Olfactory dysfunction is broadly associated with neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative diseases and predicts increased mortality rates in healthy individuals. Conventional measurements of olfactory health assess odor processing pathways within the brain and provide a limited understanding of primary odor detection. Quantification of the olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs), which detect odors within the nasal cavity, would provide insight into the etiology of olfactory dysfunction associated with disease and mortality. Notably, OSNs are continually replenished by adult neurogenesis in mammals, including humans, so OSN measurements are primed to provide specialized insights into neurological disease. Here, we have evaluated a PET radiotracer, [11C]GV1-57, that specifically binds mature OSNs and quantifies the mature OSN population in vivo. [11C]GV1-57 monitored native OSN population dynamics in rodents, detecting OSN generation during postnatal development and aging-associated neurodegeneration. [11C]GV1-57 additionally measured rates of neuron regeneration after acute injury and early-stage OSN deficits in a rodent tauopathy model of neurodegenerative disease. Preliminary assessment in nonhuman primates suggested maintained uptake and saturable binding of [18F]GV1-57 in primate nasal epithelium, supporting its translational potential. Future applications for GV1-57 include monitoring additional diseases or conditions associated with olfactory dysregulation, including cognitive decline, as well as monitoring effects of neuroregenerative or neuroprotective therapeutics.
Genevieve C. Van de Bittner, Misha M. Riley, Luxiang Cao, Janina Ehses, Scott P. Herrick, Emily L. Ricq, Hsiao-Ying Wey, Michael J. O’Neill, Zeshan Ahmed, Tracey K. Murray, Jaclyn E. Smith, Changning Wang, Frederick A. Schroeder, Mark W. Albers, Jacob M. Hooker
Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS) is a rare autosomal dominant genetic disease that is caused by a silent mutation of the
Su-Jin Lee, Youn-Sang Jung, Min-Ho Yoon, So-mi Kang, Ah-Young Oh, Jee-Hyun Lee, So-Young Jun, Tae-Gyun Woo, Ho-Young Chun, Sang Kyum Kim, Kyu Jin Chung, Ho-Young Lee, Kyeong Lee, Guanghai Kim, Min-Kyun Na, Nam Chul Ha, Clea Bárcena, José M.P. Freije, Carlos López-Otín, Gyu Yong Song, Bum-Joon Park
Immune aging results in progressive loss of both protective immunity and T cell–mediated suppression, thereby conferring susceptibility to a combination of immunodeficiency and chronic inflammatory disease. Here, we determined that older individuals fail to generate immunosuppressive CD8+CCR7+ Tregs, a defect that is even more pronounced in the age-related vasculitic syndrome giant cell arteritis. In young, healthy individuals, CD8+CCR7+ Tregs are localized in T cell zones of secondary lymphoid organs, suppress activation and expansion of CD4 T cells by inhibiting the phosphorylation of membrane-proximal signaling molecules, and effectively inhibit proliferative expansion of CD4 T cells in vitro and in vivo. We identified deficiency of NADPH oxidase 2 (NOX2) as the molecular underpinning of CD8 Treg failure in the older individuals and in patients with giant cell arteritis. CD8 Tregs suppress by releasing exosomes that carry preassembled NOX2 membrane clusters and are taken up by CD4 T cells. Overexpression of NOX2 in aged CD8 Tregs promptly restored suppressive function. Together, our data support NOX2 as a critical component of the suppressive machinery of CD8 Tregs and suggest that repairing NOX2 deficiency in these cells may protect older individuals from tissue-destructive inflammatory disease, such as large-vessel vasculitis.
Zhenke Wen, Yasuhiro Shimojima, Tsuyoshi Shirai, Yinyin Li, Jihang Ju, Zhen Yang, Lu Tian, Jörg J. Goronzy, Cornelia M. Weyand
The alternatively spliced products of
John M. Lee, Chika Nobumori, Yiping Tu, Catherine Choi, Shao H. Yang, Hea-Jin Jung, Timothy A. Vickers, Frank Rigo, C. Frank Bennett, Stephen G. Young, Loren G. Fong
Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most prevalent and debilitating joint disease, and there are currently no effective disease-modifying treatments available. Multiple risk factors for OA, such as aging, result in progressive damage and loss of articular cartilage. Autonomous circadian clocks have been identified in mouse cartilage, and environmental disruption of circadian rhythms in mice predisposes animals to OA-like damage. However, the contribution of the cartilage clock mechanisms to the maintenance of tissue homeostasis is still unclear. Here, we have shown that expression of the core clock transcription factor BMAL1 is disrupted in human OA cartilage and in aged mouse cartilage. Furthermore, targeted
Michal Dudek, Nicole Gossan, Nan Yang, Hee-Jeong Im, Jayalath P.D. Ruckshanthi, Hikari Yoshitane, Xin Li, Ding Jin, Ping Wang, Maya Boudiffa, Ilaria Bellantuono, Yoshitaka Fukada, Ray P. Boot-Handford, Qing-Jun Meng
Vascular oxidative injury accompanies many common conditions associated with hypertension. In the present study, we employed mouse models with excessive vascular production of ROS (tgsm/p22phox mice, which overexpress the NADPH oxidase subunit p22
Jing Wu, Mohamed A. Saleh, Annet Kirabo, Hana A. Itani, Kim Ramil C. Montaniel, Liang Xiao, Wei Chen, Raymond L. Mernaugh, Hua Cai, Kenneth E. Bernstein, Jörg J. Goronzy, Cornelia M. Weyand, John A. Curci, Natalia R. Barbaro, Heitor Moreno, Sean S. Davies, L. Jackson Roberts II, Meena S. Madhur, David G. Harrison
The incidence of cancer is higher in the elderly; however, many of the underlying mechanisms for this association remain unexplored. Here, we have shown that B cell progenitors in old mice exhibit marked signaling, gene expression, and metabolic defects. Moreover, B cell progenitors that developed from hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) transferred from young mice into aged animals exhibited similar fitness defects. We further demonstrated that ectopic expression of the oncogenes
Curtis J. Henry, Matias Casás-Selves, Jihye Kim, Vadym Zaberezhnyy, Leila Aghili, Ashley E. Daniel, Linda Jimenez, Tania Azam, Eoin N. McNamee, Eric T. Clambey, Jelena Klawitter, Natalie J. Serkova, Aik Choon Tan, Charles A. Dinarello, James DeGregori
Dyskeratosis congenita (DC) and related syndromes are inherited, life-threatening bone marrow (BM) failure disorders, and approximately 40% of cases are currently uncharacterized at the genetic level. Here, using whole exome sequencing (WES), we have identified biallelic mutations in the gene encoding poly(A)-specific ribonuclease (PARN) in 3 families with individuals exhibiting severe DC. PARN is an extensively characterized exonuclease with deadenylation activity that controls mRNA stability in part and therefore regulates expression of a large number of genes. The DC-associated mutations identified affect key domains within the protein, and evaluation of patient cells revealed reduced deadenylation activity. This deadenylation deficiency caused an early DNA damage response in terms of nuclear p53 regulation, cell-cycle arrest, and reduced cell viability upon UV treatment. Individuals with biallelic
Hemanth Tummala, Amanda Walne, Laura Collopy, Shirleny Cardoso, Josu de la Fuente, Sarah Lawson, James Powell, Nicola Cooper, Alison Foster, Shehla Mohammed, Vincent Plagnol, Thomas Vulliamy, Inderjeet Dokal
There is large variation in lifespan among different species, and there is evidence that modulation of proteasome function may contribute to longevity determination. Comparative biology provides a powerful tool for identifying genes and pathways that control the rate of aging. Here, we evaluated skin-derived fibroblasts and demonstrate that among primate species, longevity correlated with an elevation in proteasomal activity as well as immunoproteasome expression at both the mRNA and protein levels. Immunoproteasome enhancement occurred with a concurrent increase in other elements involved in MHC class I antigen presentation, including β-2 microglobulin, (TAP1), and TAP2. Fibroblasts from long-lived primates also appeared more responsive to IFN-γ than cells from short-lived primate species, and this increase in IFN-γ responsiveness correlated with elevated expression of the IFN-γ receptor protein IFNGR2. Elevation of immunoproteasome and proteasome activity was also observed in the livers of long-lived Snell dwarf mice and in mice exposed to drugs that have been shown to extend lifespan, including rapamycin, 17-α-estradiol, and nordihydroguaiaretic acid. This work suggests that augmented immunoproteasome function may contribute to lifespan differences in mice and among primate species.
Andrew M. Pickering, Marcus Lehr, Richard A. Miller
The number of newly formed neurons declines rapidly during aging, and this decrease in neurogenesis is associated with decreased function of neural stem/progenitor cells (NPCs). Here, we determined that a WIP1-dependent pathway regulates NPC differentiation and contributes to the age-associated decline of neurogenesis. Specifically, we found that WIP1 is expressed in NPCs of the mouse subventricular zone (SVZ) and aged animals with genetically enhanced WIP1 expression exhibited higher NPC numbers and neuronal differentiation compared with aged WT animals. Additionally, augmenting WIP1 expression in aged animals markedly improved neuron formation and rescued a functional defect in fine odor discrimination in aged mice. We identified the WNT signaling pathway inhibitor DKK3 as a key downstream target of WIP1 and found that expression of DKK3 in the SVZ is restricted to NPCs. Using murine reporter strains, we determined that DKK3 inhibits neuroblast formation by suppressing WNT signaling and
Yunhua Zhu, Oleg N. Demidov, Amanda M. Goh, David M. Virshup, David P. Lane, Dmitry V. Bulavin
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