A Bergman, T D McKinney
Ischemic cardiomyopathy refers to a significant impairment of left ventricular function, a condition resulting from atherosclerotic coronary artery disease. The left ventricular ejection fraction is usually 35% or less, and electron microscopy shows an increased deposition of collagen in the space between the capillaries and the myocytes. The present study shows the alteration in collagen concentration and phenotypes in ischemic cardiomyopathy, and the effect captopril treatment has on these parameters. In patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy, collagen concentration estimated from hydroxyproline increased from 7.96 +/- 1.24 mg/g to 13.9 +/- 1.30 mg/g, P less than 0.05. Ischemic cardiomyopathic patients given captopril therapy had a significantly lower collagen concentration of 10.03 +/- 1.46 mg/g, P less than 0.05. The collagen type I:III ratio decreased from 1.93 +/- 0.52 to 1.23 +/- 0.27 in patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy. Of these patients, those receiving captopril had a collagen type I:III ratio of 1.49 +/- 0.38, which did not differ significantly from the ratio of individuals with normal myocardium. There was no significant difference in type I collagen concentration in the myocardium of normal individuals, patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy, and patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy receiving captopril therapy. The type III collagen concentration increased significantly from 2.56 +/- 0.21 mg/g in normal myocardium to 6.10 +/- 0.58 mg/g in ischemic cardiomyopathic myocardium. Patients receiving captopril had a myocardial collagen type III concentration of 4.87 +/- 0.64 mg/g, which was significantly lower than that found in patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy. An increased deposition of type III collagen may be partly responsible for altering the compliance of the myocardium, resulting in dilatation of the heart and possibly leading to eventual heart failure.
D Mukherjee, S Sen
Utilizing cocultures of mouse renal juxtaglomerular cells with bovine microvascular endothelial cells, we have examined whether endothelial cells exert direct influence on renin secretion from renal juxtaglomerular cells. In the presence of endothelial cells both spontaneous and forskolin (10 microM) or isoproterenol (10 microM) stimulated renin release were markedly attenuated. The stimulatory effect of the calmodulin antagonist calmidazolium (10 microM) on renin secretion was not altered by endothelial cells, whereas the stimulatory effect of ethylisopropylamiloride (50 microM) an inhibitor of sodium-proton exchange was enhanced in the presence of endothelial cells. Indomethacin (10 microM) and NG-monomethyl-l-arginine (NMMA) (1 mM) used to inhibit cyclooxygenase activity and production of endothelium-derived relaxing factor (EDRF) decreased spontaneous renin release in the presence of endothelial cells only, but had no effect on forskolin stimulated renin secretion. Endothelin (1 microM) inhibited cAMP stimulated renin release both in the absence and in the presence of endothelial cells. ATP (10 microM) which acts on both endothelial and juxtaglomerular cells via purinergic P2 receptors inhibited cAMP stimulated renin release only in the absence but not in the presence of endothelial cells. This modulatory effect of endothelial cells was no altered by indomethacin nor by NMMA. Taken together, our findings provide first evidence for a local control function of the endothelium on cAMP stimulated renin secretion from renal juxtaglomerular cells, which could in part be mediated by endothelin.
A Kurtz, B Kaissling, R Busse, W Baier
In this study the contribution of activation of the contact system to activation of the fibrinolytic system in vivo was investigated in healthy volunteers and in factor XII deficient patients. The plasminogen activating activity in plasma from healthy volunteers after infusion of desamino D-arginine vasopressin (DDAVP) was only partially blocked (for 77%) with specific antibodies to tissue-type plasminogen activator and urokinase type plasminogen activator. The residual activity could be quenched by a monoclonal antibody that inhibits factor XII activity and was not present in patients with a factor XII deficiency. The formation of plasmin upon the DDAVP stimulus as reflected by circulating plasmin-alpha 2-antiplasmin complexes was lower in factor XII deficient patients than in healthy volunteers. Activation of the contact system occurred after DDAVP infusion in healthy volunteers and was absent in factor XII deficient patients. These results indicate that DDAVP induces a plasminogen activating activity that is partially dependent on activation of the contact system and that contributes to the overall fibrinolytic activity as indicated by the formation of plasmin-alpha 2-antiplasmin complexes. This fibrinolytic activity is impaired in factor XII deficient patients which may explain the occurrence of thromboembolic complications in these patients.
M Levi, C E Hack, J P de Boer, D P Brandjes, H R Büller, J W ten Cate
We have previously demonstrated that there is a low level of transcription of tissue-specific genes in every cell type. In this study, we have taken advantage of this phenomenon, called illegitimate transcription, to analyze the muscle-type dystrophin mRNA in easily accessible cells such as lymphoid cells, fibroblasts, and peripheral blood cells from Duchenne and Becker muscular dystrophies with known internal gene deletion. The results showed that, in the studied regions surrounding the deletions, processing of truncated transcripts is identical in specific (muscle tissue) and in nonspecific cells (lymphoid cells). In Becker cases with out-of-frame deletions, the already described alternatively spliced species found in muscle samples were also found in nonspecific cells. These results demonstrate that illegitimate transcripts are a bona fide version of tissue-specific mRNA, and that they represent a useful material to investigate the qualitative consequences of gene defects at the mRNA level.
J Chelly, H Gilgenkrantz, J P Hugnot, G Hamard, M Lambert, D Récan, S Akli, M Cometto, A Kahn, J C Kaplan
To determine the osteoblastic dysfunction that may be involved in the pathophysiology of osteoporosis in men we have compared histomorphometric indices of bone formation with in vitro characteristics of osteoblastic cells isolated from the trabecular bone surface in 23 untreated men with eugonadal osteoporosis. In most patients (n = 14), trabecular bone loss resulted from decreased bone formation evidenced by a lower than normal osteoblast surface, double tetracycline labeled surface, bone formation rate, and mean wall thickness. In these patients, DNA synthesis by cultured osteoblastic cells was altered. The peak of [3H]thymidine incorporation into DNA, the maximal DNA synthesis, and the area under the curve of cell proliferation were lower than the values in normal bone cells from age-matched controls. Parameters of bone cell growth were decreased in correlation with the extent of actively bone forming surfaces. By contrast, in patients (n = 9) with normal histomorphometric indices of bone formation, bone cell proliferation in vitro was not different from normal. Parameters of osteoblastic differentiation in vitro such as osteocalcin production and alkaline phosphatase activity were normal in the two groups of patients. This study shows that the trabecular bone loss resulting from defective bone formation in eugonadal osteoporotic men is associated with a lower than normal proliferative capacity of osteoblastic cells lining the trabecular bone surface.
P J Marie, M C de Vernejoul, D Connes, M Hott
Lipoproteins are removed from the plasma by LDL receptor-dependent and -independent pathways. The relative contribution of these has been established for LDL by using modified lipoproteins, but this has not been possible for apoE-rich lipoproteins, such as chylomicron remnants. To do this, we used a monospecific antibody to the rat LDL receptor. The antibody was injected intravenously into mice followed by 125I-lipoproteins. Blood samples were obtained sequentially and radioactivity measured to determine the plasma clearance of the lipoproteins. The animals were then sacrificed and the tissues removed, dried, and the radioactivity measured to determine tissue uptake. An albumin space was also measured to correct for blood trapping. With 125I-human LDL, approximately 50% of the injected dose was cleared in 180 min. This was reduced to 30% by the antibody and this was identical to the disappearance of reductively methylated LDL. This is a lower estimate of LDL-mediated uptake (40%) than in other species. LDL uptake per gram tissue was similar for the liver and the adrenal gland and was approximately 50% LDL receptor-dependent in both tissues. With 125I-chylomicron remnants, clearance was much more rapid with approximately 50% cleared in 5 min. By agarose gel electrophoresis, radioactivity was not transferred from chylomicron remnants to other lipoprotein classes. Chylomicron remnants with label on only apoB or in 3H-cholesterol esters showed a similar pattern. Combining the estimates of the three labeling procedures, approximately 35% of the 30 s and 25% of the 5 min chylomicron remnant disappearance was LDL receptor dependent. The liver, per gram tissue, took up five times as much radioactivity as the adrenal gland. At 5 min, at least 50% of this was LDL receptor-dependent in liver and 65% in adrenal gland. We conclude that the LDL receptor plays a major, and somewhat similar quantitative role in the clearance of both LDL and chylomicron remnants in the mouse. However, at least in the mouse, non-LDL receptor-mediated lipoprotein clearance is quantitatively important and is also very rapid for chylomicron remnants. Thus, for chylomicron remnants, it can easily compensate for LDL receptors if they are blocked or absent. Further, the tissue distribution of lipoprotein uptake may be directed by factors other than LDL receptor density.
S Y Choi, L G Fong, M J Kirven, A D Cooper
This study was undertaken to determine if changes in fibronectin biosynthesis accompany the phenotypic changes that occur in aortic tissue following experimental hypertension. An in vitro procedure was developed to measure fibronectin synthesis in aortic rings obtained from normotensive or hypertensive rats. There was a three to sixfold increase in fibronectin biosynthesis by aortic rings taken from rats treated with deoxycorticosterone/salt for 7 and 21 d, the change being more pronounced at 21 d. In contrast, there was no major change at either time point in net incorporation into total protein. Studies comparing fibronectin biosynthesis in aortic rings from Wistar rats and spontaneously hypertensive rats at ages between 10 and 40 wk showed increased fibronectin biosynthesis in older animals of both strains, but only slight differences between strains. Studies using rats infused with angiotensin II showed a correlation between blood pressure elevation and increased aortic fibronectin biosynthesis. Western blot analysis of aortic extracts showed that the fibronectin content was increased in the hypertensive models. The in vitro procedure for measuring fibronectin biosynthesis appears to provide a reliable reflection of in vivo changes in fibronectin expression, and the methodology could prove useful for studying the factors influencing protein expression in vascular tissue.
R Saouaf, I Takasaki, E Eastman, A V Chobanian, P Brecher
Phosphodiester and phosphorothioate oligodeoxynucleotides (18 mers) were constructed antisense to sequences of the recently cloned murine and human IL-1 receptors. Murine antisense oligonucleotides inhibited IL-1-stimulated PGE2 synthesis by murine fibroblasts in culture in a time (days) and concentration-dependent (3 microM-30 microM) fashion. Murine sense oligonucleotide and an oligonucleotide antisense to human IL-1 receptor were without effect. Moreover, murine antisense oligonucleotides did not affect tumor necrosis factor- or bradykinin-stimulated PGE2 synthesis by murine fibroblasts. Similarly, antisense oligonucleotides to the human, but not the murine, IL-1 receptor inhibited IL-1-stimulated PGE2 synthesis by cultured human fibroblasts. The attenuation of the cellular response to IL-1 caused by the antisense oligonucleotides correlated with a loss in cell surface receptors for IL-1, without any change in the number of bradykinin receptors on these cells. When antisense oligonucleotides were encapsulated in liposomes, they blocked completely the appearance of newly synthesized IL-1 receptors and IL-1-stimulated PGE2 synthesis. In mice, subcutaneous injection with an oligonucleotide antisense to the murine IL-1 receptor markedly inhibited the infiltration of neutrophils in response to subsequent injection of IL-1. These data suggest that antisense oligodeoxynucleotides may share a role in the design of antiinflammatory therapeutics.
R M Burch, L C Mahan
We evaluated a 22-yr-old Swedish man with lifelong exercise intolerance marked by premature exertional muscle fatigue, dyspnea, and cardiac palpitations with superimposed episodes lasting days to weeks of increased muscle fatigability and weakness associated with painful muscle swelling and pigmenturia. Cycle exercise testing revealed low maximal oxygen uptake (12 ml/min per kg; healthy sedentary men = 39 +/- 5) with exaggerated increases in venous lactate and pyruvate in relation to oxygen uptake (VO2) but low lactate/pyruvate ratios in maximal exercise. The severe oxidative limitation was characterized by impaired muscle oxygen extraction indicated by subnormal systemic arteriovenous oxygen difference (a-v O2 diff) in maximal exercise (patient = 4.0 ml/dl, normal men = 16.7 +/- 2.1) despite normal oxygen carrying capacity and Hgb-O2 P50. In contrast maximal oxygen delivery (cardiac output, Q) was high compared to sedentary healthy men (Qmax, patient = 303 ml/min per kg, normal men 238 +/- 36) and the slope of increase in Q relative to VO2 (i.e., delta Q/delta VO2) from rest to exercise was exaggerated (delta Q/delta VO2, patient = 29, normal men = 4.7 +/- 0.6) indicating uncoupling of the normal approximately 1:1 relationship between oxygen delivery and utilization in dynamic exercise. Studies of isolated skeletal muscle mitochondria in our patient revealed markedly impaired succinate oxidation with normal glutamate oxidation implying a metabolic defect at the level of complex II of the mitochondrial respiratory chain. A defect in Complex II in skeletal muscle was confirmed by the finding of deficiency of succinate dehydrogenase as determined histochemically and biochemically. Immunoblot analysis showed low amounts of the 30-kD (iron-sulfur) and 13.5-kD proteins with near normal levels of the 70-kD protein of complex II. Deficiency of succinate dehydrogenase was associated with decreased levels of mitochondrial aconitase assessed enzymatically and immunologically whereas activities of other tricarboxylic acid cycle enzymes were increased compared to normal subjects. The exercise findings are consistent with the hypothesis that this defect impairs muscle oxidative metabolism by limiting the rate of NADH production by the tricarboxylic acid cycle.
R G Haller, K G Henriksson, L Jorfeldt, E Hultman, R Wibom, K Sahlin, N H Areskog, M Gunder, K Ayyad, C G Blomqvist
While hemochromatosis is characterized by sequestration of iron-protein complexes in hepatocyte lysosomes, little is known about the effects of excess iron on these organelles. Therefore, we studied the effects of experimental iron overload on hepatocyte lysosomal structure, physicochemical properties, and function in rats fed carbonyl iron. A sixfold increase (P less than 0.0001) in hepatic iron and a fivefold increase in lysosomal iron (P less than 0.01) was observed after iron loading; as a result, hepatocyte lysosomes became enlarged and misshapen. These lysosomes displayed increased (P less than 0.0001) fragility; moreover, the fluidity of lysosomal membranes isolated from livers of iron-loaded rats was decreased (P less than 0.0003) as measured by fluorescence polarization. Malondialdehyde, an end product of lipid peroxidation, was increased by 73% (P less than 0.008) in lysosomal membranes isolated from livers of iron-overloaded rats. While amounts of several individual fatty acids in isolated lysosomal membranes were altered after iron overload, cholesterol/phospholipid ratios, lipid/protein ratios, double-bond index, and total saturated and unsaturated fatty acids remained unchanged. The pH of lysosomes in hepatocytes isolated from livers of iron-loaded rats and measured by digitized video microscopy was increased (control, 4.70 +/- 0.05; iron overload, 5.21 +/- 0.10; P less than 0.01). Our results demonstrate that experimental iron overload causes marked alterations in hepatocyte lysosomal morphology, an increase in lysosomal membrane fragility, a decrease in lysosomal membrane fluidity, and an increase in intralysosomal pH. Iron-catalyzed lipid peroxidation is likely the mechanism of these structural, physicochemical, and functional disturbances.
B M Myers, F G Prendergast, R Holman, S M Kuntz, N F LaRusso
The adhesiveness of isolated canine cardiac myocytes for neutrophils is greatly increased by stimulation with cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF alpha). Since this adhesion is significantly inhibited by an anti-CD18 MAb, experiments were performed to test the hypothesis that the newly expressed adhesion molecule on the cardiac myocytes was intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1). A newly developed MAb, CL18/6, was found to exhibit the functional and binding characteristics with canine neutrophils and canine jugular vein endothelial cells expected of an antibody recognizing ICAM-1. MAb CL18/6 also bound to isolated cardiac myocytes after stimulation of the myocytes with cytokines, and it blocked by greater than 90% the adhesion of neutrophils to stimulated myocytes. A partial cDNA clone for canine ICAM-1 was isolated, and ICAM-1 mRNA was found to be increased in both endothelial cells and cardiac myocytes after cytokine stimulation. Cytokines that both increased the CL18/6-inhibitable adhesion of neutrophils to myocytes and induced expression of ICAM-1 were IL-1 beta, TNF alpha, and LPS. These results are consistent with the conclusion that canine endothelial cells and cardiac myocytes express ICAM-1 in response to cytokine stimulation, and that ICAM-1 functions as an adhesive molecule for neutrophils on both cell types.
C W Smith, M L Entman, C L Lane, A L Beaudet, T I Ty, K Youker, H K Hawkins, D C Anderson
Granulocytes and monocytes/macrophages from patients suffering from chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) are ineffective in killing specific kinds of phagocytized bacteria, e.g., Staphylococcus aureus, due to decreased or lacking ability to produce reactive oxygen intermediates. Commonly used antibiotics like flucloxacillin are of limited therapeutic value, because the staphylococci are protected against their action in the interior of phagocytes. However, encapsulation of flucloxacillin into liposomes could enable its entrance into the interior of neutrophils from two CGD patients to kill phagocytized bacteria there. The effect of rifampicin against intracellular staphylococci could be similarly enhanced by liposome encapsulation. Dose-response relations and kinetics of killing of intracellular bacteria by antibiotics in the free and encapsulated form were studied under different conditions using J 774 mouse macrophages, because phagocytes from CGD patients are not available in great amounts. Preincubation of phagocytes with either antibiotic in liposomes subsequently endowed the cells with a strongly enhanced ability to kill phagocytized bacteria. Our data show that a drug which normally will not reach a phagosome can be delivered to this intracellular compartment by a liposome. A possible clinical use is discussed.
J Roesler, S Hockertz, B Vogt, M L Lohmann-Matthes
Insulin attenuates the contractile responses of vascular smooth muscle (VSM) to various agonists. Insulinopenic and insulin-resistant rats lack this normal attenuation of vascular contractile responses. To study this attenuating mechanism, the effects of insulin on calcium (Ca2+) responses of cultured VSM cells (a7r5) to arginine vasopressin (AVP) and membrane potential were investigated. Insulin (1 and 100 mU/ml) shifted AVP dose-response curves to the right, reducing relative potency of AVP by 16-fold and 220-fold, respectively. Responses to AVP were significantly attenuated within 30 min of insulin application. The AVP-elicited rise in [Ca2+]i was partially dependent upon extracellular Ca2+. AVP-elicited inward current was reduced by 90 min of insulin treatment (100 mU/ml), from a peak current of -103 +/- 27 pA (normal) to -37 +/- 15 pA (insulin treated). Peak voltage-dependent Ca(2+)-dependent inward current was unaffected by insulin; however, the current-voltage curve was shifted 16 +/-3 mV to the right by insulin. Thus, insulin may reduce VSM contractile responses by attenuating agonist-mediated rises in [Ca2+]i mediated, in part, by reductions in Ca2+ influx through both receptor- and voltage-operated channels.
P R Standley, F Zhang, J L Ram, M B Zemel, J R Sowers
We studied the effects of MAbR15.7, an antibody directed against the common beta-chain (CD-18) of a family of neutrophil adherence glycoproteins, on endothelial dysfunction and myocardial injury in a model of myocardial ischemia and reperfusion in cats. Pentobarbital-anesthetized cats were subjected to 1.5 h occlusion of the left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD) and 4.5 h of reperfusion. MI + R resulted in severe myocardial injury and endothelial dysfunction, including significant elevation of plasma creatine kinase (CK) activity, marked myocardial necrosis, high cardiac myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity in ischemic cardiac tissue, and loss of response of LAD coronary rings to the endothelium-dependent vasodilators, acetylcholine (ACh) and A-23187. In contrast, MAbR15.7-treated cats exhibited a lower plasma CK activity at every time point observed after 2 h, a reduced area of cardiac necrosis (2 +/- 1 vs. 30.8 +/- 2.5% of area-at-risk, P less than 0.001), lower MPO activity in the ischemic region (P less than 0.01), and significantly preserved vasorelaxant responses of LAD coronary rings to endothelium-dependent vasodilators, ACh (P less than 0.001), and A-23187 (P less than 0.001). These results indicate that myocardial ischemia and reperfusion induces significant myocardial injury and endothelial dysfunction in the cat involving a CD18-dependent neutrophil adherence mechanism. Inhibition of neutrophil adherence to the endothelium exerts significant protective effects in this model of reperfusion injury.
X L Ma, P S Tsao, A M Lefer
To determine whether CD4+ T cells participate in the recruitment of other lymphocyte subsets to the lungs, we examined pulmonary immune responses in C57BL/6 mice treated in vivo with the MAb GK1.5, either intact (which depletes CD4+ cells) or as F(ab')2 fragments (which block CD4 molecules). After intratracheal challenge with sheep erythrocytes, antigen-primed mice treated with intact GK1.5 had marked decreases in lymphocytes and macrophages in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and minimal parenchymal inflammation, compared to primed mice treated with an isotype-matched irrelevant antibody or with no antibody. At 7 d after challenge, flow cytometric analysis showed that numbers of Thy 1.2+ and B220+ cells, but not of CD8+ cells, were markedly decreased in lavage fluid of CD4-depleted mice. Similar suppression of the pulmonary immune response to intratracheal challenge was found in primed mice injected repeatedly with F(ab')2 fragments of GK1.5, which did not deplete CD4+ T cells, and in athymic mice. These findings indicate that, in response to a single intratracheal antigen challenge, recruitment to the lungs of leukocytes other than CD8+ T cells depends largely on CD4+ T cells, possibly because of signals requiring T cell activation via interactions with antigen-presenting cells.
J L Curtis, P K Byrd, M L Warnock, H B Kaltreider
Magnesium reabsorption and regulation within the kidney occur principally within the cortical thick ascending limb (cTAL) cells of the loop of Henle. Fluorometry with the dye, mag-fura-2, was used to characterize intracellular Mg2+ concentration ([Mg2+]i) in single cTAL cells. Primary cell cultures were prepared from porcine kidneys using a double antibody technique (goat anti-human Tamm-Horsfall and rabbit anti-goat IgG antibodies). Basal [Mg2+]i was 0.52 +/- 0.02 mM, which was approximately 2% of the total cellular Mg. Cells cultured (16 h) in high magnesium media (5 mM) maintained basal [Mg2+]i, 0.48 +/- 0.02, in the normal range. However, cells cultured in nominally magnesium-free media possessed [Mg2+]i, 0.27 +/- 0.01 mM, which was associated with a significant increase in net Mg transport, (control, 0.19 +/- 0.03 and low Mg, 0.35 +/- 0.01 nmol.mg-1 protein.min-1) as assessed by 28Mg uptake. Mg(2+)-depleted cells were subsequently placed in high Mg solution (5 mM) and the Mg2+ refill rate was assessed by fluorescence. [Mg2+]i returned to normal basal levels, 0.53 +/- 0.03 mM, with a refill rate of 257 +/- 37 nM/s. Mg2+ entry was not changed by 5.0 mM Ca2+ or 2 mM Sr2+, Cd2+, Co2+, nor Ba2+ but was inhibited by Mn2+ approximately La3+ approximately Gd3+ approximately Zn2+ approximately Be2+ at 2 mM. Intracellular Ca2+ and 45Ca uptake was not altered by Mg depletion or Mg2+ refill, indicating that the entry is relatively specific to Mg2+. Mg2+ uptake was inhibited by nifedipine (117 +/- 20 nM/s), verapamil (165 +/- 34 nM/s), and diltiazem (194 +/- 19 nM/s) but enhanced by the dihydropyridine analogue, Bay K 8644 (366 +/- 71 nM/s). These antagonists and agonists were reversible with removal and [Mg2+]i subsequently returned to normal basal levels. Mg2+ entry rate was concentration and voltage dependent and maximally stimulated after 4 h in magnesium-free media. Cellular magnesium depletion results in increases in a Mg2+ refill rate which is dependent, in part, on de novo protein synthesis. These data provide evidence for novel Mg2+ entry pathways in cTAL cells which are specific for Mg2+ and highly regulated. These entry pathways are likely involved with renal Mg2+ homeostasis.
L J Dai, G A Quamme
Calcium hydroxyapatite can be a significant component of black pigment gallstones. Diverse molecules that bind calcium phosphate inhibit hydroxyapatite precipitation. Because glycine-conjugated bile acids, but not their taurine counterparts, bind calcium phosphate, we studied whether glycochenodeoxycholic acid inhibits calcium hydroxyapatite formation. Glycochenodeoxycholic acid (2 mM) totally inhibited transformation of amorphous calcium phosphate microprecipitates to macroscopic crystalline calcium hydroxyapatite. This inhibition was not mediated by decreased Ca2+ activity. Taurocholic acid (2-12 mM) did not affect hydroxyapatite formation, but antagonized glycochenodeoxycholic acid. Both amorphous and crystalline precipitates contained a surface fraction relatively rich in phosphate. The surface phosphate content was diminish by increasing glycochenodeoxycholic acid concentrations, and this relationship was interpreted as competition between bile acid and HPO4(-4) for binding sites on the calcium phosphate surface. A phosphate-rich crystal surface was associated with rapid transition from amorphous to crystalline states. These results indicate that glycochenodeoxycholic acid prevents transformation of amorphous calcium phosphate to crystalline hydroxyapatite by competitively inhibiting the accumulation of phosphate on the crystal embryo surface.
S M Qiu, G Wen, N Hirakawa, R D Soloway, N K Hong, R S Crowther
To study the route by which plasma insulin enters cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), the kinetics of uptake from plasma into cisternal CSF of both insulin and [14C]inulin were analyzed during intravenous infusion in anesthetized dogs. Four different mathematical models were used: three based on a two-compartment system (transport directly across the blood-CSF barrier by nonsaturable, saturable, or a combination of both mechanisms) and a fourth based on three compartments (uptake via an intermediate compartment). The kinetics of CSF uptake of [14C]inulin infused according to an "impulse" protocol were accurately accounted for only by the nonsaturable two-compartment model (determination coefficient [R2] = 0.879 +/- 0.044; mean +/- SEM; n = 5), consistent with uptake via diffusion across the blood-CSF barrier. When the same infusion protocol and model were used to analyze the kinetics of insulin uptake, the data fit (R2 = 0.671 +/- 0.037; n = 10) was significantly worse than that obtained with [14C]inulin (P = 0.02). Addition of a saturable component of uptake to the two-compartment model improved this fit, but was clearly inadequate for a subset of insulin infusion studies. In contrast, the three-compartment model accurately accounted for CSF insulin uptake in each study, regardless of infusion protocol (impulse infusion R2 = 0.947 +/- 0.026; n = 10; P less than 0.0001 vs. each two-compartment model; sustained infusion R2 = 0.981 +/- 0.003; n = 5). Thus, a model in which insulin passes through an intermediate compartment en route from plasma to CSF, as a part of a specialized transport system for the delivery of insulin to the brain, best accounts for the dynamics of this uptake process. This intermediate compartment could reside within the blood-CSF barrier or it may represent brain interstitial fluid, if CNS insulin uptake occurs preferentially across the blood-brain barrier.
M W Schwartz, R N Bergman, S E Kahn, G J Taborsky Jr, L D Fisher, A J Sipols, S C Woods, G M Steil, D Porte Jr
Increased nonesterified fatty acid (NEFA) levels may be important in causing insulin resistance in skeletal muscles in patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). The acute effect of the antilipolytic nicotinic acid analogue Acipimox (2 X 250 mg) on basal and insulin-stimulated (3 h, 40 mU/m2 per min) glucose metabolism was therefore studied in 12 patients with NIDDM. Whole-body glucose metabolism was assessed using [3-3H]glucose and indirect calorimetry. Biopsies were taken from the vastus lateralis muscle during basal and insulin-stimulated steady-state periods. Acipimox reduced NEFA in the basal state and during insulin stimulation. Lipid oxidation was inhibited by Acipimox in all patients in the basal state (20 +/- 2 vs. 33 +/- 3 mg/m2 per min, P less than 0.01) and during insulin infusion (8 +/- 2 vs. 17 +/- 2 mg/m2 per min, P less than 0.01). Acipimox increased the insulin-stimulated glucose disposal rate (369 +/- 49 vs. 262 +/- 31 mg/m2 per min, P less than 0.01), whereas the glucose disposal rate was unaffected by Acipimox in the basal state. Acipimox increased glucose oxidation in the basal state (76 +/- 4 vs. 50 +/- 4 mg/m2 per min, P less than 0.01). During insulin infusion Acipimox increased both glucose oxidation (121 +/- 7 vs. 95 +/- 4 mg/m2 per min, P less than 0.01) and nonoxidative glucose disposal (248 +/- 47 vs. 167 +/- 29 mg/m2 per min, P less than 0.01). Acipimox enhanced basal and insulin-stimulated muscle fractional glycogen synthase activities (32 +/- 2 vs. 25 +/- 3%, P less than 0.05, and 50 +/- 5 vs. 41 +/- 4%, P less than 0.05). Activities of muscle pyruvate dehydrogenase and phosphofructokinase were unaffected by Acipimox. In conclusion, Acipimox acutely improved insulin action in patients with NIDDM by increasing both glucose oxidation and nonoxidative glucose disposal. This supports the hypothesis that elevated NEFA concentrations may be important for the insulin resistance in NIDDM. The mechanism responsible for the increased insulin-stimulated nonoxidative glucose disposal may be a stimulatory effect of Acipimox on glycogen synthase activity in skeletal muscles.
A Vaag, P Skött, P Damsbo, M A Gall, E A Richter, H Beck-Nielsen
The contribution of L-thyroxine (T4) to nuclear thyroid receptor occupancy was studied in GC cells incubated with concentrations of 3,5,3'-triiodo-L-thyronine (T3) and T4 that resulted in free iodothyronine levels similar to those in serum of euthyroid rats. T4 accounted for 5.4-10% of the occupied receptors: T3 derived from T4 [T3(T4)] and T3 added to medium accounted for the remainder of receptor occupancy. Incubation with increasing medium free T4 resulted in a progressive increase in the contribution of T4 and T3(T4) to receptor occupancy. In incubations with 3.6-fold increased medium free T4, T4 accounted for 20.4%, and T3(T4) for 40.3% of receptor occupancy. These occupancy data and the experimentally determined Ka of thyroid receptor for T3 and T4 allowed calculation of nuclear free iodothyronine concentrations. Nuclear free T3 was 3-6-fold greater than medium free T3 and nuclear [corrected] free T4 was 12-19-fold greater than medium free T4. When GC cells were incubated with decreased medium free T3 and physiological medium free T4, both nuclear receptor occupancy and growth hormone production decreased as well. However, a twofold increase in medium free T4, in the presence of decreased medium free T3, restored receptor occupancy and growth hormone production to or near control values. These findings establish a role for T4 in addition to T3(T4) in nuclear receptor occupancy and biological activity in rat anterior pituitary tissue both in physiologic conditions and when medium free T4 is raised. The findings may have relevance to the sick euthyroid thyroid syndrome in which free T4 may be increased in some patients who have decreased serum free T3.
Y Halperin, L E Shapiro, M I Surks
We showed previously that net secretory output of apolipoprotein B (apo B) from cultured human hepatoma cells (HepG2) is regulated by rapid reuptake of nascent lipoproteins before they have diffused away from the vicinity of the cells. We now sought to determine if the nascent lipoproteins could be remodeled to enhance or impede reuptake. We found that lipoprotein lipase (LpL), an enzyme that hydrolyzes lipoprotein triglyceride, reduced HepG2 output of apo B to one-quarter to one-half of control. The reduction was apparent during co-incubations as short as 2 h and as long as 24 h. Heparin, which blocks receptor-mediated binding of lipoproteins, abolished the effect of LpL on apo B output, without causing enzyme inhibition. To assess uptake directly, we prepared labeled nascent lipoproteins. LpL tripled the cellular uptake of labeled nascent lipoproteins, from 15.2% +/- 0.7% to 48.7% +/- 0.3% of the total applied to the cells. Cellular uptake of 125I-labeled anti-LDL receptor IgG was unaffected by LpL; thus, LpL enhanced reuptake by altering lipoproteins, not receptors. Because LpL is present in the space of Disse in the liver, we conclude that LpL may act on newly secreted lipoproteins to enhance reuptake in vivo. LpL deficiency would reduce local reuptake of apo B, which would appear as overproduction, thereby providing a mechanistic link between partial LpL deficiency and familial combined hyperlipidemia.
K J Williams, K A Petrie, R W Brocia, T L Swenson
The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of cocaine on vasoreactivity in the swine model. Eight miniature pigs underwent regional endothelial denudation of the left anterior descending coronary artery and were then fed a high cholesterol diet. Cross-sectional area (CSA) of coronary arteries was measured by quantitative angiography. Before denudation, intravenous cocaine (1, 3, and 10 mg/kg) decreased CSA of epicardial vessels by 19-44%. At 3 mo after the denudation, the percent reduction in CSA of the denuded vessels induced by the 10 mg/kg dose was significantly augmented compared to nondenuded vessels (59 +/- 5% vs. 48 +/- 4%, P less than 0.05). Under in vitro conditions where isometric force of isolated ring segments was measured, methoxamine (an alpha 1 agonist) or BHT-920 (an alpha 2 agonist) produced similar degrees of contraction of denuded and control vessels; however, cocaine in concentrations up to 3 x 10(-3) M did not produce contraction. These responses were unaffected by removal of the endothelium. Histologically, myointimal thickening was noted at the denuded site. The present study demonstrates an enhanced vasoreactivity of atherosclerotic coronary arteries to cocaine in vivo, the mechanism of which appears to be mediated by endogenous vasoactive substances rather than by a direct action of cocaine on vascular smooth muscle.
K Egashira, F S Pipers, J P Morgan
To investigate the pathogenesis of human T cell lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I)-associated chronic inflammatory arthropathy (HAAP), we sought to detect proviral DNA in the articular lesions. For the detection of proviral DNA, we used the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Proviral DNA was detected not only in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and synovial fluid cells (SFCs), but also in the T lymphocyte-depleted cultured synovial cells (CSCs). These findings suggest that the infection by HTLV-I might occur in vivo in non-T cells. Furthermore, we detected HTLV-I tax1/rex1 messenger RNA in fresh synovial tissues and CSCs but not in fresh PBMCs and fresh SFCs using reverse transcription and PCR. Immunohistochemically, the CSCs from HAAP patients were also shown to express the HTLV-I antigens. These data indicate that HTLV-I in the non-T synovial cells can be transcribed and expressed. Moreover, the sequences of pXII regions in the CSCs demonstrated 97.5-99.4% homology to that in MT-2 cells, HTLV-I-infected cell line. This confirmed that the PCR-amplified bands reflect HTLV-I itself. These results suggest that this organ-specific inflammation can be attributed to non-T cell virus infection in articular lesions.
I Kitajima, K Yamamoto, K Sato, Y Nakajima, T Nakajima, I Maruyama, M Osame, K Nishioka
Insulin resistance is a common feature of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) and "diabetes susceptibility genes" may be involved in this abnormality. Two potential candidate genes are the insulin receptor (IR) and the insulin-sensitive glucose transporter (GLUT-4). To elucidate whether structural defects in the IR and/or GLUT-4 could be a primary cause of insulin resistance in NIDDM, we have sequenced the entire coding region of the GLUT-4 gene from DNA of six NIDDM patients. Since binding properties of the IRs from NIDDM subjects are normal, we also analyzed the sequence of exons 16-22 (encoding the entire cytoplasmic domain of the IR) of the IR gene from the same six patients. When compared with the normal IR sequence, no difference was found in the predicted amino acid sequence of the IR cytoplasmic domain derived from the NIDDM patients. Sequence analysis of the GLUT-4 gene revealed that one patient was heterozygous for a mutation in which isoleucine (ATC) was substituted for valine (GTC) at position 383. Consequently, the GLUT-4 sequence at position 383 was determined in 24 additional NIDDM patients and 30 nondiabetic controls and all showed only the normal sequence. From these studies, we conclude that the insulin resistance seen in the great majority of subjects with the common form of NIDDM is not due to genetic variation in the coding sequence of the IR beta subunit, nor to any single mutation in the GLUT-4 gene. Possibly, a subpopulation of NIDDM patients exists displaying variation in the GLUT-4 gene.
J Kusari, U S Verma, J B Buse, R R Henry, J M Olefsky
Some activities of retinoids on cellular and humoral immunity have been described, but the available data are conflicting or obtained at concentrations that are toxic in vivo. In this study, we demonstrate that 13-cis-retinoic acid (13-cRA), a retinoid well tolerated in human therapy, can suppress T cell-mediated immunity in rats. Treatment with pharmacological concentrations of 13-cRA prevented active as well as passive transfer experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) and suppressed lymphocyte responsiveness to T cell mitogens, suggesting that the drug activity included suppression of an effector T cell response. In addition, mitogen- and antigen-induced lymphocyte proliferation was inhibited in vitro in the presence of concentrations of 13-cRA equivalent to or less than those achieved in vivo, further suggesting that the prevention of EAE was due to a suppressive activity on T cell-mediated immunity. The immunosuppressive activity of 13-cRA included suppression of interleukin 2, whose production was inhibited in splenocytes. These data indicate that, in an in vivo mammalian system, 13-cRA exerts a suppressive activity on T cell-mediated immunity intensive enough to suppress an ongoing immune response, and that this effect can be achieved at nontoxic concentrations that may also be attained in human therapy.
L Massacesi, E Castigli, M Vergelli, J Olivotto, A L Abbamondi, F Sarlo, L Amaducci
Stratum corneum lipids comprise an approximately equimolar mixture of sphingolipids, cholesterol, and free fatty acids, arranged as intercellular membrane bilayers that are presumed to mediate the epidermal permeability barrier. Prior studies have shown that alterations in epidermal barrier function lead to a rapid increase in cholesterol and fatty acid synthesis which parallels the early stages of the repair process. Despite an abundance of indirect evidence for their role in the barrier, the importance of sphingolipids has yet to be demonstrated directly. Whereas sphingolipid synthesis also increases during barrier repair, this response is delayed in comparison to cholesterol and fatty acid synthesis (Holleran, W.M., et al. 1991. J. Lipid Res. 32:1151-1158). To further delineate the role of sphingolipids in barrier homeostasis, we assessed the impact of inhibition of sphingolipid synthesis on epidermal barrier recovery. A single topical application of beta-chloro-L-alanine (beta-CA), an irreversible inhibitor of serine-palmitoyl transferase (SPT), applied to acetone-treated skin of hairless mice resulted in: (a) greater than 75% inhibition of SPT activity at 30 min (P less than 0.001); (b) a global decrease in sphingolipid synthesis between 1 and 3 h (P less than 0.02); (c) reduction of epidermal sphingolipid content at 18 h (P less than 0.01); (d) delayed reaccumulation of histochemical staining for sphingolipids in the stratum corneum; and (e) reduced numbers and contents of lamellar bodies in the stratum granulosum. Finally, despite its immediate, marked diminution of sphingolipid synthesis, beta-CA slowed barrier recovery only at late time points (greater than 6 h) after acetone treatment. This inhibition was overridden by coapplications of ceramides (the distal SPT product), indicating that the delay in repair was not due to non-specific toxicity. These studies demonstrate a distinctive role for epidermal sphingolipids in permeability barrier homeostasis.
W M Holleran, M Q Man, W N Gao, G K Menon, P M Elias, K R Feingold
The regulation of type 1 plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI-1) gene expression was studied in vivo employing a murine model system. Nuclease protection analysis revealed relatively high concentrations of PAI-1 mRNA in the aorta, adipose tissue, heart, and lungs of untreated CB6 (BalbC X C57B16) mice. Treatment of CB6 mice with LPS, TNF-alpha, or transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) increased the steady-state levels of PAI-1 mRNA within 3 h in all tissues examined. However, the greatest responses to TGF-beta were observed in adipose tissue and the kidney, while LPS and TNF-alpha strongly stimulated PAI-1 gene expression in the liver, kidney, lung, and adrenals. In C3H/HeJ mice, which exhibit defective TNF-alpha release in response to LPS, the response of the PAI-1 gene to LPS was severely attenuated. However, injection of these mice with TNF-alpha increased PAI-1 mRNA in a tissue-specific pattern strikingly similar to that observed in LPS-treated CB6 mice. These results demonstrate that the PAI-1 gene is regulated in a complex and tissue-specific manner in vivo, and suggest a role for TNF-alpha in the response of the PAI-1 gene to sepsis.
M S Sawdey, D J Loskutoff
Insulin-like growth factor I and II (IGF-I and IGF-II) associate with specific IGF binding proteins (IGFBPs) present in plasma and extracellular fluids that can modulate the anabolic effects of these peptides. IGF-I has been shown to increase IGFBP concentrations in vivo and in vitro, but the mechanism and significance of this action are unknown. We examined these issues using normal and simian virus 40-transformed adult human fibroblasts (SV40-HF) in culture. Treatment with IGF-I markedly stimulated the appearance of IGFBP-3 (42/38 kD doublet), a 36 kD IGFBP, and 28-32 kD IGFBPs in the medium of these cells, as assessed by Western ligand blotting; IGF-I decreased levels of 24 kD IGFBP in normal HF cultures. The IGF-I-induced change in IGFBP levels was not a type I IGF receptor-mediated effect on IGFBP synthesis because (a) high concentrations of insulin did not mimic IGF-I's effect; (b) IGF-II and IGF-I analogues having reduced affinity for the IGF-I receptor were equipotent with IGF-I in increasing medium IGFBPs; (c) [QAYL]IGF-I, and IGF-I analogue having normal receptor affinity and decreased affinity for IGFBPs, had no effect; and (d) alpha IR-3, a monoclonal antibody specific for the type I IGF receptor, did not block IGF-I-stimulated increases in IGFBPs. In physiological studies, preincubation with 1 nM IGF-I had no effect on type I IGF receptor binding in normal HF and SV40-HF. In contrast, preincubation of cells with an equivalent concentration of [QAYL]IGF-I downregulated the receptors 40-50%. Changes in cell surface receptor number were reflected in cell responsiveness to IGF-I-stimulated [3H]thymidine incorporation and [3H]aminoisobutyric acid uptake. In conclusion, IGF-I regulates the availability of specific IGFBPs in cultured human fibroblasts by a novel receptor-independent mechanism. Rapid changes in levels of soluble IGFBPs as a direct response to extracellular IGF-I, in turn, modulate IGF-I peptide and receptor interaction, and may constitute an important level of control in IGF cellular physiology.
C A Conover
IL-8 (also known as neutrophil-activating peptide 1) is recognized as a potent effector of neutrophil functions. Several different cell types that contact blood, namely T lymphocytes, monocytes, and endothelial cells, secrete this polypeptide following stimulation by cytokines, or lipopolysaccharide. Here we show that when IL-8 is added to blood it rapidly partitions from the plasma fluid to the blood cells and that erythrocytes account for the vast majority of this binding. Analysis of 125I-IL-8 binding [( ala-IL-8]77 form) to human red cells indicates a single, 5 nM Kd affinity class of binding sites, present at approximately 2,000 per red cell representing approximately 15 nmol of red cell IL-8 binding sites per liter of blood. These sites are protease sensitive. Their binding of IL-8 is rapidly reversible and does not result in receptor internalization, although bound IL-8 is resistant to extraction by pH 3 buffer at 5 degrees C. 125I-IL-8 binding to red cells was not inhibited by epidermal growth factor or interleukin 1, but was inhibited by monocyte chemotactic peptide-1, which is not a neutrophil chemotaxin, but is a member of the same family of polypeptides as IL-8. FACS analysis of IL-8-mediated mobilization of Ca2+ in neutrophils indicates that the IL-8 bound to red cells is incapable of stimulating neutrophils. Thus, red cell absorption of IL-8 may function to limit stimulation of leukocytes by IL-8 released into blood.
W C Darbonne, G C Rice, M A Mohler, T Apple, C A Hébert, A J Valente, J B Baker
LKM-1 autoantibodies, which are associated with autoimmune chronic active hepatitis, recognize P450IID6, a cytochrome P-450 monooxygenase. The reactivities of 26 LKM-1 antisera were tested with a panel of deletion mutants of P450IID6 expressed in Escherichia coli. 22 sera recognize a 33-amino acid segment of P450IID6, and 11 of these recognize a shorter segment, DPAQPPRD. PAQPPR is also found in IE175 of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1). Antibodies for HSV-1 proteins were detected by ELISA in 17 of 20 LKM-1 sera tested. An immobilized, synthetic peptide, DPAQPPRDC, was used to purify LKM-1 antibodies. Affinity purified LKM-1 autoantibodies react on immunoblots with a protein in BHK cells after infection with HSV-1. 11 of 24 LKM-1 sera, including 3 that recognize DPAQPPRD, also exhibit antibodies to the hepatitis C virus (HCV) protein, C100-3. Affinity purified LKM-1 antibodies did not recognize C100-3. However, partial sequence identity was evident between portions of the immunopositive 33-amino acid segment of P450IID6 and other portions of the putative HCV polyprotein. Immune cross-recognition of P450IID6 and HCV or HSV-1 proteins may contribute to the occurrence of LKM-1 autoantibodies.
M P Manns, K J Griffin, K F Sullivan, E F Johnson
This study sought to characterize the mechanism of Na transport across basolateral membrane vesicles of rat distal colon. Both an outward proton gradient and an inward bicarbonate gradient stimulated 22Na uptake. Proton gradient-stimulated 22Na uptake was activated severalfold by the additional presence of an inward bicarbonate gradient, and bicarbonate gradient-stimulated 22Na uptake was significantly enhanced by an imposed intravesicular membrane positive potential. 0.1 mM amiloride inhibited both proton gradient- and bicarbonate gradient-stimulated 22Na uptake by 80 and 95%, respectively, while 1 mM 4,4'-diisothiocyanatostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid (DIDS) inhibited both proton gradient- and bicarbonate gradient-stimulated 22Na uptake by 40 and 80%, respectively. Both proton gradient- and bicarbonate gradient-stimulated 22Na uptake saturated as a function of increasing Na concentration: the apparent kinetic constants (Km) for Na for the DIDS-insensitive component of proton gradient-stimulated 22Na uptake was 46.4 mM, while the DIDS-sensitive component of proton gradient- and bicarbonate gradient-stimulated 22Na uptake had Km for Na of 8.1 and 6.4 mM, respectively. Amiloride inhibited both DIDS-insensitive proton gradient- and bicarbonate gradient-stimulated 22Na uptake with an inhibitory constant (Ki) of approximately 35 and 1 microM, respectively. We conclude from these results that proton gradient-stimulated 22Na uptake represents both DIDS-insensitive Na-H exchange and DIDS-sensitive electrogenic Na-OH cotransport, and that the DIDS-sensitive component of proton gradient-stimulated 22Na uptake and bicarbonate gradient-stimulated 22Na uptake may represent the same electrogenic Na-anion cotransport process.
V M Rajendran, M Oesterlin, H J Binder
Survival after acute lung injury (ALI) depends on prompt alveolar repair, a process frequently subverted by the development of granulation tissue within the alveolar airspace. Immunohistochemical examination of the intraalveolar granulation tissue confirmed that capillaries as well as myofibroblasts were the principal cellular constituents. We therefore hypothesized that angiogenesis factors would be present on the air-lung interface after ALI. To evaluate this hypothesis, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from patients with ALI (n = 25) and patient controls (n = 8) was examined for angiogenesis bioactivity by its ability of induce endothelial cell migration. While lavage fluid from controls had no bioactivity, lavage fluid from 72% of patients with ALI promoted endothelial cell migration. Heparin affinity, ion exchange, and gel filtration chromatography resolved the bioactivity into at least two moieties. One appeared identical to the well characterized endothelial cell growth factor, basic fibroblast growth factor. The other was a 150-kD non-heparin binding protein that mediated endothelial cell migration and attachment in vitro, and the growth of new vessels in vivo. These data are consistent with the hypothesis that the growth of capillaries into the alveolar airspace results from angiogenesis factors present on the alveolar surface of the lung after ALI.
C Henke, V Fiegel, M Peterson, M Wick, D Knighton, J McCarthy, P Bitterman
Two murine monoclonal antibodies (CL-3 and CL-37, both F(ab')2) to human endothelial-leukocyte adhesion molecule-1 (ELAM-1) were found to react immunohistochemically with rat pulmonary artery endothelial cells that had been pretreated with tumor necrosis factor (TNF alpha). CL-3, but not CL-37, blocked in vitro adherence of neutrophils to TNF alpha-treated endothelial cells and the killing of TNF alpha-treated rat endothelial cells by phorbol ester activated neutrophils. In rats treated systemically with CL-3, there was a 70% reduction in accumulation of neutrophils in glycogen-induced peritoneal exudates. Treatment of animals with CL-37 anti-ELAM-1 did not reduce neutrophil accumulation under the same conditions. When IgG immune complex deposition was induced in dermis and in lungs of rats, treatment with CL-3 anti-ELAM-1 markedly reduced vascular injury as measured by changes in vascular permeability (leakage of 125I-albumin) and hemorrhage (extravasation of 51Cr-red blood cells). The protective effects of CL-3 anti-ELAM-1 were related to greatly diminished recruitment of neutrophils (as assessed morphologically, by tissue extraction of myeloperoxidase, and by retrieval, via bronchoalveolar lavage, of neutrophils from lung). CL-37 had no protective effects in vivo after deposition of immune complexes in lung. Using either CL-3 or CL-37 anti-ELAM-1, immunohistochemical analysis of lungs undergoing IgG immune complex-induced injury revealed a striking upregulation of ELAM-1 in the lung vasculature (venules and interstitial capillaries), with a peak intensity developing between 3 and 4 h after deposition of immune complexes in lung. Vascular beds of spleen, liver, and kidney failed to show upregulation of ELAM-1 under these same conditions. The immunohistochemical reactivity of rat lung was abolished if the anti-ELAM-1 preparation was first absorbed with monolayers of human umbilical vein endothelial cells that had been pretreated with TNF alpha. Untreated human endothelial cells failed to cause loss of lung reactivity of the anti-ELAM-1 preparation. These data indicate that ELAM-1 is upregulated in the pulmonary vasculature of rats during deposition of immune complexes and that ELAM-1 appears to play an obligate role in the recruitment of neutrophils.
M S Mulligan, J Varani, M K Dame, C L Lane, C W Smith, D C Anderson, P A Ward
This study examines the role of endothelial leukocyte adhesion molecule-1 (ELAM-1) in the development of the acute airway inflammation (cell influx) and late-phase airway obstruction in a primate model of extrinsic asthma. In animals sensitive to antigen, a single inhalation exposure induced the rapid expression of ELAM-1 (6 h) exclusively on vascular endothelium that correlated with the influx of neutrophils into the lungs and the onset of late-phase airway obstruction. In contrast, basal levels of ICAM-1 was constitutively expressed on vascular endothelium and airway epithelium before antigen challenge. After the single antigen exposure, changes in ICAM-1 expression did not correlate with neutrophil influx or the change in airway caliber. This was confirmed by showing that pretreatment with a monoclonal antibody to ICAM-1 did not inhibit the acute influx of neutrophils associated with late-phase airway obstruction, whereas a monoclonal antibody to ELAM-1 blocked both the influx of neutrophils and the late-phase airway obstruction. This study demonstrates a functional role for ELAM-1 in the development of acute airway inflammation in vivo. We conclude that, in primates, the late-phase response is the result of an ELAM-1 dependent influx of neutrophils. Therefore, the regulation of ELAM-1 expression may provide a novel approach to controlling the acute inflammatory response, and thereby, affecting airway function associated with inflammatory disorders, including asthma.
R H Gundel, C D Wegner, C A Torcellini, C C Clarke, N Haynes, R Rothlein, C W Smith, L G Letts
Leukocyte adhesion deficiency (LAD) is an inherited disorder of leukocyte function that is caused by defects in the CD18 gene and is associated with diminished cell surface expression of CD11/CD18 proteins. We have developed an in vivo model for gene therapy of LAD. Recombinant retroviruses were used to transduce a functional human CD18 gene into murine bone marrow cells which were transplanted into lethally irradiated syngeneic recipients. A reliable flow cytometric assay for human CD18 in transplant recipients was developed based on: (a) the availability of human specific CD18 monoclonal antibodies and (b) the observation that human CD18 can form chimeric heterodimers with murine CD11a on the cell surface. Human CD18 was detected on leukocytes in a substantial number of transplant recipients for at least 6 mo suggesting that the gene had been transduced into stem cells. Expression was demonstrated in several lineages of a variety of hematopoietic tissues, but was consistently highest and most frequent in granulocytes. Murine granulocytes demonstrated appropriate posttranscriptional regulation of human CD18 in response to activation of protein kinase C. No apparent untoward effects of human CD18 expression were noted in transplant recipients. These studies suggest a specific strategy for LAD gene therapy that may be effective and safe.
J C Krauss, L A Mayo-Bond, C E Rogers, K L Weber, R F Todd 3rd, J M Wilson
To understand the role of the eosinophilopoietic cytokine IL-5 in humans, the posttreatment eosinophilic response in a group of microfilaria (mf)-positive patients with onchocerciasis (n = 10) was examined before and after treatment with diethylcarbamazine (6 mg/kg for 7 d). Sequential blood samples were assessed at 24 and 1 h before treatment (baseline values), then at frequent intervals over the next 14 d. Symptom scores, skin microfilariae (mf), and peripheral blood eosinophil counts were recorded as a function of time after treatment, and serum levels of IL-5 were quantitated by a highly sensitive (sensitivity greater than or equal to 20 pg/ml) monoclonal-based ELISA. Pretreatment eosinophil counts ranged from 240 to 1,186 eosinophils/microliter (geometric mean, 675), and the mf counts from 10 to 218 per mg skin (geometric mean, 79). After an initial decline in the peripheral eosinophil count to 28 +/- 8% of pretreatment levels at 8 h after beginning treatment, the eosinophil counts steadily increased over the next 2 wk, reaching a maximum at 14 d (257 +/- 38% of pretreatment levels). Serum levels of IL-5 rose sharply from pretreatment levels to a peak of 70.5 +/- 11 pg/ml by 24 h after treatment. Serum IL-5 remained elevated over the next 2-3 d and declined toward baseline by approximately 6 d after treatment, at which time the eosinophil levels were steadily increasing. IL-3 and granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor, two other cytokines implicated in eosinophilopoeisis, were not detectable in the serum at any time before or after treatment. The rise in serum IL-5 before the posttreatment eosinophilia seen in this group of patients with onchocerciasis demonstrates a temporal relationship between IL-5 and the subsequent development of eosinophilia and implicates IL-5 as an important mediator of eosinophilia in humans.
A P Limaye, J S Abrams, J E Silver, K Awadzi, H F Francis, E A Ottesen, T B Nutman
Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) generates cAMP-regulated Cl- channels; mutations in CFTR cause defective Cl- channel function in cystic fibrosis epithelia. We used the patch-clamp technique to determine the single channel properties of Cl- channels in cell expressing recombinant CFTR. In cell-attached patches, an increase in cellular cAMP reversibly activated low conductance Cl- channels. cAMP-dependent regulation is due to phosphorylation, because the catalytic subunit of cAMP-dependent protein kinase plus ATP reversibly activated the channel in excised, cell-free patches of membrane. In symmetrical Cl- solutions, the channel had a channel conductance of 10.4 +/- 0.2 (n = 7) pS and a linear current-voltage relation. The channel was more permeable to Cl- than to I- and showed no appreciable time-dependent voltage effects. These biophysical properties are consistent with macroscopic studies of Cl- channels in single cells expressing CFTR and in the apical membrane of secretory epithelia. Identification of the single channel characteristics of CFTR-generated channels allows further studies of their regulation and the mechanism of ion permeation.
H A Berger, M P Anderson, R J Gregory, S Thompson, P W Howard, R A Maurer, R Mulligan, A E Smith, M J Welsh