J A Lee, D G Allen
This in vitro microperfusion study examined the effects of growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) on proximal convoluted tubule (PCT) transport. Tubules were perfused with an ultrafiltrate-like solution and bathed in a serum-like albumin solution. Neither a physiologic (5 x 10(-10) M), nor a pharmacologic (5 x 10(-8) M) dose of growth hormone had an effect on PCT phosphate or bicarbonate transport, or volume absorption. Addition of 5 x 10(-9) M and 5 x 10(-8) M IGF-I, but not 5 x 10(-10) M IGF-I, to the bathing solution resulted in an increase (12-15%) in phosphate transport, but no change in volume absorption or bicarbonate transport. Addition of IGF-I to the luminal perfusate also stimulated phosphate transport. The effect was noted at a concentration of 5 x 10(-11) M IGF-I (27% stimulation) and was maximal at a concentration of 5 x 10(-10) M IGF-I (46% stimulation). There was no effect of luminal IGF-I on volume absorption or bicarbonate transport. These data indicate that growth hormone has no direct effect on PCT transport. In the PCT, IGF-I stimulates phosphate transport specifically and acts via both basolateral and apical membranes. However, the magnitude of the maximal response to the luminal addition of IGF-I was threefold greater than that measured upon addition of the hormone to the bath, and the stimulation occurred at a 100-fold lower concentration. These data are consistent with IGF-I mediating the in vivo stimulation of phosphate transport by growth hormone.
R Quigley, M Baum
Class I antiarrhythmic drugs inhibit the sodium channel by binding to a drug receptor associated with the channel. In this report we show that in vivo administration of the class I antiarrhythmic drug mexiletine to rats induces sodium channel upregulation in isolated cardiac myocytes. The number of sodium channels was assessed with a radioligand assay using the sodium channel-specific toxin [3H]batrachotoxinin benzoate ([3H]BTXB). The administration of mexiletine to rats induced a dose-dependent increase in [3H]BTXB total specific binding (Bmax) on isolated cardiac myocytes. Sodium channel numbers were 15 +/- 5, 29 +/- 9, and 54 +/- 4 fmol/10(5) cells after 3 d treatment with 0, 50 mg/kg per d, and 150 mg/kg per d mexiletine (P less than 0.001, analysis of variance). Sodium channel number increased monoexponentially to a steady-state value within 3 d with a half-time of increase of 1.0 d. After cessation of treatment with mexiletine the number of sodium channels returned to normal within 12 d. Finally, treatment with mexiletine altered only sodium channel number; the Kd for [3H]BTXB and the IC50 for mexiletine were not different for myocytes prepared from control and mexiletine-treated rats.
M Taouis, R S Sheldon, H J Duff
Previous reports have suggested the production of complement components C4, C2, and factor B by renal tissue. However, the cells involved in production of complement have not been identified. In this study metabolic labeling experiments demonstrated that human proximal tubular epithelial cells (PTEC) synthesize a 180-kD precursor of C3 that is secreted after proteolytic cleavage into a disulphide linked two-chain molecule as found in plasma. C3 present in culture supernatants of PTEC was functionally active, however, during the culture period there was a partial inactivation of the C3 molecule as assessed by hemolytic titration. Recombinant IL-2 enhances the rate of C3 synthesis in a dose-dependent manner reaching maximal stimulation at doses of 200-400 U/ml IL-2. Northern blot analysis demonstrated a 5.2-kb C3 mRNA species present in PTEC that was increased within 24 h of IL-2 treatment. IL-2-induced enhancement of C3 production by PTEC could be neutralized with specific antibodies to IL-2. This study demonstrates that C3 synthesis in PTEC is upregulated by IL-2, the major cytokine produced by activated T cells.
R A Brooimans, A P Stegmann, W T van Dorp, A A van der Ark, F J van der Woude, L A van Es, M R Daha
Steroid hormones modulate physiological processes by a number of mechanisms including regulation of gene expression. We wondered if glucocorticoids might induce expression of alpha 1 adrenergic receptors, which could contribute to the increased sensitivity of vascular smooth muscle to catecholamines that may occur with glucocorticoid excess. We examined the effects of dexamethasone on the expression of the alpha 1B adrenergic receptor gene in DDT1 MF-2 smooth muscle cells. Dexamethasone (10(-6) M) produced a 1.8 +/- 0.2-fold increase in expression of alpha 1B receptors determined with [3H]prazosin. Steady-state values of alpha 1B adrenergic receptor mRNA, analyzed by Northern blotting, increased 2.8 +/- 0.7-fold after 48 h exposure to dexamethasone. This effect of dexamethasone occurred in the presence of the protein synthesis inhibitor cycloheximide. alpha 1B receptor mRNA abundance was also increased by testosterone and aldosterone, whereas beta estradiol and progesterone had no effect. The alpha 1B receptor gene transcription rate, determined in nuclear run-off assays, increased 2.6 +/- 0.6-fold in cells treated with dexamethasone for 24 h. The half-life of the alpha 1B receptor mRNA was unchanged by dexamethasone. These data indicate that glucocorticoids regulate expression of alpha 1B receptors by increasing the rate of transcription of this gene.
M Sakaue, B B Hoffman
We investigated the role of the endothelial-derived relaxing factor nitric oxide (NO) in the homeostasis of O2 supply to the renal medulla, a region normally operating on the verge of hypoxia. Sensitive Clark-type O2 microelectrodes were inserted into renal cortex and medulla of anesthetized rats. The inhibitor of NO formation, L-NG-monomethylarginine (LNMMA), while increasing blood pressure and reducing renal blood flow, decreased medullary pO2 from 23 +/- 3 mmHg to 12 +/- 3 (P less than 0.001), with no change in the cortex. These responses were promptly reversed by L-arginine, which bypasses the LNMMA blockade. In isolated rat kidneys, LNMMA reduced perfusion flow without altering glomerular filtration rate, and augmented deep medullary hypoxic injury to thick ascending limbs from 68 to 90% of the tubules (P less than 0.02). These changes were prevented by L-arginine. Nitroprusside had a protective effect upon thick limb injury. Finally, in a previously reported model of radiocontrast nephropathy (1988. J. Clin. Invest. 82:401), LNMMA increased the severity of renal failure (final plasma creatinine from 2.3 +/- 2 mg% to 3.4 +/- 3, P less than 0.005) and the proportion of damaged thick limbs (from 24 +/- 6% to 53 +/- 9, P less than 0.01). Nitrovasodilatation may participate in the balance of renal medullary oxygenation and play an important role in the prevention of medullary hypoxic injury.
M Brezis, S N Heyman, D Dinour, F H Epstein, S Rosen
The purpose of this study was to measure magnesium absorption over the wide range of intakes to which the intestine may be exposed from food and/or magnesium-containing medications. Net magnesium absorption was measured in normal subjects after they ingested a standard meal supplemented with 0, 10, 20, 40, and 80 mEq of magnesium acetate. Although absorption increased with each increment in intake, fractional magnesium absorption fell progressively (from 65% at the lowest to 11% at the highest intake) so that absorption as a function of intake was curvilinear. This absorption-intake relationship was almost perfectly represented by an equation containing a hyperbolic function plus a linear function. Our results are statistically compatible with a magnesium absorption process that simultaneously uses a mechanism that reaches an absorptive maximum, plus a mechanism that endlessly absorbs a defined fraction (7%) of ingested magnesium. Compared to previous studies of calcium absorption, much less magnesium that calcium was absorbed at intakes above 8 mEq/meal, apparently due to greater restriction of intestinal permeability to magnesium. We also found that magnesium from a high magnesium-containing food source, almonds, was just as bioavailable as from soluble magnesium acetate. In contrast, magnesium absorption from commercially available enteric-coated magnesium chloride was much less than from magnesium acetate, suggesting that enteric coating can impair magnesium bioavailability.
K D Fine, C A Santa Ana, J L Porter, J S Fordtran
Pneumocystis carinii is an extracellular organism which is thought to require attachment to alveolar epithelial cells for its growth and replication in humans. Fibronectin (Fn) binding to P. carinii is essential for optimal P. carinii attachment. This study demonstrates that gp120, a 110-120-kD membrane glycoprotein on P. carinii, mediates attachment of the organism to cultured lung cells and is the site of Fn binding to P. carinii. A 51Cr-labeled P. carinii binding assay was used to quantify attachment of the organism to the alveolar epithelial cell line A549. Addition of free gp120, purified from whole P. carinii organisms, caused a significant decrease in attachment of P. carinii to A549 cells from 44.2 +/- 5.5% to 22.4 +/- 4.2% (P less than 0.01). Preincubation of the P. carinii organisms with a polyclonal antibody to gp120 also resulted in a marked decrease in P. carinii attachment to A549 cells from 46.8% +/- 5.2% to 21.3 +/- 4.8% (P less than 0.01). Furthermore, addition of free gp120 to P. carinii organisms caused a significant reduction in specific binding of 125I-Fn to P. carinii (from 83.3 +/- 8.5 ng to 47.1 +/- 5.9 ng, P less than 0.01). Similarly, anti-gp 120 antibody decreased specific Fn binding to P. carinii from 74.3 +/- 8.4 ng to 25.5 +/- 5.3 ng (P less than 0.001). Solubilized P. carinii organisms separated by gel electrophoresis and blotted with 125I-Fn demonstrated specific binding of the 125I-Fn to gp120. In addition, a specific anti-beta 1-integrin antiserum reacted with gp120 by Western blot, suggesting structural homology between gp120 and the beta-subunit of integrins. Thus, the data suggest that the P. carinii membrane glycoprotein gp120 functions as a Fn binding protein and is required for optimal P. carinii attachment to alveolar epithelial cells.
S T Pottratz, J Paulsrud, J S Smith, W J Martin 2nd
To further investigate mechanisms of cell-mediated tissue destruction in an organ-specific autoimmune disease, we have established and characterized a nephritogenic CD8+ T cell line. This target antigen-specific effector T cell line, M52, was derived from bulk populations of CD8+ T cells isolated from susceptible animals immunized to produce anti-tubular basement membrane (alpha TBM) disease. Our studies show that M52 retains the phenotypic and functional characteristics of nephritogenic T cells induced in vivo. M52 mediates antigen-specific delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) responses to the target antigen 3M-1, it is cytotoxic to 3M-1-expressing renal tubular epithelial cells in vitro, and it adoptively transfers interstitial nephritis to naive syngeneic recipients. Clonal analysis of these nephritogenic CD8+ T cells reveals distinct functional phenotypes within the M52 cell line. We have isolated a cytotoxic CD8+ clone, M52.26, which is not DTH-reactive to 3M-1, and multiple DTH-reactive clones which mediate less efficient cytotoxicity to 3M-1-expressing target cells. Cytofluorographic analysis of four randomly selected clones reveals alpha beta T cell receptor expression. Further characterization of these functionally distinct CD8+ T cell clones will help to define their respective roles in mediating tubular epithelial cell injury and the inflammatory lesion of autoimmune interstitial nephritis.
C M Meyers, C J Kelly
The effect of IL-3 on hematopoiesis in long-term culture (LTC) was studied by cocultivating normal human marrow cells with human marrow fibroblast feeders engineered to constitutively produce IL-3 and by adding soluble IL-3 to LTC according to a variety of dose-time schedules. Feeders stably producing 7 ng/ml IL-3, or LTC to which 10 ng/ml IL-3 was added daily for 5 wk, but not once or twice weekly for the same time period, increased the output of mature nonadherent cells and progenitors from LTC as compared to control cultures. At the time of the weekly half-medium change, when primitive clonogenic progenitors in the adherent layer of standard LTC are quiescent, such cells were actively cycling in cultures containing a continuous source of an adequate dose of IL-3. In LTC, where the proportion of IL-3-producing cells in the feeder layer was diluted to 10% and no IL-3 was detectable in culture medium, primitive adherent layer progenitors were, nevertheless, maintained as a population of continuously proliferating cells. Thus, the presence of IL-3 in LTC can enhance the proliferation and differentiation of very early human hematopoietic cells, but the concentration, duration of exposure, and method of IL-3 presentation are important determinants of the ultimate effects observed.
T Otsuka, J D Thacker, C J Eaves, D E Hogge
The regulation of osmotic water permeability (Pf) by vasopressin (VP) in kidney collecting tubule involves the exocytic-endocytic trafficking of vesicles containing water channels between an intracellular compartment and apical plasma membrane. To examine effects of transcellular water flow on vesicle movement, Pf was measured with 1-s time resolution in the isolated perfused rabbit cortical collecting tubule in response to addition and removal of VP (250 microU/ml) in the presence of bath greater than lumen (B greater than L), lumen greater than bath (L greater than B), and lumen = bath (L = B) osmolalities. With VP addition, Pf increased from 12 to 240-270 x 10(-4) cm/s (37 degrees C) in 10 min. At 1 min, Pf was approximately 70 x 10(-4) cm/s for B greater than L, L greater than B, and L = B conditions. At later times, Pf increased fastest for L greater than B and slowest for B greater than L osmolalities; at 5 min, Pf was 250 x 10(-4) cm/s (L greater than B) and 158 x 10(-4) cm/s (B greater than L). With VP removal, Pf returned to pre-VP levels at the fastest rate for B greater than L and the slowest rate for L greater than B osmolalities; at 30 min, Pf was 65 x 10(-4) cm/s (B greater than L) and 183 x 10(-4) cm/s (L greater than B). For a series of osmotic gradients of different magnitudes and directions, the rates of Pf increase and decrease were dependent upon the magnitude of transcellular volume flow; control studies showed that paracellular water flux, asymmetric transcellular water pathways, or changes in cell volume could not account for the data. VP-dependent endocytosis was measured by apical uptake of rhodamine-dextran; in paired studies where the same tubule was used for + and - gradients, B greater than L and L greater than B osmolalities gave 168% and 82% of uptake measured with no gradient. In contrast, endocytosis in proximal tubule was not dependent on gradient direction. These data provide evidence that transcellular volume flow modulates the vasopressin-dependent cycling of vesicles containing water channels, suggesting a novel driving mechanism to aid or oppose the targeted, hormonally directed movement of subcellular membranes.
M Kuwahara, L B Shi, F Marumo, A S Verkman
We microperfused the loop of Henle (LOH) to assess its contribution to urine acidification in vivo. Under control conditions (Na HCO3- = 13 mM, perfusion rate approximately 17 nl/min-1) net bicarbonate transport (JHCO3-) was unsaturated, flow- and concentration-dependent, and increased linearly until a bicarbonate load of 1,400 pmol.min-1 was reached. Methazolamide (2 x 10(-4) M) reduced JHCO3 by 70%; the amiloride analogue ethylisopropylamiloride (EIPA) (2 x 10(-4) M) reduced JHCO3 by 40%; neither methazolamide nor EIPA affected net water flux (Jv). The H(+)-ATPase inhibitor bafilomycin A1 (10(-5) M) reduced JHCO3 by 20%; the Cl- channel inhibitor 5-nitro-2'-(3-phenylpropylamino)-benzoate (2 x 10(-4) M) and the Cl(-)-base exchange inhibitor diisothiocyanato-2,2'-stilbenedisulfonate (5 x 10(-5) M), had no effect on fractional bicarbonate reabsorption. Bumetanide (10(-6) M) stimulated bicarbonate transport (net and fractional JHCO3-) by 20%, whereas furosemide (10(-4) M) had no effect on bicarbonate reabsorption; both diuretics reduced Jv. In summary: (a) the LOH contributes significantly to urine acidification. It normally reabsorbs an amount equivalent to 15% of filtered bicarbonate; (b) bicarbonate reabsorption is not saturated; (c) Na(+)-H+ exchange and an ATP-dependent proton pump are largely responsible for the bulk of LOH bicarbonate transport.
G Capasso, R Unwin, S Agulian, G Giebisch
Normal human left ventricular architecture comprises a highly aligned array of cardiac myofibers whose orientation depends on transmural location. This study was designed to determine whether measurement of integrated backscatter could be used detect the progressive transmural shift of myofiber alignment that occurs from epicardium to endocardium in human ventricular wall segments. Integrated backscatter was measured at 32 transmural levels in seven cylindrical biopsy specimens (1.4 cm diam) sampled from normal regions of six explanted fixed human hearts by insonification of samples at 180 independent angles in 2 degrees steps around their entire circumference with a 5-MHz broadband piezoelectric transducer. Histologic analysis was performed to determine fiber orientation. Integrated backscatter varied approximately as a sinusoidal function of the angle of insonification at each transmural level. Greater integrated backscatter was observed for insonification perpendicular as compared with parallel to fibers (difference = 14.5 +/- 0.6 dB). Ultrasonic analysis revealed a progressive transmural shift in fiber orientation of approximately 9.2 +/- 0.7 degrees/mm of tissue. Histologic analysis revealed a concordant shift in fiber orientation of 7.9 +/- 0.8 degrees/mm of tissue. Thus, human myocardium manifests anisotropy of ultrasonic scattering that may be useful for characterization of the intramural fiber alignment and overall three-dimensional organization of cardiac myofibers.
S A Wickline, E D Verdonk, J G Miller
Prostacyclin is a critical mediator of structure and function in the pulmonary circulation, causing both the inhibition of vascular smooth muscle growth and vasodilation via the stimulation of adenylate cyclase. To examine the potential role of alterations in prostacyclin production or mechanism of action in chronic hypoxic pulmonary hypertension, we determined the effects of prolonged (7 d) in vivo hypoxia on in vitro prostacyclin synthesis and mediation of adenylate cyclase activity in rat main pulmonary arteries. In control arteries prostacyclin production exceeded that of prostaglandin (PG) E2 by 25-fold, with 42% originating from the endothelium. Studies utilizing indomethacin revealed that endogenous prostaglandins mediate at least 69% of basal adenylate cyclase activity. Prostacyclin-stimulated enzyme activity was enhanced by exogenous GTP, indicating that this is a receptor-mediated process involving G protein amplification. Comparable dose-related responses to prostacyclin and PGE2 suggest that these agents may activate a common receptor. After 7 d of in vivo hypoxia there was a 2.7-fold increase in in vitro prostacyclin production, with equivalent increases in synthesis in the endothelium and vascular smooth muscle. However, despite this increase there was no change in basal adenylate cyclase activity, and this was associated with attenuated sensitivity of the enzyme to prostacyclin stimulation. Concomitant diminution of the response to beta-adrenergic stimulation, with previously-demonstrated beta receptor downregulation and unaltered postreceptor-mediated activity, suggests that the blunted response to prostacyclin is due to receptor downregulation. Parallel studies of the thoracic aorta indicated that these changes are specific to the pulmonary artery. It is postulated that attenuation of the response of adenylate cyclase to prostacyclin may contribute to the structural changes and hypertension observed in the pulmonary vasculature of the rat with chronic hypoxia.
P W Shaul, B Kinane, M A Farrar, L M Buja, R R Magness
Previous studies from this and other laboratories have shown that angiotensin II (AII) induces [Ca2+]i transients in proximal tubular epithelium independent of phospholipase C. AII also stimulates formation of 5,6-epoxyeicosatrienoic acid (5,6-EET) from arachidonic acid by a cytochrome P450 epoxygenase and decreases Na+ transport in the same concentration range. Because 5,6-EET mimics AII with regard to Na+ transport, it effects on calcium mobilization were evaluated. [Ca2+]i was measured by video microscopy with the fluorescent indicator fura-2 employing cultured rabbit proximal tubule. AII-induced [Ca2+]i transients were enhanced by arachidonic acid and attenuated by ketoconazole, an inhibitor of cytochrome P450 epoxygenases. Arachidonic acid also elicited a [Ca2+]i transient that was attenuated by ketoconazole. 5,6-EET augmented [Ca2+]i similar to that seen with AII, but was unaffected by ketoconazole. By contrast, the other regioisomers (8,9-, 11,12-, and 14,15-EET) were much less potent. [Ca2+]i transients resulted from influx through verapamil- and nifedipine-sensitive channels. These results suggest a novel mechanism for AII-induced Ca mobilization in proximal tubule involving cytochrome P450-dependent arachidonic acid metabolism and Ca influx through voltage-sensitive channels.
Z T Madhun, D A Goldthwait, D McKay, U Hopfer, J G Douglas
Establishment and maintenance of a polar distribution of Na+,K(+)-ATPase is essential for efficient Na+ reabsorption by proximal tubule cells and is dependent upon the formation of a metabolically stable, detergent-insoluble complex of Na+,K(+)-ATPase with the actin membrane cytoskeleton. The present studies show that cellular ATP depletion results in a rapid duration-dependent dissociation of Na+,K(+)-ATPase from the actin cytoskeleton and redistribution of Na+,K(+)-ATPase to the apical membrane. During ATP depletion, total cellular Na+,K(+)-ATPase activity was unaltered, but the Triton-X-100-insoluble fraction (cytoskeleton associated) of Na+,K(+)-ATPase activity decreased (P less than 0.01), with a corresponding increase in the detergent-soluble fraction of Na+,K(+)-ATPase (P less than 0.01). Indirect immunofluorescent studies of cells with depleted ATP revealed a redistribution of Na+,K(+)-ATPase from the basolateral membrane into the apical membrane and throughout the cytoplasm. ATP depletion also resulted in the redistribution of F-actin from a primarily cortical concentration to a perinuclear location. There was also a rapid, duration-dependent conversion of monomeric G-actin to F-actin starting during the first 5 min of ATP depletion. Taken together, these data suggest that ATP depletion causes profound alterations in cell polarity by inducing major changes in the actin cytoskeletal architecture.
B A Molitoris, A Geerdes, J R McIntosh
Insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) stimulates hematopoiesis. We examined whether bone marrow stromal cells synthesize IGF-I. Secretion of IGF-I immunoreactivity by cells from TC-1 murine bone marrow stromal cells was time-dependent and inhibited by cycloheximide. Gel filtration chromatography under denaturing conditions of TC-1 conditioned medium demonstrated two major peaks of apparent IGF-I immunoreactivity with molecular weights of approximately 7.5-8.0 kD, the size of native IGF-I, and greater than 25 kD. Expression of IGF-I mRNA was identified by both RNase protection assay and reverse transcription/polymerase chain reaction. To determine whether the greater than 25-kD species identified by RIA possessed IGF-binding activity, a potential cause of artifactual IGF-I immunoreactivity, charcoal adsorption assay of these gel filtration fractions was performed. The peak of IGF-binding activity coeluted with apparent IGF-I immunoreactivity suggesting that TC-1 cells secrete IGF-binding protein(s). Unfractionated conditioned medium exhibited linear dose-dependent increase in specific binding of [125I]-IGF-I with a pattern of displacement (IGF-I and IGF-II much greater than insulin) characteristic of IGF-binding proteins. Western ligand analysis of conditioned medium showed three IGF-I binding species of approximately 31, 38, and 40 kD. These data indicate that TC-1 bone marrow stromal cells synthesize and secrete IGF-I and IGF-binding proteins and constitute a useful model system to study their regulation and role in hematopoiesis.
S L Abboud, C R Bethel, D C Aron
We have previously shown that BALB/c antipneumococcal polysaccharide antibodies with phosphorylcholine (PC) specificity are self-binding, mediated by hypervariable sequence structure of the heavy chain. We extended the observation of self-binding anti-PC antibodies to naturally occurring human anti-PC antibodies. Anti-PC antibodies were purified from normal donor sera and shown to bind to monoclonal antiidiotypic anti-T15 antibodies originally raised against the murine T15 idiotype. These human antibodies are self-binding which is inhibitable by the PC hapten and the murine T15 (50-73)-derived Vh peptide. The anti-PC antibodies were further separated into id-positive and id-negative anti-PC antibodies. Only the T15 id-positive preparation was self-binding. These findings demonstrate an evolutionary, conserved biological property between mouse and man associated with a naturally occurring antibacterial antibody. This conserved biological and structural property may have been selected in evolution because it is part of an important immune defense mechanism against bacterial and other environmental pathogens.
R Halpern, S V Kaveri, H Köhler
In a large kindred of 66 individuals, 22 were identified as heterozygous and 3 as homozygous for a mutation (pro664----leu) in the LDL-receptor gene that gives rise to familial hypercholesterolaemia (FH). All the heterozygotes had a raised level of plasma total cholesterol and low density lipoprotein cholesterol, but were remarkably free from premature coronary disease. Determination of apolipoprotein(a) (apo(a)) phenotype and lipoprotein(a) (Lp(a)) concentration in plasma revealed that in many instances, involving individuals with various apo(a) phenotypes, there was no difference in plasma Lp(a) concentration between an FH heterozygote and an unaffected sibling with the same apo(a) phenotype. No significant difference in Lp(a) concentration was observed between groups of FH and non-FH of the same apo(a) phenotype, although in each case the mean value for the FH group was greater than that for the non-FH group. There was also evidence for an inherited trait that markedly increased Lp(a) concentration, which did not segregate with apo(a) phenotype or the defective LDL-receptor allele. The data provide no evidence for a strong multiplicative interaction between the gene loci for apo(a) and the LDL receptor.
A K Soutar, S N McCarthy, M Seed, B L Knight
Mast cells appear to promote fibroblast proliferation, presumably through secretion of growth factors, although the molecular mechanisms underlying this mitogenic potential have not been explained fully by known mast cell-derived mediators. We report here that tryptase, a trypsin-like serine proteinase of mast cell secretory granules, is a potent mitogen for fibroblasts in vitro. Nanomolar concentrations of dog tryptase strongly stimulate thymidine incorporation in Chinese hamster lung and Rat-1 fibroblasts and increase cell density in both subconfluent and confluent cultures of these cell lines. Tryptase-induced cell proliferation appears proteinase-specific, as this response is not mimicked by pancreatic trypsin or mast cell chymase. In addition, low levels of tryptase markedly potentiate DNA synthesis stimulated by epidermal growth factor, basic fibroblast growth factor, or insulin. Inhibitors of catalytic activity decrease the mitogenic capacity of tryptase, suggesting, though not proving, the participation of the catalytic site in cell activation by tryptase. Differences in Ca++ mobilization and sensitivity to pertussis toxin suggest that tryptase and thrombin activate distinct signal transduction pathways in fibroblasts. These data implicate mast cell tryptase as a potent, previously unrecognized fibroblast growth factor, and may provide a molecular link between mast cell activation and fibrosis.
S J Ruoss, T Hartmann, G H Caughey
In normo- and hypoglycemic ferret lungs, the pulmonary vascular response to severe hypoxia (PiO2 less than or equal to 10 mmHg) is characterized by an initial intense vasoconstriction followed by marked vasodilation, whereas in hyperglycemic lungs, vasodilation is minimal, causing vasoconstriction to be sustained. In contrast, the response to moderate hypoxia is characterized by a slowly developing sustained vasoconstriction which is unaffected by glucose concentration. To determine the role of ATP-dependent K+ (KATP) channels in these responses, we examined the effects of cromakalim, which opens KATP channels, and glibenclamide, which closes them. During steady-state vasoconstriction induced in isolated ferret lungs by moderate hypoxia, cromakalim caused dose-dependent vasodilation (EC50 = 7 x 10(-7) M) which was reversed by glibenclamide (IC50 = 8 x 10(-7) M), indicating that KATP channels were present and capable of modulating vascular tone. During severe hypoxia in hypoglycemic lungs [( glucose] less than 1 mM), glibenclamide markedly inhibited the secondary vasodilation. Raising perfusate glucose concentration to 14 +/- 0.4 mM had the same effect. As a result, initial vasoconstrictor responses were well sustained. However, neither glibenclamide nor hyperglycemia affected vasoconstrictor responses to moderate hypoxia or KCl, indicating that effects during severe hypoxia were not due to nonspecific potentiation of vasoconstriction. These findings suggest that in the ferret lung (a) severe hypoxia decreased ATP concentration and thereby opened KATP channels, resulting in increased K+ efflux, hyperpolarization, vasodilation, and reversal of the initial vasoconstrictor response; and (b) hyperglycemia prevented this sequence of events.
C M Wiener, A Dunn, J T Sylvester
Human mononuclear leukocytes (MNL) exposed to respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) produce net IL-1 inhibitor bioactivity with the anticipated consequences of cell cycle arrest, suppressed virus-specific proliferation, and reduced expression of activation markers. These studies were undertaken to investigate effects of exposure and resultant net IL-1 inhibitor activity on the expression of the intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), and its ligand the lymphocyte function-associated antigen (LFA-1). MNL collected at 1, 4, and 24 h after exposure to influenza virus (which induces net IL-1 bioactivity) showed enhanced expression of ICAM-1 and LFA-1 relative to sham-exposed MNL and exhibited cell clustering. In contrast, exposure to RSV was associated with suppressed expression of both ICAM-1 and LFA-1 and with minimal detectable cell clustering throughout the culture period. Influenza virus-exposed MNL produced significantly more IL-1 and IFN-gamma (which require cell-cell collaboration for optimal production) than did RSV-exposed MNL. These data raise the possibility that exposure of MNL to RSV fails to elicit or blocks the early events necessary for cellular collaboration, contributing to early suppression of the clonal expansion of RSV-specific lymphocytes.
A R Salkind, J E Nichols, N J Roberts Jr
Hyperinsulinemia has been implicated in the pathogenesis of the blood pressure elevation in patients with noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, obesity, but also essential hypertension. In these conditions an increased cardiovascular reactivity to noradrenaline (NA) and angiotensin II (AII) can be observed. Using the euglycemic clamp technique, we determined the cardiovascular reactivity to graded infusions of NA and AII in nine healthy males before (Bas), and 1 and 6 h after infusion of insulin (50 mU/kg per h) was started. On separate days control experiments were carried out to control for any circadian variation. Insulin led to a decrease of the amount of circulating NA necessary to increase the diastolic blood pressure (DBP) 20 mmHg (actual experiment [mean +/- SEM]: Bas, 23.1 +/- 5.0; 1 h, 14.8 +/- 3.0; and 6 h, 12.3 +/- 3.1; and control experiment: Bas, 20.7 +/- 5.0; 1 h, 18.6 +/- 3.5; and 6 h, 17.3 +/- 3.3 nmol/liter; Bas vs. 1 and 6 h: P less than 0.05). Although the amount of NA infused to raise DBP 20 mmHg showed a similar decline after 1 h of insulin infusion, no such change from baseline could be observed at 6 h. This appeared to be due to an increase in NA clearance with more prolonged insulin infusion. Insulin exerted no effect on the amount of AII infused to increase DBP 20 mmHg (actual experiment: Bas, 27.6 +/- 6.4; 1 h, 28.8 +/- 10.0; and 6 h, 21.2 +/- 5.3; and control experiment: Bas, 33.6 +/- 5.7; 1 h, 34.2 +/- 6.1; and 6 h, 23.4 +/- 4.7 ng/kg/min; NS). We did observe a circadian variation in AII reactivity. Whether the increase in cardiovascular responsiveness to NA after administration of insulin contributes to the elevation in blood pressure frequently observed in patients with insulin resistance remains to be proven.
R O Gans, H J Bilo, W W von Maarschalkerweerd, R J Heine, J J Nauta, A J Donker
Steroid 21-hydroxylase deficiency is the major cause of congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH), a common genetic disease. To define the relationship between gene mutations and enzyme deficiency, we generated missense mutations of the 21-hydroxylase cDNA at three different sites and characterized the mutant proteins after expressing them in cultured mammalian and yeast cells. Among them, Ser268 and Val281 have been found to be mutated in CAH patients, whereas Cys428 has been implicated as the heme ligand. Our results show mutations at these sites result in complete, partial, or no loss of the enzymatic activity. All the Cys428 mutants had neither enzymatic activity nor P450 absorption, thus supporting the notion that Cys428 is the heme ligand. All the 268-mutants exhibited the same activity as normal 21-hydroxylase, demonstrating that the clinically observed Ser268----Thr change represents a polymorphism rather than the cause of the enzyme deficiency. The 281-mutants had normal Km but greatly reduced Vmax values that also paralleled the reduction in the heme content, in the order Val281 (normal, 100%) greater than Ile281 (50%) greater than Leu281 (20%) greater than Thr281 (10%). Our findings suggest that the methyl group at the beta-carbon of Val281 is required for heme incorporation and consequently enzymatic activity.
D A Wu, B C Chung
Differential solute clearances were used to characterize glomerular function in 20 Pima Indians with noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) of less than 3 yr duration. 28 Pima Indians with normal glucose tolerance served as controls. In the diabetic group, the glomerular filtration rate (GFR, iothalamate clearance) exceeded the control value by 15% (140 +/- 6 vs. 122 +/- 5 ml/min, P less than 0.01). A corresponding 12% increase in renal plasma flow (RPF) was not statistically significant and did not account fully for the observed hyperfiltration, suggesting a concomitant elevation of the ultrafiltration pressure or coefficient. The median albumin excretion ratio in NIDDM exceeded control by almost twofold (10.1 vs. 5.8 mg/g creatinine), a trend which just failed to achieve statistical significance (P = 0.06). Fractional clearances of dextrans of broad size distribution were also elevated in diabetic subjects, significantly so for larger dextrans of between 48 and 60 A radius. A theoretical analysis of dextran transport through a heteroporous membrane revealed glomerular pores in NIDDM to be uniformly shifted towards pores of larger size than in controls. We conclude that an impairment of barrier size selectivity combined with high GFR elevates the filtered protein load in NIDDM of recent onset. We propose that enhanced transglomerular trafficking of protein may predispose to sclerosis of glomeruli in those Pima Indians with NIDDM who ultimately develop diabetic nephropathy.
B D Myers, R G Nelson, G W Williams, P H Bennett, S A Hardy, R L Berg, N Loon, W C Knowler, W E Mitch
Receptor-mediated agonists, such as FMLP, induce an early, phospholipase D (PLD)-mediated accumulation of phosphatidic acid (PA) which may play a role in the activation of NADPH oxidase in human PMN. We have determined the effect of changes in PA production on O2 consumption in intact PMN and the level of NADPH oxidase activity measured in a cell-free assay. Pretreatment of cells with various concentrations of propranolol enhanced (less than or equal to 200 microM) or inhibited (greater than 300 microM) PLD-induced production of PA (mass and radiolabel) in a manner that correlated with enhancement or inhibition of O2 consumption in PMN stimulated with 1 microM FMLP in the absence of cytochalasin B. The concentration-dependent effects of propranolol on FMLP-induced NADPH oxidase activation was confirmed by direct assay of the enzyme in subcellular fractions. In PA extracted from cells pretreated with 200 microM propranolol before stimulation with 1 microM FMLP, phospholipase A1 (PLA1)-digestion for 90 min, followed by quantitation of residual PA, showed that a minimum of 44% of PA in control (undigested) sample was diacyl-PA; alkylacyl-PA remained undigested by PLA1. Propranolol was also observed to have a concentration-dependent enhancement of mass of 1,2-DG formed in PMN stimulated with FMLP. DG levels reached a maximum at 300 microM propranolol and remained unchanged up to 500 microM propranolol. However, in contrast to PA levels, the level of DG produced did not correlate with NADPH oxidase activation. Exogenously added didecanoyl-PA activated NADPH oxidase in a concentration-dependent manner (1-300 microM) in a reconstitution assay using membrane and cytosolic fractions from unstimulated PMN. In addition, PA synergized with SDS for oxidase activation. Taken together, these results indicate that PA plays a second messenger role in the activation of NADPH oxidase in human PMN and that regulation of phospholipase D is a key step in the activation pathway.
D E Agwu, L C McPhail, S Sozzani, D A Bass, C E McCall
Activation of T lymphocytes infected with the human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) results in enhancement of viral replication mediated in part by activation of cellular NF kappa B capable of binding directly to sequences in the viral long terminal repeat, or LTR. Together with CD4+ T cells, macrophages constitute a major target for infection by HIV-1. Unlike lymphocytes, however, stimulation of mononuclear phagocytes is not associated with cell division and proliferation. Human monocyte-derived macrophages transfected with HIV-LTR-CAT constructs demonstrated down-regulation of CAT activity after stimulation with bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) that mapped to a region distinct from NF kappa B binding sites. In contrast, fresh monocytes and the promonocytic U937 cell line both demonstrated up-regulation of HIV-LTR-CAT expression by LPS. Differentiation of U937 by PMA to establish a nondividing phenotype resulted in down-regulation of transfected HIV-LTR-CAT activity by LPS similar to that in mature macrophages. Human monocyte-derived macrophages infected with HIV-1 in vitro demonstrated a decrease in viral p24 release after incubation in LPS that was comparable to the negative regulation that occurred in the transient transfection assays. Factors controlling HIV replication may differ in dividing and nondividing hematopoietic cells and may contribute to restricted viral expression in nondividing cells.
M S Bernstein, S E Tong-Starksen, R M Locksley
The VLA-4 (CD49d/CD29) integrin is a cell surface receptor involved in the interaction of lymphoid cells with both extracellular matrix (ECM) and endothelial cells. We have investigated the expression and function of VLA-4 fibronectin (FN) receptors on T cells localized in the inflammed synovium of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). A high proportion of T cells in both synovial membrane (SM) and synovial fluid (SF) expressed the activation antigens AIM (CD69) and gp95/85 (Ea2) as well as an increased number of VLA-4 alpha and beta 1 adhesion molecules, as compared with peripheral blood (PB) T cells from the same patients. Furthermore, the majority of these activated SF T cells were able to adhere to a 38-kD FN proteolytic fragment containing the connecting segment-1 (CS-1) specifically through VLA-4 receptors, whereas a significantly lower proportion of PB T cells displayed this capacity. Therefore, our results show that activated T cells selectively localize at sites of tissue injury in RA disease and provide evidence for the in vivo regulation of the expression and function of the VLA-4 integrin. This regulatory mechanism may enable T cells either to facilitate migration or to persist at sites of inflammation.
A Laffón, R García-Vicuña, A Humbría, A A Postigo, A L Corbí, M O de Landázuri, F Sánchez-Madrid
Endogenous apolipoprotein E in VLDL is poorly expressed in receptor binding processes. Yet catabolism of VLDL-remnants by cellular receptors depends on functional apo E molecules. To better understand remnant catabolism phenomena, we determined the metabolism of VLDL and post-lipolysis VLDL by cultured cells. Partial lipolysis was achieved by incubation of VLDL with lipoprotein lipase in vitro (human) or recirculation (rat) in supradiaphragmatic animals. Lipolyzed VLDL exhibit metabolic activities 2-20-fold higher than control VLDL, that are saturable and dependent on the presence of LDL receptors. The ligand responsible for receptor interaction of lipolyzed VLDL (apo E or apo B-100) and its source (endogenous or transferred) was studied with monoclonal antibodies and with lipoproteins from E-3/3 and E-2/2 subjects. The data unequivocally proved that lipolysis causes exposure of unreactive endogenous apo E-3 at the VLDL surface, possibly by a change of conformation of the protein. Apo B-100 becomes biologically expressed only in lipolyzed VLDL-III. Lipolyzed VLDL, however, is less reactive to exogenous apo E-3 than control VLDL indicating that endogenous and exogenous apo E are oriented differently in VLDL. It is proposed that VLDL delivers triglycerides to tissues when apo E is unreactive but becomes a remnant after the protein becomes exposed and directs the particles from lipoprotein lipase sites to cellular receptors.
E Sehayek, U Lewin-Velvert, T Chajek-Shaul, S Eisenberg
Insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity were evaluated in eight clinically stable cirrhotic patients and in 12 controls. OGTT was normal in cirrhotics but plasma insulin response was increased approximately twofold compared with controls. Subjects received a three-step (0.1, 0.5, 1.0 mU/kg.min) euglycemic insulin clamp with indirect calorimetry, [6-3H]-glucose, and [1-14C]-palmitate. During the two highest insulin infusion steps glucose uptake was impaired (3.33 +/- 0.31 vs. 5.06 +/- 0.40 mg/kg.min, P less than 0.01, and 6.09 +/- 0.50 vs. 7.95 +/- 0.52 mg/kg.min, P less than 0.01). Stimulation of glucose oxidation by insulin was normal; in contrast, nonoxidative glucose disposal (i.e., glycogen synthesis) was markedly reduced. Fasting (r = -0.553, P less than 0.01) and glucose-stimulated (r = -0.592, P less than 0.01) plasma insulin concentration correlated inversely with the severity of insulin resistance. Basal hepatic glucose production was normal in cirrhotics and suppressed normally with insulin. In postabsorptive state, plasma FFA conc (933 +/- 42 vs. 711 +/- 44 mumol/liter, P less than 0.01) and FFA turnover (9.08 +/- 1.20 vs. 6.03 +/- 0.53 mumol/kg.min, P less than 0.01) were elevated in cirrhotics despite basal hyperinsulinemia; basal FFA oxidation was similar in cirrhotic and control subjects. With low-dose insulin infusion, plasma FFA oxidation and turnover failed to suppress normally in cirrhotics. During the two higher insulin infusion steps, all parameters of FFA metabolism suppressed normally. In summary, stable cirrhotic patients with normal glucose tolerance exhibit marked insulin resistance secondary to the impaired nonoxidative glucose disposal. Our results suggest that chronic hyperinsulinism may be responsible for the insulin resistance observed in cirrhosis.
A S Petrides, L C Groop, C A Riely, R A DeFronzo
Members of the early growth response (EGR) gene family are rapidly induced after mitogenic stimulation of diverse cell types. The present work has examined EGR gene expression during differentiation of myeloid leukemia cells along the monocytic lineage and in activated monocytes. Low levels of EGR-1 transcripts were detectable in untreated U-937 and HL-60 leukemia cells. In contrast, treatment of these cells with 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) was associated with increases (within 1 h) in EGR-1 mRNA levels. The induction of monocytic differentiation by TPA and other agents was further associated with increases in EGR-2, but not EGR-3 or EGR-4, mRNA levels in these cells. Treatment of resting peripheral blood monocytes with the macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) was also associated with rapid (within 15 min) increases in expression of the EGR-1 and EGR-2 genes. The results of nuclear run-on assays demonstrate that EGR-1 mRNA levels are increased in part by transcriptional activation of this gene in M-CSF-stimulated monocytes. The results also demonstrate that both EGR-1 and EGR-2 mRNA levels are regulated at the posttranscriptional level by a labile protein that destabilizes these transcripts. Finally, we demonstrate that dexamethasone, an inhibitor of monocytic differentiation, blocks the associated increases in EGR-1 and EGR-2 expression. Taken together, the results indicate that the EGR-1 and EGR-2 early response genes are involved in the induction of myeloid leukemia cell differentiation along the monocytic lineage and in the activation of human monocytes.
S Kharbanda, T Nakamura, R Stone, R Hass, S Bernstein, R Datta, V P Sukhatme, D Kufe
To identify the source(s) of carbon for the indirect pathway of hepatic glycogen synthesis, we studied nine 42-h fasted conscious dogs given a continuous intraduodenal infusion of glucose, labeled with [1-13C]glucose and [3-3H]glucose, at 8 mg.kg-1.min-1 for 240 min. Glycogen formation by the direct pathway was measured by 13C-NMR. Net hepatic balances of glucose, gluconeogenic amino acids, lactate, and glycerol were determined using the arteriovenous difference technique. During the steady-state period (the final hour of the infusion), 81% of the glucose infused was absorbed as glucose. Net gut output of lactate and alanine accounted for 5% and 3% of the glucose infused, respectively. The cumulative net hepatic uptakes were: glucose, 15.5 +/- 3.8 g; gluconeogenic amino acids, 32.2 +/- 2.2 mmol (2.9 +/- 0.2 g of glucose equivalents); and glycerol, 6.1 +/- 0.9 mmol (0.6 +/- 0.1 g of glucose equivalents). The liver produced a net of 29.2 +/- 9.6 mmol of lactate (2.6 +/- 0.8 g of glucose equivalents). Net hepatic glycogen synthesis totaled 9.3 +/- 2.5 g (1.8 +/- 0.4 g/100 g liver), with the direct pathway being responsible for 57 +/- 10%. Thus, net hepatic glucose uptake was sufficient to account for all glycogen formed by both the direct and indirect pathways. Total net hepatic uptake of gluconeogenic precursors (gluconeogenic amino acids, glycerol, and lactate) was able to account for only 20% of net glycogen synthesis by the indirect pathway. In a net sense, our data are consistent with an intrahepatic origin for most of the three-carbon precursors used for indirect glycogen synthesis.
M C Moore, A D Cherrington, G Cline, M J Pagliassotti, E M Jones, D W Neal, C Badet, G I Shulman
Stimulation of PMN with inflammatory mediators markedly augments Fc and CR1 receptor-mediated ingestion. However, CD11/CD18-deficient PMN from three patients with complete leukocyte adhesion deficiency (LAD) failed to recruit phagocytic function in response to phorbol esters, cytokine, or Arg-Gly-Asp-containing ligand stimulation. Because stimulated ingestion is protein kinase C (PKC)-dependent, our data indicate that LAD PMN exhibit only PKC-independent phagocytosis. The defect in PKC-dependent ingestion is specific for CD11b/CD18 and not secondary to the chronic or recurrent infections which occur in this disease. The LAD phenotype for phagocytic function can be reproduced in normal PMN by the anti-CD11b MAbs OKM1 and OKM10. In contrast, MAb Mo1 (anti-CD11b) and MAb IB4 (anti-CD18) inhibit both CD11b/CD18-dependent and -independent mechanisms of ingestion by normal PMN. Their ability to inhibit CD11b/CD18-independent ingestion may be mediated by cAMP, as shown by experiments with a protein kinase A inhibitor HA1004 and by direct measurement of cAMP levels in immune complex- and FMLP-stimulated PMN. These data indicate that CD11b/CD18-independent and -dependent mechanisms of phagocytosis exist and that some effects of anti-CD11b/CD18 MAbs may be mediated by alterations in cAMP levels.
H D Gresham, I L Graham, D C Anderson, E J Brown
We compared the changes in heart rate (HR), pulmonary dynamic compliance (Cdyn), and pulmonary conductance (GL) associated with three different models of anaphylaxis in genetically mast cell-deficient WBB6F1-W/Wv and congenic normal (+/+) mice. Intravenous infusion of a monoclonal rat anti-mouse IgE produced a marked tachycardia, diminutions in Cdyn and GL, and death in +/+ but not W/Wv mice, and +/+ mice sensitized to develop high circulating levels of IgE exhibited HR, Cdyn, and GL responses to rat anti-IgE challenge which were significantly less intense than those in nonimmunized +/+ mice. By contrast, virtually identical cardiopulmonary responses were observed in either +/+ or W/Wv mice challenged to elicit pure active anaphylactic responses or simultaneous active and anti-IgE-dependent anaphylaxis. These findings show that anaphylactic responses associated with significant tachycardia, reductions in Cdyn and GL, and death can occur in the virtual absence of tissue mast cells. This is true even though, in normal mice, such responses are associated with extensive degranulation of tissue mast cells. By contrast, certain models of anaphylaxis, such as that induced in nonsensitized mice by anti-mouse IgE, can not be elicited in the absence of mast cells.
T Takeishi, T R Martin, I M Katona, F D Finkelman, S J Galli
To determine the contribution of the major body fat depots to systemic free fatty acid (FFA) availability, palmitate ([1-14C]-palmitate) release was measured from leg (lower body) and non-leg (upper body) fat in eight upper body obese (UB Ob), six lower body obese (LB Ob), and six nonobese (Non Ob) age-matched premenopausal women in the overnight postabsorptive state. Splanchnic palmitate release was determined in 16 of these subjects. Results: total palmitate release was greater in UB Ob (P less than 0.005) than LB Ob or Non Ob women (161 +/- 16 vs. 111 +/- 9 vs. 92 +/- 9 mumol/min, respectively). Despite increased leg fat mass in obese women, leg palmitate release was similar in each group. Therefore, leg fat palmitate release was greater in Non Ob women than LB Ob (P less than 0.01) or UB Ob (P = 0.06) women (3.7 +/- 0.3 vs. 2.4 +/- 0.2 vs. 2.7 +/- 0.2 mumol.kg fat-1.min-1, respectively). Upper body fat palmitate release was less (P less than 0.01) in LB Ob than Non Ob or UB Ob women (3.0 +/- 0.4 vs. 5.0 +/- 0.3 vs. 4.9 +/- 0.4 mumol.kg fat-1.min-1, respectively). Splanchnic palmitate release accounted for 20-32% of upper body fat palmitate release in each group (P = NS between groups). Leg fat palmitate release was significantly less than upper body fat palmitate release. We conclude that the major difference in resting FFA metabolism between UB Ob and LB Ob women is the ability of the later to down-regulate upper body fat lipolysis to maintain normal FFA availability.
M L Martin, M D Jensen
In vivo effects of 300-min infusions of recombinant insulinlike growth factor I (IGF-I) and IGF-II on glucose and protein metabolism have been investigated in awake, fasted lambs. Two doses of recombinant human (rh) IGF-I were infused: 6.7 nmol/kg.h, which induced hypoglycemia, and 2.0 nmol/kg.h, which did not. The effects were compared with an insulin infusion (0.17 nmol/kg.h) that had the same hypoglycemic potential as the high dose rhIGF-I infusion. rhIGF-II was infused at a rate of 6.7 nmol/kg.h. Primed constant infusions of isotopically labeled glucose, urea and leucine tracers were used to determine glucose and protein kinetics. rhIGF-I lowered blood glucose by increasing the rate of glucose clearance (P less than 0.01), in contrast to insulin, which both increased clearance and reduced glucose production. Net protein loss was reduced after infusion of low and high dose rhIGF-I and insulin by 11% (P less than 0.05), 15% (P less than 0.01), and 12% (P less than 0.05), respectively. rhIGF-II infusion did not alter the rate of net protein loss. In contrast to insulin, high dose rhIGF-I infusion increased the rate of protein synthesis in skeletal (P less than 0.05) and cardiac muscle (P less than 0.01) and in hepatic tissue (P less than 0.05). We conclude that (a) protein metabolism is more sensitive than glucose metabolism to rhIGF-I infusion, as protein loss was reduced by an rhIGF-I infusion that did not alter glucose kinetics; (b) protein synthesis is increased by rhIGF-I infusion but not by insulin infusion; and (c) rhIGF-II is a less effective anabolic agent than rhIGF-I. We speculate that the effects of rhIGF-I on protein metabolism are not mediated by insulin receptors.
R G Douglas, P D Gluckman, K Ball, B Breier, J H Shaw
The synthesis, cell origin, and physiologic role of eicosanoids were investigated in a model of mesangial cell immune injury induced by a monoclonal antibody against the rat thymocyte antigen Thy 1.1 also expressed in rat mesangial cells. A single intravenous injection of the antibody resulted in enhanced glomerular synthesis of thromboxane (Tx)B2, leukotriene (LT)B4, and 12-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (HETE), whereas that of PGE2 and PGF2 alpha was either unaltered or impaired. The enhanced eicosanoid synthesis was associated with decrements in glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and renal blood flow (RBF). Complement activation mediated both the increments in TxB2, LTB4, and 12-HETE and the decrements in GFR and RBF. The decrements in GFR were abolished by the TxA2 receptor antagonist SQ-29,548. Although both neutrophiles and Ia (+) leukocytes infiltrated glomeruli, glomerular LTB4 originated mainly from the latter. Platelets entirely accounted for the enhanced 12-HETE synthesis in isolated glomeruli and to a lesser extent for that of LTB4 and TxB2. Glomerular PGE2 and PGF2 alpha originated from mesangial cells as their impaired synthesis coincided with extensive mesangial cell lysis. The observations indicate that in mesangial cell immune injury vasoactive and proinflammatory eicosanoids originate from recruited or activated Ia (+) leukocytes and platelets and may exert paracrine effects on mesangial cells.
E A Lianos, B A Bresnahan, C Pan
Cationic antigens are known to have considerable arthritogenic potential in experimental systems. During a systematic search for suitable, naturally occurring candidates an intracellular protein was isolated from the ribosomal pellet of Yersinia enterocolitica 0:3, a bacterial strain associated with reactive arthritis in humans. The protein is highly cationic, contains two 19-kD polypeptide chains linked by a disulfide bond, and reveals a strong tendency for spontaneous aggregation. It is suggested to be a nucleic acid binding protein. We tested this antigen for its ability to induce arthritis after intra-articular challenge in preimmunized rats. An acute inflammatory phase followed by transition to chronicity was observed both by technetium-99m scintigraphy and from histology. Massive polymorphonuclear leucocyte infiltration of the synovium was seen early on and fibrosis and thickening of the joint capsule occurred in later stages. Control groups showed no evidence of inflammation. Western blot and ELISA analysis of unselected sera from Yersinia enterocolitica 0:3-infected patients revealed antibodies to the antigen in the majority of cases, whereas healthy individuals rarely reacted. This is the first report of a naturally occurring cationic antigen capable of inducing immunologic tissue injury; it justifies the speculation that cationic antigens from prokaryotic cells could trigger reactive arthritis in humans.
A K Mertz, S R Batsford, E Curschellas, M J Kist, K B Gondolf
By the careful screening of familial dysbetalipoproteinemic (FD) patients, five probands showing heterozygosity for the APOE*3-Leiden allele were found. Genealogical studies revealed that these probands share common ancestry in the 17th century. In a group of 128 family members, spanning three generations, 37 additional heterozygous APOE*3-Leiden gene carriers were detected. Although with a variable degree of severity, all carriers exhibited characteristics of FD such as (a) elevated levels of cholesterol in the very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) and intermediate density lipoprotein (IDL) fractions, (b) elevated ratios of cholesterol levels in these density fractions over total plasma levels of triglycerides, and (c) strongly increased plasma levels of apolipoprotein E (apoE). Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that most of the variability in expression of FD in APOE*3-Leiden allele carriers can be explained by age. Body mass index showed a less significant influence on the expression of FD. Gender had no effect on the expression in E*3-Leiden allele carriers, nor did it influence the age of onset of FD. In the group of APOE*3-Leiden allele carriers, we found that the E*2 allele enhances the expression of FD, whereas the E*4 allele had the opposite effect. Isoelectric focusing of plasma and of isolated VLDL, IDL, and high density lipoprotein density fractions showed that in E*3-Leiden allele carriers the apoE3-Leiden variant largely predominates over its normal apoE counterpart, especially in the VLDL and IDL density fractions. We conclude that in APOE*3-Leiden allele carriers FD is dominantly inherited with a high rate of penetrance, i.e., the presence of normally functioning apoE molecules in the plasma does not prevent the age-related expression of this disease.
P de Knijff, A M van den Maagdenberg, A F Stalenhoef, J A Leuven, P N Demacker, L P Kuyt, R R Frants, L M Havekes
Using a clonal growth assay, we demonstrated that taurine, a nonperturbing osmolyte accumulated in kidney medulla, brain, and some other tissues of hypertonic experimental animals can function as a nonperturbing osmolyte in Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells. The taurine content of hypertonic MDCK cells is twice that of isotonic MDCK cells (isotonic 160 nmol/mg protein; hypertonic 320 nmol/mg protein). Therefore we studied taurine transport in MDCK cells grown on porous supports and then studied the effect of hypertonicity which is known to elicit increased uptake of some other nonperturbing osmolytes by MDCK cells. Basal uptake exceeded apical uptake, with Km and Vmax of 56 microM and 933 pmol/min.mg protein on the basal surface and 10 microM and 50 pmol/min.mg protein on the apical surface. On both surfaces, virtually all taurine uptake was Na+ and Cl- dependent. 24 h after cells were shifted to hypertonic medium (500 mosmol/kg), taurine uptake doubled on the basolateral surface without change on the apical surface. The response to hypertonicity was the result of an increase in Vmax without change in Km. There was no change in taurine efflux when cells were shifted from isotonic to hypertonic medium. When cells adapted to hypertonic medium were shifted to isotonic medium, a large transient basolateral efflux of taurine occurred within 10 min. We conclude that taurine can function as a nonperturbing osmolyte in MDCK cells and that tonicity-regulated taurine transport is a basolateral function in MDCK cells.
S Uchida, T Nakanishi, H M Kwon, A S Preston, J S Handler
In patients dying with acute lung injury, interstitial mesenchymal cells migrate into the airspace where they replicate and deposit connective tissue. We therefore hypothesized that peptides capable of promoting mesenchymal cell migration and replication would be present in the alveolar airspace. To examine this hypothesis, patients with severe acute diffuse lung injury (n = 26) underwent bronchoalveolar lavage. Acutely ill patients without lung injury served as controls (n = 12). Recovered effluent was examined for mesenchymal cell growth-promoting and migration-promoting activity. Lavage cell supernates from both patients and controls were devoid of bioactivity. However, substantial growth-promoting and migration-promoting activity was present in lavage fluid from nearly every patient, whereas little or none was present in fluid from controls. Characterization of the bioactivity indicated a significant proportion consisted of three peptides related to PDGF: (a) a 14-kD peptide that shared with PDGF several biophysical, biochemical, receptor-binding, and antigenic properties; (b) a 29-kD peptide that appeared identical to PDGF of platelet origin; and (c) a 38-kD peptide that was biophysically and antigenically similar to PDGF. These data indicate that peptide moieties are present in the airspace of patients after acute lung injury that can signal mesenchymal cell migration and replication.
L S Snyder, M I Hertz, M S Peterson, K R Harmon, W A Marinelli, C A Henke, J R Greenheck, B Chen, P B Bitterman
The effect of alveolar oxygen tension on lung lipid peroxidation during lung ischemia was evaluated by using isolated rat lungs perfused with synthetic medium. After a 5-min equilibration period, global ischemia was produced by discontinuing perfusion while ventilation continued with gas mixtures containing 5% CO2 and a fixed oxygen concentration between 0 and 95%. Lipid peroxidation was assessed by measurement of tissue thiobarbituric acid-reactive products and conjugated dienes. Control studies (no ischemia) showed no change in parameters of lipid peroxidation during 1 h of perfusion and ventilation with 20% or 95% O2. With 60 min of ischemia, there was increased lipid peroxidation which varied with oxygen content of the ventilating gas and was markedly inhibited by ventilation with N2. Perfusion with 5-, 8-, 11-, 14-eicosatetraynoic acid indicated that generation of eicosanoids during ischemia accounted for approximately 40-50% of lung lipid peroxide production. Changes of CO2 content of the ventilating gas (to alter tissue pH) or of perfusate glucose concentration had no effect on lipid peroxidation during ischemia, but perfusion at 8% of the normal flow rate prevented lipid peroxidation. Lung dry/wet weight measured after 3 min of reperfusion showed good correlation between lung fluid accumulation and lipid peroxidation. These results indicate that reperfusion is not necessary for lipid peroxidation with ischemic insult of the lung and provide evidence that elevated PO2 during ischemia accelerates the rate of tissue injury.
A B Fisher, C Dodia, Z T Tan, I Ayene, R G Eckenhoff
Increasing evidence suggests that autoantibodies in the rheumatic diseases are a consequence of immune selection by self-material, but the nature of the in vivo immunogen is unknown. Insight into this problem may be obtained by measuring autoantibody binding to various forms of a target antigen. Antihistone antibodies arising as a side effect of therapy with various drugs offer an opportunity to explore this premise because many forms of histone have been characterized and adapted to ELISA formats. Two patterns of antibody reactivity were observed. All 21 patients with symptomatic procainamide-induced lupus and 7 of 12 patients with quinidine-induced lupus had IgG antibodies reacting predominantly with the (H2A-H2B)-DNA complex and with chromatin. In contrast, antibodies in 19 of 24 patients taking procainamide without accompanying lupus-like symptoms did not show any pattern. The second pattern was observed in 18/19 chlorpromazine-treated patients and 14/17 patients with hydralazine-induced lupus in which IgM antibodies displayed more reactivity with DNA-free histones than with the corresponding histone-DNA complexes and almost no binding to H1-stripped chromatin. Absorption studies were entirely consistent with these results. Thus, the two patterns of reactivity with nucleosomal components reflect the molecular substructure of chromatin, suggesting that two processes underlie antihistone antibody induction by drugs. In one, IgG autoantibodies appear to be elicited by chromatin, whereas in the other, autoimmune tolerance to native chromatin appears largely intact, and IgM antibodies may be driven by DNA-free histone.
R W Burlingame, R L Rubin
Recent studies have demonstrated that treatment of mammalian cells with ionizing radiation is associated with activation of gene expression. Although the signal transduction pathways stimulated by ionizing radiation remain unclear, our previous findings indicate that radiation induces specific genes at the transcriptional level. The present work has examined the effects of ionizing radiation on the transcription factor NF-kappa B. The results demonstrate that ionizing radiation activates DNA binding of nuclear factor (NF)kappa B. This effect was detectable at 2 grays (Gy) and reached a maximum at 5-20 Gy. At a dose of 20 Gy, the increase in NF-kappa B binding activity was maximal at 2-4 h and then declined to pretreatment levels. The results also demonstrate that ionizing radiation transiently increases NF-kappa B mRNA levels. However, the finding that induction of NF-kappa B binding to DNA occurs in the presence of cycloheximide indicates that ionizing radiation activates preexisting NF-kappa B protein. NF-kappa B exists as a cytoplasmic protein before activation. Thus, our results suggest that ionizing radiation induces transduction pathways which include cytoplasmic signaling events.
M A Brach, R Hass, M L Sherman, H Gunji, R Weichselbaum, D Kufe
IL-6 has been shown to be a plasmacytoma growth factor in mice and is believed to play a key role in the development of human multiple myeloma. We investigated the IL-6 requirements for the growth of two human myeloma cell lines, U 266 and RPMI 8226. These cell lines secreted minute amounts of IL-6 (20 U/ml) and featured IL-6 mRNA. IL-6 receptors were detectable at the surface of malignant cells by immunofluorescence. Antibodies to IL-6 did not alter the proliferation of these myeloma cells. There was a dose-dependent decrease, however, in [3H]-thymidine uptake in the presence of IL-6 antisense (and not sense) oligodeoxynucleotides; in the presence of 20 microM IL-6 antisense, an 80 and 95% inhibition of the proliferation of U 266 and RPMI 8226 cells was observed, respectively. These results provide strong evidence for an IL-6 autocrine proliferation of myeloma cells which may occur via internal interaction between IL-6 and the IL-6 receptor.
Y Levy, A Tsapis, J C Brouet
The likelihood a breast cancer will respond to antiestrogen therapy depends on the tumor content of immunoreactive or ligand-binding estrogen receptor (ER). To investigate the failure of many ER-positive breast cancers to respond to antiestrogen therapy, we examined by gel-shift assay the ability of tumor ER to bind its cognate estrogen response element (ERE). Analysis of 38 primary breast cancers showed that some tumors containing abundant immunoreactive ER failed to demonstrate DNA binding ER. In many other ER-positive tumors, the fraction of DNA binding ER was low and consisted primarily of truncated receptor forms, which on Western analysis were revealed to be 50 kD homodimers and 67-50 kD ER heterodimers. The use of protease inhibitors during tumor extraction and the demonstration of nuclear-localizing ER and ERE-binding COUP (chicken ovalbumin upstream promoter) protein in these tumors indicated that the truncated forms of ER were likely present in vivo. The presence of intact DNA binding ER correlated with higher tumor content of immunoreactive sex steroid receptors (ER and/or PR), standard predictors of tumor responsiveness to antiestrogen, suggesting that loss or truncation of DNA binding ER may be an important prognostic parameter accounting for some forms of clinical resistance to antiestrogen therapy.
G K Scott, P Kushner, J L Vigne, C C Benz
Recently a novel case of angiokeratoma corporis diffusum with glycoaminoaciduria was described in a 46-yr-old Japanese woman. Known causes of the cutaneous manifestation were eliminated by enzyme analyses, and further characterization of the accumulated urinary O-linked sialopeptides revealed identity to those excreted by patients with an infantile neuroaxonal dystrophy due to lysosomal alpha-N-acetylgalactosaminidase deficiency. Investigation of the alpha-N-acetylgalactosaminidase activity and protein in the proband revealed less than 2% of normal activity and the absence of detectable immunoreactive enzyme protein, findings comparable to those in the patients with infantile neuroaxonal dystrophy and alpha-N-acetylgalactosaminidase deficiency. In addition, the proband's unaffected offspring had half-normal levels of alpha-N-acetylgalactosaminidase activity, consistent with this enzymatic deficiency being the primary metabolic defect in this autosomal recessive trait. Ultrastructural examination of skin and blood cells from the adult proband revealed the presence of prominent lysosomal inclusions containing diffuse amorphous and filamentous material. In contrast, these morphologic findings were not observed in the nonneural tissues from patients with infantile neuroaxonal dystrophy and alpha-N-acetylgalactosaminidase deficiency. These studies document the occurrence of two forms of alpha-N-acetylgalactosaminidase deficiency and sialopeptiduria, a severe infantile-onset form of neuroaxonal dystrophy without angiokeratoma or visceral lysosomal inclusions and an adult-onset form characterized by angiokeratoma, extensive lysosomal accumulation of sialoglycopeptides and the absence of detectable neurologic involvement.
T Kanzaki, A M Wang, R J Desnick
Cystic fibrosis (CF) is characterized by an abnormality in cAMP-regulated chloride transport that results from a primary defect in the protein product of the CF gene, the CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR). In this report, antibodies against CFTR peptides were used to localize the CFTR protein in human pancreas. An affinity purified antibody (alpha-1468) raised against a synthetic CFTR peptide identified a 155-170-kD protein on immunoblot. Cytochemical studies with alpha-1468 localized CFTR to small branching, tubular structures. The same structures were recognized by two other antibodies raised against different regions of the CFTR molecule. To identify the cells being stained, double-label immunofluorescence studies were performed using alpha-1468 and a monoclonal antibody which stains pancreatic centroacinar and intralobular duct cells. Both antibodies localized to the same population of cells, with alpha-1468 being confined to the apical domain of these cells. No conclusive staining of acinar cells was evident. These findings suggest that proximal duct epithelial cells play a key role in the early events leading to pancreatic insufficiency in CF, and imply that apical chloride transport by these cells is essential for normal pancreatic secretory function.
C R Marino, L M Matovcik, F S Gorelick, J A Cohn
Mice homozygous for the mutation "severe combined immune deficiency" (C.B17-scid/scid) lack functional T and B lymphocytes and readily accept tumor xenografts. Partial lymphohemopoietic scid/human and mouse/rat chimeras have been described, but complete chimerization with thymic engraftment and generation of donor-origin thymocytes has not been achieved. We now report that low-dose irradiation permits the engraftment of BB rat fetal liver stem cells in scid recipients. We observed that BB rat fetal liver cells injected into irradiated scid mice establish a rat hemopoietic system in the scid mouse bone marrow and populate the scid mouse thymus. These stem cells generated rat-origin thymocytes that migrated to the scid mouse spleen, a peripheral lymphoid organ. Finally, we found that xenogeneic chimeras created using fetal liver cells from the abnormal (lymphopenic, diabetes prone) subline of BB rats recapitulated both the quantitative and phenotypic abnormalities of the donor rat. Xenogeneic lymphohemopoietic chimeras established in scid mice may provide a powerful new tool in the study of immune system development and autoimmunity.
D L Greiner, L D Shultz, A A Rossini, J P Mordes, E S Handler, T V Rajan