Mice lacking neuronal nitric oxide synthase gene (ncNOS) were used to determine the enzymatic source of nitric oxide (NO) and its relationship with other putative inhibitory neurotransmitters. Inhibitory junction potentials (IJP) of circular smooth muscle of gastric fundus were studied. The IJP in the wild-type mice consists of overlapping components, the fast and slow IJPs. NOS inhibitor L-NA or VIP receptor antagonist VIP(10-28), blocks the slow IJP but not the fast IJP. The fast UP is blocked by alpha-beta methylene ATP tachyphylaxis, by reactive blue 2, and by apamin. The IJP in the ncNOS-deficient [ncNOS(-)] mutant is of short duration and is abolished by blockers of the fast IJP, but is unaffected by blockers of the slow UP. Exogenous VIP produces membrane hyperpolarization in strips from wild-type but not ncNOS(-) mice. The hyperpolarizing action of VIP is resistant to nifedipine but is sensitive to omega-conotoxin GVIA. In conclusion: (a) NO derived from ncNOS is an inhibitory neurotransmitter rather than a postjunctional mediator; (b) VIP is a prejunctional neurotransmitter that causes release of evanescent NO; and (c) ATP acts in parallel with the VIP/NO pathway.
H Mashimo, X D He, P L Huang, M C Fishman, R K Goyal
The effect of proadrenomedullin NH2-terminal 20 peptide (PAMP) on the voltage-gated Ca2+ channel current was investigated using the perforated whole-cell clamp technique on NGF-treated PC12 cells. PAMP inhibited the Ba2+ current through N-type Ca2+ channels in a concentration dependent manner. Injection of GDPbetaS into the cell abolished the inhibition while injection of GTPgammaS into the cell made the inhibition irreversible, indicating that the PAMP-induced inhibition of the voltage-gated Ca2+ channel was mediated by a G protein. The inhibition was abolished by pretreating the cells with pertussis toxin, indicating that a pertussis toxin-sensitive G protein was involved in the signal transduction mechanism of PAMP. The present study revealed that the inhibition of catecholamine secretion from sympathetic nerve endings by PAMP could be explained by the inhibition of N-type Ca2+ channels, which was mediated by pertussis toxin-sensitive G protein.
K Takano, N Yamashita, T Fujita
Adenosine is generated within the renal medulla under hypoxic conditions and is known to induce net vasoconstriction within the renal cortex while increasing medullary blood flow and oxygenation. To test the hypothesis that vasoconstriction of outer medullary descending vasa recta (OMDVR) is modulated by adenosine, we examined the effects of adenosine and adenosine Al and A2 receptor subtype agonists on in vitro perfused control and preconstricted rat OMDVR. Constriction with angiotensin II (ANG II, 10(-9) M) was attenuated by adenosine in a concentration-dependent manner (EC50 = 2.0 x 10(-7)M, P < 0.05). Similarly, an adenosine A2 agonist (CGS-21680, 10(-7) M), but not an adenosine Al agonist (cyclohexyladenosine, 10(-6) M), attenuated ANG II-induced vasoconstriction. Under control conditions, ablumenal application of adenosine (10(-12) to 10(-5) M) elicited a biphasic response. Additionally, cyclohexyladenosine (10(-6) M) caused vasoconstriction and CGS-21680 (10(-6) M) had no effect on untreated vessels. Finally, an influence of ANG II receptor stimulation on adenosine Al receptor-mediated vasoconstriction could not be shown. These data suggest that OMDVR possess both Al and A2 adenosine receptors and that they mediate constriction and dilatation, respectively. We conclude that adenosine is a potent modulator of OMDVR vasomotor tone and that its net effect is dependent upon local concentrations.
E P Silldorff, M S Kreisberg, T L Pallone
Elevated plasma homocyst(e)ine may predispose to complications of vascular disease. Homocysteine alters vasomotor regulatory and anticoagulant properties of cultured vascular endothelial cells, but little is known about effects of hyperhomocyst(e)inemia on vascular function in vivo. We tested the hypothesis that diet-induced moderate hyperhomocyst(e)inemia is associated with vascular dysfunction in cynomolgus monkeys. Plasma homocyst(e)ine increased from 4.O +/- O.2 microM when monkeys were fed normal diet to 10.6 +/- 2.6 microM when they were fed modified diet (mean +/- SE; P = 0.02). Vasomotor responses were assessed in vivo by quantitative angiography and Doppler measurement of blood flow velocity. In response to activation of platelets by intraarterial infusion of collagen, blood flow to the leg decreased by 42 +/- 9% in monkeys fed modified diet, compared with 14 +/- 11% in monkeys fed normal diet (P = 0.008), Responses of resistance vessels to the endothelium-dependent vasodilators acetylcholine and ADP were markedly impaired in hyperhomocyst(e)inemic monkeys, which suggests that increased vasoconstriction in response to collagen may be caused by decreased vasodilator responsiveness to platelet-generated ADP. Relaxation to acetylcholine and, to a lesser extent, nitroprusside, was impaired ex vivo in carotid arteries from monkeys fed modified diet. Thrombomodulin anticoagulant activity in aorta decreased by 34 +/- 15% in hyperhomocyst(e)inemic monkeys (P = 0.03). We conclude that diet-induced moderate hyperhomocyst(e)inemia is associated with altered vascular function.
S R Lentz, C G Sobey, D J Piegors, M Y Bhopatkar, F M Faraci, M R Malinow, D D Heistad
McCune-Albright syndrome (MAS) is characterized by café-au-lait spot, multiple endocrine hyperfunction, and polyostotic fibrous dysplasia. A somatic point mutation of Gsalpha protein was reported to decrease GTPase activity, leading to increase in the GSalpha-associated hormone actions via cAMP. IL-6 is known to stimulate osteoclast formation and in the IL-6 promoter, a cAMP responsive element has been identified. In this paper, we investigated the role of IL-6 in the bone lesions of MAS, using the isolated fibrous cells from the polyostotic fibrous dysplasia tissues in bones of the two patients with MAS. Bone biopsy specimen revealed the increased osteoclast in number. In both patients, a GSalpha mutation (Arg201 -> His) was identified in the cultured fibrous cells. Intracellular cAMP content and IL-6 secretion by the patient cells were increased. Rp-8Br-cAMP significantly inhibited IL-6 production in the patient cells, while it had no effect on normal control. The addition of dibutyryl cAMP significantly increased the synthesis of IL-6 in normal control cells. In contrast, no effect of dibutyryl cAMP on IL-6 synthesis was observed in the cells from one of the MAS patients. These data suggest that IL-6 is, at least, one of the downstream effectors of cAMP and that the increased IL-6 synthesis has a pathogenic role in the bone lesions of MAS patients via increasing the number of osteoclasts. These results may provide a new strategy for the therapy of MAS patients.
T Yamamoto, K Ozono, S Kasayama, K Yoh, K Hiroshima, M Takagi, S Matsumoto, T Michigami, K Yamaoka, T Kishimoto, S Okada
One of the earliest events in atherosclerosis is interaction of circulating mononuclear leukocytes and the endothelium. Endothelial cell (EC) activation by cytokines results in expression of adhesion molecules and production of chemotactic factors, augmenting leukocyte adhesion and recruitment, respectively. The incidence of atherosclerosis in premenopausal women is significantly less than that observed in age-matched males with similar risk profiles. Because estrogen has gene regulatory effects, we investigated whether 17beta-estradiol (E2) can inhibit cytokine-mediated EC adhesion molecule transcriptional activation. Cultured human umbilical vein EC (estrogen receptor-positive) were propagated in gonadal hormone-free medium and were E2-pretreated for 48 h before IL-1 activation. Detected by FACS analysis, E2 strongly (60-80%) inhibited IL-1-mediated membrane E-selectin and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 induction, and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 hyperinduction. 17alpha-estradiol (an inactive E2 stereoisomer) had no effect. This inhibition correlated with similar reductions in steady state-induced E-selectin mRNA levels, and was abrogated by the E2 antagonist ICI 164,384, demonstrating a specific, estrogen receptor-mediated effect. Nuclear run-offs confirmed suppression at the transcriptional level. The implications of these results for the cardiovascular protective role of estrogen are discussed.
T Caulin-Glaser, C A Watson, R Pardi, J R Bender
We have investigated the acute regulation by insulin of the mRNA levels of nine genes involved in insulin action, in muscle biopsies obtained before and at the end of a 3-h euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp. Using reverse transcription-competitive PCR, we have measured the mRNAs encoding the two insulin receptor variants, the insulin receptor substrate-1, the p85alpha subunit of phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase, Ras associated to diabetes (Rad), the glucose transporter Glut 4, glycogen synthase, 6-phosphofructo-l-kinase, lipoprotein lipase, and the hormone-sensitive lipase. Insulin infusion induced a significant increase in the mRNA level of Glut 4 (+56 +/- 13%), Rad (+96 +/- 25%), the p85alpha subunit of phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (+92 +/- 18%) and a decrease in the lipoprotein lipase mRNA level (-49 +/- 5%), while the abundance of the other mRNAs was unaffected. The relative expression of the two insulin receptor variants was not modified. These results demonstrate an acute coordinated regulation by insulin of the expression of genes coding key proteins involved in its action in human skeletal muscle and suggest that Rad and the p85alpha regulatory subunit of phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase can be added to the list of the genes controlled by insulin.
M Laville, D Auboeuf, Y Khalfallah, N Vega, J P Riou, H Vidal
When phagocyte CR3 binds to iC3b on bacteria or yeast, phagocytosis and degranulation are triggered because of simultaneous recognition of iC3b via a CD11b I-domain binding site and specific microbial polysaccharides via a lectin site located COOH-terminal to the I-domain. By contrast, when phagocyte or natural killer (NK) cell CR3 adheres to iC3b on erythrocytes or tumor cells that lack CR3-binding membrane polysaccharides, neither lysis nor cytotoxicity are stimulated. This investigation showed that soluble CR3-specific polysaccharides such as beta-glucan induced a primed state of CR3 that could trigger killing of iC3b-target cells that were otherwise resistant to cytotoxicity. Anti-CR3 added before sugars prevented priming, whereas anti-CR3 added after sugars blocked primed CR3 attachment to iC3b-targets. Polysaccharide priming required tyrosine kinase(s) and a magnesium-dependent conformational change of the I-domain that exposed the CBRM1/5 activation epitope. Unlike LPS or cytokines, polysaccharides did not up-regulate neutrophil CR3 expression nor expose the mAb 24 reporter epitope representing the high affinity ICAM-1-binding state. The current data apparently explain the mechanism of tumoricidal beta-glucans used for immunotherapy. These polysaccharides function through binding to phagocyte or NK cell CR3, priming the receptor for cytotoxicity of neoplastic tissues that are frequently targeted with iC3b and sparing normal tissues that lack iC3b.
V Vetvicka, B P Thornton, G D Ross
Myocardial regions perfused through a coronary stenosis may cease contracting, but remain viable. Clinical observations suggest that increased glucose utilization may be an adaptive mechanism in such "hibernating" regions. In this study, we used a combination of 13C-NMR spectroscopy, GC-MS analysis, and tissue biochemical measurements to track glucose through intracellular metabolism in intact dogs infused with [1-13C]glucose during a 3-4-h period of acute ischemic hibernation. During low-flow ischemia [3-13C]alanine enrichment was higher, relative to plasma [1-13C]glucose enrichment, in ischemic than in nonischemic regions of the heart, suggesting a greater contribution of exogenous glucose to glycolytic flux in the ischemic region (approximately 72 vs. approximately 28%, P < 0.01). Both the fraction of glycogen synthase present in the physiologically active glucose-6-phosphate-independent form (46 +/- 10 vs. 9 +/- 6%, P < 0.01) and the rate of incorporation of circulating glucose into glycogen (94 +/- 25 vs. 20 +/- 15 nmol/gram/min, P < 0.01) were also greater in ischemic regions. Measurement of steady state [4-13C)glutamate/[3-13C]alanine enrichment ratios demonstrated that glucose-derived pyruvate supported 26-36% of total tricarboxylic acid cycle flux in all regions, however, indicating no preference for glucose over fat as an oxidative substrate in the ischemic myocardium. Thus during sustained regional low-flow ischemia in vivo, the ischemic myocardium increases its utilization of exogenous glucose as a substrate. Upregulation is restricted to cytosolic utilization pathways, however (glycolysis and glycogen synthesis), and fat continues to be the major source of mitochondrial oxidative substrate.
P H McNulty, A J Sinusas, C Q Shi, D Dione, L H Young, G C Cline, G I Shulman
Oral administration of antigen is a long recognized method of inducing systemic immune tolerance. In animals with experimental autoimmune disease, a major mechanism of oral tolerance triggered by oral administration of antigen involves the induction of regulatory T cells that mediate active suppression by secreting the cytokine TGF-beta 1. Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a presumed T cell-mediated Th1 type autoimmune disease. Here, we investigated whether in MS patients oral myelin treatment, containing both myelin basic protein (MBP) and proteolipid protein (PLP), induced antigen specific MBP or PLP reactive T cells that either secreted IL4, TGF-beta1, or alternatively did Th1 type sensitization occur as measured by IFN-gamma secretion. Specifically, 4,860 short-term T cell lines were generated to either MBP, PLP, or tetanus toxoid (TT) from 34 relapsing-remitting MS patients: 17 orally treated with bovine myelin daily for a minimum of 2 yr as compared to 17 nontreated patients. We found a marked increase in the relative frequencies of both MBP and PLP specific TGF-beta1-secreting T cell lines in the myelin treated MS patients as compared to non-treated MS patients (MBP P < 0.001, PLP P < 0.003). In contrast, no change in the frequency of MBP or PLP specific IFN-gamma or TT specific TGF-beta1 secreting T cells were observed. These results suggest that the oral administration of antigens generates antigen specific TGF-beta1 secreting Th3 cells of presumed mucosal origin that represent a distinct lineage of T cells. Since antigen-specific TGF-beta1 secreting cells localize to the target organ and then suppress inflammation in the local microenvironment, oral tolerization with self antigens may provide a therapeutic approach for the treatment of cell-mediated autoimmune disease which does not depend upon knowledge of the antigen specificity of the original T cell clone triggering the autoimmune cascade.
H Fukaura, S C Kent, M J Pietrusewicz, S J Khoury, H L Weiner, D A Hafler
A large body of evidence suggests that oxidized LDL (oxLDL) has a role in atherogenesis. One effect is the impact on macrophage function. We have studied the effects of oxLDL and oxysterols on the binding of the transcription factors nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB and AP-1 to DNA. These transcription factors are involved in the regulation of several genes and expressed during activation of macrophages, for example by endotoxin (LPS). OxLDL did not induce binding of NF-kappaB. However, the LPS-induced response to NF-kappaB was substantially reduced after preincubation with oxLDL. Medium and highly oxidized LDL also decreased the constitutive DNA-binding of AP-1. Similar effects on AP-1-binding were seen with the oxysterols, 7beta-hydroxycholesterol, 24- hydroxy-, 25-hydroxy-, and 27-hydroxy-cholesterol. Our data therefore suggest an effect of oxLDL on the DNA-binding of AP-1, which might be mediated by the oxysterol content of oxLDL. A decreased LPS-induced TNF-alpha and IL-1beta mRNA and protein expression were found in macrophages incubated with oxLDL before LPS-exposure. These observations suggest that macrophages that internalize extensively oxidized LDL are suppressed in their response to inflammatory stimulation.
B G Ohlsson, M C Englund, A L Karlsson, E Knutsen, C Erixon, H Skribeck, Y Liu, G Bondjers, O Wiklund
Despite the strong association between protein catabolic conditions and hyperglucagonemia, and enhanced glucagon secretion by amino acids (AA), glucagon's effects on protein metabolism remain less clear than on glucose metabolism. To clearly define glucagon's catabolic effect on protein metabolism during AA load, we studied the effects of glucagon on circulating AA and protein dynamics in six healthy subjects. Five protocols were performed in each subject using somatostatin to inhibit the secretion of insulin, glucagon, and growth hormone (GH) and selectively replacing these hormones in different protocols. Total AA concentration was the highest when glucagon, insulin, and GH were low. Selective increase of glucagon levels prevented this increment in AA. Addition of high levels of insulin and GH to high glucagon had no effect on total AA levels, although branched chain AA levels declined. Glucagon mostly decreased glucogenic AA and enhanced glucose production. Endogenous leucine flux, reflecting proteolysis, decreased while leucine oxidation increased in protocols where AA were infused and these changes were unaffected by the hormones. Nonoxidative leucine flux reflecting protein synthesis was stimulated by AA, but high glucagon attenuated this effect. Addition of GH and insulin partially reversed the inhibitory effect of glucagon on protein synthesis. We conclude that glucagon is the pivotal hormone in amino acid disposal during an AA load and, by reducing the availability of AA, glucagon inhibits protein synthesis stimulated by AA. These data provide further support for a catabolic role of glucagon at physiological concentrations.
M R Charlton, D B Adey, K S Nair
Analysis of a large number of unrelated bone marrow transplantations (BMT) has shown that HLA-DP incompatibility did not detectably influence the risk for acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD). Accordingly, it was proposed that HLA-DP determinants did not function as transplantation antigens in the same way as HLA-A, -B, or -DR. We have previously shown that HLA-DP (as well as HLA-A, -B, -DQ, or -DR)-specific T cells could be isolated from skin biopsies of patients who developed an aGVHD after semiallogeneic BMT. Nevertheless, whether a single HLA-DP mismatched allele could induce a detectable allo-specific reaction in vivo after BMT remained to be established. To directly address this issue we studied one patient who presented aGVHD after receiving purified CD34+ bone marrow (BM) cells from an unrelated donor with a single HLA-DP mismatch in the GVHD direction. To characterize the immunological events associated with GVHD, we analyzed the peripheral T cell repertoire, the T cell receptor Vbeta diversity, and the specificity of T cells invading a skin biopsy at the onset of GVHD. Our results demonstrated that a large fraction of skin-infiltrating lymphocytes, which expressed diverse T cell receptors, were reactive against this single HLA-DPB1 *0501 mismatch and consequently that a single HLA-DP mismatch between BM donor and recipient can activate a strong T cell response in vivo.
J Gaschet, A Lim, L Liem, R Vivien, M M Hallet, J L Harousseau, J Even, E Goulmy, M Bonneville, N Milpied, H Vié
The contribution of muscle tissues of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) patients to blood lactate appearance remains undefined. To gain insight on intracellular pyruvate/lactate metabolism, the postabsorptive forearm metabolism of glucose, lactate, FFA, and ketone bodies (KB) was assessed in seven obese non-insulin-dependent diabetic patients (BMI = 28.0 +/- 0.5 kg/m2) and seven control individuals (BMI = 24.8 +/- 0.5 kg/m2) by using arteriovenous balance across forearm tissues along with continuous infusion of [3-13C1]-lactate and indirect calorimetry. Fasting plasma concentrations of glucose (10.0 +/- 0.3 vs. 4.7 +/- 0.2 mmol/liter), insulin (68 +/- 5 vs. 43 +/- 6 pmol/liter), FFA (0.57 +/- 0.02 vs. 0.51 +/- 0.02 mmol/liter), and blood levels of lactate (1.05 +/- 0.04 vs. 0.60 +/- 0.06 mmol/liter), and KB (0.48 +/- 0.04 vs. 0.29 +/- 0.02 mmol/liter) were higher in NIDDM patients (P < 0.01). Forearm glucose uptake was similar in the two groups (10.3 +/- 1.4 vs. 9.6 +/ 1.1 micromol/min/liter of forearm tissue), while KB uptake was twice as much in NIDDM patients as compared to control subjects. Lactate balance was only slightly increased in NIDDM patients (5.6 +/- 1.4 vs. 3.3 +/- 1.0 micromol/min/liter; P = NS). A two-compartment model of lactate and pyruvate kinetics in the forearm tissue was used to dissect out the rates of lactate to pyruvate and pyruvate to lactate interconversions. In spite of minor differences in the lactate balance, a fourfold increase in both lactate- (44.8 +/- 9.0 vs. 12.6 +/- 4.6 micromol/min/liter) and pyruvate-(50.4 +/- 9.8 vs. 16.0 +/- 5.0 micromol/min/liter) interconversion rates (both P < 0.01) were found. Whole body lactate turnover, assessed by using the classic isotope dilution principle, was higher in NIDDM individuals (46 +/- 9 vs. 21 +/- 3 micromol/min/kg; P < 0.01). Insights into the physiological meaning of this parameter were obtained by using a whole body noncompartmental model of lactate/pyruvate kinetics which provides a lower and upper bound for total lactate and pyruvate turnover (NIDDM = 46 +/- 9 vs. 108 +/- 31; controls = 21 +/- 3 - 50 +/-13 micromol/min/kg). In conclusion, in the postabsorptive state, despite a trivial lactate release by muscle, lactate- and pyruvate-interconversion rates are greatly enhanced in NIDDM patients, possibly due to concomitant impairment in the oxidative pathway of glucose metabolism. This finding strongly suggest a major disturbance in intracellular lactate/pyruvate metabolism in NIDDM.
A Avogaro, G Toffolo, M Miola, A Valerio, A Tiengo, C Cobelli, S Del Prato
Clinical and experimental data have indicated that heavy proteinuria in renal glomerular diseases is associated with the formation of tubulo-interstitial fibrosis and contributes to the progression of renal failure. Albumin in glomerular ultrafiltrate does not appear to cause this sequelae, rather than compounds that are associated with ultrafiltered plasma proteins. One such protein-bound factor could be insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I). The present studies show that in nephrotic rats, IGF-I is ultrafiltered in conjunction with IGF-binding protein-2 and is present in proximal tubular fluid at 1.35 nM. Proximal tubular fluid from nephrotic rats autophosphorylates IGF-I receptors in cultured proximal tubular cells. Nephrotic, but not control, rat proximal tubular fluid increases the [3H]thymidine incorporation in cultured tubular cells, and neutralizing IGF-I-receptor antibodies partially inhibit this activity. Incubation of cultured proximal tubular cells with an extract that was prepared from nephrotic rat urine increases the secretion of collagen types I and IV. Secretion of the two collagens is in part ameliorated by neutralizing IGF-I-receptor antibody. In concert, these findings suggest that the IGF-I present in nephrotic rat tubular fluid is bioactive and may contribute to the development of tubulo-interstitial fibrosis in chronic nephrotic glomerular diseases.
Exercise leads to marked increases in muscle insulin sensitivity and glucose effectiveness. Oral glucose tolerance immediately after exercise is generally not improved. The hypothesis tested by these experiments is that after exercise the increased muscle glucose uptake during an intestinal glucose load is counterbalanced by an increase in the efficiency with which glucose enters the circulation and that this occurs due to an increase in intestinal glucose absorption or decrease in hepatic glucose disposal. For this purpose, sampling (artery and portal, hepatic, and femoral veins) and infusion (vena cava, duodenum) catheters and Doppler flow probes (portal vein, hepatic artery, external iliac artery) were implanted 17 d before study. Overnightfasted dogs were studied after 150 min of moderate treadmill exercise or an equal duration rest period. Glucose ([14C]glucose labeled) was infused in the duodenum at 8 mg/kg x min for 150 min beginning 30 min after exercise or rest periods. Values, depending on the specific variable, are the mean +/- SE for six to eight dogs. Measurements are from the last 60 min of the intraduodenal glucose infusion. In response to intraduodenal glucose, arterial plasma glucose rose more in exercised (103 +/- 4 to 154 +/- 6 mg/dl) compared with rested (104 +/- 2 to 139 +/- 3 mg/dl) dogs. The greater increase in glucose occurred even though net limb glucose uptake was elevated after exercise (35 +/- 5 vs. 20 +/- 2 mg/min) as net splanchnic glucose output (5.1 +/- 0.8 vs. 2.1 +/- 0.6 mg/kg x min) and systemic appearance of intraduodenal glucose (8.1 +/- 0.6 vs. 6.3 +/- 0.7 mg/kg x min) were also increased due to a higher net gut glucose output (6.1 +/- 0.7 vs. 3.6 +/- 0.9 mg/kg x min). Adaptations at the muscle led to increased net glycogen deposition after exercise [1.4 +/- 0.3 vs. 0.5 +/- 0.1 mg/(gram of tissue x 150 min)], while no such increase in glycogen storage was seen in liver [3.9 +/- 1.0 vs. 4.1 +/- 1.1 mg/(gram of tissue x 150 min) in exercised and sedentary animals, respectively]. These experiments show that the increase in the ability of previously working muscle to store glycogen is not solely a result of changes at the muscle itself, but is also a result of changes in the splanchnic bed that increase the efficiency with which oral glucose is made available in the systemic circulation.
K S Hamilton, F K Gibbons, D P Bracy, D B Lacy, A D Cherrington, D H Wasserman
Evidence of in vivo oxidant-induced injury in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is largely indirect. Colon epithelial crypt cells (CEC) from paired specimens of histologically normal and inflamed bowel from IBD patients with active disease were examined for altered protein thiol redox status as an indicator of oxidative damage. When CEC preparations from 22 IBD patients were labeled with the reduced-thiol-specific probe [14C]-iodoacetamide (IAM), there was decreased labeling of a number of proteins indicating oxidation of thiol groups in CEC from inflamed mucosa compared to paired normal mucosa, especially the loss of thiol labeling of a 37-kD protein which was almost completely lost. The loss of reduced protein thiol status for the 37-kD band was paralleled by loss of epithelial cell glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH, EC 188.8.131.52) enzyme activity, an enzyme known to contain an essential reduced cysteine (Cys149) at the active site. The identity of the 37-kD protein as GADPH monomer was confirmed by NH2-terminal amino acid sequence analysis. To examine whether this type of in vivo injury could be attributed to biologically relevant oxidants produced by inflammatory cells, CEC prepared from normal mucosa were exposed to H2O2, OCl-, nitric oxide (NO), and a model chloramine molecule chloramine T (ChT) in vitro. Dose-dependent loss of IAM labeling and GAPDH enzyme activity was observed. The efficacy (IC50) against IAM labeling was OCl- >> ChT > H2O2 > NO (52 +/- 3, 250 +/- 17, 420 +/- 12, 779 +/- 120 microM oxidant) and OCl- >> ChT > NO > H2O2 (89 +/- 17, 256 +/- 11, 407 +/- 105, 457 +/- 75 microM oxidant), respectively, for GAPDH enzyme activity. This study provides direct evidence of in vivo oxidant injury in CEC from inflamed mucosa of IBD patients. Oxidation and inhibition of essential protein function by inflammatory cells is a potential mechanism of tissue injury that may contribute to the pathogenesis of the disease and supports the exploration of compounds with antioxidant activity as new therapies for IBD.
S J McKenzie, M S Baker, G D Buffinton, W F Doe
Working with the murine epidermal-derived dendritic cell (DC) line XS52, we have observed previously that antigen-specific interaction with T cells stimulates their "terminal maturation" into fully professional DC. In this study we examined the impact of dexamethasone (DEX) on this T cell-induced event. When added to cocultures of XS52 DC and the KLH-specific Th1 clone HDK-1 in the presence of antigen, DEX at relatively low concentrations (10(-9)-10(-7) M) prevented substantially or completely each of the changes that typify terminal maturation, including (a) secretion of relatively large amounts of IL-1beta, IL-6, and TNFalpha; (b) loss of CD115 (colony-stimulating factor-1 receptor) expression and proliferative responsiveness to colony-stimulating factor-1; and (c) elevated expression of CD86 (B7-2). XS52 cells also underwent terminal maturation upon exposure to lipopolysaccharide alone, and DEX also inhibited effectively each of the same changes, indicating that DC can serve as the direct target of DEX. By contrast, DEX inhibited XS52 DC-stimulated IL-2 secretion by HDK-1 T cells, but not other changes that accompany T cell activation, including the secretion of IFNgamma and TNFalpha and the elevated expression of CD25, CD28, and CD44. These results reveal a new immunosuppressive mechanism of glucocorticoid action, that is, direct inhibition of T cell-mediated terminal maturation by DC.
T Kitajima, K Ariizumi, P R Bergstresser, A Takashima
Chromogranins A and B and secretogranin II are a family of acidic proteins found in neuroendocrine secretory vesicles; these proteins contain multiple potential cleavage sites for proteolytic processing by the mammalian subtilisin-like serine endoproteases PC1 and PC2 (prohormone convertases 1 and 2), and furin. We explored the role of these endoproteases in chromogranin processing in AtT-20 mouse pituitary corticotropes. Expression of inducible antisense PC1 mRNA virtually abolished PC1 immunoreactivity on immunoblots. Chromogranin A immunoblots revealed chromogranin A processing, from both the NH2 and COOH termini, in both wild-type AtT-20 and AtT-20 antisense PC1 cells. After antisense PC1 induction, an approximately 66-kD chromogranin A NH2-terminal fragment as well as the parent chromogranin A molecule accumulated, while an approximately 50 kD NH2-terminal and an approximately 30 kD COOH-terminal fragment declined in abundance. Chromogranin B and secretogranin II immunoblots showed no change after PC1 reduction. [35S]Methionine/cysteine pulse-chase metabolic labeling in AtT-20 antisense PC1 and antisense furin cells revealed reciprocal changes in secreted chromogranin A COOH-terminal fragments (increased approximately 82 kD and decreased approximately 74 kD forms, as compared with wild-type AtT-20 cells) indicating decreased cleavage, while AtT-20 cells overexpressing PC2 showed increased processing to and secretion of approximately 71 and approximately 27 kD NH2-terminal chromogranin A fragments. Antisense PC1 specifically abolished regulated secretion of both chromogranin A and beta-endorphin in response to the usual secretagogue, corticotropin-releasing hormone. Moreover, immunocytochemistry demonstrated a relative decrease of chromogranin A in processes (where regulated secretory vesicles accumulate) of AtT-20 cells overexpressing either PC1 or PC2. These results demonstrate that chromogranin A is a substrate for the endogenous endoproteases PC1 and furin in vivo, and that such processing influences its trafficking into the regulated secretory pathway; furthermore, lack of change in chromogranin B and secretogranin II cleavage after diminution of PCl suggests that the action of PC1 on chromogranin A may be specific within the chromogranin/secretogranin protein family.
N L Eskeland, A Zhou, T Q Dinh, H Wu, R J Parmer, R E Mains, D T O'Connor
Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) inhibits and aldosterone (ALDO) stimulates Na conductive transport. Therefore, the effects of ANP and its second messenger cGMP on mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) function in rat colon surface and crypt cells were examined. 100 nM 8-Br-cGMP decreased surface [3H]ALDO binding by 42 +/- 4% but increased crypt [3HvALDO binding by 52+/-16%. ANP decreased surface [3H]ALDO binding by approximately 50% after a 2.5-h lag period but had no effect on crypt ALDO binding. ANP and cGMP rapidly (< 15 min) inhibited surface cell ALDO-induced MR nuclear translocation but did not affect crypt MR nuclear translocation. Inhibition of cGMP-dependent protein kinase with KT5823 blocked the inhibitory effects of ANP and 8-Br-cGMP on surface cell ALDO binding and MR nuclear translocation. In crypt, KT5823 increased baseline [3H]ALDO binding but did not inhibit the stimulatory effect of exogenous cGMP. DEAE-cellulose chromatography and gel mobility shift assay showed that ANP did not inhibit surface MR activation. ANP inhibited ALDO stimulated short circuit current in distal colon. These data demonstrate cell-specific regulation of MR function. In surface cells, ANP rapidly inhibits MR nuclear translocation and ALDO-induced short circuit current. ANP inhibition of MR function may be an additional mechanism of ANP antagonism of Na reabsorption.
G Schulman, R Lindemeyer, A Barman, S Karnik, C P Bastl
To examine the role of alterations in myofibrillar function in human dilated cardiomyopathies, we determined isometric tension-calcium relations in permeabilized myocytesized myofibrillar preparations (n = 16) obtained from left ventricular biopsies from nine patients with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) during cardiac transplantation or left ventricular assist device implantation. Similar preparations (n = 10) were obtained from six normal hearts used for cardiac transplantation. Passive and maximal Ca2+-activated tensions were similar for the two groups. However, the calcium sensitivity of isometric tension was increased in DCM compared to nonfailing preparations ([Ca2+]50=2.46+/-0.49 microM vs 3.24+/-0.51 microM, P < 0.001). In vitro treatment with the catalytic subunit of protein kinase A (PKA) decreased calcium sensitivity of tension to a greater degree in failing than in normal preparations. Further, isometric tension-calcium relations in failing and normal myofibrillar preparations were similar after PKA treatment. These findings suggest that the increased calcium sensitivity of isometric tension in DCM may be due at least in part to a reduction of the beta-adrenergically mediated (PKA-dependent) phosphorylation of myofibrillar regulatory proteins such as troponin I and/or C-protein.
M R Wolff, S H Buck, S W Stoker, M L Greaser, R M Mentzer
Homocysteine, an atherogenic amino acid, is either remethylated to methionine or metabolized to cysteine by the transsulfuration pathway. The biochemical conversion of homocysteine to cysteine is dependent upon two consecutive, vitamin B-6-dependent reactions. To study the effect of a selective vitamin B-6 deficiency on transsulfuration, we performed oral methionine load tests on 22 vitamin B-6-deficient asthma patients treated with theophylline (a vitamin B-6 antagonist) and 24 age- and sex-matched controls with a normal vitamin B-6 status. Both groups had normal circulating vitamin B-12 and folate concentrations. Methionine loading resulted in significantly higher increases in circulating total homocyst(e)ine (P < 0.01) and cystathionine (P < 0.05) concentrations in vitamin B-6-deficient patients compared with controls. 6 wk of vitamin B-6 supplementation (20 mg/d) significantly (P < 0.05) reduced post-methionine load increases in circulating total homocyst(e)ine concentrations in deficient subjects, but had no significant effect on the increase in total homocyst(e)ine concentrations in controls. The increases in post-methionine load circulating cystathionine concentrations were significantly (P < 0.01) reduced in both groups after vitamin supplementation. It is concluded that a vitamin B-6 deficiency may contribute to impaired transsulfuration and an abnormal methionine load test, which is associated with premature vascular disease.
J B Ubbink, A van der Merwe, R Delport, R H Allen, S P Stabler, R Riezler, W J Vermaak
It is now established that the lysine binding site (LBS) of apo(a) kringle IV-10, and particularly Trp72, plays a dominant role in the binding of lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] to lysine. To determine the role of the LBS in the binding of Lp(a) to fibrinogen, we examined the binding to plasmin-modified (PM) fibrinogen of human and rhesus monkey Lp(a) species classified as either Lys' or Lys- based on their capacity to bind lysine Sepharose and to have Trp or Arg, respectively, in position 72 of the LBS of kringle IV-10. We also examined the free apo(a)s obtained by subjecting their corresponding parent Lp(a)s to a mild reductive procedure developed in our laboratory. Our results show that both Lyst and Lys- Lp(a)s and their derived apo(a)s, bound to PM-fibrinogen with similar affinities (Kds: 33-100 nM), whereas the B(max) values were threefold higher for apo(a)s. Both the lysine analog epsilon-aminocaproic acid and L-proline inhibited the binding of Lp(a) and apo(a) to PM fibrinogen. We conclude that the LBS of kringle IV-10 is not involved in this process and that apo(a) binds to PM-fibrinogen via a lysine-proline-sensitive domain located outside the LBS and largely masked by the interaction of apo(a) with apoB100. The significant difference in the PM fibrinogen binding capacity also suggests that apo(a) may have a comparatively higher athero-thrombogenic potential than parent Lp(a).
O Klezovitch, C Edelstein, A M Scanu
The iron (III) complex of diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA iron [III]) protected mice and baboons from the lethal effects of an infusion with live LD100 Escherichia coli. In mice, optimal results were obtained when DTPA iron (III) was administered two or more hours after infection. Prevention of death occurred in spite of the fact that the adverse effects of TNF-alpha were well underway in the mouse model. The half-life of DTPA iron (III) was 51 +/- 9 min in normal baboons; primary clearance was consistent with glomerular filtration. In septic baboons, survival was observed after administration of two doses of DTPA iron (III) at 2.125 mg/kg, the first one given before, or as late as 2 h after, severe hypotension. Administration of DTPA iron (III) did not alter mean systemic arterial pressure, but did protect baboons in the presence of high levels of TNF-alpha and free radical overproduction. Furthermore, exaggerated production of nitric oxide was attenuated. The mechanism of protection with DTPA iron (III) is not obvious. Because of its ability to interact in vitro with free radicals, its poor cell permeability, and its short half-life, we postulate that DTPA iron (III) and/or its reduced form may have protected the mice and baboons by sequestration and subsequent elimination of free radicals (including nitric oxide) from their systems.
L Molina, S Studenberg, G Wolberg, W Kazmierski, J Wilson, A Tadepalli, A C Chang, S Kosanke, L Hinshaw
The phenomenon of alkylation tolerance has been observed in cells that are deficient in some component of the DNA mismatch repair (MMR) system. An alkylation-induced cell cycle arrest had been reported previously in one MMR-proficient cell line, whereas a MMR-defective clone derived from this line escapes from this arrest. We examined human cancer cell lines to determine if the cell cycle arrest were dependent upon the MMR system. Growth characteristics and cell cycle analysis after MNNG treatment were ascertained in seven MMR-deficient and proficient cell lines, with and without confirmed mutations in hMLH1 or hMSH2 by an in vitro transcription/translation assay. MMR-proficient cells underwent growth arrest in the G2 phase of the cell cycle after the first S phase, whereas MMR-deficient cells escaped an initial G2 delay and resumed a normal growth pattern. In the HCT116 line corrected for defective MMR by chromosome 3 transfer, the G2 phase arrest lasted more than five days. In another MMR-proficient colon cancer cell line, SW480, cell death occurred five days after MNNG treatment. A competent MMR system appears to be necessary for G2 arrest or cell death after alkylation damage, and this cell cycle checkpoint may allow the cell to repair damaged DNA, or prevent the replication of mutated DNA by prohibiting clonal expansion.
J M Carethers, M T Hawn, D P Chauhan, M C Luce, G Marra, M Koi, C R Boland
Aceruloplasminemia is an autosomal recessive disorder resulting in neurodegeneration of the retina and basal ganglia in association with iron accumulation in these tissues. To begin to define the mechanisms of central nervous system iron accumulation and neuronal loss in this disease, cDNA clones encoding murine ceruloplasmin were isolated and characterized. RNA blot analysis using these clones detected a 3.7-kb ceruloplasmin-specific transcript in multiple murine tissues including the eye and several regions of the brain. In situ hybridization of systemic tissues revealed cell-specific ceruloplasmin gene expression in hepatocytes, the splenic reticuloendothelial system and the bronchiolar epithelium of the lung. In the central nervous system, abundant ceruloplasmin gene expression was detected in specific populations of astrocytes within the retina and the brain as well as the epithelium of the choroid plexus. Analysis of primary cell cultures confirmed that astrocytes expressed ceruloplasmin mRNA and biosynthetic studies revealed synthesis and secretion of ceruloplasmin by these cells. Taken together these results demonstrate abundant cell-specific ceruloplasmin expression within the central nervous system which may account for the unique clinical and pathologic findings observed in patients with aceruloplasminemia.
L W Klomp, Z S Farhangrazi, L L Dugan, J D Gitlin
This study describes a simple approach to generate relatively pure cultures of cardiomyocytes from differentiating murine embryonic stem (ES) cells. A fusion gene consisting of the alpha-cardiac myosin heavy chain promoter and a cDNA encoding aminoglycoside phosphotransferase was stably transfected into pluripotent ES cells. The resulting cell lines were differentiated in vitro and subjected to G418 selection. Immunocytological and ultrastructural analyses demonstrated that the selected cardiomyocyte cultures (> 99% pure) were highly differentiated. G418 selected cardiomyocytes were tested for their ability to form grafts in the hearts of adult dystrophic mice. The fate of the engrafted cells was monitored by antidystrophin immunohistology, as well as by PCR analysis with primers specific for the myosin heavy chain-aminoglycoside phosphotransferase transgene. Both analyses revealed the presence of ES-derived cardiomyocyte grafts for as long as 7 wk after implantation, the latest time point analyzed. These studies indicate that a simple genetic manipulation can be used to select essentially pure cultures of cardiomyocytes from differentiating ES cells. Moreover, the resulting cardiomyocytes are suitable for the formation of intracardiac grafts. This selection approach should be applicable to all ES-derived cell lineages.
M G Klug, M H Soonpaa, G Y Koh, L J Field
Injury to atherosclerotic arteries induces the expression of growth regulatory genes that stimulate cellular proliferation and intimal formation. Intimal expansion has been reduced in vivo in nonatherosclerotic balloon-injured arteries by transfer of genes that inhibit cell proliferation. It is not known, however, whether vascular cell proliferation can be inhibited after injury in more extensively diseased atherosclerotic arteries. Accordingly, the purpose of this study was to investigate whether expression of recombinant genes in atherosclerotic arteries after balloon injury could inhibit intimal cell proliferation. To test this hypothesis, we examined the response to balloon injury in atherosclerotic rabbit arteries after gene transfer of herpesvirus thymidine kinase gene (tk) and administration of ganciclovir. Smooth muscle cells from hyperlipidemic rabbit arteries infected with adenoviral vectors encoding tk were sensitive to ganciclovir, and bystander killing was observed in vitro. In atherosclerotic arteries, a human placental alkaline phosphatase reporter gene was expressed in intimal and medial smooth muscle cells and macrophages, identifying these cells as targets for gene transfer. Expression of tk in balloon-injured hyperlipidemic rabbit arteries followed by ganciclovir treatment resulted in a 64% reduction in intimal cell proliferation 7 d after gene transfer (P = 0.004), and a 35-49% reduction in internal area 21 d after gene transfer, compared with five different control groups (P < 0.05). Replication of smooth muscle cells and macrophages was inhibited by tk expression and ganciclovir treatment. These findings indicate that transfer of a gene that inhibits cellular proliferation limits the intimal area in balloon-injured atherosclerotic arteries. Molecular approaches to the inhibition of cell proliferation in atherosclerotic arteries constitute a possible treatment for vascular proliferative diseases.
R D Simari, H San, M Rekhter, T Ohno, D Gordon, G J Nabel, E G Nabel