C J Fielding, R J Havel
J A Nadel
Although nephrotic syndrome is a very common kidney disease, little is known about the molecular changes occurring within glomerular capillary loops during development of disease. The characteristic histologic change is retraction (effacement) of the distal "foot" processes of glomerular epithelial cells (GEC) which surround the capillary loops. The GEC foot processes are an essential part of the kidney's filtration barrier, and their structure is regulated primarily by actin microfilaments, cytoskeletal proteins present in high concentrations in foot processes. Actin polymerization has been reported to be regulated via phosphorylation of the low molecular weight heat shock protein, hsp27. We localized hsp27 within normal rat GECs using immunofluorescence and immunoelectron microscopy. Induction of nephrotic syndrome and GEC foot process effacement using the puromycin aminonucleoside rat model resulted in significant increases in: (a) renal cortical hsp27 mRNA expression (826 +/- 233%, x +/- SEM, P < 0.01 vs. control); (b) glomerular hsp27 protein expression (87 +/- 2%, P < 0.001 vs. control); and (c) glomerular hsp27 phosphorylation (101 +/- 32%, P < 0.05 vs. control). These findings support the hypothesis that hsp27, by regulating GEC foot process actin polymerization, may be important in maintaining normal foot process structure, and regulating pathophysiologic GEC cytoskeletal changes during development of nephrotic syndrome.
W E Smoyer, A Gupta, P Mundel, J D Ballew, M J Welsh
Defects of glucose transport and phosphorylation may underlie insulin resistance in obesity and non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). To test this hypothesis, dynamic imaging of 18F-2-deoxy-glucose uptake into midthigh muscle was performed using positron emission tomography during basal and insulin-stimulated conditions (40 mU/m2 per min), in eight lean nondiabetic, eight obese nondiabetic, and eight obese subjects with NIDDM. In additional studies, vastus lateralis muscle was obtained by percutaneous biopsy during basal and insulin-stimulated conditions for assay of hexokinase and citrate synthase, and for immunohistochemical labeling of Glut 4. Quantitative confocal laser scanning microscopy was used to ascertain Glut 4 at the sarcolemma as an index of insulin-regulated translocation. In lean individuals, insulin stimulated a 10-fold increase of 2-deoxy-2[18F]fluoro-D-glucose (FDG) clearance into muscle and significant increases in the rate constants for inward transport and phosphorylation of FDG. In obese individuals, the rate constant for inward transport of glucose was not increased by insulin infusion and did not differ from values in NIDDM. Insulin stimulation of the rate constant for glucose phosphorylation was similar in obese and lean subjects but reduced in NIDDM. Insulin increased by nearly twofold the number and area of sites labeling for Glut 4 at the sarcolemma in lean volunteers, but in obese and NIDDM subjects translocation of Glut 4 was attenuated. Activities of skeletal muscle HK I and II were similar in lean, obese and NIDDM subjects. These in vivo and ex vivo assessments indicate that impaired glucose transport plays a key role in insulin resistance of NIDDM and obesity and that an additional impairment of glucose phosphorylation is evident in the insulin resistance of NIDDM.
D E Kelley, M A Mintun, S C Watkins, J A Simoneau, F Jadali, A Fredrickson, J Beattie, R Thériault
We report a Spanish family with autosomal-dominant non-neuropathic hereditary amyloidosis with a unique hepatic presentation and death from liver failure, usually by the sixth decade. The disease is caused by a previously unreported deletion/insertion mutation in exon 4 of the apolipoprotein AI (apoAI) gene encoding loss of residues 60-71 of normal mature apoAI and insertion at that position of two new residues, ValThr. Affected individuals are heterozygous for this mutation and have both normal apoAI and variant molecules bearing one extra positive charge, as predicted from the DNA sequence. The amyloid fibrils are composed exclusively of NH2-terminal fragments of the variant, ending mainly at positions corresponding to residues 83 and 92 in the mature wild-type sequence. Amyloid fibrils derived from the other three known amyloidogenic apoAI variants are also composed of similar NH2-terminal fragments. All known amyloidogenic apoAI variants carry one extra positive charge in this region, suggesting that it may be responsible for their enhanced amyloidogenicity. In addition to causing a new phenotype, this is the first deletion mutation to be described in association with hereditary amyloidosis and it significantly extends the value of the apoAI model for investigation of molecular mechanisms of amyloid fibrillogenesis.
D R Booth, S Y Tan, S E Booth, G A Tennent, W L Hutchinson, J J Hsuan, N F Totty, O Truong, A K Soutar, P N Hawkins, M Bruguera, J Caballería, M Solé, J M Campistol, M B Pepys
Once infected by obligate intracellular pathogens, monocytes/macrophages release cytokines that activate natural killer (NK) cells. NK cells in turn produce and secrete monocyte/macrophage activating factors such as interferongamma (IFN-gamma), which are important in the early control of these infections. Here we demonstrate that human NK cells are potent producers of another monocyte/macrophage-activating factor, macrophage inflammatory protein-1 alpha (MIP-1 alpha). Fresh NK cells produce negligible amounts of MIP-1 alpha after stimulation with the monocyte-derived cytokines IL-12, TNF-alpha, IL-1 beta, or IL-10, while stimulation with IL-15 alone results in modest MIP-1 alpha production. Abundant NK cell production MIP-1 alpha is seen after costimulation with IL-12 and IL-15, and is dose-dependent. Combinations of IL-12, with TNF-alpha, IL-1 beta, or IL-10 are substantially less effective inducers of MIP-1 alpha production by NK cells. NK cell MIP-1 alpha mRNA transcripts were detectable within 1 h after costimulation with IL-12 plus IL-15 and steadily increased over 24 h, with a concomitant increase in protein production detectable at 12 h. Resting NK cells constitutively express mRNA transcript for a MIP-1 alpha receptor, and costimulation with IL-12 and IL-15 upregulates its level of expression. Equilibrium binding studies with radioiodinated MIP-1 alpha were consistent with the induction of a single class of high affinity MIP-1 alpha receptors on NK cells costimulated with IL-12 and IL-15. Addition of exogenous MIP-1 alpha to resting NK cells did not enhance cytokine production, but did increase NK cytotoxic activity. The requirement for IL-15 as a critical cofactor for NK cell production MIP-1 alpha suggests a potentially unique role for this monocyte-derived cytokine in combination with IL-12. As MIP-1 alpha is known to potentiate the action of IFN-gamma on monocytes and to suppress human immunodeficiency virus replication, the NK cell's production of MIP-1 alpha may be important during the innate immune response to infection.
E M Bluman, K J Bartynski, B R Avalos, M A Caligiuri
We asked whether the well known starvation-induced impairment of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) seen in isolated rat pancreas preparations also applies in vivo. Accordingly, fed and 18-24-h-fasted rats were subjected to an intravenous glucose challenge followed by a hyperglycemic clamp protocol, during which the plasma-insulin concentration was measured. Surprisingly, the acute (5 min) insulin response was equally robust in the two groups. However, after infusion of the antilipolytic agent, nicotinic acid, to ensure low levels of plasma FFA before the glucose load, GSIS was essentially ablated in fasted rats, but unaffected in fed animals. Maintenance of a high plasma FFA concentration by coadministration of Intralipid plus heparin to nicotinic acid-treated rats (fed or fasted), or further elevation of the endogenous FFA level in nonnicotinic acid-treated fasted animals by infusion of etomoxir (to block hepatic fatty acid oxidation), resulted in supranormal GSIS. The in vivo findings were reproduced in studies with the perfused pancreas from fed and fasted rats in which GSIS was examined in the absence and presence of palmitate. The results establish that in the rat, the high circulating concentration of FFA that accompanies food deprivation is a sine qua non for efficient GSIS when a fast is terminated. They also serve to underscore the powerful interaction between glucose and fatty acids in normal beta cell function and raise the possibility that imbalances between the two fuels in vivo could have pathological consequences.
D T Stein, V Esser, B E Stevenson, K E Lane, J H Whiteside, M B Daniels, S Chen, J D McGarry
Endothelial cell (EC) movement is required for the development and repair of blood vessels. We have previously shown that LDL oxidized by transition metals almost completely suppressed the wound-healing migratory response of vascular EC in vitro. We now report that lysophosphatidylcholine (lysoPC), a lipid component of oxidized LDL, has an important role in the antimigratory activity of the lipoprotein. Purified 1-palmitoyl lysoPC inhibited movement with a half-maximal activity at 12-15 micrometers, and near complete inhibition at 20 micrometers; the inhibitory concentration of lysoPC was consistent with its abundance in oxidized LDL. The inhibition was not due to cytotoxicity since protein synthesis was unaffected and since EC movement was restored after removal of lysoPC. Lysophospholipid activity was dependent on lipid structure. LysoPC's containing 1-position C16 or C18 saturated fatty acids were antimigratory, but those containing C < or = 14 saturated fatty acids or polyunsaturated fatty acids were not. The activity of 1-palmitoyl lysolipids with various head groups was examined. Lysophosphatidylinositol was more antimigratory than lysophosphatidylglycerol and lysophosphatidylcholine, which were more potent than lysophosphatidylserine and lysophosphatidylethanolamine. Monoglyceride was inactive while lysophosphatidate had promigratory activity. These results are consistent with head group size rather than charge as a critical determinant of activity. To show that lysophospholipids within an intact lipoprotein were active, LDL was treated with bee venom phospholipase A2 (PLA2). The modified lipoprotein inhibited EC movement to the same extent as iron-oxidized LDL and antimigratory activity correlated with the amount of lysoPC formed. To determine antimigratory activity of lysoPC present in oxidized LDL, lipid extracts from oxidized LDL were fractionated by normal phase HPLC. The fraction comigrating with lysoPC had nearly the same activity as the total extract confirming that lysoPC (or a co-eluting lipid) was a major antimigratory molecule in oxidized LDL. These studies demonstrate that lysoPC in oxidized LDL limit EC wound healing responses in vitro, and suggest a possible role for lysolipids in limiting endothelial regeneration after a denuding injury in vivo.
G Murugesan, P L Fox
Systemic and/or locally produced angiotensin II stimulates salt and water reabsorption in the renal proximal tubule. In vivo, dopamine (DA) may serve as a counterregulatory hormone to angiotensin II's acute actions on the proximal tubule. We examined whether dopamine modulates AT1 receptor expression in cultured proximal tubule cells (RPTC) expressing DA1 receptors. Dopamine decreased basal RPTC AT1 receptor mRNA levels by 67 +/- 7% (n = 10; P < 0.005) and decreased 125I-angiotensin II binding by 41 +/- 7% (n = 4; P < 0.05). The DA1-specific agonist, SKF38393 decreased basal AT1 receptor mRNA levels (65 +/- 5% inhibition; n = 5; P < 0.025), and the DA1-specific antagonist, SCH23390 reversed dopamine's inhibition of AT1 receptor mRNA expression (24 +/- 10% inhibition; n = 8; NS) and angiotensin II binding (5 +/- 15%; n = 4; NS). DA2-specific antagonists were ineffective. In rats given L-DOPA in the drinking water for 5 d, there were decreases in both proximal tubule AT1 receptor mRNA expression (80 +/- 5%; n = 6; P < 0.005) and specific [125I] Ang II binding (control: 0.74 +/- 0.13 fmol/mg pro vs. 0.40 +/- 0.63 fmol/mg pro; n = 5; P < 0.05). In summary, dopamine, acting through DA1 receptors, decreased AT1 receptor expression in proximal tubule, an effect likely mediated by increased intracellular cAMP levels. Local dopamine production also led to decreased AT1 receptor expression, suggesting dopamine may reset sensitivity of the proximal tubule to angiotensin II.
H F Cheng, B N Becker, R C Harris
Gyrate atrophy (GA) of the choroid and retina is a blinding chorioretinal degeneration caused by deficiency of ornithine delta-aminotransferase (OAT). The phenotype of GA is characterized by progressive concentric reduction of the visual fields and ornithine accumulation. To understand better the pathogenesis of GA and to develop a model to test therapeutic strategies, we produced an OAT-deficient mouse by gene targeting. Like human GA patients, adult OAT-deficient mice exhibit chronic hyperornithinemia to levels 10-15-fold above normal and massive ornithinuria. Slowly progressive retinal degeneration is reflected by a gradual decline in electroretinogram amplitudes over the first 12 mo of life. At 2 mo, the retinal pigment epithelium is histologically normal, but electron microscopy reveals sporadic degeneration of scattered pigment epithelial cells. By 6 mo there are more diffuse abnormalities of the pigment epithelium with accumulation of large phagosomes and crystalloid inclusions. Although morphologically normal at 2 mo, the photo-receptor outer segments become highly disorganized and shortened to 60% of control length by 10 mo. Additionally, there is cumulative loss of the photoreceptor cells, which reaches 33% by 10 mo and is most pronounced in the central region of the retina. Our results indicate that retinal pigment epithelial cells are the initial site of insult in GA and that the OAT-deficient mouse is an excellent animal model of GA in human patients.
T Wang, A H Milam, G Steel, D Valle
The arcades are long, branched renal tubules which connect deep and mid-cortical nephrons to cortical collecting ducts in the renal cortex. Because they are inaccessible by standard physiological techniques, their functions are poorly understood. In this paper, we demonstrate that the arcades are a site of expression of two proteins, aquaporin-2 (the vasopressin-regulated water channel) and the V2 vasopressin receptor, that are important to regulated water transport in the kidney. Using a peptide-derived polyclonal antibody to aquaporin-2, quantitative ELISA in microdissected segments showed that aquaporin-2 is highly expressed in arcades and that the expression is increased in response to restriction of fluid intake. Immunocytochemistry revealed abundant aquaporin-2 labeling of structures in the cortical labyrinth in a pattern similar to that of the Na(+)-Ca2+ exchanger and kallikrein, marker proteins expressed in arcades but not in cortical collecting ducts. RT-PCR experiments demonstrated substantial aquaporin-2 and V2 receptor mRNA in microdissected arcades. In situ hybridization, using 35S-labeled antisense cRNA probes for the V2 receptor demonstrated strong labeling of both arcades and cortical collecting ducts. Thus, these results indicate that the arcades contain the specific proteins associated with vasopressin-regulated water transport, and may be a heretofore unrecognized site of free water absorption.
B K Kishore, B Mandon, N B Oza, S R DiGiovanni, R A Coleman, N L Ostrowski, J B Wade, M A Knepper
Immunoprecipitating IgG autoantibodies to glutamic acid decarboxylase, GAD65, and/or a tyrosine phosphatase, IA2, are present in the majority of individuals experiencing pancreatic beta cell destruction and development of type 1 diabetes. Here we identify a third islet cell autoantigen, a novel 38-kD protein, which is specifically immunoprecipitated with sera from a subset of prediabetic individuals and newly diagnosed type 1 diabetic patients. The 38-kD autoantigen, named glima 38, is an amphiphilic membrane glycoprotein, specifically expressed in islet and neuronal cell lines, and thus shares the neuroendocrine expression patterns of GAD65 and IA2. Removal of N-linked carbohydrates results in a protein of 22,000 M(r). Glima 38 autoantibodies were detected in 16/86 (19%) of newly diagnosed patients, including three very young children, who had a rapid onset of disease, and in 6/44 (14%) of prediabetic individuals up to several years before clinical onset. The cumulative incidence of GAD65 and glima 38 antibodies in these two groups was 83 and 80%, respectively, and the cumulative incidence of GAD65, glima 38, and IA2 antibodies in the same groups was 91 and 84%, respectively. GAD65, IA2, and glima 38 represent three distinct targets of immunoprecipitating IgG autoantibodies associated with beta cell destruction and type 1 diabetes.
H J Aanstoot, S M Kang, J Kim, L A Lindsay, U Roll, M Knip, M Atkinson, P Mose-Larsen, S Fey, J Ludvigsson
Deficiency of plasma platelet-activating factor (PAF) acetylhydrolase is an autosomal recessive syndrome that has been associated with severe asthma in Japanese children. Acquired deficiency has been described in several human diseases usually associated with severe inflammation. PAF acetylhydrolase catalyzes the degradation of PAF and related phospholipids, which have proinflammatory, allergic, and prothrombotic properties. Thus, a deficiency in the degradation of these lipids should increase the susceptibility to inflammatory and allergic disorders. Miwa et al. reported that PAF acetylhydrolase activity is absent in 4% of the Japanese population, which suggests that it could be a common factor in such disorders, but the molecular basis of the defect is unknown. We show that inherited deficiency of PAF acetylhydrolase is the result of a point mutation in exon 9 and that this mutation completely abolishes enzymatic activity. This mutation is the cause of the lack of enzymatic activity as expression in E. coli of a construct harboring the mutation results in an inactive protein. This mutation as a heterozygous trait is present in 27% in the Japanese population. This finding will allow rapid identification of subjects predisposed to severe asthma and other PAF-mediated disorders.
D M Stafforini, K Satoh, D L Atkinson, L W Tjoelker, C Eberhardt, H Yoshida, T Imaizumi, S Takamatsu, G A Zimmerman, T M McIntyre, P W Gray, S M Prescott
The salient feature of solid tumor growth is the strict dependence on local angiogenesis. We have previously demonstrated that IL-8 is an angiogenic factor present in freshly isolated specimens of human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Using a model of human NSCLC tumorigenesis in SCID mice, we now report that IL-8 acts as a promoter of human NSCLC tumor growth through its angiogenic properties. Passive immunization with neutralizing antibodies to IL-8 resulted in more than 40% reduction in tumor size and was associated with a decline in tumor-associated vascular density and angiogenic activity. IL-8 did not act as an autocrine growth factor for NSCLC proliferation. The reduction in primary tumor size in response to neutralizing antibodies to IL-8 was also accompanied by a trend toward a decrease in spontaneous metastasis to the lung. These data support the notion that IL-8 plays a significant role in mediating angiogenic activity during tumorigenesis of human NSCLC, thereby offering a potential target for immunotherapy against solid tumors.
D A Arenberg, S L Kunkel, P J Polverini, M Glass, M D Burdick, R M Strieter
Recently, DNA sequences of what appear to be a unique human herpesvirus-like agent (HHV-8) have been detected in different types of Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) tumors (Chang, Y., E.C. Cesarman, M.S. Pessin, F. Lee, J.C. Culpepper, D.M. Knowles, and P.S. Moore. 1994. Science (Wash. DC). 266:1865-1869). To further elucidate the possibility that HHV-8 plays a role in the pathogenesis of KS, the expression of HHV-8 RNA was examined in fresh KS tissue specimens which were found to harbor HHV-8 DNA by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The transcription of HHV-8 RNA was detected by RT-PCR in 26 of 29 specimens (89.7%) of the KS tumors including 2 of 3 CKS and 24 of 26 AIDS-KS. No positive signal was detected in eight biopsy specimens of normal skin from healthy donors. By Northern blot analysis, the expression of HHV-8 was detected in 2 of 10 KS tumors examined. Furthermore, the RNA transcripts were observed in endothelial cells lining the irregular vascular spaces and perivascular spindle-shaped cells histologically characteristic of KS in 2 out of 8 different KS specimens examined by in situ hybridization using an antisense probe specific of HHV-8. The detection of RNA expression of HHV-8 in KS tumors further supports the possible etiopathogenic role of this virus in the development of KS.
Y Q Huang, J J Li, W G Zhang, D Feiner, A E Friedman-Kien
Low-protein diets cause a urinary concentrating defect in rats and humans. Previously, we showed that feeding rats a low (8%) protein diet induces a change in urea transport in initial inner medullary collecting ducts (IMCDs) which could contribute to the concentrating defect. Now, we test whether decreased osmotic water permeability (Pf) contributes to the concentrating defect by measuring Pf in perfused initial and terminal IMCDs from rats fed 18 or 8% protein for 2 wk. In terminal IMCDs, arginine vasopressin (AVP)-stimulated osmotic water permeability was significantly reduced in rats fed 8% protein compared to rats fed 18% protein. In initial IMCDs, AVP-stimulated osmotic water permeability was unaffected by dietary protein. Thus, AVP-stimulated osmotic water permeability is significantly reduced in terminal IMCDs but not in initial IMCDs. Next, we determined if the amount of immunoreactive aquaporin-2 (AQP2, the AVP-regulated water channel) or AQP3 protein was altered. Protein was isolated from base or tip regions of rat inner medulla and Western analysis performed using polyclonal antibodies to rat AQP2 or AQP3 (courtesy of Dr. M.A. Knepper, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD). In rats fed 8% protein (compared to rats fed 18% protein): (a) AQP2 decreases significantly in both membrane and vesicle fractions from the tip; (b) AQP2 is unchanged in the base; and (c) AQP3 is unchanged. Together, the results suggest that the decrease in AVP-stimulated osmotic water permeability results, at least in part, in the decrease in AQP2 protein. We conclude that water reabsorption, like urea reabsorption, responds to dietary protein restriction in a manner that would limit urine concentrating capacity.
J M Sands, M Naruse, J D Jacobs, J N Wilcox, J D Klein
The adducin heterodimer is a protein affecting the assembly of the actin-based cytoskeleton. Point mutations in rat adducin alpha (F316Y) and beta (Q529R) subunits are involved in a form of rat primary hypertension (MHS) associated with faster kidney tubular ion transport. A role for adducin in human primary hypertension has also been suggested. By studying the interaction of actin with purified normal and mutated adducin in a cell-free system and the actin assembly in rat kidney epithelial cells (NRK-52E) transfected with mutated rat adducin cDNA, we show that the adducin isoforms differentially modulate: (a) actin assembly both in a cell-free system and within transfected cells; (b) topography of alpha V integrin together with focal contact proteins; and (c) Na-K pump activity at V(max) (faster with the mutated isoforms, 1281 +/- 90 vs 841 +/- 30 nmol K/h.mg pt., P < 0.0001). This co-modulation suggests a role for adducin in the constitutive capacity of the epithelia both to transport ions and to expose adhesion molecules. These findings may also lead to the understanding of the relation between adducin polymorphism and blood pressure and to the development of new approaches to the study of hypertension-associated organ damage.
G Tripodi, F Valtorta, L Torielli, E Chieregatti, S Salardi, L Trusolino, A Menegon, P Ferrari, P C Marchisio, G Bianchi
The glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1) protein is underexpressed in human glioblastoma multiforme and is overexpressed in human cerebral hemangioblastoma. To gain in-sight into possible posttranscriptional mechanisms regulating the expression of the GLUT1 protein in human brain tumors, cytosolic proteins were prepared from these two tumors and used in RNase T1 protection assays that employed [32P]human GLUT1 synthetic RNA prepared from transcription plasmids. Gel shift mobility assays and ultra-violet light cross-linking studies demonstrated the formation of specific RNA/protein complexes that migrated with a mol mass of 120, 44, and 41 kD. RNase T1 mapping and oligodeoxynucleotide competition studies showed that the 120 kD complex was comprised of an RNA fragment that localized to nucleotides 2186-2203 of the GLUT1 mRNA. The 44 kD complex contained an adenosine-uridine-rich RNA fragment that localized to nucleotides 1885-1906 of the human GLUT1 mRNA, and the formation of this complex was inhibited by synthetic RNA enriched in adenosine-uridine sequences. The 44 kD complex was selectively downregulated in hemangioblastoma as compared to glioblastoma multiforme. These studies demonstrate that human brain tumors have differential regulation of cytosolic proteins that specifically interact with two different domains in the 3'-untranslated region of the GLUT1 mRNA, which may serve to mediate the posttranscriptional regulation of GLUT1 gene expression in these tumors.
H Tsukamoto, R J Boado, W M Pardridge
We have previously hypothesized that the pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF alpha has a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). It mediates its effects by cross-linking surface p55 TNF receptors (TNF-R), which can be proteolytically cleaved to yield soluble fragments. Upon binding TNF alpha soluble TNF-R (sTNF-R) can inhibit its function. We investigated the enzymatic nature of the proteases involved in TNF-R cleavage, and found that this process is blocked by a synthetic inhibitor of matrix metallo-proteinase activity (MMP), BB-2275. Inhibition of TNF-R cleavage was observed in a number of different cell types, as detected by retention of surface bound TNF receptor and by less sTNF-R released into the cell supernatant. The augmentation of surface TNF-R expression was of biological relevance as TNF alpha-mediated necrosis of human KYM.1D4 rhabdosarcoma cells was enhanced approximately 15-fold in the presence of BB-2275. The addition of BB-2275 to rheumatoid synovial membrane cell cultures totally inhibited MMP activity and also significantly reduced the levels of soluble TNF alpha (P < 0.006), p55 sTNF-R (P < 0.006), and p75 sTNF-R (P < 0.004). Paradoxically, despite the reduction in soluble TNF alpha levels, the production of IL-1 beta, IL-6, and IL-8, cytokines whose production was previously demonstrated to be inhibited by the addition of neutralizing anti-TNF alpha antibody were not down-regulated by BB-2275. These results raise the interesting possibility that a close relationship exits between the enzyme(s) which process membrane-bound TNF alpha, and those involved in surface TNF-R cleavage. Furthermore our observations suggest that hydroxamate inhibitors of MMP activity which block TNF alpha secretion and TNF-R cleavage may not modulate down-stream effects of TNA alpha, and as such suggest that the precise specificity of these compounds will be highly relevant to their clinical efficacy in inflammatory diseases.
L M Williams, D L Gibbons, A Gearing, R N Maini, M Feldmann, F M Brennan
Familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) can be caused by dominant missense mutations in cardiac troponin T (TnT), alpha-tropomyosin, C-protein, or cardiac myosin heavy chain genes. The myosin mutations are known to impair function, but any functional consequences of the TnT mutations are unknown. This report describes the in vitro function of troponin containing an IIe91Asn mutation in rat cardiac TnT, corresponding to the HCM-causing Ile79Asn mutation in man. Mutant and wild-type TnT cDNAs were expressed in bacteria and the proteins purified and reconstituted with the other troponin subunits, the mutation had no effect on troponin's affinity for tropomyosin, troponin-induced binding of tropomyosin to actin, cooperative binding of myosin subfragment 1 to the thin filament, CA(2+)-sensitive regulation of thin filament-myosin subfragment 1 ATPase activity, or the CA2+ concentration dependence of this regulation. However, the mutation resulted in 50% faster thin filament movement over a surface coated with heavy meromyosin in in vitro motility assays. The increased sliding speed suggests an unexpected role for the amino terminal region of TnT in which this mutation occurs. The relationship between this faster motility and altered cardiac contraction in patients with HCM is discussed.
D Lin, A Bobkova, E Homsher, L S Tobacman
Collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) in susceptible strains of mice is an animal model of T cell-mediated inflammatory polyarthritis. Analysis of T cell receptor (TCR) V beta gene usage in cells isolated from arthritic joints of BUB/BnJ (BUB) mice (H-2q, TCR V beta a) showed that TCR V beta chain gene usage was limited to TCR V beta 3 and V beta 10 gene families. All of the BUB mice immunized with a mixture of TCR V beta 3 and TCR V beta 10 peptides, but not with control TCR V beta 14 peptide, were refractory to the induction of CIA. Immunization with TCR V beta 3 and V beta 10 peptides completely blocked the development of clinical and subclinical inflammation, formation of pannus and synovial hyperplasia, and the erosion of cartilage and bone. Further studies revealed that preimmunization of BUB mice with V beta 10 peptide alone was sufficient to render the mice resistant to CIA. Analysis of TCR V beta chain gene expression in lymph node cells from arthritic and arthritis-protected mice showed the expression of TCR V beta 10 subfamily in all of the arthritic mice, but not in arthritis-protected mice. Immunization with TCR V beta peptides did not diminish the humoral responses to chicken type-II collagen and also elicited significant levels of anti-V beta 3 and anti-V beta 10 peptide antibodies. Antibodies cross-reactive with mouse chicken type-II collagen were detected in both the arthritic and arthritis-protected mice. Adoptive transfer of serum from arthritis-protected BUB mice significantly delayed the onset (P < 0.005) of arthritis in recipient BUB mice. In contrast, mice injected with serum from arthritic mice had early onset of arthritis. These results demonstrate that immunization of BUB mice with TCR V beta chain peptides elicited antibodies reactive with the self-TCR and prevented the induction of collagen-induced arthritis by eliminating or downregulating pathogenic T cells and consequently blocking the development of humoral immune response. These findings may have clinical applications in treating human autoimmune diseases characterized by common TCR gene usage.
T M Haqqi, X M Qu, D Anthony, J Ma, M S Sy
To examine the mechanism by which lipids cause insulin resistance in humans, skeletal muscle glycogen and glucose-6-phosphate concentrations were measured every 15 min by simultaneous 13C and 31P nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy in nine healthy subjects in the presence of low (0.18 +/- 0.02 mM [mean +/- SEM]; control) or high (1.93 +/- 0.04 mM; lipid infusion) plasma free fatty acid levels under euglycemic (approximately 5.2 mM) hyperinsulinemic (approximately 400 pM) clamp conditions for 6 h. During the initial 3.5 h of the clamp the rate of whole-body glucose uptake was not affected by lipid infusion, but it then decreased continuously to be approximately 46% of control values after 6 h (P < 0.00001). Augmented lipid oxidation was accompanied by a approximately 40% reduction of oxidative glucose metabolism starting during the third hour of lipid infusion (P < 0.05). Rates of muscle glycogen synthesis were similar during the first 3 h of lipid and control infusion, but thereafter decreased to approximately 50% of control values (4.0 +/- 1.0 vs. 9.3 +/- 1.6 mumol/[kg.min], P < 0.05). Reduction of muscle glycogen synthesis by elevated plasma free fatty acids was preceded by a fall of muscle glucose-6-phosphate concentrations starting at approximately 1.5 h (195 +/- 25 vs. control: 237 +/- 26 mM; P < 0.01). Therefore in contrast to the originally postulated mechanism in which free fatty acids were thought to inhibit insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in muscle through initial inhibition of pyruvate dehydrogenase these results demonstrate that free fatty acids induce insulin resistance in humans by initial inhibition of glucose transport/phosphorylation which is then followed by an approximately 50% reduction in both the rate of muscle glycogen synthesis and glucose oxidation.
M Roden, T B Price, G Perseghin, K F Petersen, D L Rothman, G W Cline, G I Shulman
Current theories propose that systemic lupus erythematosus develops when genetically predisposed individuals are exposed to certain environmental agents, although how these agents trigger lupus is uncertain. Some of these agents, such as procainamide, hydralazine, and UV-light inhibit T cell DNA methylation, increase lymphocyte function-associated antigen 1 (LFA-1) (CD11a/CD18) expression, and induce autoreactivity in vitro, and adoptive transfer of T cells that are made autoreactive by this mechanism causes a lupuslike disease. The mechanism by which these cells cause autoimmunity is unknown. In this report, we present evidence that LFA-1 overexpression is sufficient to induce autoimmunity. LFA-1 overexpression was induced on cloned murine Th2 cells by transfection, resulting in autoreactivity. Adoptive transfer of the transfected, autoreactive cells into syngeneic recipients caused a lupuslike disease with anti-DNA antibodies, an immune complex glomerulonephritis and pulmonary alveolitis, similar to that caused by cells treated with procainamide. These results indicate that agents or events which modify T cell DNA methylation may induce autoimmunity by causing T cell LFA-1 overexpression. Since T cells from patients with active lupus have hypomethylated DNA and overexpressed LFA-1, this mechanism could be important in the development of human autoimmunity.
R Yung, D Powers, K Johnson, E Amento, D Carr, T Laing, J Yang, S Chang, N Hemati, B Richardson
Receptor tyrosine kinases are important in cell signal transduction and proliferation. Abnormal expression of tyrosine kinases often leads to malignant transformation. C-met is a tyrosine kinase receptor and its ligand is hepatocyte growth factor (HGF). HGF/c-met plays diverse role in regulation of cell growth, shape and movement. Constitutively activated met, such as tpr-met, is a potent oncogene in vitro, but its carcinogenic role in vivo remains unclear. Our study demonstrates that expression of tpr-met leads to development of mammary tumors and other malignancies in transgenic mice, and suggests that deregulated met expression may be involved in mammary carcinogenesis.
T J Liang, A E Reid, R Xavier, R D Cardiff, T C Wang
There is evidence that angiotensin II is synthesized by the proximal tubule and secreted into the tubular lumen. This study examined the functional significance of endogenously produced angiotensin II on proximal tubule transport in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Addition of 10(-11), 10(-8), and 10(-6) M angiotensin II to the lumen of proximal convoluted tubules perfused in vivo had no effect on the rate of fluid reabsorption. The absence of an effect of exogenous luminal angiotensin II could be due to its endogenous production and luminal secretion. Luminal 10(-8) M Dup 753 (an angiotensin II receptor antagonist) resulted in a 35% decrease in proximal tubule fluid reabsorption when compared to control (Jv = 1.64 +/- 0.12 nl/mm.min vs. 2.55 +/- 0.32 nl/mm.min, P < 0.05). Similarly, luminal 10(-4) M enalaprilat, an angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor, decreased fluid reabsorption by 40% (Jv = 1.53 +/- 0.23 nl/mm.min vs. 2.55 +/- 0.32 nl/mm.min, P < 0.05). When 10(-11) or 10(-8) M exogenous angiotensin II was added to enalaprilat (10(-4) M) in the luminal perfusate, fluid reabsorption returned to its baseline rate (Jv = 2.78 +/- 0.35 nl/mm.min). Thus, addition of exogenous angiotensin II stimulates proximal tubule transport when endogenous production is inhibited. These experiments show that endogenously produced angiotensin II modulates fluid transport in the proximal tubule independent of systemic angiotensin II.
A Quan, M Baum
To reconstruct the mechanisms for the vasoobliteration that transforms diabetic retinopathy into an ischemic retinopathy, we compared the occurrence of cell death in situ in retinal microvessels of diabetic and nondiabetic individuals. Trypsin digests and sections prepared from the retinas of seven patients (age 67 +/- 7 yr) with .9 +/- 4 yr of diabetes and eight age- and sex-matched nondiabetic controls were studied with the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) reaction which detects preferentially apoptotic DNA fragmentation. The count of total TUNEL+ nuclei was significantly greater in the microvessels of diabetic (13 +/- 12 per one-sixth of retina) than control subjects (1.3 +/- 1.4, P = 0.0016), as were the counts of TUNEL+ pericytes and endothelial cells (P < 0.006). The neural retinas from both diabetic and nondiabetic subjects were uniformly TUNEL-. Retinal microvessels of rats with short duration of experimental diabetes or galactosemia and absent or minimal morphological changes of retinopathy, showed TUNEL+ pericytes and endothelial cells, which were absent in control rats. These findings indicate that (a) diabetes and galactosemia lead to accelerated death in situ of both retinal pericytes and endothelial cells; (b) the event is specific for vascular cells; (c) it precedes histological evidence of retinopathy; and (d) it can be induced by isolated hyperhexosemia. A cycle of accelerated death and renewal of endothelial cells may contribute to vascular architectural changes and, upon exhaustion of replicative life span, to capillary obliteration.
M Mizutani, T S Kern, M Lorenzi
Pressure overload induces cardiac growth in the rat, which implies the hypertrophy of cardiac muscle cells and proliferation of nonmuscle cells. The cardiac cell loss observed in parallel has generally been attributed to necrosis. Using an in situ assay, we demonstrated a phase of apoptosis or programmed cell death during the first 7 d after pressure overload with a peak at day 4 while cardiac growth continued for over 30 d. The increase in apoptosis was confirmed by quantification of 180-1500-bp DNA oligonucleosomes with agarose gel electrophoresis and in situ labeling via 3'-terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase assay. While some apoptosis was observed in the basal state in nonmuscle cells, pressure overload induced apoptosis mainly in cardiomyocytes. These data suggest that cardiac hypertrophy is initiated by a wave of apoptosis of cardiomyocytes. Thus, apoptosis may be involved in the pathogenesis of heart remodeling.
E Teiger, V D Than, L Richard, C Wisnewsky, B S Tea, L Gaboury, J Tremblay, K Schwartz, P Hamet
The mitochondrial uncoupling protein (UCP) is usually expressed only in brown adipose tissue (BAT) and a key molecule for metabolic thermogenesis. The effects of a highly selective beta 3-adrenergic agonist, CL316,243 (CL), on UCP expression in skeletal muscle and adipose tissues were examined in mice. Daily injection of CL (0.1 mg/kg, sc) to obese yellow KK mice for two weeks caused a significant reduction of body weight, associated with a marked decrease of white fat pad weight and hypertrophy of the interscapular BAT with a sixfold increase in UCP content. Clear signals of UCP protein and mRNA were detected by Western and Northern blot analyses in inguinal, mesenteric and retroperitoneal white fat pads, and also in gastrocnemius and quadriceps muscles, whereas no signal in saline-treated mice. The presence of UCP mRNA in muscle tissues was also confirmed by reverse transcription-PCR analysis. Weaker UCP signals were also detected in control C57BL mice treated with CL, but only in inguinal and retroperitoneal fat pads. Immunohistochemical examinations revealed that UCP stains in the white fat pads were localized on multilocular cells quite similar to typical brown adipocyte, and those in the muscle tissues on myocytes. The mitochondrial localization of UCP in myocytes was confirmed by immunoelectron microscopy. In addition to UCP protein, UCP mRNA was also detected in myocytes by in situ hybridization analysis. Thus, chronic stimulation of the beta 3-adrenergic receptor induces ectopic expression of UCP in adipose tissues conventionally considered as white fat and even in skeletal muscle, which probably contributes to the potent anti-obesity effect of the beta 3-adrenergic agonist.
I Nagase, T Yoshida, K Kumamoto, T Umekawa, N Sakane, H Nikami, T Kawada, M Saito
Polymyositis (PM) and dermatomyositis (DM) are the prototypical inflammatory diseases of skeletal muscle. In PM, CD8+ T cells invade and destroy muscle fibers, whereas humoral effector mechanisms prevail in DM. We studied the expression of the cytotoxic mediator perforin in inflammatory cells in PM and DM muscle by semiquantitative PCR, immunohistochemistry and confocal laser microscopy. Similar levels of perforin mRNA were expressed in PM and DM, and abundant perforin-expressing CD3+CD8+ and CD3+ CD4+ T cells were observed in both diseases. However, there was a striking difference in the intracellular localization of perforin. In DM, perforin was distributed randomly in the cytoplasm of the inflammatory T cells. In contrast, 43% of the CD8+ T cells that contacted a muscle fiber in PM showed perforin located vectorially towards the target muscle fiber. The results suggest (a) that the random distribution of perforin in the cytoplasm of muscle-infiltrating T cells observed in DM reflects nonspecific activation, and (b) that the vectorial orientation observed only in PM reflects the specific recognition via the T cell receptor of an antigen on the muscle fiber surface, pointing to a perforin- and secretion-dependent mechanism of muscle fiber injury.
N Goebels, D Michaelis, M Engelhardt, S Huber, A Bender, D Pongratz, M A Johnson, H Wekerle, J Tschopp, D Jenne, R Hohlfeld
The insertion and expression of genes in the epidermis may have a variety of therapeutic uses, including the treatment of skin diseases. Here we show that when both human skin organ cultures and human skin grafts on immunocompromised mice are injected with naked DNA, the DNA is taken-up and genes are expressed in the epidermis in a manner similar to both pig skin injected in vivo and injected pig skin organ cultures. In contrast, DNA injected into mouse skin is expressed not just in the epidermis, but also in the dermis and underlying fat and muscle tissue, and is expressed at lower levels. These findings suggest that genes can be expressed in human skin, after injection of naked DNA, and indicate that pig skin is an appropriate model for the study of DNA uptake and gene expression in human skin. The organ cultures of human and pig skin may be useful in understanding how naked DNA is internalized and expressed after in vivo injections. Additionally, skin obtained from patients with skin disease may be studied as skin grafts and organ cultures to help optimize genetic approaches for the treatment of skin diseases prior to clinical trials, by determining if the injected gene can provide a therapeutic benefit.
U R Hengge, P S Walker, J C Vogel
Plasma high density lipoprotein (HDL) levels are strongly genetically determined and show a general inverse relationship with coronary heart disease (CHD). The cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) mediates the transfer of cholesteryl esters from HDL to other lipoproteins and is a key participant in the reverse transport of cholesterol from the periphery to the liver. A high prevalence of two different CETP gene mutations (D442G, 5.1%; intron 14G:A, 0.5%), was found in 3,469 men of Japanese ancestry in the Honolulu Heart Program and mutations were associated with decreased CETP (-35%) and increased HDL chol levels (+10% for D442G). However, the overall prevalence of definite CHD was 21% in men with mutations and 16% in men without mutations. The relative risk (RR) of CHD was 1.43 in men with mutations (P < .05); after adjustment for CHD risk factors, the RR was 1.55 (P = .02); after additional adjustment for HDL levels, the RR was 1.68 (P = .008). Similar RR values were obtained for the D442G mutation alone. Increased CHD in men with mutations was primarily observed for HDL chol 41-60 mg/dl; for HDL chol > 60 mg/dl men with and without mutations had low CHD prevalence. Thus, genetic CETP deficiency appears to be an independent risk factor for CHD, primarily due to increased CHD prevalence in men with the D442G mutation and HDL cholesterol between 41 and 60 mg/dl. The findings suggest that both HDL concentration and the dynamics of cholesterol transport through HDL (i.e., reverse cholesterol transport) determine the anti-atherogenicity of the HDL fraction.
S Zhong, D S Sharp, J S Grove, C Bruce, K Yano, J D Curb, A R Tall