B M Brenner, J L Troy, B J Ballermann
To better understand how the folate receptor (also known as the membrane folate binder) is able to deliver 5-methyltetrahydrofolic acid to the cytoplasm of folate-depleted MA104 cells, we have examined the kinetics of movement from the cell surface into the cytoplasm. Bound 5-methyltetrahydrofolic acid was transferred into an acid-resistant membrane compartment at the rate of 0.9-1.0 pmol/10(6) cells per h. This folate appeared in the cytoplasm at the same rate. Furthermore, cytoplasmic 5-methyltetrahydrofolic acid became polyglutamated at the rate of 0.6-0.7 pmol/10(6) cells per h. As soon as intracellular 5-methyltetrahydrofolate reached 5-7 pmol/10(6) cells, however, cytoplasmic accumulation was markedly inhibited even though the folate receptor remained functional. Therefore, the acute regulation of 5-methyltetrahydrofolic acid accumulation appears to be achieved by controlling the movement of the vitamin from the receptor into the cytoplasm of the cell.
B A Kamen, C A Johnson, M T Wang, R G Anderson
Susceptibility to hemolysis initiated by activated cobra venom factor (CoF) complexes is a characteristic that distinguishes the most complement-sensitive type III erythrocytes of paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) from the intermediately sensitive type II and the normally sensitive type I cells. Recently we isolated a membrane constituent from normal erythrocytes that inhibits CoFBb-initiated hemolysis, and this protein was designated membrane inhibitor of reactive lysis (MIRL). To investigate the molecular basis of the variability in complement sensitivity among PNH erythrocytes, the surface expression of MIRL and decay accelerating factor (DAF) on the three phenotypes of PNH was quantified immunochemically. Both complement regulatory proteins were markedly deficient on the erythrocytes from a patient with predominately type III cells. The erythrocytes from patients with a majority of either type II or I cells were also significantly deficient in both MIRL and DAF. While cytofluorometric analysis confirmed the quantitative deficiencies, segregation of erythrocytes into discrete subpopulations that expressed either no MIRL or normal amounts of MIRL was not observed. The results of immunoprecipitation studies were consistent with quantitative, but not qualitative abnormalities of MIRL and DAF. Selective removal of the sensitive erythrocytes indicated that approximately 20% of the normal amount of MIRL is sufficient to protect cells from CoF-initiated lysis. These studies suggest that relatively subtle quantitative differences in membrane complement regulatory proteins underlie the variability in complement sensitivity of PNH erythrocytes.
M H Holguin, L A Wilcox, N J Bernshaw, W F Rosse, C J Parker
Previous investigators have proposed that gelatinase, a metalloproteinase found in neutrophils, is stored in a novel secretory compartment distinct from the two major granule populations, azurophilic and specific. To locate this proteinase in human neutrophils we reacted the cells for peroxidase and then applied monospecific polyclonal antibodies to human neutrophil gelatinase to immunolabel ultrathin frozen sections using an immunogold technique. Gelatinase was localized in a population of peroxidase-negative granules. Double-labeling experiments using antibodies against lactoferrin, a marker for specific granules, and gelatinase demonstrated colocalization of the two antigens in 80% of the specific granules. However, some granules immunostained with only the lactoferrin or gelatinase antibody. Similar techniques were used to examine precursor cells from bone marrow. In myelocytes both gelatinase and lactoferrin were present in large developing specific granules; however, some mature specific granules contained only lactoferrin. Thus, it is possible that lactoferrin synthesis begins earlier than gelatinase synthesis and that overlapping synthesis and segregation occurs during the myelocyte stage. These findings suggest that the main storage compartment of gelatinase is within the peroxidase-negative specific granules.
M S Hibbs, D F Bainton
Microneurography was used to measure sympathetic outflow in human muscle nerves (MSA) for up to 90 min after the ingestion of 100 g D-glucose, 75.8 g D-xylose, intravenous D-glucose (0.35 g/kg), and 300 ml water. 19 healthy subjects were examined using a microelectrode positioned in the right peroneal nerve. MSA increased from 21 +/- 0.9 bursts/min at rest to 36.9 +/- 4.3 bursts/min 30 min after ingestion of D-glucose and from 18.9 +/- 2.9 to 26.3 +/- 3.4 bursts/min 30 min after D-xylose. The increase in MSA was already significant by 15 min. MSA had not returned to the basal level after 90 min. Neither intravenous D-glucose nor water intake enhanced MSA. MSA increased in parallel with plasma norepinephrine, and a significant correlation (r = 0.55; P less than 0.001) was observed between the plasma insulin concentration and MSA after D-glucose ingestion. In three subjects the outflow of sympathetic nerve activity to the skin was examined after oral D-glucose and no change was observed, emphasizing the differentiated nature of the sympathetic nerve response to carbohydrate. Multiple factors such as insulin alone, hemodynamic adjustment to splanchnic vasodilation, and gastrointestinal distension are probably involved in the increased muscle nerve sympathetic outflow after carbohydrate ingestion.
C Berne, J Fagius, F Niklasson
We have utilized CD23 expression as a marker for B cell activation in order to investigate the biochemical basis for synergy between antigen and T helper (Th) cells in the activation of resting human B cells. Our results confirm that while ligation of surface immunoglobulin (sIg) receptors by antigen analogues (e.g., F(ab')2 goat anti-human IgM) does not lead to CD23 expression, this stimulus markedly enhances CD23 expression induced during antigen specific Th-B cell interaction or by rIL-4. Utilizing a panel of monoclonal anti-human IgM antibodies, we observed a positive correlation between the capacity of a particular antibody to synergize with rIL-4 in CD23 expression and with B cell growth factor in B cell proliferation; suggesting that synergy in CD23 expression reflects the transduction of a functionally important signal via the sIg receptor. We next assayed analogues of the "second messenger" molecules, released during inositol lipid hydrolysis, for their capacity to amplify CD23 expression. These studies showed that protein kinase C (PKC) activating phorbol esters and the synthetic diacylgylcerol analogue, DiC8, synergize with either Th cells or rIL-4 in CD23 expression, while under no experimental condition does increasing B cell [Ca2+]i with ionomycin enhance CD23 expression. Taken together, these data suggest that activation of B cell PKC is the crucial biochemical event that primes antigen-activated B cells to respond more vigorously to interaction with Th cells and/or their soluble products.
E K Chartash, M K Crow, S M Friedman
Insulin and insulin-like growth factors (IGIs) stimulate the growth of human breast cancer cells in vitro. The type I somatomedin receptor (SR) expressed in these cells may mediate the growth effects of these peptides. We have examined the role of this receptor on human breast cancer growth with a monoclonal antibody (alpha-IR-3) that blocks the receptor binding domain and inhibits IGF-I-induced growth. alpha-IR-3 inhibited clonal growth in vitro and blocked the mitogenic effect of exogenous IGF-I in both MCF-7 and MDA-231 breast cancer cell lines. Antibody-induced blockade of the type I SR also inhibited the estrogen-independent MDA-231 cells growing in vivo in nude mice, but growth of the estrogen-dependent MCF-7 cells was unaffected. IGIs are important growth regulators of MDA-231 breast cancer cells. Blockade of this growth stimulatory pathway may provide a new treatment strategy.
C L Arteaga, L J Kitten, E B Coronado, S Jacobs, F C Kull Jr, D C Allred, C K Osborne
Because the defect in Cl- secretion exhibited by cystic fibrosis (CF) epithelia reflects regulatory rather than conductive abnormalities of an apical membrane Cl- channel, we investigated the role of different regulatory pathways in the activation of Cl- secretion in freshly excised normal and CF nasal epithelia mounted in Ussing chambers. A beta agonist (isoproterenol [ISO]), a Ca2+ ionophore (A23187), and a phorbol ester (PMA) were all effective Cl- secretagogues in normal human nasal epithelia. Agonist addition studies indicated that ISO and PMA but not A23187 may share a common regulatory pathway. In contrast, only A23187 induced Cl- secretion in CF epithelia. Bradykinin raised cytosolic Ca2+ and induced Cl- secretion in both normal and CF tissues, indicating that receptor gated Ca2+ dependent Cl- secretory mechanisms were preserved in CF. The defective Cl- secretory response in CF epithelia to ISO and PMA did not reflect abnormalities in cAMP-dependent (A) and phospholipid Ca2+-dependent (C) kinase activities. We conclude that (a) a Ca2+-sensitive mechanism for regulating Cl- secretion is maintained in CF airway epithelia, and (b) a regulatory pathway shared by two distinct protein kinases is defective in CF, indicating that the CF genetic lesion is not tightly coupled to a single (e.g., cAMP dependent) regulatory mechanism.
R C Boucher, E H Cheng, A M Paradiso, M J Stutts, M R Knowles, H S Earp
We have described previously a disulfide-bonded 550,000-D cartilage matrix glycoprotein (CMGP), which is found in normal hyaline cartilage, fibrocartilage, and the vitreous of the eye, and consists of subunits with apparent molecular weights of 130,000 in 4% gels (116,000 in 9% gels). In osteoarthritic cartilage from dogs subjected to transection of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL), CMGP is cleaved to major immunoreactive fragments with apparent molecular weights of 65,000 and 75,000 after reduction with 2-mercaptoethanol. In the present study, using immunolocation analysis, a monoclonal antibody to CMGP did not react with serum from 8 of 12 dogs before ACL transection but did react with serum from seven of these animals 4 wk after surgery and with serum from 10 dogs at sacrifice, 8-14 wk after ACL transection. Serum from four dogs reacted with the monoclonal antibody before ACL transection. Serum from two dogs was negative at all time points. Immunolocation studies using a polyclonal antiserum to CMGP were performed in seven of these dogs and produced results identical with the monoclonal antibody in four dogs. In contrast, analysis of serial serum samples from three dogs with cartilage atrophy revealed no evidence of CMGP at any time point. These data suggest that CMGP may be a serum marker for osteoarthritis in this canine model.
R S Fife, K D Brandt
Molecular level studies on platelets deficient in collagen-induced aggregation provide evidence for identifying possible platelet collagen receptors. We investigated platelets from a patient with mild bleeding time prolongation, but otherwise normal coagulation data. Her platelets lacked collagen-induced aggregation and adhesion, but retained normal aggregation and release by other agonists. Labeling her platelets with 125I or 3H and analysis by SDS-PAGE/autoradiography showed normal levels of glycoproteins Ia, Ib, IIa, IIb, IIIa, and IV. However, there were significantly decreased incorporations of both radioactivities into a 61-kD membrane glycoprotein (GP), which was identified as GPVI from its mobility on unreduced-reduced, two-dimensional SDS-PAGE. Sugiyama et al. (1987. Blood. 69: 1712) reported that the serum from an idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) patient contained an antibody against a 62-kD platelet protein. Our patient's platelets lacked the antigen for the ITP patient's antibody, demonstrating that the ITP serum contains a specific antibody against GPVI. The patient's parents' platelets contained approximately 50% the normal amount of GPVI, but still had normal collagen-induced aggregation and adhesion. The patient's platelets did not bind to types I and III collagen fibrils. Our results suggest that GPVI functions as a collagen receptor.
M Moroi, S M Jung, M Okuma, K Shinmyozu
We investigated the enzymatic mechanisms responsible for AA oxygenation in homogenous cell suspensions obtained by trypsinization of epidermis from healthy subjects. Cell incubation with AA (0.3-150 microM) invariably resulted in the predominant generation of a compound identified as 12-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (12-HETE) by HPLC and by both negative-ion chemical ionization and electron-impact mass spectrometry. Maximal amounts of 12-HETE were 126 +/- 21 pmol/10(6) cells (+/- SE), and concentration-response curves yielded half-maximal levels for 12-HETE similar to PGE2 at 2 microM AA. Two epoxyeicosatrienoic acids derived from AA were also identified. Stereochemical analysis by chiral-phase chromatography demonstrated that the epidermal cell 12-HETE was a mixture of the 12S- and 12R-hydroxy isomers in a molar ratio varying from 2:1 to 8:1 among subjects. Subcellular fractionation into 12,000 g pellet (containing mitochondria) and 100,000 g supernatant (cytosol) and pellet (microsome) demonstrated that greater than 99% of the 12-HETE was generated by enzymatic activity distributed equally in the two pellets. Both mitochondrial and microsomal activities were increased upon addition of NADPH and were inhibited by carbon monoxide, but the molar ratio of 12S/12R-HETE was threefold greater in microsomal than in mitochondrial fractions. The results demonstrate that human epidermis contains active membrane-bound monooxygenase(s) which preferentially generates 12-HETE from AA, exhibits a 12S stereopreference of hydroxylation, and suggests the presence of distinct mitochondrial and microsomal enzyme systems in epidermal cells.
M J Holtzman, J Turk, A Pentland
We report a case of untreated non-Hodgkin's lymphoma with histologic progression over 1 yr from a low-grade, small cleaved follicular center cell lymphoma to a high-grade, small noncleaved follicular center cell lymphoma. Both lymphomas had identical immunoglobulin (Ig) heavy-chain joining gene (JH), kappa light-chain joining gene, and bcl-2 gene rearrangements, indicating the clonal identity of the two tumors. The Ig heavy chain locus on one chromosome 14 was involved in an initial t(14; 18) translocation as shown by comigrating JH and bcl-2 rearrangements. However, the oncogene c-myc was in the germline configuration in the initial lymphoma but had one allele rearranged near the 3' end of exon I in the high-grade tumor; DNA sequence analysis was consistent with a chromosomal breakpoint at that site. The presence of the c-myc rearrangement in the high-grade tumor suggest a role for c-myc in the clonal evolution of the low-grade tumor into a more aggressive lymphoma. The coexistence of both bcl-2 gene and c-myc oncogene rearrangements in the same tumor is unusual, with only a few cases reported. Furthermore, this case is unique in the direct demonstration of the histologic and clinical progression of a human lymphoma associated with the sequential rearrangement of the bcl-2 gene and the c-myc oncogene.
J T Lee, D J Innes Jr, M E Williams
Whether augmented bicarbonate reabsorption by renal tubular epithelium contributes to the maintenance of chloride-deplete metabolic alkalosis is not clear. This study used free-flow micropuncture to investigate bicarbonate reabsorption by surface nephron segments in a rat model of diuretic-induced alkalosis compared to control. The proximal and distal nephron of the alkalotic animals had higher values for both delivered load to and absolute reabsorption from these segments. The proximal tubules of alkalotic and control animals had similar values for the slopes of the linear regression of delivered load vs. reabsorption and for the bicarbonate tubular fluid to plasma (TF/P) ratio at the late proximal tubule. By contrast, the corresponding analysis for the distal segment of alkalotic animals revealed a greater slope (0.98 vs. 0.81, P less than 0.003) and a smaller bicarbonate TF/P ratio at the late distal tubule (0.10 vs. 0.16, P less than 0.006). The data indicate that augmented bicarbonate reabsorption by both the proximal and distal nephron contributes to maintaining the alkalosis of this model. The data suggest primary stimulation of bicarbonate reabsorption in the distal nephron and load-dependent reabsorption in the proximal tubule.
D E Wesson
Vascular permeability factor (VPF) is an Mr 40-kD protein that has been purified from the conditioned medium of guinea pig line 10 tumor cells grown in vitro, and increases fluid permeability from blood vessels when injected intradermally. Addition of VPF to cultures of vascular endothelial cells in vitro unexpectedly stimulated cellular proliferation. VPF promoted the growth of new blood vessels when administered into healing rabbit bone grafts or rat corneas. The identity of the growth factor activity with VPF was established in four ways: (a) the molecular weight of the activity in preparative SDS-PAGE was the same as VPF (Mr approximately 40 kD); (b) multiple isoforms (pI greater than or equal to 8) for both VPF and the growth-promoting activity were observed; (c) a single, unique NH2-terminal amino acid sequence was obtained; (d) both growth factor and permeability-enhancing activities were immunoadsorbed using antipeptide IgG that recognized the amino terminus of VPF. Furthermore, 125I-VPF was shown to bind specifically and with high affinity to endothelial cells in vitro and could be chemically cross-linked to a high-molecular weight cell surface receptor, thus demonstrating a mechanism whereby VPF can interact directly with endothelial cells. Unlike other endothelial cell growth factors, VPF did not stimulate [3H]thymidine incorporation or promote growth of other cell types including mouse 3T3 fibroblasts or bovine smooth muscle cells. VPF, therefore, appears to be unique in its ability to specifically promote increased vascular permeability, endothelial cell growth, and angio-genesis.
D T Connolly, D M Heuvelman, R Nelson, J V Olander, B L Eppley, J J Delfino, N R Siegel, R M Leimgruber, J Feder
The in vitro responses of T cells from 13 insulin-nonresistant and 1 immunologically insulin-resistant (IIR) type I diabetes patients to sulfated beef insulin (SBI) were analyzed. Insulin A-loop specific CD4+ T cells from these patients did not respond to SBI. After 1 yr of treatment with SBI the IIR patient's T cell and antibody responses to beef, pork, and human insulin progressed from very high to nondetectable levels. This occurred in parallel to the appearance of her insulin-specific CD8+ T cells, which inhibited the response of her A-loop-specific CD4+ T cells to insulin. A transient increase in her CD8+ anti-insulin antibody activity coincided with a relative lack of her CD8+ T cell activity. CD8+ T cells that regulate T cell responsiveness to insulin are probably present but difficult to detect in most type I diabetes patients. These T cells were identified in only 2 of 13 insulin-nonresistant patients who presented with lipoatrophy and insulin allergy, respectively, and who possessed high-titered, anti-insulin antibodies. Our data demonstrate that CD8+ T cells play an important role in controlling peripheral tolerance to insulin and may abrogate IIR in a diabetic patient treated with SBI.
P Naquet, J Ellis, A Kenshole, J W Semple, T L Delovitch
Murine marrow cells infected with a retroviral vector (MPZen) bearing a granulocyte-colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) cDNA insert were transplanted into lethally irradiated recipients to study the effects of autocrine production of G-CSF in normal hemopoietic cells. Most animals remained healthy with no evidence of tissue damage throughout the observation period (4-30 wk) despite high circulating G-CSF levels (range 2,000-26,000,000 U/ml). A dramatic neutrophilic granulocytosis was observed in all hemopoietic tissues with neutrophilic infiltration occurring in the lung and liver. Spleen, peritoneal, and peripheral blood cellularity increased approximately three-, two-, and eightfold, respectively, but total bone marrow cell counts remained unchanged. Progenitor cell numbers granulocyte-macrophage colony-forming cell (GM-CFC), granulocyte colony-forming cell (G-CFC), burst-forming unit-erythroid (BFU-E), colony-forming unit-erythroid (CFU-E) and mixed colony-forming cells (Mix-CFC) were elevated between 10-100-fold in the spleen, peritoneal cavity, and peripheral blood, but were unaffected or slightly depressed in the marrow. No tumors developed in syngeneic recipients transplanted with bone marrow or spleen cells from such mice, confirming the nonneoplastic nature of the hyperplasia induced by chronic G-CSF stimulation. These experiments also indicated the stable integration of MPZen vectors in infected cells, as evident from the continuous expression of the inserted gene for at least 6 mo, and from the ability of infected stem cells from the primary recipients to express the gene in lethally irradiated secondary recipients.
J M Chang, D Metcalf, T J Gonda, G R Johnson
The 21-hydroxylation of progesterone to deoxycorticosterone (DOC) and of 17-hydroxyprogesterone to 11-deoxycortisol in the human adrenal cortex is mediated by a single enzyme termed P450c21. Extraadrenal tissues can clear circulating progesterone and progesterone sulfate by 21-hydroxylation to DOC and DOC-sulfate. It has previously been established that such extraadrenal 21-hydroxylase activity is widely distributed in adult and fetal tissues, but it has not been known if extra-adrenal 21-hydroxylation is mediated by the same P450c21 enzyme found in the adrenal. We examined human RNA from fetal adrenal, liver, kidney, lung, brain, heart, skin, spleen, testis, and placenta by solution hybridization to human P450c21 probes transcribed from cloned human P450c21 cDNA, followed by nuclease protection and acrylamide gel electrophoresis. No P450c21 mRNA was detectable in any extraadrenal tissue. The sensitivity of the assay would have detected P450c21 mRNA at 0.01% of its abundance in the human fetal adrenal. Similar experiments in rats showed no P450c21 mRNA in brain, heart, kidney, liver, lung, testis, ovary, or uterus. These results clearly demonstrate that one or more enzymes other than the classical adrenal 21-hydroxylase are responsible for human and rat extraadrenal 21-hydroxylation.
S H Mellon, W L Miller
Serum components inhibit DNA polymerase, thereby obviating direct detection of serum viral DNA sequences by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). This has necessitated extraction of nucleic acid from sera before performing PCR and has resulted in loss of sensitivity. By adsorbing virus to a solid surface (microcentrifuge tubes or antibody coated microparticles) followed by proteinase K digestion, as little as three viruses per 200 microliters serum may be directly detected by PCR without nucleic acid extraction. The sensitivity is dependent on the surface area of the adsorptive surface and is increased by having antibodies on the adsorptive surface. The nucleic acid sequence of the amplified DNA fragments may be directly determined by the dideoxy method. Of 24 plasma samples from HBsAg+ volunteer blood donors, HBV DNA was detected in 7 by dot blot assay, 7 by liquid hybridization, and 9 by PCR. PCR detected DNA in every sample that was positive by another assay. Analysis of serial samples of two patients with acute self-limited hepatitis B found detectable HBsAg and pre-S2 antigenemia before HBV DNA by the PCR method. These results suggest that surface antigenemia may precede viremia during acute hepatitis.
J B Zeldis, J H Lee, D Mamish, D J Finegold, R Sircar, Q Ling, P J Knudsen, I K Kuramoto, L T Mimms
To examine the mechanism by which Shiga toxin alters intestinal water and electrolyte transport, ligated loops of rabbit jejunum were incubated in vivo with purified toxin and then studied in vivo by single pass perfusion and in vitro by the Ussing chamber voltage-clamp technique. Toxin exposure led to accumulation of water in the jejunal lumen, associated with decreased active basal NaCl absorption. Glucose- and alanine-stimulated Na absorption were also reduced, while toxin had no effect on either basal short-circuit current or the secretory response to theophylline. These observations suggest that Shiga toxin selectively inhibits NaCl absorption without significantly altering active anion secretion. To localize the cellular site of toxin action, populations of villus and crypt cells from rabbit jejunum were isolated and studied. Villus cells had a greater content of the glycolipid Shiga toxin receptor, Gb3, had more toxin binding sites than did crypt cells, and were much more sensitive than crypt cells to toxin-induced inhibition of protein synthesis. These experiments demonstrate that purified Shiga toxin inhibits jejunal fluid absorption without affecting active fluid secretion by a preferential effect on villus cells. The results suggest that this is due to the differential distribution of toxin receptors on villus compared to crypt cells.
G Kandel, A Donohue-Rolfe, M Donowitz, G T Keusch
The removal of neutrophils and their histotoxic contents from the inflamed site is a prerequisite for resolution of tissue injury, and a point at which factors critical to the pathogenesis of chronic inflammation may act. Engulfment of intact, senescent neutrophils by macrophages represents an important neutrophil disposal process. In this study the mechanism by which human monocyte-derived macrophages (M phi) recognized and ingested human neutrophils that had been aged in culture was studied using an in vitro phagocytic assay. Inhibition of M phi receptors for Ig Fc and the opsonic complement fragments C3b and iC3b with MAbs to M phi FcR, CR1, CR3, and CR4 had no effect on recognition, and the pattern of inhibition observed when polyanions were included in the medium at 1 mg/ml was different from that reported for the M phi receptor for protein advanced glycosylation end products (AGE), indicating a recognition mechanism different from those proposed for M phi phagocytosis of senescent erythrocytes. Furthermore, although aging neutrophils undergo programmed cell death (or apoptosis), which is directly related to recognition by M phi, the pattern of inhibition observed with monosaccharides was different from that reported to inhibit the binding of apoptotic mouse thymocytes to isologous M phi. By contrast, evidence was obtained for a novel recognition mechanism inhibitable by cationic sugars and amino acids in a charge-dependent fashion, and directly modulated by pH but not affected by inhibitors of the mannose-6-phosphate, sheep erythrocyte, mannosyl-fucosyl, asialoglycoprotein, and scavenger receptors of the macrophage. These observations suggest that hydrogen ions and charged molecules may modulate M phi uptake of senescent neutrophils at inflamed sites, and that recognition itself may involve charged structures on the cells.
J S Savill, P M Henson, C Haslett
The antimicrobial proteins lactoferrin (Lf) and lysozyme (Ly) are invariably found in nasal secretions. To investigate the cellular sources and the secretory control of these nasal proteins in vivo, 34 adult subjects underwent nasal provocation tests with methacholine (MC), histamine (H), and gustatory stimuli. Nasal lavages were collected and analyzed for total protein (TP), albumin (Alb), Lf, and Ly. MC (25 mg), H (1 mg), and gustatory stimuli (spicy foods) all increased the concentrations of TP, Alb, Lf, and Ly. However, when each protein was assessed as a percentage of TP (i.e., Alb% = Alb/TP; Lf% = Lf/TP; Ly% = Ly/TP), MC and gustatory stimuli, which both induce glandular secretion, selectively augmented Lf% and Ly% without changing Alb%, while H, which primarily increases vascular permeability, increased Alb% without significantly affecting Lf% or Ly%. Gel electrophoresis and immunoblotting analysis of nasal secretions demonstrated both Lf and Ly in cholinergically induced secretions. Furthermore, histochemical analyses of nasal turbinate tissue revealed Lf and Ly colocalization within the serous cells of submucosal glands, providing evidence that both proteins are strictly glandular products within the nasal mucosa. Therefore, both Lf and Ly are produced and secreted from the glands, and their secretion may be pharmacologically regulated in attempts to improve host defenses.
G D Raphael, E V Jeney, J N Baraniuk, I Kim, S D Meredith, M A Kaliner
Endogenous prostaglandins (PGs) influence resistance of the gastric mucosa to injury, but the source of PGs is unknown. Using radioimmunoassay, we studied PG production by dispersed canine fundic mucosal cells. PGE2 production, stimulated by bradykinin, epidermal growth factor, zymosan, and calcium ionophore, was greater in the small-cell elutriator fraction (SCEF) than in the medium and large cell fractions, which contained mucous, chief, and parietal cells. Linear density gradients of SCEF cells revealed maximal PGE2 production in cells of light density. Mast, endocrine, and endothelial cells did not account for this PGE2 production. Macrophages, identified by uptake of acetylated-LDL, immunoreactivity with antibodies to the human Ia antigen, and phagocytosis of fluorescent latex particles, were enriched in the SCEF and correlated with PGE2 production in the density gradient. Magnetic separation of cells in the SCEF-ingesting iron particles enriched PGE2 production. Fractions enriched in endothelial cells present in intact capillary fragments, but depleted of macrophages, also produced PGE2. Regulation of PGE2 production differed among cell types. Fibroblasts were easily cultured from submucosa, but were not detected in the SCEF. We conclude that macrophages and capillary endothelial cells are major producers of PGE2 in the canine fundic mucosa.
M C Chen, M J Sanders, D A Amirian, L P Thomas, G Kauffman, A H Soll
We have used transgenic mice to study immune tolerance to autologous, non-MHC encoded proteins that are expressed at physiological levels in the circulation. The transgenic mice used in these studies express the human preproinsulin gene and synthesize human proinsulin. Human and mouse insulin are secreted from the pancreatic islets of transgenic mice in response to normal physiological stimuli, such as glucose. Our data demonstrate that the transgenic mice have acquired tolerance to human insulin. The repertoire of T cells specific for exogenous antigens is shaped by the acquired tolerance to autologous proteins since pork but not beef or sheep insulin is also nonimmunogenic in the transgenic mice. We also found that the transgenic mice were tolerant to human proinsulin, the intracellular precursor of insulin. Unresponsiveness to human proinsulin most likely results from tolerance of insulin-specific and proinsulin-specific T cells that recognize the secreted enzymatic cleavage products of proinsulin, insulin and C-peptide.
P J Whiteley, J P Lake, R F Selden, J A Kapp
Individuals who are homozygous for the protease inhibitor phenotype Z (PiZ) genetic variant of alpha 1-antitrypsin (alpha 1-AT) have reduced plasma concentrations of alpha 1-AT, and are susceptible to premature development of pulmonary emphysema. A subset of this population develops chronic liver disease. The reduction in plasma concentrations of alpha 1-AT results from a selective defect in secretion as the abnormal PiZ alpha 1-AT protein accumulates within the cell. It has recently been shown in several experimental systems that the heat shock/stress response, a response characterized by the synthesis of a family of highly evolutionarily conserved proteins during thermal or chemical stress, may also be activated by the presence of abnormal proteins within the cell. Therefore, we predicted that the heat shock/stress response would be induced in the absence of thermal or chemical stress in alpha 1-AT-synthesizing cells of PiZZ individuals. In the following study, however, we show that net synthesis of proteins in the heat shock/stress gene family (SP90, SP70, ubiquitin) is increased only in a subset of the population, PiZZ individuals with liver disease. It is not significantly increased in PiZZ individuals with emphysema or in those without apparent tissue injury. Net synthesis of stress proteins is not increased in individuals with another variant of the alpha 1-AT gene (PiS alpha 1-AT) and is not increased in individuals with severe liver disease but a normal alpha 1-AT haplotype (PiM alpha 1-AT). These results demonstrate that the synthesis of stress proteins is increased in a subset of individuals with homozygous PiZZ alpha 1-AT deficiency, those also having liver disease.
D H Perlmutter, M J Schlesinger, J A Pierce, P I Punsal, A L Schwartz
We studied the mechanisms by which excess copper exerts, and zinc mitigates, toxic effects on HepG2 cells. Survival and cell growth were reduced in media containing greater than 500 microM copper chloride for 48 h; LD50 was 750 microM. At 1,000 microM copper for 1 h, there was a general reduction of protein synthesis, and no recognizable changes in cellular ultrastructure. Incubation of cells with 200 microM zinc acetate before exposure to copper, raised the LD50 for confluent cells to 1,250 microM copper chloride, improved protein synthesis, and increased synthesis of a 10-kD protein, apparently metallothionein. The mitigation, by zinc, of copper's toxicity may in part be mediated through induction of this protein in the hepatocyte.
M L Schilsky, R R Blank, M J Czaja, M A Zern, I H Scheinberg, R J Stockert, I Sternlieb
Leprechaunism is a rare genetic disorder characterized by severe growth retardation and insulin resistance. Maximal epidermal growth factor (EGF) binding was reduced in fibroblasts from three unrelated patients with leprechaunism (Ark-1, Can-1, and Minn-1) compared with control (0.8-2.2%/mg protein vs. 5.5%/mg protein). This was due to a decrease in receptor affinity in Ark-1 and Can-1 and a decrease in receptor number in Minn-1. In all cell lines, EGF-stimulated receptor autophosphorylation was also decreased to 18-60% of control, whereas EGF internalization and degradation was normal. Sphingosine (40 microM), a protein kinase C inhibitor, increased EGF receptor affinity twofold in control cells and six- to nine-fold in cells of leprechaunism. However, sphingosine did not enhance EGF-stimulated receptor autophosphorylation in either the controls or the patients' cells. By contrast, only one of the three cell lines of patients with the type A syndrome demonstrated a decrease in EGF binding and all demonstrated normal or near normal EGF-stimulated receptor autophosphorylation. These data indicate that in patients with leprechaunism, there are functional abnormalities of the EGF receptor, as well as of the insulin receptor, that may contribute to the severity of the syndrome. These data also suggest a role for the insulin receptor in maintaining normal EGF receptor function in these cells.
S S Reddy, C R Kahn
Anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibodies (ANCA) specifically associated with Wegener's granulomatosis were found to be directed against a saline-soluble glycoprotein triplet that migrates on SDS gels as distinct bands of Mr 29,000, 30,500, and 32,000 and is present in the azurophilic granules. This antigen was specifically recognized by all cytoplasmic-staining (C)-ANCA-positive sera from patients with Wegener's disease. C-ANCA antigen bound [3H]diisopropylfluorophosphate, which indicates that it is a serine protease, but it could clearly be distinguished from the serine proteases elastase and cathepsin G. Stimulation of cytochalasin B-treated neutrophils with FMLP induced release of C-ANCA antigen. This indicates that in vivo C-ANCA might interact with the C-ANCA antigen after its release upon inflammatory stimulation. We further demonstrate that in some perinuclear staining (P-ANCA) patients' sera autoantibodies against other myeloid lysosomal enzymes can be detected, such as antimyeloperoxidase and antielastase. C-ANCA and P-ANCA thus represent a novel class of autoantibodies directed against myeloid lysosomal enzymes. The originally described Wegener-specific C-ANCA show an apparently uniform specificity for the 29,000 serine protease. In contrast, P-ANCA may recognize myeloperoxidase as well as elastase and/or other antigens.
R Goldschmeding, C E van der Schoot, D ten Bokkel Huinink, C E Hack, M E van den Ende, C G Kallenberg, A E von dem Borne
The role of hydrophobicity in the attachment of enteropathogens to gastrointestinal mucosa is controversial. In vitro binding of Escherichia coli RDEC-1 to rabbit intestine is dependent on the expression of pili. We examined in vitro adherence of piliated RDEC-1 after altering either the hydrophobicity of the organisms, the hydrophobicity of the substrate for attachment, or the surface tension of the suspending liquid. Hydrophobicity of RDEC-1 was determined using four complementary methods. In each assay piliated RDEC-1 demonstrated relatively more hydrophobic properties compared with both organisms grown to suppress pilus expression and a mutant that cannot express mannose-resistant pili. When piliated RDEC-1 were pretreated with tetramethyl urea to disrupt hydrophobic bonds surface hydrophobicity decreased. Concurrently, bacterial adherence to rabbit ileal microvillus membranes, mucus and mucin was reduced. Binding of piliated organisms to hydrophobic surfaces was significantly higher compared to both nonpiliated bacteria and the adherence of piliated RDEC-1 to relatively hydrophilic surfaces. Addition of propanol reduced the surface tension of the suspending liquid, and decreased adhesion of piliated RDEC-1 to polystyrene by 80%. Conversely, adherence of piliated organisms to a hydrophilic surface increased 12-fold after lowering the surface tension of the suspending liquid. We conclude that hydrophobic properties have a role in mediating in vitro adherence of this E. coli enteric pathogen.
B Drumm, A W Neumann, Z Policova, P M Sherman
Human high molecular weight-B cell growth factor (HMW-BCGF) (60 kD) stimulates activated normal B cells, B cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia (BCP-ALL) cells, hairy cell leukemia (HCL) cells, prolymphocytic leukemia (PLL) cells, and chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) cells. The expression of human high molecular weight B cell growth factor (HMW-BCGF) receptors (R) on clonal populations of leukemic B cells in CLL was studied by ligand binding assays using 125I-labeled HMW-BCGF as well as by immunofluorescence/flow cytometry and Scatchard analyses using an anti-HMW-BCGF R monoclonal antibody (MAb), designated BA-5. There was a high correlation between HMW-BCGF R expression and responsiveness to HMW-BCGF. 60% of CLL cases constitutively expressed HMW-BCGF R and showed a marked proliferative response to HMW-BCGF in [3H]TdR incorporation assays as well as colony assays. Similarly, HCL cells, PLL cells, and activated normal B cells expressed functional HMW-BCGF R, as determined by ligand binding assays using 125I-HMW-BCGF, [3H]TdR incorporation assays, and reactivity with BA-5 MAb. Scatchard analyses indicated the existence of approximately 3,000 HMW-BCGF R/cell on HMW-BCGF responsive CLL cells with an apparent Ka value of 4.6 X 10(7) M-1. The concentrations of HMW-BCGF required for maximum stimulation of CLL cells were two to three orders of magnitude lower than those needed for half maximal receptor occupancy, indicating that only a small fraction of HMW-BCGF R need to be occupied to stimulate leukemic CLL B cells. Crosslinking of surface bound 125I-HMW-BCGF (60 kD) with the bivalent crosslinker DTSSP to its binding site on fresh CLL cells identified a 150-kD HMW-BCGF/HMW-BCGF R complex, suggesting an apparent molecular weight of 90 kD for the receptor protein. The growth stimulatory effects of HMW-BCGF on clonogenic CLL cells did not depend on accessory cells or costimulant factors. The anti-HMW-BCGF R monoclonal antibody BA-5 disrupted HMW-BCGF/HMW-BCGF R interactions at the level of clonogenic CLL cells and inhibited HMW-BCGF-stimulated CLL colony formation in vitro. To our knowledge, this study represents the first detailed analysis of expression, function, and structure of HMW-BCGF R on B lineage CLL cells.
F M Uckun, A S Fauci, M Chandan-Langlie, D E Myers, J L Ambrus
Leukotriene B4 (LTB4) is a major product of human alveolar macrophages and has potent chemotactic activity for neutrophils (PMN) in vitro. To evaluate the effects of LTB4 in the normal human lung, we instilled LTB4 (5 X 10(-7)M, 10 ml) into a subsegment of the right middle lobe and 0.9% NaCl (10 ml) into a subsegment of the lingula using a fiberoptic bronchoscope in 12 healthy human volunteers. 4 h later, we performed bronchoalveolar lavage of the same subsegments. Compared with the NaCl instillation, LTB4 caused a large increase in lavage total cells (NaCl = 6.8 +/- 1.0 X 10(6) vs. LTB4 = 26.4 +/- 5.0 X 10(6), P less than 0.01), most of which were PMN (NaCl = 12.2 +/- 4.6% vs. LTB4 = 55.7 +/- 6.0%, P less than 0.001). In contrast, there was only a small increase in lavage total protein, and the lavage total protein correlated weakly with lavage total cells and PMN. The production of superoxide anion by the lavage PMN in response to phorbol myristate acetate was similar to that of peripheral blood PMN. The migration of lavage PMN was normal toward the chemotactic peptide FMLP, but reduced toward LTB4 and zymosan-activated human serum. Morphometric analysis using transmission electron microscopy indicated a selective loss of small granules in the lung neutrophils as compared with peripheral blood neutrophils. The data indicate that in the normal human lung, LTB4 can recruit active PMN into the airspaces without causing a significant change in the protein permeability of the epithelial barrier.
T R Martin, B P Pistorese, E Y Chi, R B Goodman, M A Matthay
This study examined the relationship between transcapillary insulin transport and insulin action in vivo. During euglycemic clamps (n = 7) in normal conscious dogs we simultaneously measured plasma and thoracic duct lymph insulin and glucose utilization (Rd). Clamps consisted of an activation phase with constant insulin infusion (0.6 mU/kg per min) and a deactivation phase. [14C]Inulin was infused as a passively transported control substance. While [14C]inulin reached an equilibrium between plasma and lymph, steady-state (ss) plasma insulin was higher than lymph (P less than 0.05) and the ratio of 3:2 was maintained during basal, activation, and deactivation phases: 18 +/- 2 vs. 12 +/- 1, 51 +/- 2 vs. 32 +/- 1, and 18 +/- 3 vs. 13 +/- 1 microU/ml. In addition, it took longer for lymph insulin to reach ss than plasma insulin during activation and deactivation: 11 +/- 2 vs. 31 +/- 5 and 8 +/- 2 vs. 32 +/- 6 min (P less than 0.02). Rd increased from 2.6 +/- 0.1 to a ss of 6.6 +/- 0.4 mg/kg per min within 50 +/- 8 min. There was a remarkable similarity in the dynamics of insulin in lymph and Rd: the time to reach ss for Rd was not different from lymph insulin (P greater than 0.1), and the relative increases of the two measurements were similar, 164 +/- 45% and 189 +/- 29% (P greater than 0.05). While there was only a modest correlation (r = 0.78, P less than 0.01) between Rd and plasma insulin, the dynamic changes of lymph insulin and Rd showed a strong correlation (r = 0.95, P less than 0.01). The intimate relationship between lymph insulin and Rd suggests that the transcapillary insulin transport is primarily responsible for the delay in Rd. Thus, transcapillary transport may be rate limiting for insulin action, and if altered, it could be an important component of insulin resistance in obesity and diabetes mellitus.
Y J Yang, I D Hope, M Ader, R N Bergman
The opiate analgesic propoxyphene produces cardiac toxicity when taken in overdose. We recently observed a patient with propoxyphene overdose in whom marked QRS widening was reversed by lidocaine. The reversal is apparently paradoxical as both agents block the inward sodium current (INa). We examined possible mechanisms of the reversal by measuring INa in rabbit atrial myocytes during exposure to propoxyphene and the combination of propoxyphene and lidocaine (60 and 80 microM, respectively). Propoxyphene caused use-dependent block of INa during pulse train stimulation. Block recovered slowly with time constants of 20.8 +/- 3.9 s. Block during lidocaine exposure recovered with time constants of 2-3 s. During exposure to the mixture, block recovered as a double exponential. The half time for recovery during exposure to the mixture was 1.6 +/- .9 s compared with a half-time of 14.3 +/- 2.9 s during exposure to propoxyphene alone. During pulse train stimulation, less steady-state block was observed during exposure to the mixture than during exposure to propoxyphene alone when the interval between pulses was greater than 0.95 s. Both drugs compete for a common receptor during the polarizing phase. The more rapid dissociation of lidocaine during the recovery period leads to less block during the mixture than during exposure to propoxyphene alone. The experiments suggest a mechanism for reversal of the cardiac toxicity of drugs which have slow unbinding kinetics.
D C Whitcomb, F R Gilliam 3rd, C F Starmer, A O Grant
We have addressed the capacity of HIV-1 infection to alter the growth of primary CD4+ T cells, but at the clonal level. Single T cells were expanded in the presence of PHA, IL-2, and small numbers of accessory dendritic cells. We report two new findings. First, T cells from seropositive individuals, even those with AIDS and markedly reduced CD4+ counts, exhibit a normal cloning efficiency, and proliferative capacity. This result is in contrast to two prior reports of a low cloning efficiency in CD4+ T cells from HIV-1-infected patients. Second, when we added high doses of exogenous HIV-1 to T cell clones from control subjects, we observed infection but not cytotoxicity or loss of CD4+ cells, following addition of virus stocks at days 0, 3, and/or 7 of clonal growth. The same HIV-1 isolates markedly reduced CD4+ T cells in bulk mononuclear cultures. When tested at day 11, HIV-1 mRNA was expressed in some cells of exogenously infected clones by in situ hybridization; when tested at day 18, several clones could transactivate a TAT-sensitive cell line. These findings suggest that the loss of CD4+ T cells in infected individuals is not the inevitable result of the activation of latent infection, or spread of a productive infection, during clonal growth.
E Langhoff, J McElrath, H J Bos, J Pruett, A Granelli-Piperno, Z A Cohn, R M Steinman
Leukocyte-induced DNA damage may partially account for the known association between chronic inflammation and malignancy. Since elucidation of the chemical nature of leukocyte-induced DNA damage may enhance our understanding of the mechanisms underlying leukocyte-induced DNA damage and the carcinogenesis associated with inflammation, the present study was undertaken to characterize the chemical modifications that occur in DNA exposed to stimulated human neutrophils. Calf thymus DNA was exposed to phorbol myristate acetate (PMA)-stimulated neutrophils in the presence or absence of exogenously added iron ions. DNA samples were subsequently hydrolyzed, derivatized and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry with selected-ion monitoring. A variety of base modifications including cytosine glycol, thymine glycol, 4,6-diamino-5-formamidopyrimidine, 8-hydroxyadenine, 2,6-diamino-4-hydroxy-5-formamidopyrimidine, and 8-hydroxyguanine were identified. The yield of these various base products was increased by the addition of iron ions. Specifically, in the presence of physiologic quantities of iron ions, approximately 7 of every 1,000 DNA bases were modified. Addition of the superoxide anion scavenger, superoxide dismutase, the hydrogen peroxide scavenger, catalase, the hydroxyl scavenger, dimethylsulfoxide, or the iron chelator, deferoxamine, to DNA mixtures containing PMA, neutrophils, and iron ions, greatly decreased the yield of the damaged DNA base products. Our results indicate that stimulated human neutrophils can damage each of the four bases in DNA. It is likely that hydroxyl radical, generated via an iron catalyzed Haber-Weiss reaction, mediates neutrophil-induced DNA base damage, since: (a) the chemical structure of neutrophil-induced DNA base damage is consistent with a hydroxyl radical-mediated mechanism, (b) hydroxyl radical generated via ionizing radiation in aqueous solution produces DNA base modifications that are identical to neutrophil-induced DNA base modifications, (c) iron ions increase neutrophil-induced DNA base damage, and (d) iron chelators or scavengers of superoxide anion, hydrogen peroxide or hydroxyl radical decrease neutrophil-induced DNA base damage.
J H Jackson, E Gajewski, I U Schraufstatter, P A Hyslop, A F Fuciarelli, C G Cochrane, M Dizdaroglu
To elucidate the mechanisms involved in altering serum 3,3',5'-triiodothyronine (rT3) levels with absolute or relative low 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (T3) states in man, agents capable of lowering circulating T3 levels were sequentially administered to six euthyroid subjects. These agents included propylthiouracil (PTU) (300 mg/6 h X 5 d), dexamethasone (DEX) (2 mg/6 h X 5 d), and thyroxine (T4) (3.0 mg load and 0.3 mg/d X 5 d). [125I] rT3 clearance rates and rT3 production rates were then determined. Increased serum rT3 levels and rT3/T4 values occurred with both PTU and DEX as compared with control, while T4 increased serum rT3 but did so without changing rT3/T4 values. The rT3 clearance rate was significantly decreased by PTU without altering production rate, while DEX increased the rT3 production rate without altering the rT3 clearance rate. T4 administration did not change rT3 clearance but proportionately increased rT3 production. These responses indicate that circulating rT3 predominantly originates from a non-PTU inhibitable deiodinase enzyme system located in extrahepatic tissues. This enzyme system appears to have a high capacity and low affinity for T4 and can be stimulated by DEX administration.
J S LoPresti, A Eigen, E Kaptein, K P Anderson, C A Spencer, J T Nicoloff
Mast cells have been implicated in the pathogenesis of the matrix degradation observed in the cartilaginous and osseous structures of the rheumatoid joint. We previously reported that human mast cell tryptase, a 134-kD granule-associated neutral protease, is present in rheumatoid synovium and can activate collagenase in crude culture medium in vitro. the present study attempts to depict the precise mechanism of this activation. To express full activation of latent collagenase, matrix metalloproteinase 3 (MMP-3) or stromelysin, can be activated by tryptase in a time and dose-dependent manner. Tryptase was not capable of generating active collagenase in the crude media from cultured rheumatoid synoviocytes depleted of proMMP-3 by immunoadsorption. In addition, the function of the tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases (TIMP) was not altered by tryptase, and SDS-PAGE analysis revealed no degradation of TIMP by tryptase. The tryptase dependent activation of synoviocyte procollagenase thereby appears to be entirely dependent upon its ability to activate proMMP-3.
B L Gruber, M J Marchese, K Suzuki, L B Schwartz, Y Okada, H Nagase, N S Ramamurthy
Stromal-vascular cells obtained from adult human subcutaneous adipose tissue were cultured in a chemically defined serum-free medium. In the presence of 0.2 nM triiodothyronine and 0.5 microM insulin, up to 25% of the cells were able to undergo terminal adipose differentiation within 18 d, as assessed by lipid accumulation and the expression of lipoprotein lipase (LPL) and glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPDH) activities. Addition of cortisol resulted in a potent dose-dependent stimulation of the adipose differentiation process. Cortisol could be replaced by dexamethasone and partly by aldosterone, but not by sex steroids. The proportion of differentiated cells was dependent upon the age of the donor; when isolated from young adults, up to 70% of the stromal-vascular cells expressed the adipocyte phenotype as compared with 5-10% when the cells were isolated from the oldest subjects. An inverse relationship was observed between the age of the 27 normal-weight donors and the extent of GPDH expression after maintenance of the cells for 18 d in chemically defined medium supplemented with insulin, triiodothyronine, and cortisol (r = -0.787, P less than 0.001). It is concluded that adult human adipose tissue still contains precursor cells that are able to undergo adipose differentiation in vitro. This improved culture system may offer the opportunity to characterize other adipogenic factors as well as antiadipogenic factors involved in the control of adipose tissue growth.
H Hauner, G Entenmann, M Wabitsch, D Gaillard, G Ailhaud, R Negrel, E F Pfeiffer
Using a [35S]methionine labeling/immunoprecipitation technique, we have previously shown that cultured skin fibroblast from three patients with short chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (SCAD) deficiency each synthesize a normal-sized (41 kD) variant SCAD in an amount comparable to that of normal cells. In the current study, these same cell lines were reexamined with immunoblot analysis. In one cell line (YH2065) no SCAD protein was detectable. In the other two deficient cell lines, the amount of variant SCAD was similar to, or only slightly less than, normal. These results suggested that SCAD-YH2065 is labile. In the pulse-labeling experiments, labeled SCAD was readily detectable for at least 30 h in a normal control and two other SCAD-deficient cell lines. In contrast, the labeled SCAD band in YH2065 cells was barely detectable at 6 h and undetectable at 20 h. [35S]Methionine-labeling in the presence of rhodamine 6G demonstrated that SCAD-YH2065 was synthesized as a 44-kD precursor and imported normally into mitochondria, as were the normal SCAD and two other variant SCADs, excluding the possibility that SCAD-YH2065 is a truncated precursor that cannot be imported into mitochondria. These results indicate that the mutations responsible for SCAD deficiency are heterogeneous, and emphasize the importance of using both radiolabeling and immunoblotting when evaluating such genetic defects at the protein level.
E Naito, Y Indo, K Tanaka
While nonmutated germline variable region (V) genes have been found to encode heavy or light chains of various human autoantibodies, the use of germline V genes by both chains of a given autoantibody has not been documented. Recently, we reported that the heavy chain V gene (designated Humha346) of the Kim4.6 anti-DNA antibody is identical to a germline VH gene, 1.9III. To investigate whether this autoantibody was entirely germline encoded, we searched for the germline counterpart to the Kim4.6 V lambda segment (designated Humla146) and isolated a V lambda I gene designated Humlv117, which was identical to Humla146. Together with the sequence identity of the Kim4.6/Humha346 and 1.9III VH genes, the current data provide the first direct proof that an autoantibody can be encoded entirely by germline V genes without any somatic change. In addition, Humlv117 is the first V lambda I germline gene that has been isolated, and is highly homologous to the V lambda genes expressed in two lymphomas. Thus, this V lambda I gene should provide a useful tool for investigating the expression of the human V lambda gene repertoire, particularly with regard to autoimmune and/or lymphoproliferative diseases.
K A Siminovitch, V Misener, P C Kwong, Q L Song, P P Chen
T cell lines or clones from two patients, one with a partial DiGeorge syndrome and one with severe common variable immunodeficiency expressed disulfide-linked gamma delta T cell antigen receptor (TCR) comprised of a gamma-chain polypeptide of 40-43 kD, and a delta-chain polypeptide of 37-40 kD. This gamma delta TCR appears to be similar to that found on T cell clones, and lines derived from peripheral blood lymphocytes from normal donors. Previous studies have shown that T cell lines derived from the peripheral blood of patients with immunodeficiency disorders express non-disulfide-linked gamma delta TCR. In contrast to the latter and coincident with findings in the present study, the vast majority of T cell lines and clones derived from the peripheral blood of normal donors express disulfide-linked gamma delta TCR.
H Seki, M Nanno, N K Day, R A Good, C D Platsoucas
Members of the erbA gene family are involved both in control of differentiation and in neoplasia. V-erbA, a retroviral oncogene, blocks avian erythroid differentiation. V-erbA-related transcripts are physiologically expressed in multiple normal tissues. They encode a family of transcriptional regulatory factors, some of which are thyroid hormone receptors. In man, two genes, erbA-alpha and erbA-beta, are transcriptionally active. We examined expression of erbA-related transcripts in normal and neoplastic colon. In normal colon mucosa, as well as in a colon polyp and in a colon polyp cell line, three characteristic erbA-related transcripts were consistently found. One transcript of 6 kb was erbA-beta related. Two transcripts of 2.7 and 5.2 kb were erbA-alpha related. In eight patients' colon carcinomas expression of the 6-kb erbA-beta transcript was absent or markedly diminished when compared with the same patients' noninvolved mucosa. In contrast, expression of the two erbA-alpha transcripts was the same in both colon carcinoma and noninvolved mucosa. No evidence was found of erbA-beta gene deletion in any of the tumors lacking erbA-beta expression. These data suggest that selective loss of normally present erbA-beta gene expression accompanies malignant transformation of the colonic epithelial cell.
S Markowitz, M Haut, T Stellato, C Gerbic, K Molkentin
Two polymorphic forms of Fc receptor III (FcR III) are expressed on human neutrophils. These differ with respect to their apparent molecular masses after digestion with N-glycanase, and with respect to their reactivity with MAb Gran 11 and alloantisera which recognize determinants (NA1 and NA2) of the biallelic neutrophil antigen (NA) system. To determine the molecular basis for this polymorphism we isolated RNA from neutrophils of NA1NA1 and NA2NA2 homozygotes and synthesized corresponding cDNAs. cDNAs encoding FcR III were then amplified using the polymerase chain reaction, cloned, and sequenced. The cDNA that encodes FcR III on NA1NA1 neutrophils differed from the cDNA that encodes FcR III on NA2NA2 neutrophils at five nucleotides, predicting four amino acid substitutions. As a result, NA1 FcR III has only four potential N-linked glycosylation sites as compared with six in NA2 FcR III. The amino acid substitutions and differences in the number of potential N-linked glycosylation sites probably account for the different forms of neutrophil FcR III observed after digestion with N-glycanase and for the antigenic heterogeneity of this receptor.
P A Ory, M R Clark, E E Kwoh, S B Clarkson, I M Goldstein