A decreased mobilization of triglycerides may contribute to fat accumulation in adipocytes, leading to obesity. However, this hypothesis remains to be proven. In this study, epinephrine-induced lipid mobilization was investigated in vivo in nine markedly obese children (160+/-5% ideal body weight) aged 12.1+/-0.1 yr during the dynamic phase of fat deposition, compared with six age-matched nonobese children. As an in vivo index of lipolysis, we measured glycerol flux using a nonradioactive tracer dilution approach, and plasma free fatty acid concentrations. In the basal state, the obese children had a 30% lower rate of glycerol release per unit fat mass than the lean children. To study the regulation of lipolysis, epinephrine was infused stepwise at fixed doses of 0.75 and then 1. 50 microg/min in both groups. In lean children, glycerol flux and plasma free fatty acid increased to an average of 249-246% of basal values, respectively, in response to a mean plasma epinephrine of 396+/-41 pg/ml. The corresponding increase was only 55-72% in the obese children, although their mean plasma epinephrine reached 606+/-68 pg/ml. All obese and nonobese children, except an Arg64Trp heterozygote, were homozygotes for Trp at position 64 of their beta3-adrenoreceptor. The resistance of lipolysis to epinephrine showed no relationship with the Arg64 polymorphism of the beta3-adrenoreceptor gene. In summary, in vivo lipolysis, which mostly reflects the mobilization of lipid stores from subcutaneous adipose tissue, shows a decreased sensitivity to epinephrine in childhood onset obesity. Since our study was carried out in obese children during the dynamic phase of fat accumulation, the observed resistance to catecholamines might possibly be causative rather than the result of obesity.
P Bougnères, C L Stunff, C Pecqueur, E Pinglier, P Adnot, D Ricquier
Cysteine proteases have been implicated as important virulence factors in a wide range of prokaryotic and eukaryotic pathogens, but little direct evidence has been presented to support this notion. Virtually all strains of the human bacterial pathogen Streptococcus pyogenes express a highly conserved extracellular cysteine protease known as streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin B (SpeB). Two sets of isogenic strains deficient in SpeB cysteine protease activity were constructed by integrational mutagenesis using nonreplicating recombinant plasmids containing a truncated segment of the speB gene. Immunoblot analyses and enzyme assays confirmed that the mutant derivatives were deficient in expression of enzymatically active SpeB cysteine protease. To test the hypothesis that the cysteine protease participates in host mortality, we assessed the ability of serotype M3 and M49 wild-type strains and isogenic protease-negative mutants to cause death in outbred mice after intraperitoneal inoculation. Compared to wild-type parental organisms, the serotype M3 speB mutant lost virtually all ability to cause mouse death (P < 0.00001), and similarly, the virulence of the M49 mutant was detrimentally altered (P < 0.005). The data unambiguously demonstrate that the streptococcal enzyme is a virulence factor, and thereby provide additional evidence that microbial cysteine proteases are critical in host-pathogen interactions.
S Lukomski, S Sreevatsan, C Amberg, W Reichardt, M Woischnik, A Podbielski, J M Musser
Melanoma growth stimulatory activity (MGSA/GROalpha) is a 73 amino acid peptide sharing sequence characteristics with the alpha-chemokine superfamily. MGSA/GROalpha is produced by diverse melanoma cell lines and reported to act as an autocrine growth factor for the cells. We tested the binding of MGSA/GROalpha to melanoma cell lines, Hs 294T and RPMI7951, and found that these cells could bind to MGSA/GROalpha but not to interleukin-8. Recently, we defined a novel hexapeptide, antileukinate, which is a potent inhibitor of binding of alpha-chemokines to their receptors on neutrophils. When antileukinate was added to melanoma cells, it inhibited the binding of MGSA/ GROalpha. The growth of cells from both melanoma cell lines was suppressed completely in the presence of 100 microM peptide. The cell growth inhibition was reversed by the removal of the peptide from the culture media or by the addition of the excess amount of MGSA/GROalpha. The viability of Hs 294T cells in the presence of 100 microM peptide was > 92%. These findings suggest that MGSA/GROalpha is an essential autostimulatory growth factor for melanoma cells and antileukinate inhibits their growth by preventing MGSA/GROalpha from binding to its receptors.
S Hayashi, A Kurdowska, A B Cohen, M D Stevens, N Fujisawa, E J Miller
During active intestinal inflammation polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) transmigrate into the lumen and release 5'-AMP (J. Clin. Invest. 1993. 91:2320-2325). 5'-AMP is converted to adenosine by the apical epithelial surface with subsequent activation of electrogenic Cl- secretion (the basis of secretory diarrhea) via apical A2b adenosine receptors (J. Biol. Chem. 1995. 270:2387-2394). Using a polarized human intestinal epithelial monolayer (T84), we now characterize the basis of the observed conversion of 5'-AMP to adenosine required for this paracrine signaling pathway. An inhibitor of the ecto-5'-nucleotidase CD73, alpha, beta-methylene ADP (AOPCP), inhibited epithelial Cl- secretory responses to 5'-AMP, but not to authentic adenosine. Confocal immunofluorescent microscopy revealed CD73 to be surface expressed on both model and natural human intestinal epithelia. Expression was about sixfold greater on the apical cell surface as assessed biochemically by selective cell surface biotinylation, and morphologically by immunofluorescence. Treatment with phosphotidylinositol specific-phospholipase C (PI-PLC) released 95% of apical CD73, indicating that the intestinal CD73 possesses a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchor. Neither adenosine nor 5'-AMP stimulation induced intact T84 cells to shed surface CD73. The bulk of apical CD73 ( approximately 60%) was released from the cell surface by treatment with 1% Triton X-100 (TX-100) at 4 degrees C, but such release was not affected by pretreatment with ligand or by prior, antibody-mediated cross-linking of CD73. Subsequent analyses showed that the subpool of CD73 released by TX-100 at 4 degrees C was not truly solubilized, but rather represented TX-100-induced release of CD73-containing membrane fragments. These membrane fragments displayed light density on sucrose gradients characteristic of detergent insoluble glycosphingolipid-rich membrane domains (DIGs)/ caveolae, were solubilized by n-octyl glucoside (NOG, 1%) at 4 degrees C, and contained caveolin. These data indicate that human intestinal epithelia express CD73, which is apically polarized and targeted to microdomains with DIGs/caveolae characteristics. CD73 likely participates in translating paracrine, PMN-derived 5'-AMP signals to the authentic effector adenosine. These studies define CD73 as central to PMN-mediated intestinal Cl- secretion, the major directacting mechanism by which PMN induce intestinal epithelial Cl- secretion.
G R Strohmeier, W I Lencer, T W Patapoff, L F Thompson, S L Carlson, S J Moe, D K Carnes, R J Mrsny, J L Madara
Sympathetic vasoconstriction is sensitive to inhibition by metabolic events in contracting rat and human skeletal muscle, but the underlying cellular mechanisms are unknown. In rats, this inhibition involves mainly alpha2-adrenergic vasoconstriction, which relies heavily on Ca2+ influx through voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels. We therefore hypothesized that contraction-induced inhibition of sympathetic vasoconstriction is mediated by ATP-sensitive potassium (KATP) channels, a hyperpolarizing vasodilator mechanism that could be activated by some metabolic product(s) of skeletal muscle contraction. We tested this hypothesis in anesthetized rats by measuring femoral artery blood flow responses to lumbar sympathetic nerve stimulation or intraarterial hindlimb infusion of the specific alpha2-adrenergic agonist UK 14,304 during KATP channel activation with diazoxide in resting hindlimb and during KATP channel block with glibenclamide in contracting hindlimb. The major new findings are twofold. First, like muscle contraction, pharmacologic activation of KATP channels with diazoxide in resting hindlimb dose dependently attenuated the vasoconstrictor responses to either sympathetic nerve stimulation or intraarterial UK 14,304. Second, the large contraction-induced attenuation in sympathetic vasoconstriction elicited by nerve stimulation or UK 14,304 was partially reversed when the physiologic activation of KATP channels produced by muscle contraction was prevented with glibenclamide. We conclude that contraction-induced activation of KATP channels is a major mechanism underlying metabolic inhibition of sympathetic vasoconstriction in exercising skeletal muscle.
G D Thomas, J Hansen, R G Victor
The skin is an attractive tissue for regulated target gene expression by virtue of its accessibility to topical regulating stimuli. We have used synthetic ligand-driven intracellular oligomerization to accomplish specific target gene regulation in human skin keratinocytes and fibroblasts. GAL4 DNA binding domains and VP16 transactivation domains, each linked to the FK506 binding protein, were expressed in normal human skin keratinocytes and fibroblasts. These hybrid proteins underwent heterodimerization via the novel intracellular dimerizing agent FK1012 to generate a heterodimeric activator of target gene expression in vitro. Dimeric FK1012, but not monomeric FK506M induced target gene expression in a dose-dependent fashion. FK1012 exerted no detectable nonspecific effects on expression of cutaneous genes and did not alter cellular proliferation kinetics. Controlled oligomerization of hybrid transcription activators offers a potential approach to target gene regulation in cells of normal human skin.
R A Freiberg, S N Ho, P A Khavari
Bacterial superantigens are potent T cell activators, and superantigen proteins have been injected into mice and other animals to study T cell responses in vivo. When superantigen proteins are injected, however, the T cell stimulatory effects cannot be confined to specific tissues. Therefore, to target superantigen expression to specific tissues, we used gene transfer techniques to express bacterial superantigen genes in mammalian cells in vitro and in tissues in vivo. Murine, human, and canine cells transfected with superantigen genes in vitro all produced superantigen proteins both intracellularly and extracellularly, as assessed by bioassay, immunocytochemistry, and antigen ELISA. Superantigens produced by transfected eukaryotic cells retained their biologic specificity for T cell receptor binding. Intramuscular injection of superantigen plasmid DNA in vivo induced an intense intramuscular mononuclear cell infiltrate, an effect that could not be reproduced by intramuscular injection of superantigen protein. Intradermal and intravenous injection of superantigen DNA induced cutaneous and intrapulmonary mononuclear cell inflammatory responses, respectively. Thus, superantigen genes can be expressed by mammalian cells in vivo. Superantigen gene therapy represents a novel method of targeting localized T cell inflammatory reactions, with potential application to treatment of cancer and certain infectious diseases.
S W Dow, T A Potter
Systemic administration of the nitric oxide (NO) synthase inhibitor Nomega-nitro--arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) to rabbits bearing a corneal implant blocked vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), but not basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF)-induced angiogenesis. L-NAME completely blocked angiogenesis induced by VEGF-transfected MCF-7 breast carcinoma cells and the cells remained dormant in the cornea. Postcapillary endothelial cell migration and growth induced by VEGF were blocked by both the NO synthase inhibitor Nomega-mono-methyl--arginine and by the guanylate cyclase inhibitor LY 83583. We conclude that NO is a downstream imperative of VEGF-, but not bFGF-induced angiogenesis, and propose that the NO synthase/guanylate cyclase pathway is a potential target for controlling tumor angiogenesis in response to VEGF. Our studies support recent evidence that VEGF and bFGF induce angiogenesis by different mechanistic pathways using the alphavbeta5 and alphavbeta3 integrins, respectively.
M Ziche, L Morbidelli, R Choudhuri, H T Zhang, S Donnini, H J Granger, R Bicknell
Myocyte cell loss is a prominent and important pathogenic feature of cardiac ischemia. We have used cultured neonatal rat cardiac myocytes exposed to prolonged hypoxia as an experimental system to identify critical factors involved in cardiomyocyte death. Exposure of myocytes to hypoxia for 48 h resulted in intranucleosomal cleavage of genomic DNA characteristic of apoptosis and was accompanied by increased p53 transactivating activity and protein accumulation. Expression of p21/WAF-1/CIP-1, a well-characterized target of p53 transactivation, also increased in response to hypoxia. Hypoxia did not cause DNA laddering or cell loss in cardiac fibroblasts. To determine whether the increase in p53 expression in myocytes was sufficient to induce apoptosis, normoxic cultures were infected with a replication-defective adenovirus expressing wild-type human p53 (AdCMV.p53). Infected cells expressed high intracellular levels of p53 protein and exhibited the morphological changes and genomic DNA fragmentation characteristic of apoptosis. In contrast, no genomic DNA fragmentation was observed in myocytes infected with the control virus lacking an insert (AdCMV.null) or in cardiac fibroblasts infected with AdCMV.p53. These results suggest that the intracellular signaling pathways activated by p53 might play a critical role in the regulation of hypoxia-induced apoptosis of cardiomyocytes.
X Long, M O Boluyt, M L Hipolito, M S Lundberg, J S Zheng, L O'Neill, C Cirielli, E G Lakatta, M T Crow
D-type cyclin/cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) complexes regulate transit through the restriction point of the cell cycle, and thus are required for the initiation of DNA synthesis. Transgenic mice which overexpress cyclin D1 in the heart were produced to determine if D-type cyclin deregulation would alter myocardial development. Cyclin D1 overexpression resulted in a concomitant increase in CDK4 levels in the adult myocardium, as well as modest increases in proliferating cell nuclear antigen and CDK2 levels. Flow cytometric and morphologic analyses of dispersed cell preparations indicated that the adult transgenic cardiomyocytes had abnormal patterns of multinucleation. Histochemical analyses confirmed a marked increase in number of cardiomyocyte nuclei in sections prepared from the transgenic mice as compared with those from control animals. Tritiated thymidine incorporation analyses revealed sustained cardiomyocyte DNA synthesis in adult transgenic hearts.
M H Soonpaa, G Y Koh, L Pajak, S Jing, H Wang, M T Franklin, K K Kim, L J Field
Interactions between standard heparin and the physiological anticoagulant plasma protein, activated protein C (APC) were studied. The ability of heparin to prolong the activated partial thromboplastin time and the factor Xa- one-stage clotting time of normal plasma was markedly enhanced by addition of purified APC to the assays. Experiments using purified clotting factors showed that heparin enhanced by fourfold the phospholipid-dependent inactivation of factor V by APC. In contrast to factor V, there was no effect of heparin on inactivation of thrombin-activated factor Va by APC. Based on SDS-PAGE analysis, heparin enhanced the rate of proteolysis of factor V but not factor Va by APC. Coagulation assays using immunodepleted plasmas showed that the enhancement of heparin action by APC was independent of antithrombin III, heparin cofactor II, and protein S. Experiments using purified proteins showed that heparin did not inhibit factor V activation by thrombin. In summary, heparin and APC showed significant anticoagulant synergy in plasma due to three mechanisms that simultaneously decreased thrombin generation by the prothrombinase complex. These mechanisms include: first, heparin enhancement of antithrombin III-dependent inhibition of factor V activation by thrombin; second, the inactivation of membrane-bound FVa by APC; and third, the proteolytic inactivation of membrane-bound factor V by APC, which is enhanced by heparin.
J Petäjä, J A Fernández, A Gruber, J H Griffin
Costimulatory molecules help determine T cell responses. CD80 (B7-1) and CD86 (B7-2), costimulatory proteins on antigen-presenting cells, bind to CD28 on T cells. When costimulation is coupled with a signal through the T cell receptor (TCR), T cell proliferation and cytokine secretion are induced. However, TCR signaling without CD80/CD86CD28 costimulation causes anergy. During multiple sclerosis (MS) exacerbations, circulating immune cells are activated, Th1 cytokine levels in the blood are elevated, and blood-derived immune cells destroy brain oligodendroglia. In the experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis model of MS, CD80 on antigen-presenting cells induces Th1 cell responses; CD86 enhances generation of Th2 cells. Variation in CD80 and CD86 expression is likely to influence immune regulation in MS. We demonstrate that the number of circulating CD80(+) lymphocytes is increased significantly during MS exacerbations, but is normal in stable MS. These CD80(+) lymphocytes are predominantly B cells, based on two-color flow cytometry. The number of CD71(+) and HLA-DR+ lymphocytes and monocytes is also increased in active MS. Therapy with IFN beta-1b markedly reduces the number of circulating CD80(+) B cells and increases CD86(+) monocyte number. HLA-DR+, CD71(+), and CD25(+) mononuclear cell numbers are also reduced by therapy. The number of CD80(+) cells may be a useful surrogate marker during IFN-beta therapy, and reduction of CD80-mediated costimulation may be one therapeutic mechanism by which IFN-beta acts in MS.
K Genç, D L Dona, A T Reder
The mechanism of apolipoprotein (apo) CIII-induced hypertriglyceridemia remains uncertain. We crossed apoCIII transgenic and apoE gene knockout (apoE0) mice, and observed severe hypertriglyceridemia with plasma triglyceride levels of 4,521+/-6, 394 mg/dl vs. 423+/-106 mg/dl in apoE0 mice, P < 0.00001 for log(triglycerides [TG]). Cholesterols were 1,181+/-487 mg/dl vs. 658+/-151 mg/dl, P < 0.0001. Lipoprotein fractionation showed a marked increase in triglyceride-enriched chylomicrons+VLDL. This increase was limited to the lowest density (chylomicrons and Sf 100-400) subfractions. Intermediate density lipoproteins (IDL)+LDL increased moderately, and HDL decreased. There was no significant increase in triglyceride production in apoCIII transgenic/apoE0 mice. The clearance of VLDL triglycerides, however, was significantly decreased. Lipoprotein lipase in postheparin plasma was elevated, but activation studies suggested LPL inhibition by both apoCIII transgenic and apoCIII transgenic/apoE0 plasma. ApoCIII overexpression also produced a marked decrease in VLDL glycosaminoglycan binding which was independent of apoE. The predominant mechanism of apoCIII-induced hypertriglyceridemia appears to be decreased lipolysis at the cell surface. The altered lipoprotein profile that was produced also allowed us to address the question of the direct atherogenicity of chylomicrons and large VLDL. Quantitative arteriosclerosis studies showed identical results in both apoCIII transgenic/apoE0 and apoE0 mice, supporting the view that very large triglyceride-enriched particles are not directly atherogenic.
T Ebara, R Ramakrishnan, G Steiner, N S Shachter
Ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury associated with renal transplantation may influence both early graft function and late changes. The initial (= 7 d) events of warm and in situ perfused cold ischemia of native kidneys in uninephrectomized rats were examined. mRNA expression of the early adhesion molecule, E-selectin, peaked within 6 h; PMNs infiltrated in parallel. T cells and macrophages entered the injured kidney by 2-5 d; the associated upregulation of MHC class II antigen expression suggested increased immunogenicity of the organ. Th1 products (IL-2, TNFalpha, IFNgamma) and macrophage-associated products (IL-1, IL-6, TGFbeta) remained highly expressed after 2 d. To examine directly the effects of selectins in I/R injury, a soluble P-selectin glycoprotein ligand (sPSGL) was used. Ischemic kidneys were perfused in situ with 5 microg of sPSGL in UW solution; 50 microg was administered intravenously 3 h after reperfusion. E-selectin mRNA remained at baseline, leukocytes did not infiltrate the injured organs throughout the 7-d period, and their associated products were markedly inhibited. Class II expression did not increase. No renal dysfunction secondary to I/R occurred. The early changes of I/R injury may be prevented by treatment with soluble P- and E-selectin ligand. This may reduce subsequent host inflammatory responses after transplantation.
M Takada, K C Nadeau, G D Shaw, K A Marquette, N L Tilney
The presence of mast cells near capillary sprouting sites suggests an association between mast cells and angiogenesis. However, the role of mast cells in blood vessel development remains to be defined. In an attempt to elucidate this relationship, we investigated the effect of human mast cells (HMC-1) and their products on human dermal microvascular endothelial cell (HDMEC) tube formation. Coculture of HMC-1 with HDMEC led to a dose-response increase in the network area of vascular tube growth. Moreover, the extent of neovascularization was enhanced greatly when HMC-1 were degranulated in the presence of HDMEC. Further examination using antagonists to various mast cell products revealed a blunted response (73-88% decrease) in the area of vascular tube formation if specific inhibitors of tryptase were present. Tryptase (3 microg/ml) directly added to HDMEC caused a significant augmentation of capillary growth, which was suppressed by specific tryptase inhibitors. Tryptase also directly induced cell proliferation of HDMEC in a dose-dependent fashion (2 pM-2 nM). Our results suggest that mast cells act at sites of new vessel formation by secreting tryptase, which then functions as a potent and previously unrecognized angiogenic factor.
R J Blair, H Meng, M J Marchese, S Ren, L B Schwartz, M G Tonnesen, B L Gruber
The most severe brain damage associated with thyroid dysfunction during development is observed in neurological cretins from areas with marked iodine deficiency. The damage is irreversible by birth and related to maternal hypothyroxinemia before mid gestation. However, direct evidence of this etiopathogenic mechanism is lacking. Rats were fed diets with a very low iodine content (LID), or LID supplemented with KI. Other rats were fed the breeding diet with a normal iodine content plus a goitrogen, methimazole (MMI). The concentrations of -thyroxine (T4) and 3,5,3'triiodo--thyronine (T3) were determined in the brain of 21-d-old fetuses. The proportion of radial glial cell fibers expressing nestin and glial fibrillary acidic protein was determined in the CA1 region of the hippocampus. T4 and T3 were decreased in the brain of the LID and MMI fetuses, as compared to their respective controls. The number of immature glial cell fibers, expressing nestin, was not affected, but the proportion of mature glial cell fibers, expressing glial fibrillary acidic protein, was significantly decreased by both LID and MMI treatment of the dams. These results show impaired maturation of cells involved in neuronal migration in the hippocampus, a region known to be affected in cretinism, at a stage of development equivalent to mid gestation in humans. The impairment is related to fetal cerebral thyroid hormone deficiency during a period of development when maternal thyroxinemia is believed to play an important role.
J R Martínez-Galán, P Pedraza, M Santacana, F Escobar del Ray, G Morreale de Escobar, A Ruiz-Marcos
EHNA (Erythro-9-[2-hydroxy-3-nonyl]adenine) is a wellknown inhibitor of adenosine deaminase. Recently, EHNA was shown to block the activity of purified soluble cGMPstimulated phosphodiesterase (PDE2) from frog, human, and porcine heart with an apparent Ki value of approximately 1 microM and with negligible effects on Ca2+/calmodulin PDE (PDE1), cGMP-inhibited PDE (PDE3), and low Km cAMP-specific PDE (PDE4) (Méry, P.F., C. Pavoine, F. Pecker, and R. Fischmeister. 1995. Mol. Pharmacol. 48:121-130; Podzuweit, T., P. Nennstiel, and A. Muller. 1995. Cell. Signalling. 7:733- 738). To investigate the role of PDE2 in the regulation of cardiac L-type Ca2+ current (ICa), we have examined the effect of EHNA on ICa in freshly isolated human atrial myocytes. Extracellular application of 0.1-10 microM EHNA induced an increase in the amplitude of basal ICa ( approximately 80% at 1 microM) without modification of the current-voltage or inactivation curves. The maximal stimulatory effect of EHNA on ICa was comparable in amplitude with the maximal effect of isoprenaline (1 microM), and the two effects were not additive. The effect of EHNA was not a result of adenosine deaminase inhibition, since 2'-deoxycoformycin (1-30 microM), another adenosine deaminase inhibitor with no effect on PDE2, or adenosine (1-10 microM) did not increase ICa. In the absence of intracellular GTP, the substrate of guanylyl cyclase, EHNA did not increase ICa. However, under similar conditions, intracellular perfusion with 0.5 microM cGMP produced an 80% increase in ICa. As opposed to human cardiomyocytes, EHNA (1-10 microM) did not modify ICa in isolated rat ventricular and atrial myocytes. We conclude that basal ICa is controlled by PDE2 activity in human atrial myocytes. Both PDE2 and PDE3 may contribute to keep the cyclic nucleotides concentrations at minimum in the absence of adenylyl and/or guanylyl cyclase stimulation.
M Rivet-Bastide, G Vandecasteele, S Hatem, I Verde, A Bénardeau, J J Mercadier, R Fischmeister
Adaptation of saphenous vein to the hemodynamic stresses of the arterial circulation is critical to the maturation of vein bypass grafts. We have investigated early adaptive responses of venous endothelium by placing excised human saphenous vein in a bypass circuit with either venous or arterial flow conditions, using external stenting to resolve the effects of longitudinal (shear) from circumferential stress. Endothelial protein concentrations were assessed by immunostaining area (ratio of protein/CD31) and Western blotting of endothelial cell lysates (staining ratio protein/vWf). In both unstented and stented veins nitric oxide synthase increased after 90 min of arterial flow: twofold increase of immunostaining area (P = 0.001), four- to fivefold increase by Western blotting (P = 0.02), and increased A23187mediated maximum endothelium-dependent relaxation of vein rings (P = 0.01). In unstented veins, ICAM-1 concentration was increased after 45 min of arterial flow: twofold increase by immunostaining (P = 0.001) and Western blotting (P = 0.038), with maximum fibrinogen-mediated endothelium-dependent relaxation increasing from 55.9+/-4.9 to 97+/-2.1% (P = 0.01). In contrast, in unstented veins there was a threefold decrease of VCAM-1 and no change in P-selectin after arterial flow for 45 and 90 min, respectively. However, no changes in ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 were observed in stented veins. The flow-induced alterations in nitric oxide synthase, ICAM-1, and VCAM-1 were abolished when 3 mM tetraethylammonium ion (K+ channel blocker) was included in the vein perfusate. The very rapid changes in ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 expression are a response to circumferential stress, whereas the slower upregulation of nitric oxide synthase is a response to longitudinal (shear) stress. Similar changes could influence the adhesiveness of endothelium in newly implanted saphenous vein bypass grafts.
J Golledge, R J Turner, S L Harley, D R Springall, J T Powell
To explore basic properties of the sickling-induced cation permeability pathway, the Ca2+ component (Psickle-Ca) was studied in density-fractionated sickle cell anemia (SS) discocytes through its effects on the activity of the cells' Ca2+sensitive K+-channels (KCa). The instant state of KCa channel activation was monitored during continuous or cyclic deoxygenation of the cells using a novel thiocyanate-densecell formation method. Each deoxy pulse caused a reversible, sustained Psickle-Ca, which activated KCa channels in only 10-45% of cells at physiological [Ca2+]o ("activated cells"). After removal of cells activated by each previous deoxy pulse, subsequent pulses generated similar activated cell fractions, indicating a random determination rather than the response of a specific vulnerable subpopulation. The fraction of activated cells rose monotonically with [Ca2+]o along a curve reflecting the cells' distribution of Psickle-Ca, with values high enough in a small cell fraction to trigger near-maximal KCa channels. Consistent with the stochastic nature of Psickle-Ca, repeated deoxygenated-oxygenated pulsing led to progressive dense cell formation, whereas single long pulses caused one early density shift. Thus deoxygenation-induced Ca2+-permeabilization in SS cells is a probabilistic event with large cumulative dehydrating potential. The possible molecular nature of Psickle-Ca is discussed.
V L Lew, O E Ortiz, R M Bookchin
The pathophysiology of neurally mediated syncope is poorly understood. It has been widely assumed that excessive sympathetic activation in a setting of left ventricular hypovolemia stimulates ventricular afferents that trigger hypotension and bradycardia. We tested this hypothesis by determining if excessive sympathetic activation precedes development of neurally mediated syncope, and if this correlates with alterations in baroreflex function. We studied the changes in intraarterial blood pressure (BP), heart rate (HR), central venous pressure (CVP), muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA), and plasma catecholamines evoked by upright tilt in recurrent neurally mediated syncope patients (SYN, 5+/-1 episodes/mo, n = 14), age- and sex-matched controls (CON, n = 23), and in healthy subjects who consistently experienced syncope during tilt (FS+, n = 20). Baroreflex responses were evaluated from changes in HR, BP, and MSNA that were obtained after infusions of phenylephrine and sodium nitroprusside. Compared to CON, patients with SYN had blunted increases in MSNA at low tilt levels, followed by a progressive decrease and ultimately complete disappearance of MSNA with syncope. SYN patients also had attenuation of norepinephrine increases and lower baroreflex slope sensitivity, both during tilt and after pharmacologic testing. FS+ subjects had the largest decrease in CVP with tilt and had significant increases in MSNA and heart rate baroreflex slopes. These data challenge the view that excessive generalized sympathetic activation is the precursor of the hemodynamic abnormality underlying recurrent neurally mediated syncope.
R Mosqueda-Garcia, R Furlan, R Fernandez-Violante, T Desai, M Snell, Z Jarai, V Ananthram, R M Robertson, D Robertson
Myonuclear apoptosis is an early event in the pathology of dystrophin-deficient muscular dystrophy in the mdx mouse. However, events that initiate apoptosis in muscular dystrophy are unknown, and whether elimination of apoptosis can ameliorate subsequent muscle wasting remains a major question. We have tested the hypothesis that cytotoxic T-lymphocytes initiate myonuclear apoptosis in dystrophic muscle, and examined whether perforin-mediated cytotoxicity plays a role in the pathophysiology of muscular dystrophy. Mdx mice showed muscle invasion by cytotoxic T cells and helper T cells at the onset of histologically detectable muscle fiber pathology. At this time, perforin-expressing cells were also present at elevated concentration. Mdx mice depleted of CD8(+) cells showed a significant reduction of apoptotic myonuclei concentration and a reduction in necrosis, judged by macrophage invasion of muscle fibers. Double-mutant mice, deficient in dystrophin and perforin, showed nearly complete absence of myonuclear apoptosis, and a significant reduction in the concentration of macrophages in the connective tissue surrounding muscle fibers. However, muscle fiber invasion by macrophages was not reduced significantly in double mutant mice. Thus, cytotoxic T-lymphocytes contribute significantly to apoptosis and necrosis in mdx dystrophy, and perforin-mediated killing is primarily responsible for myonuclear apoptosis.
M J Spencer, C M Walsh, K A Dorshkind, E M Rodriguez, J G Tidball
The early colocalization of T cells and the potent immunostimulatory cytokine IFN-gamma to atherosclerotic lesions suggest that the immune system contributes to atherogenesis. Since mice with a targeted disruption of the apoE gene (apoE 0 mice) develop profound atherosclerosis, we examined the role of IFN-gamma in this process. First, the presence of CD4(+) and CD8(+) cells, which secrete lesional IFN-gamma, was documented in apoE 0 atheromata. Then, the apoE 0 mice were crossed with IFN-gamma receptor (IFNgammaR) 0 mice to generate apoE 0/IFNgammaR 0 mice. Compared to the apoE 0 mice, the compound knock-out mice exhibited a substantial reduction in atherosclerotic lesion size, a 60% reduction in lesion lipid accumulation, a decrease in lesion cellularity, but a marked increase in lesion collagen content. Evaluation of the plasma lipoproteins showed that the compound knockout mice had a marked increase in potentially atheroprotective phospholipid/apoA-IV rich particles as well. This correlated with an induction of hepatic apoA-IV transcripts. These observations suggest that IFN-gamma promotes and modifies atherosclerosis through both local effects in the arterial wall as well as a systemic effect on plasma lipoproteins. Therefore, therapeutic inhibition of IFN-gamma signaling may lead to the formation of more lipid-poor and stable atheromata.
S Gupta, A M Pablo, X c Jiang, N Wang, A R Tall, C Schindler
Gastrin release from the antral gastrin-expressing cell (G cell) is regulated by bombesin and luminal factors. Yet, these same extracellular regulators do not stimulate expression of the gene. Since the gastric mucosa expresses large quantities of EGF receptor ligands such as TGFalpha, we examined whether EGF receptor ligands stimulate gastrin gene expression in gastrin-expressing cell cultures. EGF receptor activation of primary cultures stimulated gastrin gene expression about twofold; whereas bombesin treatment of antral G cell cultures stimulated gastrin release but not gene expression. EGF and TGFalpha were weak stimulants of gastrin release. EGF receptor activation of AGS human gastric adenocarcinoma cell line stimulated gastrin gene expression nearly fourfold; and gastrin reporter constructs transfected into AGS cells were stimulated more than fourfold by EGF. EGF induction was conferred by the previously defined GC-rich gastrin EGF response element (gERE) element located at -68 to -53 bp upstream from the cap site since a mutation of the gERE element abolished both basal and EGF induction. Moreover, EGF treatment of AGS cells stimulated binding of the transcription factor Sp1 to this element. Collectively, these results demonstrate that gastrin gene expression and gastrin release are regulated by different signaling pathways: gene expression by EGF receptor activation and gastrin secretion by neuropeptides and luminal factors.
M G Ford, J D Valle, C J Soroka, J L Merchant
The aim of this study was to examine the effects of angiotensin II (Ang II) on cellular functions of rat podocytes (pod) in the intact freshly isolated glomerulus and in culture. Membrane voltage (Vm) and ion currents of pod were examined with the patch clamp technique in fast whole cell and whole cell nystatin configuration. Vm of pod was -38+/-1 mV (n = 86). Ang II led to a concentration-dependent depolarization of pod with an ED50 of 10(-8) mol/liter. In the presence of Ang II (10(-7) mol/liter, n = 20), pod depolarized by 7+/-1 mV. In an extracellular solution with a reduced Cl- concentration of 32 mmol/liter, the effect of Ang II on Vm was significantly increased to 14+/-4 mV (n = 8). The depolarization induced by Ang II was neither inhibited in an extracellular Na+-free solution nor in a solution with a reduced extracellular Ca2+ (down to 1 micromol/liter). Like Ang II, the calcium ionophore A23187 (10(-5) mol/liter, n = 9) depolarized pod by 10+/-2 mV, whereas forskolin (10(-5) mol/liter), 8-(4-chlorophenylthio)-cAMP and N2,2'-o-dibutyryl-cGMP (both 5 x 10(-4) mol/liter) did not alter Vm of pod. The angiotensin 1 receptor antagonist losartan (10(-7) mol/liter) completely inhibited the Ang II-induced (10(-7) mol/liter) depolarization (n = 5). Like pod in the glomerulus, pod in short term culture depolarized in response to Ang II (10(-8) mol/liter, n = 5). Our results suggest that Ang II depolarizes podocytes directly by opening a Cl- conductance. The activation of this ion conductance is mediated by an AT1 receptor and may be regulated by the intracellular Ca2+ activity.
J Gloy, A Henger, K G Fischer, R Nitschke, P Mundel, M Bleich, P Schollmeyer, R Greger, H Pavenstädt
A two-step paradigm for leukocyte recruitment has been established in a number of tissues including the mesentery, skin, and muscle, and necessitates an initial rolling step via the selectins before firm leukocyte adhesion via the integrins. In view of the many inflammatory diseases that involve the liver, we investigated the importance of rolling and the selectins in the hepatic microvasculature and compared the responses to that of the commonly used mesentery or cremaster microvasculature. We visualized the liver microvasculature using intravital microscopy and we determined that within the liver the majority of leukocytes adhere within the sinusoids (80%) in response to a chemotactic stimulus such as FMLP (20% in postsinusoidal venules) whereas leukocytes adhere exclusively within postcapillary venules in tissue like the mouse cremaster. In the sinusoids, the adhesive response to FMLP is not dependent upon selectins inasmuch as adhesion was not reduced in the sinusoidal vessels of P-selectin-deficient mice or E-selectin/P-selectin- deficient animals in the presence or absence of L-selectin antibody. No rolling or adhesion was detected in response to FMLP in the selectin-deficient cremaster microvasculature. Immunoneutralization of selectins with fucoidan in wildtype mice eliminated rolling and adhesion in the cremaster but failed to affect adhesion in the liver sinusoids in response to FMLP. More long-term leukocyte recruitment with lipopolysaccharide (4 h) was also impaired in the cremaster but not the liver microvasculature in selectin-deficient animals. Leukocyte adhesion in the sinusoids was reduced in P-selectin-deficient mice also lacking intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1). This study for the first time demonstrates that selectins are not an essential step for leukocyte recruitment into the inflamed liver microvasculature.
J Wong, B Johnston, S S Lee, D C Bullard, C W Smith, A L Beaudet, P Kubes
To determine whether ouabain-like compound (OLC) exerts modulatory influences on the activity of vasomotor neurons in the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM), we examined the effects of microinjecting ouabain, digoxin-specific antibody Fab fragments, and mAb against ouabain on the rat RVLM. Microinjection of ouabain into the unilateral RVLM of anesthetized normotensive rats elicited dose-dependent increases in mean arterial pressure (MAP) and renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA). The pressor and sympathoexcitatory effects of ouabain in the RVLM were reversed by microinjections of an M2 muscarinic antagonist, gallamine, or digoxin-specific antibody Fab fragments. Furthermore, a prior microinjection in the RVLM of gallamine, digoxinspecific antibody Fab fragments, or kainic acid or intravenous injection of hexamethonium all prevented the pressor and sympathoexcitatory effects induced by a subsequent microinjection of ouabain. Microinjections of either digoxinspecific antibody Fab fragments or gallamine per se significantly decreased baseline MAP and RSNA. Injection of digoxin-specific antibody Fab fragments attenuated the effects of a subsequent injection of gallamine. Microinjection of mAb against ouabain, but not nonspecific IgG, also significantly decreased baseline MAP and RSNA. These results suggest that OLC in the RVLM contributes to the tonic activity of vasomotor neurons in anesthetized normotensive rats, and the action of OLC in the RVLM is at least partly mediated by M2 muscarinic mechanisms.
H Teruya, M Yamazato, H Muratani, A Sakima, S Takishita, Y Terano, K Fukiyama