Erythrocyte survival studies of complement-coated radiolabeled erythrocytes have shown rapid removal of these cells from the peripheral blood with a return of these cells into the circulation within a few hours. We studied complement-coated human erythrocytes and measured surface charge and deformability, two parameters believed to be important in erythrocyte survival. Erythrocytes were coated with complement by two in vitro techniques: the addition of (a) low ionic strength sucrose, and (b) IgM cold agglutinins. Erythrocytes obtained from three patients with cold agglutinin disease were used as a source of in vivo complement-coated cells. No difference was found in surface charge as measured by electrophoretic mobility between erythrocytes from normal subjects and complement-coated erythrocytes from any of the three sources. When deformability was measured by filtration through 3-mum polycarbonate sieves, marked decreases in deformability were found in complement-coated erythrocytes. The filtration returned toward control levels by incubating the complement-coated erythrocytes in serum for 1 h and correlated with decreases in immune adherence. Using screen filtration pressure as a measure of deformability, a positive correlation between number of C3 molecules per erythrocyte and decreased deformability was found. C3b appeared responsible for the decreased deformability of the erythrocytes, since conversion of C3b to C3d resulted in a return of deformability toward normal. The data suggested that the sequestration of complement-coated human erythrocytes in the microvasculature can be explained in part by decreased deformability and changes in immune adherence.
J R Durocher, J P Gockerman, M E Conrad
A partial testicular defect in testosterone secretion has been documented in a pubertal male with a congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to hereditary deficiency of the delta5-isomerase-3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase enzyme complex (delta5-3beta-HSD). Diagnosis of the enzymatic defect is based on the clinical picture of ambiguous genitalia and salt-losing crisis in infancy, together with high urinary delta5-pregnenetriol and plasma dehydroepiandrosterone when the patient was taken off replacement corticoid treatment. No hormonal response to ACTH or salt deprivation was demonstrable. In addition, in vivo studies revealed a partial enzymatic defect in the testis. Although plasma testosterone was low-normal (250 ng/100 ml), plasma delta5-androstenediol was markedly elevated and rose to a greater extent than testosterone after human chorionic gonadotropin administration. In vitro testicular incubation studies suggested a testicular delta5-3beta-HSD enzyme defect with less delta4 products formed from delta5 precursors than in a control testis. Histochemical studies of the testis were also consistent with this defect. Testicular biopsy revealed spermatogenic arrest, generally diminished Leydig cells, but with focal areas of Leydig cell hyperplasia as well as benign Leydig cell hyperplasia as well as benign Leudig cell nodules within the spermatic cord. In vivo studies of steroid metabolism suggested intact peripheral or hepatic delta5-3beta-HSD activity. These studies imply that delta5-3beta-HSD activity differs in the gonad, adrenal, and peripheral organs. These findings are compatible with the concept that the enzyme complex consists of subunits and/or that enzymes in these organs are under different genetic control.
G Schneider, M Genel, A M Bongiovanni, A S Goldman, R L Rosenfield
The possibility that bradykinin, a potent vasodilator, might be a physiological antagonist of the renin-angiotensin system was investigated. 11 norman subjects, ranging in age from 21 to 33 yr were studied. Seven of the subjects were given a 10 meq sodium, 100 meq potassium, 2500 ml isocaloric diet. After metabolic balance was achieved, they were infused with either 1 liter of 5 per cent glucose over 2 h or 2 liters of 0.9 per cent saline over 4 h. During the infusions, plasma renin activity (PRA), angiotensin II (A II), prekallikrein, bradykinin, and aldosterone levels were frequently determined. Plasma prekallikrein and kallikrein inhibitor did not change during the infusion of either glucose or saline. In subjects receiving saline, plasma bradykinin fell from 3.9 plus or minus 1.5 (SEM) ng/ml at 0 min to 0.93 plus or minus 0.2 at 30 min and 0.95 plus or minus 0.3 at 120 min. These changes paralleled the decrease in PRA over the same period (7.9 plus or minus 1.3 ng/ml/h to 5.6 plus or minus 0.8 at 30 min and 3.5 plus or minus 0.7 at 120 min). Similarly, A II fell from 113 plus or minus 12 pg/ml to 62 plus or minus 10 and 48 plus or minus 5, respectively, at 30 and 120 min. In contrast, the control group infused with glucose showed no change in bradykinin, A II, or PRA. Another four subjects were given a constant 200 meq sodium/100 meq potassium isocaloric diet. After metabolic balance was achieved, they were kept supine and fasting overnight. At 9 a.m. they assumed an upright position and began walking a fixed distance (200 ft) at a normal rate (3-4 ft/s). Plasma prekallikrein and kallikrein inhibitor did not change during the posture study. The plasma bradykinin rose from a base line of 0.54 plus or minus 0.01 (SEM) ng/ml to 0.96 plus or minus 0.13 at 20 min. 0.77 plus or minus 0.18 at 60 min, and 0.96 plus or minus 0.07 at 120 min. These changes parallel the increase in PRA over the same period (1.65 plus or minus 3.3 ng/ml/h to 3.6 plus or minus 0.85 at 20 min, 5.3 plus or minus 0.9 at 60 min, and 5.35 plus or minus 0.55 at 120 min). Likewise, the A II rose from 32.5 plus or minus 1.82 pg/ml to 50.8 plus or minus 3.6 at 20 min, 54.3 plus or minus 3.2 at 60 min, and 61.3 plus or minus 5.9 at 120 min. Thus, in sodium-depleted individuals, saline infusion produces a rapid fall of plasma bradykinin at a rate similar to that observed for a II and PRA. Conversely, in sodium-loaded individuals, assumption of upright posture leads to a parallel rise in A II, TPRA, and bradykinin. These studies indicate that there is a close correlation of bradykinin levels with renin activity and angiotensin II, in both acute sodium loading and assumption of upright posture, suggesting that these two systems may be physiologically interrelated.
P Y Wong, R C Talamo, G H Williams, R W Colman
The changes in serum levels of luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FHS), estradiol, and progesterone that occur both early and late in reproductive life were characterized and compared with findings in young, normal women and in patients with certain menstrual disorders. A total of 50 complete menstrual cycles in 37 were examined. Five distinct patterns of hormonal regulation were found, three of which are reported here: (a) A long follicular phase and delayed follicular maturation in young women with long, unpredictable intermenstrual intervals from menarche; (b) a short follicular phase with increasing age and in short cycles in perimenopausal women; and (c) true anovulatory vaginal bleeding in long cycles in perimenopausal women. The short cycles before and during the menopausal transition were found to have lower E2 levels and high FSH concentrations throughout, while LH remained in the normal range. During long cycles in perimenopausal women, concentrations of LH and FSH were in the menopausal range. However, follicular maturation was observed months after high levels of gonadotropins were attained. These studies permit the characterization of the menstrual history of the normal woman in terms of the hormonal changes that occur and provide a basis for the definition of several disorders of follicular maturation.
B M Sherman, S G Korenman
We measured the cyanide-insensitive pyridine nucleotide oxidase activity of fractionated resting and phagocytic neutrophils from 11 normal donors, 1 patient with hereditary deficiency of myeloperoxidase, and 7 patients with X-linked chronic granulomatous disease (CGD). When measured under optimal conditions (at pH 5.5 and in the presence of 0.5 mM Mn++), NADPH oxidase activity increased fourfold with phagocytosis and was six-fold higher than with NADH. Phagocytic neutrophils from patients with CGD were markedly deficient in NADPH oxidase activity.
D C Hohn, R I Lehrer
An isotopic assay for NADPH ixodase that measures the amount of NADP formed by the 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase reaction has been developed. Under appropriate conditions, the amount of NADP present is directly proportional to the amount of 14CO2 released from [1-14C]6-phosphogluconic acid. Because this assay employs radioisotopes, it is far more sensitive than conventional assays for the enzyme. The human granule NADPH oxidase, as measured by this assay, is active in the presence of CN minus, is stimulated by Mn-2+, and has a pth optimum of 5.5. Granules isolated from cells that have been allowed to ingest zymosan consistently exhibited more enzyme activity than did granules isolated from either resting cells or cells challenged with zymosan that was not preopsonized. This effect was observed over a wide range of substrate concentrations and could not be explained by differences in protein concentrations between the various samples. If whole homogenates are used in place of isolated granules, the enzyme activity can be observed only with a homogenate of phagocytizing cells and even then only at a high concentration of NADPH. This suggests that an inhibitor of the enzyme might be present within the cell. One patient with chronic granulomatous disease was studied. There was no difference in tnadph oxidase activity of the patients' cells when granules from resting and phagocytizing cells were compared. In contrast, the enzyme activity in granules from two control patients doubled upon phagocytosis. These results are consistent with a role for NADPH oxidase in the initiation of the respiratory burst accompanying phagocytosis by human neutrophils.
L R DeChatelet, L C McPhail, D Mullikin, C E McCall
To determine the physiological importance of calcitonin in the regulation of plasma calcium, studies were carried out in fasting animals to (a) assess the acute effects of thyroparathyroidectomy (TPTX) and thyroidectomy (TX) on plasma and urinary calcium; (b) investigate whether the changes in plasma calcium produced by removal of the glands were dependent on the presence of the kidney; and (c) determine if the effect of TPTX on plasma calcium is affected by age. Except where otherwise indicated, all studies were carried out on fasting male Wistar rats weighing over 300 g. The following observations were made. (a) TPTX and TX caused an increase in plasma calcium in nephrectomized animals. (b) This increase was not dependent on nephrectomy since in intact animals bearing autoparathyroid transplants TX also caused a significant rise in the mean plasma calcium level (0.37 mg/100 ml at 1 1/2 h). (c) Urinary calcium increased twofold in the 3-h period immediately after TX. (d) In unnephrectomized immature (50-g) rats, TPTX caused a progressive decrease in plasma calcium in contrast to old (360-g) rats, where a significant fall observed at 6 h was preceded by an increase in plasma calcium (0.5 mg/100 ml at 1 1/2 h). From these observations we conclude that: (a) calcitonin must play an important physiological role in the regulation of plasma calcium since the termination of its basal secretion caused an immediate but transient increase in plasma calcium in old unfed rats; (b) the relative importance of calcitonin and parathyroid hormone in the acute regulation of plasma calcium is age-related; and (c) the action of parathyroid hormone on bone may be modified by changes in ambient calcitonin concentration.
D N Kalu, A Hadji-Georgopoulos, G V Foster
The effects of glucose and fructose on water and sodium absorption in the human jejunum were compared to assess the relative contribution of active and passive sugar stimulation of sodium transport. The effect of fructose is assumed to be entirely passive, and the difference between the effects of fructose and glucose is assumed to be a measure of sugar-stimulated, active sodium absorption. Water and sodium movement with mannitol was the base line. Three sets of test solutions with differing sugar concentrations were studied. Fructose stimulated 66-100 per cent as much net sodium and water absorption as glucose. Fructose stimulated potassium absorption, whereas glucose stimulated potassium secretion. Urea absorption was stimulated by both sugars. Glucose and fructose stimulated sodium absorption when chloride was the major anion, but they had relatively little effect on net sodium movement when chloride was replaced by bicarbonate or sulfate. It is concluded that glucose stimulates passive and active sodium transport in the human jejunum. Stimulated active sodium absorption generates an electrical potential across the mucosa that causes sodium (and potassium) secretion and partly or completely nullifies the effect of active sodium transport on net sodium movement. Net sodium absorption sitmulated by glucose is mainly (66-100 per cent) the passive consequence of solvent flow. The accompanying anion determines the degree to which sugars stimulate sodium absorption (C1 greater than SO-4 greater than HCO3). The effects of bicarbonate and sugars on jejunal sodium absorption are not additive.
J S Fordtran
Studies were carried out in order to evaluate the effects of changes in brain calcium and the influence of parathyroidectomy and administration of parathyroid extract on the electroencephalogram (EEG) of normal and uremic dogs. Manual analysis of frequency and power distribution of the EEG in uremic dogs revealed a significant increase in both the percentage distribution and the area or power occupied by frequencies below 5 Hz. In addition, high amplitude bursts of delta activity were apparent in the uremic dog. These changes were largely prevented by parathyroidectomy before the induction of uremia, but the administration of parathyroid extract to either normal dogs, or to previously parathyroidectomized uremic dogs, induced EEG changes similar to those noted in uremic animals with intact parathyroid glands. In all groups of animals which showed EEG changes, brain content of calcium was significantly higher than in either normal dogs or previously parathyroidectomized uremic dogs. Changes in arterial pH and bicarbonate, or in the concentrations of Na+, K+, urea, or creatinine in plasma or cerebrospinal fluid were similar in uremic animals with intact parthyroid glands and in previously parathyroidectomized uremia dogs. The results indicate that the EEG changes found in dogs with acute renal failure require the presence of excess parathyroid hormone in blood, and they may be related to the observed changes in brain content of calcium.
R Guisado, A I Arieff, S G Massry, V Lazarowitz, A Kerian
Using the radioactively-labeled alkaline-degraded acid-soluble fraction of amyloid ([ 125I ]DAA), we developed a radioimmunoassay for the previously described amyloid-related component of the human serum (SAA). Screening the sera of 228 normal individuals and of 297 patients with a variety of illnesses, we found that SAA is a component of all human sera, including cord blood (mean 94 plus or minus 57 ng/ml). The concentration of this component increases significantly with the aging process, reaching very high levels in the eighth and nine decades. It is also elevated in all cases of amyloidosis (except for those associated with nephrotic syndrome) as well as in many patients with myeloma, macroglobulinemia, lymphoma, carcinoma, rheumatoid arthritis, and tuberculosis. A marked increase was noted in the early stages of a variety of acute inflammatory and infectious states with a return to normal levels paralleling clinical improvement and faster than the erythrocyte sedimentation rate. The possible implications of this component in the genesis of amyloid and in the immune process are discussed.
C J Rosenthal, E C Franklin
The nature and extent of somatostatin-induced inhibition of pancreatic endocrine secretion were studied by administration of a number of stimuli of either glucagon or insulin to over night fasted baboons with and without an infusion of linear somatostatin. The stimuli for acute-phase insulin release were intravenous pulses of glucose, tolbutamide, isoproterenol, and secretin. When given 15 min after the start of a somatostatin infusion, these agents were essentially unable to stimulate insulin secretion. Chronic insulin secretion was stimulated by infusions of either glucose or glucagon. Within 10 min of the start of a super-imposed infusion of somatostatin, insulin levels fell to less than 40 percent of prestimulus control and remained suppressed for the duration of the somatostatin infusion. Stimulation of glucagon secretion by insulin-induced hypoglycemia was also blocked by somatostatin. Plasma glucose decreased during somatostatin infusions except when superimposed upon an infusion of glucagon. Somatostatin had no effect on glucose production in a rat liver slice preparation. We conclude: (a) Somatostatin is a potent and so far universally effective inhibitor of both acute and chronic phases of stimulated insulin and glucagon secretion (b) The inhibitory effect is quickly reversible and the pattern of recovery of secretion is appropriate to prevailing signals; (c) Present evidence suggests that the effect of somatostatin on blood glucose is mediated through its effect on blood glucagon; (d) In the overnight-fasted baboon both in the basal state and 45 min into a 4-mg/kg-min glucose infusion, a somatostatin-induced fall in serum insulin levels appears to be unable to prevent a decrease in hepatic glucose production.
E W Chideckel, J Palmer, D J Koerker, J Ensinck, M B Davidson, C J Goodner
Human urine was analyzed by mass spectrometry for the presence of prostaglandins. Prostaglandin E2 and F2alpha were detected in urine from females by selected ion monitoring of the prostaglandin E2-methylester-methoxime bis-acetate and the prostaglandin F2alpha-methyl ester-Tris-trimethylsilylether derivative. Additional evidence for the presence of prostaglandin F2alpha was obtained by isolating from female urine an amount of this prostaglandin sufficient to yield a complete mass spectrum. The methods utilized permitted quantitative analysis. The origin of urinary prostaglandin was determined by stimulating renal prostaglandin synthesis by arachidonic acid or angiotensin infusion. Arachidonic acid, the precursor of prostaglandin E2, when infused into one renal artery of a dog led to a significant increase in the excretion rate of this prostaglandin. Similarly, infusion of angiotensin II amide led to a significantly increased ipsilateral excretion rate of prostaglandin E2 and F2a in spite of a simultaneous decrease in the creatinine clearance. In man, i.v. infusion of angiotensin also led to an increased urinary eliminiation of prostaglandin E. These results show that urinary prostaglandins may originate from the kidney, indicating that renally synthesized prostaglandins diffuse or are excreted into the tubule. Thus, urinary prostaglandins are a reflection of renal prostaglandin synthesis and have potential as a tool to delineate renal prostaglandin physiology and pathology.
J C Frölich, T W Wilson, B J Sweetman, M Smigel, A S Nies, K Carr, J T Watson, J A Oates
The ultrastructural distribution pattern and site density of alpha-methyldopa immunoglobin G (alpha-MD IgG) on the red cell membrane was observed and compared with that of anti-D IgG, with ferritin-conjugated rabbit anti-human IgG and [125I]anti-D. alpha-MD IgG binds to all common types of human red cells, both Rho (D) positive and negative, to give a random, aperiodic distribution pattern grossly indistinguishable from the red cell D receptor site pattern. alpha-MD IgG inhibits the binding of [125I]anti-D to D-positive red cells when the reaction is controlled with respect to total reaction volume, ionic strength, and the appropriate concentrations of the two IgG reactants. To determine if a alpha-MD IgG binds to the D-antigen receptor, D-positive red cells were sensitized with alpha-MD and [125I]anti-D IgG spearately and with both IgG preparations. The cell-bound radioactivity served to identify what proportion of the total ferritin-labeled IgG sites were due to anti-D. With nonsaturating concentrations of anti-D the number of IgG sites observed was equal to the sum of the sites found when the red cell was sensitized separately with alpha-MD and anti-D IgG. With saturating concentrations of anti-D there was a reduction in the expected number of IgG sites, indicating that alpha-MD IgG was excluded from binding. There was no comparable interaction of alpha-MD IgG and anti-D IgG when D-negative red cells were used. The results obtained indicate that alpha-MD IgG does not bind to the D antigen. The interaction between alpha-MD IgG and anti-D IgG for binding sites on the red cell membrane may be due to the close physical proximity of the two receptors, so as to produce steric hindrance in binding of the two IgG preparations when both are present. The alpha-MD IgG receptor appears to be a part of the Rh antigen complex that occurs in both D-positive and D-negative red cells and probably contains receptors for other types of warm-antibody immune hemolytic anemias.
S P Masouredis, E Sudora
The transfer of normal human fibroblasts from medium containing whole serum to medium devoid of lipoproteins produced a 90 percent decrease in the cellular content of cholesteryl esters and a 30 percent decrease in the free cholesterol content. When these lipoprotein-deprived cells were subsequently incubated with human low density lipoprotein (LDL), there was a 7-fold increase in the cellular content of esterified cholesterol and a 1.6-fold increase in the cellular content of free cholesterol. The concentration at which LDL produced its half-maximal effect in elevating cellular sterol content (30 mug/ml of LDL-cholesterol) was similar to the half-maximal concentration previously reported for high affinity binding of LDL to its cell surface receptor. High density lipoprotein (HDL) and whole serum from a patient with abetalipoproteinemia (neither of which contains a component that binds to the LDL receptor) did not produce a significant increase in the content of either cholesterol or cholesteryl esters in normal cells. Furthermore, in fibroblasts from patients with the homozygous form of familial hypercholesterolemia, which lack functional LDL receptors, LDL had no effect in raising the cellular content of either free or esterified cholesterol even when present in the medium at concentrations as high as 450 mug sterol/ml. It is concluded that LDL-receptor interactions constitute an important biochemical mechanism for the regulation of the cholesterol content of normal human fibroblasts. Moreover, when considered in light of current concepts of LDL metabolism in intact mammals, the present data suggest that a major function of plasma LDL may be to transport cholesterol from its site of synthesis in liver and intestine to its site of uptake in peripheral tissues.
M S Brown, J R Faust, J L Goldstein
Nonprotein sulfhydryls (NPSH), a major source of cellular reducing substances, were examined in lung tissue after short-term exposure of rats to O3. While the NPSH level was unaffected by low-level exposures (e.g., 0.8 ppm for up to 24 h or 1.5 ppm for up to 8 h), it was significantly lowered by higher exposure regimens (e.g., 25 per cent after 2 ppm for 8 h and 49 per cent after 4 ppm for 6 h). After exposure to 4 ppm O3 for 6 h the level of reduced glutathione (GSH), which accounted for approximately 90 per cent of NPSH in the lung, decreased 40 per cent but without a rise in the level of oxidized gluathione (GSSG). Treatment of lung homogenate with borohydride led to recovery of NPSH in exposed lungs to control values, suggesting that NPSH or GSH oxidation during in vivo O3 exposure resulted in formation of mixed disulfides with other sulfhydryl (SH) groups of lung tissue. Extracts of borohydride-treated particulate and supernatant fractions of lung homogenate were analyzed for NPSH by paper chromatography. From this analysis GSH appeared to be the only NPSH bound to lung tissue proteins via mixed disulfide linkage. The formation of mixed disulfides appeared to be a transient phenomenon. Immediately after a 4-h exposure to 3 ppm O3 the level of mixed disulfides was small (15 per cent of the total NPSH) but attained a peak (equivalent to 0.6 mumol NPSH/lung) after a recovery for 24 h. However, the level diminished considerably within 48 h of recovery.
A J DeLucia, M G Mustafa, M Z Hussain, C E Cross
Fatty acid metabolism in intestinal mucosa has been examined primarily in regard to lipid absorption. Since earlier studies suggested intestinal utilization of plasma free fatty acids (FFA), we investigated mucosal metabolism of plasma FFA in rats. Mucosal radioactivity (1 per cent of administered) was maximal 2 min after i.v. [14C]palmitate. Of mucosal 14C, 42 percent was in water-soluble metabolites, including CO2 and ketoacids, 28 percent in phospholipids, and only 16 per cent in triglycerides. The specific activity of mucosal triglyceride fatty acids (TGFA) was 11 times that of serum TGFA, confirming in situ synthesis. Double isotope experiments showed marked differences in the metabolism of fatty acids entering mucosa simultaneously from lumen and plasma. Whereas luminal fatty acids were chiefly esterified to triglyceride, plasma FFA were preferentially oxidized and incorporated into phospholipids. Crypts did not differ from villi, indicating that intestinal metabolism of plasma FFA is related to their site of entry into epithelial cells. Mucosal metabolism of i.v. [14C]palmitate was minimally affected by glucose administration. However, intraduodenal isocaloric ethanol inhibited mucosal oxidation of FFA by 60 per cent, and increased incorporation into triglycerides nearly twofold. During lipid absorption, mucosal uptake of plasma FFA doubled and incorporation into intestinal lymph triglycerides was increased sixfold. These studies demonstrate an intracellular compartmentation of fatty acids in the intestinal epithelium. In contrast to absorbed luminal fatty acids, plasma FFA in the fasting state are both an energy source and a substrate for the synthesis of tissue phospholipid. The fasting contribution of plasma FFA to mucosal and lymph triglyceride is minimal, but it increases during ethanol administration and fat absorption.
A Gangl, R K Ockner
Tissue factor occurs in a dormant state on the surface of cultured normal human fibroblasts and WISH 1 amnion cells. The activity of undisturbed monolayers or cells lifted with brief trypsin treatment (0.125 per cent trypsin for 1 min) increases up to 60-fold upon prolonged digestion with dilute trypsin (0.0025 per cent trypsin for 30 min); activity appears subsequent to cell detachment. Up to 70 per cent of the total cellular tissue factor becomes active under these conditions and is released from the cells. The ruthenium red staining coat of the cells is lost during detachment, but cell viability (more than 90 per cent exclude trypan blue) and cell morphology do not change during the subsequent development of tissue factor activity. Furthermore, less than 10 percent of four intracellular enzymes and less than 20 per cent of two plasma membrane enzymes are released during this period of time. We therefore conclude that cells in culture do have tissue factor activity, that it exists in a latent form, and that total cell disruption is not necessary for this activity to initiate blood coagulation.
J R Maynard, C A Heckman, F A Pitlick, Y Nemerson
This paper describes a method for determining the number of marrow erythroid and neutrophil cells in which the cellularity of marrow sections was related to that of the total marrow by radioiron dilution. Tissue sections were prepared from methacrylate-embedded dog marrow biopsies, and neutrophils were identified by staining of their primary granules. After correction of direct section counts for multiple counting error, accurate neutrophil-erythroid ratios were established with a coefficient of variation of less than 10 percent when 10-4 cells were examined. An average neutrophil-erythroid ratio of 1.2 was found in six normal dogs. The total number of nucleated red cells in the dog was 5.48 plus or minus 0.78 times 10-9/kg (plus or minus 1 SD), and the corresponding erythron iron turnover was 0.90 plus or minus 0.11 mg Fe/100 ml whole blood/day. The total number of marrow neutrophils, derived from the neutrophil-erythroid ratio, was 6.6 plus or minus 0.59 times 10-9 cells/kg, of which 1.4 were promyelocytes and myelocytes, 2.3 were metamyelocytes and bands, and 3.0 were segmented neutrophils. Leukopheresis studies were carried out in six dogs to confirm the accuracy of these cellular measurements. Marrow counts showed a mean decrease of 22.7 times 10-9 cells or 35 percent of the postmitotic neutrophil pool, and it was calculated that 10.2 times 10-9 additional cells had been taken from already circulating blood. This estimated deficit of 32.9 times 10-9 was almost identical to the 33 times 10-9 cells actually counted in the removed blood.
K A Deubeleiss, J T Dancey, L A Harker, B Cheney, C A Finch
The production of neutrophils in dogs has been estimated from the number of postmitotic neutrophils in the marrow and the transit time of a [3H]-thymidine pulse. The number of postmitotic neutrophils was derived from the erythron iron turnover measurement of erythroid number and the neutrophil-erythroid ratio in bone marrow sections. The mean value for marrow postmitotic neutrophils in dogs was 5.61 plus or minus 0.56 times 10-9 cells/kg. The mean transit time of these neutrophils was calculated to be 82.1 h. A marrow production of 1.65 times 10-9 neutrophils/kg/day was calculated from these data. The turnover of circulating neutrophils was measured by [3H]thymidine and [32P]diisopropylphospho-fluoridate (DF32P) labeling of blood neutrophils. [3H]-Thymidine labeling gave a calculated recovery of 65 per cent, a t1/2 disappearance time of 6.7 h, and a calculated turnover of 1.66 times 10-9 cells/kg/day. Corresponding results with DF32P tagging were 51 per cent, 5.4 h, and 2.89 times 10-9 cells/kg/day. The discrepancy between these two tags persisted in doubly tagged cells and was considered to be due to elution of DF32P.
K A Deubelbeiss, J T Dancey, L A Harker, C A Finch
The effect of ethacrynic acid (EA) at different blood O2 saturations on cochlear potentials of guinea pigs was investigated. All 18 young healthy guinea pigs received 50 mg/kg/h of EA intravenously and were divided into three groups: first group, normal (90.00±6.30-86.17±4.83 mm Hg); second group, lower Po2 (78.00±4.74-70.00±4.42 mm Hg); and third group, high Po2 (174.40±13.41-179.00±26.15 mm Hg). The partial pressure of oxygen (Po2), the partial pressure of carbon dioxide (Pco2), and the pH of the blood were measured before EA administration and at the end of the experiment (3 h later) by drawing blood samples from the contralateral carotid artery. Cochlear potentials—endocochlear potential (EP), cochlear microphonics (CM), and action potentials (AP)—were recorded by standard methods from the first turn of the cochlea. Experimental data seem to indicate that elevation of the Po2 to 174-179 mm Hg during relatively high doses of EA treatment prevents the declines in cochlear potentials which were observed in the first and second groups (normal and lower Po2), and preserves active ion transport which is responsible for the generation of cochlear potentials. These data suggest a means by which to reduce the ototoxic effect of EA and possibly indicates a method of treatment for hearing loss which developed after the administration of EA.
Jiri Prazma, John B. Pecorak
The effects of insulin on the renal handling of sodium, potassium, calcium, and phosphate were studied in man while maintaining the blood glucose concentration at the fasting level by negative feedback servocontrol of a variable glucose infusion. In studies on six water-loaded normal subjects in a steady state of water diuresis, insulin was administered i.v. to raise the plasma insulin concentration to between 98 and 193 muU/ml and infused at a constant rate of 2 mU/kg body weight per min over a total period of 120 min. The blood glucose concentration was not significantly altered, and there was no change in the filtered load of glucose; glomerular filtration rate (CIN) and renal plasma flow (CPAH) were unchanged. Urinary sodium excretion (UNaV) decreased from 401 plus or minus 46 (SEM) to 213 plus or minus 18 mueq/min during insulin administration, the change becoming significant (P smaller than 0.02) within the 30-60 min collection period. Free water clearance (CH2O) increased from 10.6 plus or minus 0.6 to 13 plus or minus 0.5 ml/min (P smaller than 0.025); osmolar clearance decreased and urine flow was unchanged. There was no change in plasma aldosterone concentration, which was low throughout the studies, and a slight reduction was observed in plasma glucagon concentration. Urinary potassium (UKV) and phosphate (UPV) excretion were also both decreased during insulin administration; UKV decreased from 66 plus or minus 9 to 21 plus or minus 1 mueq/min (P smaller than 0.005), and tupv decreased from 504 plus or minus 93 to 230 plus or minus 43 mug/min (P smaller than 0.01). The change in UKV was associated with a significant reduction in plasma potassium concentration. There was also a statistically significant but small reduction in plasma phosphate concentration which was not considered sufficient alone to account for the large reduction in UPV. Urinary calcium excretion (UCaV) increased from 126 plus or minus 24 to 200 plus or minus 17 mug/min (P smaller than 0.01). These studies demonstrate a reduction in UNaV associated with insulin administration that occurs in the absence of changes in the filtered load of glucose, glomerular filtration rate, renal blood flow, and plasma aldosterone concentration. The effect of insulin on CH2O suggests that insulin's effect on sodium excretion is due to enhancement of sodium reabsorption in the diluting segment of the distal nephron.
R A DeFronzo, C R Cooke, R Andres, G R Faloona, P J Davis
C57BL/6 mice immunized i.p. with alloantigen (P815 mastocytoma cells) develop cytolytically active thymus-derived (T) splenic lymphocytes. The definition of specific histamine receptor sites on effector T cells has been studied by measuring the in vitro effects of the hormone on cytolytic activity. Histamine was found to inhibit cytolysis reversibly and to increase lymphoid cell cyclic AMP levels. Both of these histamine activities were reversed by burimamide and metiamide; neither activity was affected by diphenhydramine or pyrilamine. These findings indicate that modulation of effector T cell activity by histamine is mediated only by one of the subtypes of tissue histamine receptors, designated a histamine-type 2 receptor. This receptor appears to be present on cytolytically active cells; there is no evidence for activation by histamine of auxiliary or "suppressor" cells. The estimated dissociation constant (KB) for the burimamide-receptor complex (9 times 10-minus 6 tm) and for the metiamide-receptor complex (8 times 10-minus 7 M) indicated that the histamine receptor on T cells is quite similar to histamine-type 2 receptors in other tissues. Cells bearing such receptors could not be isolated by passage through a column of histamine-coated tsepharose beads. The cytolytic activity of spleen cells taken from mice early (days 7-9) after immunization is virtually unaffected by histamine in vitro. In contrast, the activity of spleen cells taken from mice later in the immune response is progressively more susceptible to inhibition by histamine. After reaching a maximum at day 11, the spleen cell cytolytic activity falls in a pattern that parallels the increase in susceptibility to histamine. The susceptibility of effector T cells to histamine appears also to reflect their site of origin, for peritoneal exudate effector cells were found to be significantly less sensitive than spleen cells to inhibition by histamine. The progressive increase in inhibition by histamine apparently reflects the appearance of greater numbers of specific histamine-type 2 receptors, and is probably a general phenomenon, for spleen cells from A/J or C3H mice immunized with either P815 mastocytoma (H-2d) or EL-4 (H-2b) cells showed the same effect. However, the appearance of histamine receptors could be altered by prior immunization with an unrelated alloantigen: thus, when A/J mice are preimmunized with EL-4, a subsequent immunization with mastocytoma cells results in peak spleen anti-H-2d activity at day 9 instead of days 11-13, and the appearance of significant (greater than 40 percent) inhibition by histamine as early as day 8 instead of day 16. The physiological role of the histamine receptors is as yet undefined, though their unexpected rate of appearance on effector T cells, coincident with a decline in the number of lytically active cells in vivo, may be a significant hint that hormone receptors play a role in the control of T-cell proliferation.
M Plaut, L M Lichtenstein, C S Henney
Extraction in the presence of sodium hydroxide and cysteine allows estimates of NADPH and total NADP in human red cells without the erroneously high values of NADP+ obtained with earlier methods. An application of this technique to G6PD-deficient cells reveals that most of the nucleotide is in the oxidized form. In contrast, normal red cells have nearly all of the nucleotide in the reudced form. In addition to providing information concerning the intracellular regulation of the hexose monophosphate shunt, these findings support the concept that G6PD deficiency is a product-deficiency disorder.
H N Kirkman, G D Gaetani, E H Clemons, C Mareni