The neuromuscular junction labeled with a neurofilament antibody (green) and with α-bungarotoxin staining (red). In this issue, Passini and colleagues improved motor function, behavior, and survival in a mouse model of spinal muscular atrophy through delivery of AAV vector expressing survival motor neuron 1 (SMN1) directly to the CNS (page 1253).
While our eyes usually glaze over at the continued talk of health care reform, there are a few particulars that bear repeating. So many of the parties involved fail to consider the most basic and most important of all the issues: health insurance is not a luxury, it is a right.
Laurence A. Turka, Arthur L. Caplan
The linkage of Kaposi sarcoma (KS) to infection by a novel human herpesvirus (Kaposi sarcoma–associated herpesvirus [KSHV]) is one of the great successes of contemporary biomedical research and was achieved by using advanced genomic technologies in a manner informed by a nuanced understanding of epidemiology and clinical investigation. Ongoing efforts to understand the molecular mechanisms by which KSHV infection predisposes to KS continue to be powerfully influenced by insights emanating from the clinic. Here, recent developments in KS pathogenesis are reviewed, with particular emphasis on clinical, pathologic, and molecular observations that highlight the many differences between this process and tumorigenesis by other oncogenic viruses.
Human reproduction is relatively inefficient. Nearly 30% of pregnancies result in spontaneous losses, which are both a clinical problem and a psychological stress to the families involved. Furthermore, although the human population is growing rapidly and is predicted to reach 9 billion by 2050, 15% of couples worldwide are childless because of infertility. Many underlying causes of infertility have been overcome by assisted reproductive technologies such as in vitro fertilization, yet pregnancy success rates using such approaches remain disappointingly low. Since mechanistic approaches to study human reproductive processes are ethically restricted, future advances in fertility treatment and the development of new contraceptives rely predominantly on the study of the factors influencing reproduction in model systems. The articles in this Reproductive Biology Review series present updates on the current understanding of various reproductive processes in model systems and raise questions that need to be addressed if we are to improve human reproductive health.
Sudhansu K. Dey
Spermatogenesis in adult mammals is highly organized, with the goal being continual sperm production. Vertebrate testes are arranged into recurring cellular associations that vary with time and distance along the tubule. These changes over time and distance are designated the cycle of the seminiferous epithelium and the spermatogenic wave, respectively. In this Review, we briefly outline the roles that follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and testosterone play in regulating spermatogenesis and describe our current understanding of how vitamin A regulates germ cell differentiation and how it may lead to the generation of both the cycle of the seminiferous epithelium and the spermatogenic wave.
Cathryn A. Hogarth, Michael D. Griswold
The classical view of ovarian follicle development is that it is regulated by the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis, in which gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) controls the release of the gonadotropic hormones follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH), and that ovarian steroids exert both negative and positive regulatory effects on GnRH secretion. More recent studies in mice and humans indicate that many other intra-ovarian signaling cascades affect follicular development and gonadotropin action in a stage- and context-specific manner. As we discuss here, mutant mouse models and clinical evidence indicate that some of the most powerful intra-ovarian regulators of follicular development include the TGF-β/SMAD, WNT/FZD/β-catenin, and RAS/ERK1/2 signaling pathways and the FOXO/FOXL2 transcription factors.
JoAnne S. Richards, Stephanie A. Pangas
Oocytes play a pivotal role in the cycle of human life. As we discuss here, after emerging from germline stem cells in the fetus, they grow in a follicular niche in which development is harmonized for timely ovulation and hormone secretion after puberty. Most human oocytes have poor developmental competence and are peculiarly vulnerable to chromosomal malsegregation, especially as women pass the optimal years of fertility and may begin to turn to assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs) and egg donation. Research needs to focus on the molecular factors involved and the environmental niche required for optimal development of oocytes, with the aim of increasing their numbers and quality for ARTs, since these are the factors that so often limit human fertility.
Roger Gosden, Bora Lee
Mammalian fertilization comprises sperm migration through the female reproductive tract, biochemical and morphological changes to sperm, and sperm-egg interaction in the oviduct. Recent gene knockout approaches in mice have revealed that many factors previously considered important for fertilization are largely dispensable, or if they are essential, they have an unexpected function. These results indicate that what has been observed in in vitro fertilization (IVF) differs significantly from what occurs during “physiological” fertilization. This Review focuses on the advantages of studying fertilization using gene-manipulated animals and highlights an emerging molecular mechanism of mammalian fertilization.
Masahito Ikawa, Naokazu Inoue, Adam M. Benham, Masaru Okabe
Mammalian preimplantation development, which is the period extending from fertilization to implantation, results in the formation of a blastocyst with three distinct cell lineages. Only one of these lineages, the epiblast, contributes to the embryo itself, while the other two lineages, the trophectoderm and the primitive endoderm, become extra-embryonic tissues. Significant gains have been made in our understanding of the major events of mouse preimplantation development, and recent discoveries have shed new light on the establishment of the three blastocyst lineages. What is less clear, however, is how closely human preimplantation development mimics that in the mouse. A greater understanding of the similarities and differences between mouse and human preimplantation development has implications for improving assisted reproductive technologies and for deriving human embryonic stem cells.
Katie Cockburn, Janet Rossant
Much of our knowledge of human uterine physiology and pathology has been extrapolated from the study of diverse animal models, as there is no ideal system for studying human uterine biology in vitro. Although it remains debatable whether mouse models are the most suitable system for investigating human uterine function(s), gene-manipulated mice are considered by many the most useful tool for mechanistic analysis, and numerous studies have identified many similarities in female reproduction between the two species. This Review brings together information from studies using animal models, in particular mouse models, that shed light on normal and pathologic aspects of uterine biology and pregnancy complications.
Hyunjung Jade Lim, Haibin Wang
The placenta provides critical transport functions between the maternal and fetal circulations during intrauterine development. Formation of this interface relies on coordinated interactions among transcriptional, epigenetic, and environmental factors. Here we describe these mechanisms in the context of the differentiation of placental cells (trophoblasts) and synthesize current knowledge about how they interact to generate a functional placenta. Developing an understanding of these pathways contributes to an improvement of our models for studying trophoblast biology and sheds light on the etiology of pregnancy complications and the in utero programming of adult diseases.
Emin Maltepe, Anna I. Bakardjiev, Susan J. Fisher
This issue of the JCI includes studies demonstrating that sirtuin 1 (Sirt1), a NAD+-dependent deacetylase, slows renal senescence and safeguards cells in the renal medulla. Kume et al. demonstrated that caloric restriction protected the aging kidney by preserving renal Sirt1 expression, the latter deacetylating forkhead box O3a (FOXO3a), inducing Bnip 3, and promoting mitochondrial autophagy. Sirt1 expression, as shown by He et al., enabled interstitial cells to withstand the oxidizing medullary environment and exerted antiapoptotic and antifibrotic effects in the obstructed kidney. Sirt1 is thus an important participant in renal cytoprotective responses to aging and stress.
Karl A. Nath
Ang II plays an important role in the pathophysiology of cardiovascular disease. Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors lower Ang II levels by inhibiting conversion of Ang I to Ang II, but Ang II levels have been shown to return to normal with chronic ACE inhibitor treatment. In this issue of the JCI, Wei et al. show that ACE inhibition induces an increase in chymase activity in cardiac interstitial fluid, providing an alternate pathway for Ang II generation.
Daniela Zablocki, Junichi Sadoshima
Epithelial-mesenchymal transitions (EMTs) are believed to play a role in invasion and metastasis of many types of tumors. In this issue of the JCI, Chen et al. show that a gene that has been associated with aggressive biology in hepatocellular carcinomas initiates a molecular cascade that results in EMT.
Janice Jou, Anna Mae Diehl
Multipotent cardiovascular progenitor cells derived from ES cells or induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells are an intriguing source for stem cell–based therapies for congenital and acquired heart diseases. From a clinical perspective, the ideal cardiac progenitor cells are those that can proliferate, survive, and differentiate into multiple mature cardiac cell types when transplanted into normal or diseased heart. In this issue of JCI, Blin et al. report the isolation and characterization of a group of early mesodermal cardiovascular progenitor cells, induced by BMP2 and marked by the cell surface protein, stage-specific embryonic antigen 1 (SSEA-1). BMP2-induced SSEA-1+ cells were purified from ES and iPS cells and could be directed to differentiate into cardiomyocytes, endothelial cells, and smooth muscle cells by treatment with defined cytokines and signaling molecules. Most importantly, purified SSEA+ progenitor cells from Rhesus monkey ES cells engrafted into nonhuman primate hearts, in which they differentiated into cardiac cells without forming teratomas. These findings move the field another step closer to clinical use of ES or iPS cell–derived cardiovascular progenitors in cardiac repair.
Li Qian, Deepak Srivastava
Belying the spectacular success of solid organ transplantation and improvements in immunosuppressive therapy is the reality that long-term graft survival rates remain relatively unchanged, in large part due to chronic and insidious alloantibody-mediated graft injury. Half of heart transplant recipients develop chronic rejection within 10 years — a daunting statistic, particularly for young patients expecting to achieve longevity by enduring the rigors of a transplant. The current immunosuppressive pharmacopeia is relatively ineffective in preventing late alloantibody-associated chronic rejection. In this issue of the JCI, Kelishadi et al. report that preemptive deletion of B cells prior to heart transplantation in cynomolgus monkeys, in addition to conventional posttransplant immunosuppressive therapy with cyclosporine, markedly attenuated not only acute graft rejection but also alloantibody elaboration and chronic graft rejection. The success of this preemptive strike implies a central role for B cells in graft rejection, and this approach may help to delay or prevent chronic rejection after solid organ transplantation.
Stuart J. Knechtle, Jean Kwun, Neal Iwakoshi
Antibody-mediated defense against pathogens typically requires complex interactions between antibodies and other constituents of the humoral and cellular immune systems. However, recent evidence indicates that some antibodies alone can inhibit pathogen function in the absence of complement, phagocytes, or NK cells. In this issue of the JCI, McClelland et al. have begun to elucidate the molecular bases by which antibodies alone can impact pathogen growth and metabolism. They show that mAbs specific for the polysaccharide capsule of the human pathogenic fungus Cryptococcus neoformans elicit diverse effects on fungal gene expression, lipid biosynthesis, susceptibility to amphotericin B, cellular metabolism, and protein phosphorylation. These data suggest that pathogens have the capacity to generate broad metabolic responses as a result of surface binding by pathogen-specific antibodies, effects that may hold therapeutic promise.
Edward N. Janoff, Daniel N. Frank
Mitochondrial oxidative damage is a basic mechanism of aging, and multiple studies demonstrate that this process is attenuated by calorie restriction (CR). However, the molecular mechanism that underlies the beneficial effect of CR on mitochondrial dysfunction is unclear. Here, we investigated in mice the mechanisms underlying CR-mediated protection against hypoxia in aged kidney, with a special focus on the role of the NAD-dependent deacetylase sirtuin 1 (Sirt1), which is linked to CR-related longevity in model organisms, on mitochondrial autophagy. Adult-onset and long-term CR in mice promoted increased Sirt1 expression in aged kidney and attenuated hypoxia-associated mitochondrial and renal damage by enhancing BCL2/adenovirus E1B 19-kDa interacting protein 3–dependent (Bnip3-dependent) autophagy. Culture of primary renal proximal tubular cells (PTCs) in serum from CR mice promoted Sirt1-mediated forkhead box O3 (Foxo3) deacetylation. This activity was essential for expression of Bnip3 and p27Kip1 and for subsequent autophagy and cell survival of PTCs under hypoxia. Furthermore, the kidneys of aged Sirt1+/– mice were resistant to CR-mediated improvement in the accumulation of damaged mitochondria under hypoxia. These data highlight the role of the Sirt1-Foxo3 axis in cellular adaptation to hypoxia, delineate a molecular mechanism of the CR-mediated antiaging effect, and could potentially direct the design of new therapies for age- and hypoxia-related tissue damage.
Shinji Kume, Takashi Uzu, Kihachiro Horiike, Masami Chin-Kanasaki, Keiji Isshiki, Shin-ichi Araki, Toshiro Sugimoto, Masakazu Haneda, Atsunori Kashiwagi, Daisuke Koya
Sirtuin 1 (Sirt1) is a NAD+-dependent deacetylase that exerts many of the pleiotropic effects of oxidative metabolism. Due to local hypoxia and hypertonicity, the renal medulla is subject to extreme oxidative stress. Here, we set out to investigate the role of Sirt1 in the kidney. Our initial analysis indicated that it was abundantly expressed in mouse renal medullary interstitial cells in vivo. Knocking down Sirt1 expression in primary mouse renal medullary interstitial cells substantially reduced cellular resistance to oxidative stress, while pharmacologic Sirt1 activation using either resveratrol or SRT2183 improved cell survival in response to oxidative stress. The unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) model of kidney injury induced markedly more renal apoptosis and fibrosis in Sirt1+/– mice than in wild-type controls, while pharmacologic Sirt1 activation substantially attenuated apoptosis and fibrosis in wild-type mice. Moreover, Sirt1 deficiency attenuated oxidative stress–induced COX2 expression in cultured mouse renal medullary interstitial cells, and Sirt1+/– mice displayed reduced UUO-induced COX2 expression in vivo. Conversely, Sirt1 activation increased renal medullary interstitial cell COX2 expression both in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, exogenous PGE2 markedly reduced apoptosis in Sirt1-deficient renal medullary interstitial cells following oxidative stress. Taken together, these results identify Sirt1 as an important protective factor for mouse renal medullary interstitial cells following oxidative stress and suggest that the protective function of Sirt1 is partly attributable to its regulation of COX2 induction. We therefore suggest that Sirt1 provides a potential therapeutic target to minimize renal medullary cell damage following oxidative stress.
Wenjuan He, Yingying Wang, Ming-Zhi Zhang, Li You, Linda S. Davis, Hong Fan, Hai-Chun Yang, Agnes B. Fogo, Roy Zent, Raymond C. Harris, Matthew D. Breyer, Chuan-Ming Hao
Levels of the necessary nutrient vitamin C (ascorbate) are tightly regulated by intestinal absorption, tissue accumulation, and renal reabsorption and excretion. Ascorbate levels are controlled in part by regulation of transport through at least 2 sodium-dependent transporters: Slc23a1 and Slc23a2 (also known as Svct1 and Svct2, respectively). Previous work indicates that Slc23a2 is essential for viability in mice, but the roles of Slc23a1 for viability and in adult physiology have not been determined. To investigate the contributions of Slc23a1 to plasma and tissue ascorbate concentrations in vivo, we generated Slc23a1–/– mice. Compared with wild-type mice, Slc23a1–/– mice increased ascorbate fractional excretion up to 18-fold. Hepatic portal ascorbate accumulation was nearly abolished, whereas intestinal absorption was marginally affected. Both heterozygous and knockout pups born to Slc23a1–/– dams exhibited approximately 45% perinatal mortality, and this was associated with lower plasma ascorbate concentrations in dams and pups. Perinatal mortality of Slc23a1–/– pups born to Slc23a1–/– dams was prevented by ascorbate supplementation during pregnancy. Taken together, these data indicate that ascorbate provided by the dam influenced perinatal survival. Although Slc23a1–/– mice lost as much as 70% of their ascorbate body stores in urine daily, we observed an unanticipated compensatory increase in ascorbate synthesis. These findings indicate a key role for Slc23a1 in renal ascorbate absorption and perinatal survival and reveal regulation of vitamin C biosynthesis in mice.
Christopher P. Corpe, Hongbin Tu, Peter Eck, Jin Wang, Robert Faulhaber-Walter, Jurgen Schnermann, Sam Margolis, Sebastian Padayatty, He Sun, Yaohui Wang, Robert L. Nussbaum, Michael Graham Espey, Mark Levine
Injury and loss of podocytes are leading factors of glomerular disease and renal failure. The postmitotic podocyte is the primary glomerular target for toxic, immune, metabolic, and oxidant stress, but little is known about how this cell type copes with stress. Recently, autophagy has been identified as a major pathway that delivers damaged proteins and organelles to lysosomes in order to maintain cellular homeostasis. Here we report that podocytes exhibit an unusually high level of constitutive autophagy. Podocyte-specific deletion of autophagy-related 5 (Atg5) led to a glomerulopathy in aging mice that was accompanied by an accumulation of oxidized and ubiquitinated proteins, ER stress, and proteinuria. These changes resulted ultimately in podocyte loss and late-onset glomerulosclerosis. Analysis of pathophysiological conditions indicated that autophagy was substantially increased in glomeruli from mice with induced proteinuria and in glomeruli from patients with acquired proteinuric diseases. Further, mice lacking Atg5 in podocytes exhibited strongly increased susceptibility to models of glomerular disease. These findings highlight the importance of induced autophagy as a key homeostatic mechanism to maintain podocyte integrity. We postulate that constitutive and induced autophagy is a major protective mechanism against podocyte aging and glomerular injury, representing a putative target to ameliorate human glomerular disease and aging-related loss of renal function.
Björn Hartleben, Markus Gödel, Catherine Meyer-Schwesinger, Shuya Liu, Theresa Ulrich, Sven Köbler, Thorsten Wiech, Florian Grahammer, Sebastian J. Arnold, Maja T. Lindenmeyer, Clemens D. Cohen, Hermann Pavenstädt, Dontscho Kerjaschki, Noboru Mizushima, Andrey S. Shaw, Gerd Walz, Tobias B. Huber
Hereditary spastic paraplegias (HSPs; SPG1–45) are inherited neurological disorders characterized by lower extremity spastic weakness. More than half of HSP cases result from autosomal dominant mutations in atlastin-1 (also known as SPG3A), receptor expression enhancing protein 1 (REEP1; SPG31), or spastin (SPG4). The atlastin-1 GTPase interacts with spastin, a microtubule-severing ATPase, as well as with the DP1/Yop1p and reticulon families of ER-shaping proteins, and SPG3A caused by atlastin-1 mutations has been linked pathogenically to abnormal ER morphology. Here we investigated SPG31 by analyzing the distribution, interactions, and functions of REEP1. We determined that REEP1 is structurally related to the DP1/Yop1p family of ER-shaping proteins and localizes to the ER in cultured rat cerebral cortical neurons, where it colocalizes with spastin and atlastin-1. Upon overexpression in COS7 cells, REEP1 formed protein complexes with atlastin-1 and spastin within the tubular ER, and these interactions required hydrophobic hairpin domains in each of these proteins. REEP proteins were required for ER network formation in vitro, and REEP1 also bound microtubules and promoted ER alignment along the microtubule cytoskeleton in COS7 cells. A SPG31 mutant REEP1 lacking the C-terminal cytoplasmic region did not interact with microtubules and disrupted the ER network. These data indicate that the HSP proteins atlastin-1, spastin, and REEP1 interact within the tubular ER membrane in corticospinal neurons to coordinate ER shaping and microtubule dynamics. Thus, defects in tubular ER shaping and network interactions with the microtubule cytoskeleton seem to be the predominant pathogenic mechanism of HSP.
Seong H. Park, Peng-Peng Zhu, Rell L. Parker, Craig Blackstone
Cancer immunotherapy faces a serious challenge because of low clinical efficacy. Recently, a number of clinical studies have reported the serendipitous finding of high rates of objective clinical response when cancer vaccines are combined with chemotherapy in patients with different types of cancers. However, the mechanism of this phenomenon remains unclear. Here, we tested in mice several cancer vaccines and an adoptive T cell transfer approach to cancer immunotherapy in combination with several widely used chemotherapeutic drugs. We found that chemotherapy made tumor cells more susceptible to the cytotoxic effect of CTLs through a dramatic perforin-independent increase in permeability to GrzB released by the CTLs. This effect was mediated via upregulation of mannose-6-phosphate receptors on the surface of tumor cells and was observed in mouse and human cells. When combined with chemotherapy, CTLs raised against specific antigens were able to induce apoptosis in neighboring tumor cells that did not express those antigens. These data suggest that small numbers of CTLs could mediate a potent antitumor effect when combined with chemotherapy. In addition, these results provide a strong rationale for combining these modalities for the treatment of patients with advanced cancers.
Rupal Ramakrishnan, Deepak Assudani, Srinivas Nagaraj, Terri Hunter, Hyun-Il Cho, Scott Antonia, Soner Altiok, Esteban Celis, Dmitry I. Gabrilovich
Cell therapy holds promise for tissue regeneration, including in individuals with advanced heart failure. However, treatment of heart disease with bone marrow cells and skeletal muscle progenitors has had only marginal positive benefits in clinical trials, perhaps because adult stem cells have limited plasticity. The identification, among human pluripotent stem cells, of early cardiovascular cell progenitors required for the development of the first cardiac lineage would shed light on human cardiogenesis and might pave the way for cell therapy for cardiac degenerative diseases. Here, we report the isolation of an early population of cardiovascular progenitors, characterized by expression of OCT4, stage-specific embryonic antigen 1 (SSEA-1), and mesoderm posterior 1 (MESP1), derived from human pluripotent stem cells treated with the cardiogenic morphogen BMP2. This progenitor population was multipotential and able to generate cardiomyocytes as well as smooth muscle and endothelial cells. When transplanted into the infarcted myocardium of immunosuppressed nonhuman primates, an SSEA-1+ progenitor population derived from Rhesus embryonic stem cells differentiated into ventricular myocytes and reconstituted 20% of the scar tissue. Notably, primates transplanted with an unpurified population of cardiac-committed cells, which included SSEA-1– cells, developed teratomas in the scar tissue, whereas those transplanted with purified SSEA-1+ cells did not. We therefore believe that the SSEA-1+ progenitors that we have described here have the potential to be used in cardiac regenerative medicine.
Guillaume Blin, David Nury, Sonia Stefanovic, Tui Neri, Oriane Guillevic, Benjamin Brinon, Valérie Bellamy, Catherine Rücker-Martin, Pascal Barbry, Alain Bel, Patrick Bruneval, Chad Cowan, Julia Pouly, Shoukhrat Mitalipov, Elodie Gouadon, Patrice Binder, Albert Hagège, Michel Desnos, Jean-François Renaud, Philippe Menasché, Michel Pucéat
Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a fatal disease of striated muscle deterioration caused by lack of the cytoskeletal protein dystrophin. Dystrophin deficiency causes muscle membrane instability, skeletal muscle wasting, cardiomyopathy, and heart failure. Advances in palliative respiratory care have increased the incidence of heart disease in DMD patients, for which there is no cure or effective therapy. Here we have shown that chronic infusion of membrane-sealing poloxamer to severely affected dystrophic dogs reduced myocardial fibrosis, blocked increased serum cardiac troponin I (cTnI) and brain type natriuretic peptide (BNP), and fully prevented left-ventricular remodeling. Mechanistically, we observed a markedly greater primary defect of reduced cell compliance in dystrophic canine myocytes than in the mildly affected mdx mouse myocytes, and this was associated with a lack of utrophin upregulation in the dystrophic canine cardiac myocytes. Interestingly, after chronic poloxamer treatment, the poor compliance of isolated canine myocytes remained evident, but this could be restored to normal upon direct application of poloxamer. Collectively, these findings indicate that dystrophin and utrophin are critical to membrane stability–dependent cardiac myocyte mechanical compliance and that poloxamer confers a highly effective membrane-stabilizing chemical surrogate in dystrophin/utrophin deficiency. We propose that membrane sealant therapy is a potential treatment modality for DMD heart disease and possibly other disorders with membrane defect etiologies.
DeWayne Townsend, Immanuel Turner, Soichiro Yasuda, Joshua Martindale, Jennifer Davis, Michael Shillingford, Joe N. Kornegay, Joseph M. Metzger
Angiogenesis is a hallmark of malignant neoplasias, as the formation of new blood vessels is required for tumors to acquire oxygen and nutrients essential for their continued growth and metastasis. However, the signaling pathways leading to tumor vascularization are not fully understood. Here, using a transplantable mouse tumor model, we have demonstrated that endogenous IFN-β inhibits tumor angiogenesis through repression of genes encoding proangiogenic and homing factors in tumor-infiltrating neutrophils. We determined that IFN-β–deficient mice injected with B16F10 melanoma or MCA205 fibrosarcoma cells developed faster-growing tumors with better-developed blood vessels than did syngeneic control mice. These tumors displayed enhanced infiltration by CD11b+Gr1+ neutrophils expressing elevated levels of the genes encoding the proangiogenic factors VEGF and MMP9 and the homing receptor CXCR4. They also expressed higher levels of the transcription factors c-myc and STAT3, known regulators of VEGF, MMP9, and CXCR4. In vitro, treatment of these tumor-infiltrating neutrophils with low levels of IFN-β restored expression of proangiogenic factors to control levels. Moreover, depletion of these neutrophils inhibited tumor growth in both control and IFN-β–deficient mice. We therefore suggest that constitutively produced endogenous IFN-β is an important mediator of innate tumor surveillance. Further, we believe our data help to explain the therapeutic effect of IFN treatment during the early stages of cancer development.
Jadwiga Jablonska, Sara Leschner, Kathrin Westphal, Stefan Lienenklaus, Siegfried Weiss
Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is one of the most common types of human cancer and frequently metastasizes to LNs. Identifying metastasis-promoting factors is of immense clinical interest, as the prognosis for patients with even a single unilateral LN metastasis is extremely poor. Here, we report that p90 ribosomal S6 kinase 2 (RSK2) promotes human HNSCC cell invasion and metastasis. We determined that RSK2 was overexpressed and activated in highly invasive HNSCC cell lines compared with poorly invasive cell lines. Expression of RSK2 also correlated with metastatic progression in patients with HNSCC. Ectopic expression of RSK2 substantially enhanced the invasive capacity of HNSCC cells, while inhibition of RSK2 activity led to marked attenuation of invasion in vitro. Additionally, shRNA knockdown of RSK2 substantially reduced the invasive and metastatic potential of HNSCC cells in vitro and in vivo in a xenograft mouse model, respectively. Mechanistically, we determined that cAMP-responsive element-binding protein (CREB) and Hsp27 are phosphorylated and activated by RSK2 and are important for the RSK2-mediated invasive ability of HNSCC cells. Our findings suggest that RSK2 is involved in the prometastatic programming of HNSCC cells, through phosphorylation of proteins in a putative signaling network. Moreover, targeting RSK2 markedly attenuates in vitro invasion and in vivo metastasis of HNSCC cells, suggesting that RSK2 may represent a therapeutic target in the treatment of metastatic HNSCC.
Sumin Kang, Shannon Elf, Katherine Lythgoe, Taro Hitosugi, Jack Taunton, Wei Zhou, Li Xiong, Dongsheng Wang, Susan Muller, Songqing Fan, Shi-Yong Sun, Adam I. Marcus, Ting-Lei Gu, Roberto D. Polakiewicz, Zhuo (Georgia) Chen, Fadlo R. Khuri, Dong M. Shin, Jing Chen
Chromodomain helicase/ATPase DNA binding protein 1–like gene (CHD1L) is a recently identified oncogene localized at 1q21, a frequently amplified region in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). To explore its oncogenic mechanisms, we set out to identify CHD1L-regulated genes using a chromatin immunoprecipitation–based (ChIP-based) cloning strategy in a human HCC cell line. We then further characterized 1 identified gene, ARHGEF9, which encodes a specific guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) for the Rho small GTPase Cdc42. Overexpression of ARHGEF9 was detected in approximately half the human HCC samples analyzed and positively correlated with CHD1L overexpression. In vitro and in vivo functional studies in mice showed that CHD1L contributed to tumor cell migration, invasion, and metastasis by increasing cell motility and inducing filopodia formation and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) via ARHGEF9-mediated Cdc42 activation. Silencing ARHGEF9 expression by RNAi effectively abolished the invasive and metastatic abilities of CHD1L in mice. Furthermore, investigation of clinical HCC specimens showed that CHD1L and ARHGEF9 were markedly overexpressed in metastatic HCC tissue compared with healthy tissue. Increased expression of CHD1L was often observed at the invasive front of HCC tumors and correlated with venous infiltration, microsatellite tumor nodule formation, and poor disease-free survival. These findings suggest that CHD1L-ARHGEF9-Cdc42-EMT might be a novel pathway involved in HCC progression and metastasis.
Leilei Chen, Tim Hon Man Chan, Yun-Fei Yuan, Liang Hu, Jun Huang, Stephanie Ma, Jian Wang, Sui-Sui Dong, Kwan Ho Tang, Dan Xie, Yan Li, Xin-Yuan Guan
HSCs are BM-derived, self-renewing multipotent cells that develop into circulating blood cells. They have been implicated in the repair of inflamed parenchymal tissue, but the signals that regulate their trafficking to sites of inflammation are unknown. As monocytes are recruited to sites of inflammation via chemoattractants that activate CCR2 on their surface, we investigated whether HSCs are also recruited to sites of inflammation through CCR2. Initial analysis indicated that in mice, CCR2 was expressed on subsets of HSCs and hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPCs) and that freshly isolated primitive hematopoietic cells (Lin–c-Kit+ cells) responded to CCR2 ligands in vitro. In vivo analysis indicated that after instillation of thioglycollate to cause aseptic inflammation and after administration of acetaminophen to induce liver damage, endogenous HSCs/HPCs were actively recruited to the peritoneum and liver, respectively, in WT but not Ccr2–/– mice. HSCs/HPCs recovered from the peritoneum successfully engrafted into the BM of irradiated primary and secondary recipients, confirming their self renewal and multipotency. Importantly, administration of exogenous WT, but not Ccr2–/–, HSCs/HPCs accelerated resolution of acetaminophen-induced liver damage and triggered the expression of genes characteristic of the macrophage M2 or repair phenotype. These findings reveal what we believe to be a novel role for CCR2 in the homing of HSCs/HPCs to sites of inflammation and suggest new functions for chemokines in promoting tissue repair and regeneration.
Yue Si, Chia-Lin Tsou, Kelsey Croft, Israel F. Charo
Receptor tyrosine kinases are involved in multiple cellular processes, and drugs that inhibit their action are used in the clinic to treat several types of cancer. However, the value of receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors (RTKIs) for treating infectious disease has yet to be explored. Here, we have shown in mice that administration of the broad-spectrum RTKI sunitinib maleate (Sm) blocked the vascular remodeling and progressive splenomegaly associated with experimental visceral leishmaniasis. Furthermore, Sm treatment restored the integrity of the splenic microarchitecture. Although restoration of splenic architecture was accompanied by an increase in the frequency of IFN-γ+CD4+ T cells, Sm treatment alone was insufficient to cause a reduction in tissue parasite burden. However, preconditioning by short-term Sm treatment proved to be successful as an adjunct therapy, increasing the frequency of IFN-γ+ and IFN-γ+TNF+CD4+ T cells, enhancing NO production by splenic macrophages, and providing dose-sparing effects when combined with a first-line immune-dependent anti-leishmanial drug. We propose, therefore, that RTKIs may prove clinically useful as agents to restore immune competence before the administration of chemo- or immunotherapeutic drugs in the treatment of visceral leishmaniasis or other diseases involving lymphoid tissue remodeling, including cancer.
Jane E. Dalton, Asher Maroof, Benjamin M.J. Owens, Priyanka Narang, Katherine Johnson, Najmeeyah Brown, Lovisa Rosenquist, Lynette Beattie, Mark Coles, Paul M. Kaye
Arterial morphogenesis is an important and poorly understood process. In particular, the signaling events controlling arterial formation have not been established. We evaluated whether alterations in the balance between ERK1/2 and PI3K signaling pathways could stimulate arterial formation in the setting of defective arterial morphogenesis in mice and zebrafish. Increased ERK1/2 activity in mouse ECs with reduced VEGF responsiveness was achieved in vitro and in vivo by downregulating PI3K activity, suppressing Akt1 but not Akt2 expression, or introducing a constitutively active ERK1/2 construct. Such restoration of ERK1/2 activation was sufficient to restore impaired arterial development and branching morphogenesis in synectin-deficient mice and synectin-knockdown zebrafish. The same approach effectively stimulated arterial growth in adult mice, restoring arteriogenesis in mice lacking synectin and in atherosclerotic mice lacking both LDL-R and ApoB48. We therefore conclude that PI3K-ERK1/2 crosstalk plays a key role in the regulation of arterial growth and that the augmentation of ERK signaling via suppression of the PI3K signaling pathway can effectively stimulate arteriogenesis.
Bin Ren, Yong Deng, Arpita Mukhopadhyay, Anthony A. Lanahan, Zhen W. Zhuang, Karen L. Moodie, Mary Jo Mulligan-Kehoe, Tatiana V. Byzova, Randall T. Peterson, Michael Simons
Ang I–converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors are widely believed to suppress the deleterious cardiac effects of Ang II by inhibiting locally generated Ang II. However, the recent demonstration that chymase, an Ang II–forming enzyme stored in mast cell granules, is present in the heart has added uncertainty to this view. As discussed here, using microdialysis probes tethered to the heart of conscious mice, we have shown that chronic ACE inhibitor treatment did not suppress Ang II levels in the LV interstitial fluid (ISF) despite marked inhibition of ACE. However, chronic ACE inhibition caused a marked bradykinin/B2 receptor–mediated increase in LV ISF chymase activity that was not observed in mast cell–deficient KitW/KitW-v mice. In chronic ACE inhibitor–treated mast cell–sufficient littermates, chymase inhibition decreased LV ISF Ang II levels substantially, indicating the importance of mast cell chymase in regulating cardiac Ang II levels. Chymase-dependent processing of other regulatory peptides also promotes inflammation and tissue remodeling. We found that combined chymase and ACE inhibition, relative to ACE inhibition alone, improved LV function, decreased adverse cardiac remodeling, and improved survival after myocardial infarction in hamsters. These results suggest that chymase inhibitors could be a useful addition to ACE inhibitor therapy in the treatment of heart failure.
Chih-Chang Wei, Naoki Hase, Yukiko Inoue, Eddie W. Bradley, Eiji Yahiro, Ming Li, Nawazish Naqvi, Pamela C. Powell, Ke Shi, Yoshimasa Takahashi, Keijiro Saku, Hidenori Urata, Louis J. Dell’Italia, Ahsan Husain
Bradykinin (BK) is an inflammatory mediator and one of the most potent endogenous pain-inducing substances. When released at sites of tissue damage or inflammation, or applied exogenously, BK produces acute spontaneous pain and causes hyperalgesia (increased sensitivity to potentially painful stimuli). The mechanisms underlying spontaneous pain induced by BK are poorly understood. Here we report that in small nociceptive neurons from rat dorsal root ganglia, BK, acting through its B2 receptors, PLC, and release of calcium from intracellular stores, robustly inhibits M-type K+ channels and opens Ca2+-activated Cl– channels (CaCCs) encoded by Tmem16a (also known as Ano1). Summation of these two effects accounted for the depolarization and increase in AP firing induced by BK in DRG neurons. Local injection of inhibitors of CaCC and specific M-channel openers both strongly attenuated the nociceptive effect of local injections of BK in rats. These results provide a framework for understanding spontaneous inflammatory pain and may suggest new drug targets for treatment of such pain.
Boyi Liu, John E. Linley, Xiaona Du, Xuan Zhang, Lezanne Ooi, Hailin Zhang, Nikita Gamper
Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is a neuromuscular disease caused by a deficiency of survival motor neuron (SMN) due to mutations in the SMN1 gene. In this study, an adeno-associated virus (AAV) vector expressing human SMN (AAV8-hSMN) was injected at birth into the CNS of mice modeling SMA. Western blot analysis showed that these injections resulted in widespread expression of SMN throughout the spinal cord, and this translated into robust improvement in skeletal muscle physiology, including increased myofiber size and improved neuromuscular junction architecture. Treated mice also displayed substantial improvements on behavioral tests of muscle strength, coordination, and locomotion, indicating that the neuromuscular junction was functional. Treatment with AAV8-hSMN increased the median life span of mice with SMA-like disease to 50 days compared with 15 days for untreated controls. Moreover, injecting mice with SMA-like disease with a human SMN–expressing self-complementary AAV vector — a vector that leads to earlier onset of gene expression compared with standard AAV vectors — led to improved efficacy of gene therapy, including a substantial extension in median survival to 157 days. These data indicate that CNS-directed, AAV-mediated SMN augmentation is highly efficacious in addressing both neuronal and muscular pathologies in a severe mouse model of SMA.
Marco A. Passini, Jie Bu, Eric M. Roskelley, Amy M. Richards, S. Pablo Sardi, Catherine R. O’Riordan, Katherine W. Klinger, Lamya S. Shihabuddin, Seng H. Cheng
Antibody deficiencies constitute the largest group of symptomatic primary immunodeficiency diseases. In several patients, mutations in CD19 have been found to underlie disease, demonstrating the critical role for the protein encoded by this gene in antibody responses; CD19 functions in a complex with CD21, CD81, and CD225 to signal with the B cell receptor upon antigen recognition. We report here a patient with severe nephropathy and profound hypogammaglobulinemia. The immunodeficiency was characterized by decreased memory B cell numbers, impaired specific antibody responses, and an absence of CD19 expression on B cells. The patient had normal CD19 alleles but carried a homozygous CD81 mutation resulting in a complete lack of CD81 expression on blood leukocytes. Retroviral transduction and glycosylation experiments on EBV-transformed B cells from the patient revealed that CD19 membrane expression critically depended on CD81. Similar to CD19-deficient patients, CD81-deficient patients had B cells that showed impaired activation upon stimulation via the B cell antigen receptor but no overt T cell subset or function defects. In this study, we present what we believe to be the first antibody deficiency syndrome caused by a mutation in the CD81 gene and consequent disruption of the CD19 complex on B cells. These findings may contribute to unraveling the genetic basis of antibody deficiency syndromes and the nonredundant functions of CD81 in humans.
Menno C. van Zelm, Julie Smet, Brigitte Adams, Françoise Mascart, Liliane Schandené, Françoise Janssen, Alina Ferster, Chiung-Chi Kuo, Shoshana Levy, Jacques J.M. van Dongen, Mirjam van der Burg
Chronic rejection currently limits the long-term efficacy of clinical transplantation. Although B cells have recently been shown to play a pivotal role in the induction of alloimmunity and are being targeted in other transplant contexts, the efficacy of preemptive B cell depletion to modulate alloimmunity or attenuate cardiac allograft vasculopathy (CAV) (classic chronic rejection lesions found in transplanted hearts) in a translational model has not previously been described. We report here that the CD20-specific antibody (αCD20) rituximab depleted CD20+ B cells in peripheral blood, secondary lymphoid organs, and the graft in cynomolgus monkey recipients of heterotopic cardiac allografts. Furthermore, CD20+ B cell depletion therapy combined with the calcineurin inhibitor cyclosporine A (CsA) prolonged median primary graft survival relative to treatment with αCD20 or CsA alone. In animals treated with both αCD20 and CsA that achieved efficient B cell depletion, alloantibody production was substantially inhibited and the CAV severity score was markedly reduced. We conclude therefore that efficient preemptive depletion of CD20+ B cells is effective in a preclinical model to modulate pathogenic alloimmunity and to attenuate chronic rejection when used in conjunction with a conventional clinical immunosuppressant. This study suggests that use of this treatment combination may improve the efficacy of transplantation in the clinic.
Shahrooz S. Kelishadi, Agnes M. Azimzadeh, Tianshu Zhang, Tiffany Stoddard, Emily Welty, Christopher Avon, Mitch Higuchi, Amal Laaris, Xiang-Fei Cheng, Christine McMahon, Richard N. Pierson III
Compelling evidence suggests that inflammation, cell survival, and cancer are linked, with a central role played by NF-κB. Recent studies implicate some TLRs in tumor development based on their ability to facilitate tumor growth; however, to our knowledge, involvement of neither TLR7 nor TLR78 has yet been demonstrated. Here we have demonstrated expression of TLR7 and TLR8, the natural receptors for single-stranded RNA, by tumor cells in human lung cancer in situ and in human lung tumor cell lines. Stimulation with TLR7 or TLR8 agonists led to activated NF-κB, upregulated expression of the antiapoptotic protein Bcl-2, increased tumor cell survival, and chemoresistance. Transcriptional analysis performed on human primary lung tumor cells and TLR7- or TLR8-stimulated human lung tumor cell lines revealed a gene expression signature suggestive of chronic stimulation of tumor cells by TLR ligands in situ. Together, these data emphasize that TLR signaling can directly favor tumor development and further suggest that researchers developing anticancer immunotherapy using TLR7 or TLR8 agonists as adjuvants should take into account the expression of these TLRs in lung tumor cells.
Julien Cherfils-Vicini, Sophia Platonova, Mélanie Gillard, Ludivine Laurans, Pierre Validire, Rafaele Caliandro, Pierre Magdeleinat, Fathia Mami-Chouaib, Marie-Caroline Dieu-Nosjean, Wolf-Herman Fridman, Diane Damotte, Catherine Sautès-Fridman, Isabelle Cremer
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) regulate gene expression. It has been suggested that obtaining miRNA expression profiles can improve classification, diagnostic, and prognostic information in oncology. Here, we sought to comprehensively identify the miRNAs that are overexpressed in lung cancer by conducting miRNA microarray expression profiling on normal lung versus adjacent lung cancers from transgenic mice. We found that miR-136, miR-376a, and miR-31 were each prominently overexpressed in murine lung cancers. Real-time RT-PCR and in situ hybridization (ISH) assays confirmed these miRNA expression profiles in paired normal-malignant lung tissues from mice and humans. Engineered knockdown of miR-31, but not other highlighted miRNAs, substantially repressed lung cancer cell growth and tumorigenicity in a dose-dependent manner. Using a bioinformatics approach, we identified miR-31 target mRNAs and independently confirmed them as direct targets in human and mouse lung cancer cell lines. These targets included the tumor-suppressive genes large tumor suppressor 2 (LATS2) and PP2A regulatory subunit B alpha isoform (PPP2R2A), and expression of each was augmented by miR-31 knockdown. Their engineered repression antagonized miR-31–mediated growth inhibition. Notably, miR-31 and these target mRNAs were inversely expressed in mouse and human lung cancers, underscoring their biologic relevance. The clinical relevance of miR-31 expression was further independently and comprehensively validated using an array containing normal and malignant human lung tissues. Together, these findings revealed that miR-31 acts as an oncogenic miRNA (oncomir) in lung cancer by targeting specific tumor suppressors for repression.
Xi Liu, Lorenzo F. Sempere, Haoxu Ouyang, Vincent A. Memoli, Angeline S. Andrew, Yue Luo, Eugene Demidenko, Murray Korc, Wei Shi, Meir Preis, Konstantin H. Dragnev, Hua Li, James DiRenzo, Mads Bak, Sarah J. Freemantle, Sakari Kauppinen, Ethan Dmitrovsky
In vivo resistance to first-line chemotherapy, including to glucocorticoids, is a strong predictor of poor outcome in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Modulation of cell death regulators represents an attractive strategy for subverting such drug resistance. Here we report complete resensitization of multidrug-resistant childhood ALL cells to glucocorticoids and other cytotoxic agents with subcytotoxic concentrations of obatoclax, a putative antagonist of BCL-2 family members. The reversal of glucocorticoid resistance occurred through rapid activation of autophagy-dependent necroptosis, which bypassed the block in mitochondrial apoptosis. This effect was associated with dissociation of the autophagy inducer beclin-1 from the antiapoptotic BCL-2 family member myeloid cell leukemia sequence 1 (MCL-1) and with a marked decrease in mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) activity. Consistent with a protective role for mTOR in glucocorticoid resistance in childhood ALL, combination of rapamycin with the glucocorticoid dexamethasone triggered autophagy-dependent cell death, with characteristic features of necroptosis. Execution of cell death, but not induction of autophagy, was strictly dependent on expression of receptor-interacting protein (RIP-1) kinase and cylindromatosis (turban tumor syndrome) (CYLD), two key regulators of necroptosis. Accordingly, both inhibition of RIP-1 and interference with CYLD restored glucocorticoid resistance completely. Together with evidence for a chemosensitizing activity of obatoclax in vivo, our data provide a compelling rationale for clinical translation of this pharmacological approach into treatments for patients with refractory ALL.
Laura Bonapace, Beat C. Bornhauser, Maike Schmitz, Gunnar Cario, Urs Ziegler, Felix K. Niggli, Beat W. Schäfer, Martin Schrappe, Martin Stanulla, Jean-Pierre Bourquin
Peptide loading of MHC class II (MHCII) molecules is directly catalyzed by the MHCII-like molecule HLA-DM (DM). Another MHCII-like molecule, HLA-DO (DO), associates with DM, thereby modulating DM function. The biological role of DO-mediated regulation of DM activity in vivo remains unknown; however, it has been postulated that DO expression dampens presentation of self antigens, thereby preventing inappropriate T cell activation that ultimately leads to autoimmunity. To test the idea that DO modulation of the MHCII self-peptide repertoire mediates self tolerance, we generated NOD mice that constitutively overexpressed DO in DCs (referred to herein as NOD.DO mice). NOD mice are a mouse model for type 1 diabetes, an autoimmune disease mediated by the destruction of insulin-secreting pancreatic β cells. Our studies showed that diabetes development was completely blocked in NOD.DO mice. Similar to NOD mice, NOD.DO animals selected a diabetogenic T cell repertoire, and the numbers and function of Tregs were normal. Indeed, immune system function in NOD.DO mice was equivalent to that in NOD mice. NOD.DO DCs, however, presented an altered MHCII-bound self-peptide repertoire, thereby preventing the activation of diabetogenic T cells and subsequent diabetes development. These studies show that DO expression can shape the overall MHCII self-peptide repertoire to promote T cell tolerance.
Woelsung Yi, Nilufer P. Seth, Tom Martillotti, Kai W. Wucherpfennig, Derek B. Sant’Angelo, Lisa K. Denzin
Rag2 plays an essential role in the generation of antigen receptors. Mutations that impair Rag2 function can lead to severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID), a condition characterized by complete absence of T and B cells, or Omenn syndrome (OS), a form of SCID characterized by the virtual absence of B cells and the presence of oligoclonal autoreactive T cells. Here, we present a comparative study of a panel of mutations that were identified in the noncanonical plant homeodomain (PHD) of Rag2 in patients with SCID or OS. We show that PHD mutant mouse Rag2 proteins that correspond to those found in these patients greatly impaired endogenous recombination of Ig gene segments in a Rag2-deficient pro-B cell line and that this correlated with decreased protein stability, impaired nuclear localization, and/or loss of the interaction between Rag2 and core histones. Our results demonstrate that point mutations in the PHD of Rag2 compromise the functionality of the entire protein, thus explaining why the phenotype of cells expressing PHD point mutants differs from those expressing core Rag2 protein that lacks the entire C-terminal region and is therefore devoid of the regulation imposed by the PHD. Together, our findings reveal the various deleterious effects of PHD Rag2 mutations and demonstrate the crucial role of this domain in regulating antigen receptor gene assembly. We believe these results reveal new mechanisms of immunodeficiency in SCID and OS.
Chrystelle Couëdel, Christopher Roman, Alison Jones, Paolo Vezzoni, Anna Villa, Patricia Cortes
Resistance to thyroid hormone (RTH), a dominantly inherited disorder usually associated with mutations in thyroid hormone receptor β (THRB), is characterized by elevated levels of circulating thyroid hormones (including thyroxine), failure of feedback suppression of thyrotropin, and variable tissue refractoriness to thyroid hormone action. Raised energy expenditure and hyperphagia are recognized features of hyperthyroidism, but the effects of comparable hyperthyroxinemia in RTH patients are unknown. Here, we show that resting energy expenditure (REE) was substantially increased in adults and children with THRB mutations. Energy intake in RTH subjects was increased by 40%, with marked hyperphagia particularly evident in children. Rates of muscle TCA cycle flux were increased by 75% in adults with RTH, whereas rates of ATP synthesis were unchanged, as determined by 13C/31P magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Mitochondrial coupling index between ATP synthesis and mitochondrial rates of oxidation (as estimated by the ratio of ATP synthesis to TCA cycle flux) was significantly decreased in RTH patients. These data demonstrate that basal mitochondrial substrate oxidation is increased and energy production in the form of ATP synthesis is decreased in the muscle of RTH patients and that resting oxidative phosphorylation is uncoupled in this disorder. Furthermore, these observations suggest that mitochondrial uncoupling in skeletal muscle is a major contributor to increased REE in patients with RTH, due to tissue selective retention of thyroid hormone receptor α sensitivity to elevated thyroid hormone levels.
Catherine S. Mitchell, David B. Savage, Sylvie Dufour, Nadia Schoenmakers, Peter Murgatroyd, Douglas Befroy, David Halsall, Samantha Northcott, Philippa Raymond-Barker, Suzanne Curran, Elana Henning, Julia Keogh, Penny Owen, John Lazarus, Douglas L. Rothman, I. Sadaf Farooqi, Gerald I. Shulman, Krishna Chatterjee, Kitt Falk Petersen
Abs facilitate humoral immunity via the classical mechanisms of opsonization, complement activation, Ab-dependent cellular cytotoxicity, and toxin/viral neutralization. There is also evidence that some Abs mediate direct antimicrobial effects. For example, Ab binding to the polysaccharide capsule of the human pathogenic fungus Cryptococcus neoformans promotes opsonization but also inhibits polysaccharide release and biofilm formation. To investigate whether Ab binding affects C. neoformans directly, we analyzed fungal gene expression after binding of protective and nonprotective mAbs. The 2 IgM Abs and 1 IgG1 Ab tested each induced different changes in gene expression. The protective IgG1 mAb upregulated genes encoding proteins involved in fatty acid synthesis, the protective IgM mAb downregulated genes encoding proteins required for protein translation, and the nonprotective IgM mAb had modest effects on gene expression. Differences in gene expression correlated with mAb binding to different locations of the capsule. Of the 3 Abs tested, the protective IgG1 mAb bound to C. neoformans closest to the cell wall, produced specific differences in the pattern of phosphorylated proteins, caused changes in lipid metabolism, and resulted in increased susceptibility to the antifungal drug amphotericin B. These results suggest what we believe to be a new mode of action for Ab-mediated immunity and raise the possibility that immunoglobulins mediate cross talk between microbes and hosts through their effects on microbial metabolism.
Erin E. McClelland, André M. Nicola, Rafael Prados-Rosales, Arturo Casadevall
Bertrand Huard, Thomas McKee, Carine Bosshard, Stéphane Durual, Thomas Matthes, Samir Myit, Olivier Donze, Christophe Frossard, Carlo Chizzolini, Christiane Favre, Rudolf Zubler, Jean Philippe Guyot, Pascal Schneider, Eddy Roosnek
John F. O’Toole, Yangjian Liu, Erica E. Davis, Christopher J. Westlake, Massimo Attanasio, Edgar A. Otto, Dominik Seelow, Gudrun Nurnberg, Christian Becker, Matti Nuutinen, Mikko Kärppä, Jaakko Ignatius, Johanna Uusimaa, Salla Pakanen, Elisa Jaakkola, Lambertus P. van den Heuvel, Henry Fehrenbach, Roger Wiggins, Meera Goyal, Weibin Zhou, Matthias T.F. Wolf, Eric Wise, Juliana Helou, Susan J. Allen, Carlos A. Murga-Zamalloa, Shazia Ashraf, Moumita Chaki, Saskia Heeringa, Gil Chernin, Bethan E. Hoskins, Hassan Chaib, Joseph Gleeson, Takehiro Kusakabe, Takako Suzuki, R. Elwyn Isaac, Lynne M. Quarmby, Bryan Tennant, Hisashi Fujioka, Hannu Tuominen, Ilmo Hassinen, Hellevi Lohi, Judith L. van Houten, Agnes Rotig, John A. Sayer, Boris Rolinski, Peter Freisinger, Sethu M. Madhavan, Martina Herzer, Florence Madignier, Holger Prokisch, Peter Nurnberg, Peter K. Jackson, Hemant Khanna, Nicholas Katsanis, Friedhelm Hildebrandt