To better understand why plasma immunoreactive insulin (IRI) concentration is high in the rat fetus during the last 3 d of gestation and why fetal hyperinsulinemia abruptly subsides after birth, insulin secretion and metabolic clearance rates were estimated in fetuses and nursed pups.
Françoise R. Sodoyez-Goffaux, Jean C. Sodoyez, Claudine J. De Vos
In previous studies with isolated perfused rabbit lungs, we observed that human serum albumin (HSA) and ovalbumin, introduced into the isolated lungs as an aerosol, entered the pulmonary circulation antigenically intact. The “inhaled” proteins were also broken down in the lung. When lungs from animals immunized with one protein inhaled the two proteins simultaneously, absorption of intact antigen was specifically reduced, and there was a nonspecific increase in the appearance of metabolites of both proteins in the blood.
Janet F. Braley, Laurence B. Peterson, Christopher A. Dawson, Vernon L. Moore
The effects of glucose and parathyroid hormone (PTH) on the transport and metabolism of myoinositol (MI) and [2-3H]MI were studied in isolated perfused dog kidneys. Studies during perfusion of kidneys with normal and elevated glucose concentrations demonstrated that under normal conditions the isolated kidney reabsorbed 94.7±0.2% of the filtered MI, and the renal production of 3H-metabolities of MI was 117.9±6% of the filtered MI load. This indicated that entry of MI into tubular cells by reabsorption was not the sole pathway for entry into the pool of MI within the kidney undergoing catabolism. High glucose perfusate decreased MI reabsorption to 68.6±4.7% and thus decreased delivery of [2-3H]MI into the catabolic pool from the reabsorptive pathway. In the high glucose experiments, the rate of [2-3H]MI catabolism exceeded [2-3H]MI reabsorption by the same fraction as in normal glucose experiments, which indicates that high glucose did not affect nonreabsorptive access of MI to the catabolic site.
B. A. Molitoris, K. A. Hruska, N. Fishman, W. H. Daughaday
Infusion of glucagon causes only a transient increase in glucose production in normal and diabetic man. To assess the effect of intermittent endogenous hyperglucagonemia that might more closely reflect physiologic conditions, arginine (10 g over 30 min) was infused four times to 8 normal subjects and 13 insulin-dependent diabetic subjects (4 of whom were infused concomitantly with somatostatin to examine effects of arginine during prevention of hyperglucagonemia). Each arginine infusion was separated by 60 min. Diabetic subjects were infused throughout the experiments with insulin at rates (0.07-0.48 mU/kg per min) that had normalized base-line plasma glucose and rates of glucose appearance (Ra) and disappearance (Rd). Basal plasma glucagon and arginine-induced hyperglucagonemia were similar in both groups; basal serum insulin in the diabetics (16±1 μU/ml, P < 0.05) exceeded those of the normal subjects (10±1 μU/ml, P < 0.05) but did not increase with arginine. Serum insulin in normal subjects increased 15-20 μU/ml with each arginine infusion. In both groups each arginine infusion increased plasma glucose and Ra. Increments of Ra in the diabetics exceeded those of normal subjects, (P < 0.02); Rd was similar in both groups. In normal subjects, plasma glucose returned to basal levels after each arginine infusion, whereas in the diabetics hyperglycemia persisted reaching 151±15 mg/dl after the last arginine infusion. When glucagon responses were prevented by somatostatin, arginine infusions did not alter plasma glucose or Ra.
Robert Rizza, Carlos Verdonk, John Miles, F. John Service, John Gerich
Lymphocytes were purified from peripheral blood of normal donors and patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) by Ficoll-Hypaque centrifugation. Adenylate cyclase activity, expressed as picomoles [32P]cyclic AMP generated per milligram protein per minute, was 57±4 in normals and 26±4 in CLL patients. Enzyme activity, expressed as picomoles [32P]cyclic AMP generated per 106 lymphocytes per minute, was 2.09±0.19 for normal lymphocytes and 1.10±0.16 for CLL lymphocytes. The differences between normal and CLL peripheral lymphocytes are highly significant (P < 0.001) with either method of calculating activity.
John Mendelsohn, Judith Nordberg
The effect of nicotine on uterine blood flow, uterine vascular resistance, and plasma catecholamine concentration was studied in chronically catheterized pregnant sheep equipped with electromagnetic flow probes. The systemic administration of nicotine (14--32 micrograms/kg body wt per min) resulted in a 44% reduction in uterine blood flow (P less than 0.001) and a 203% increase in uterine vascular resistance. Both responses were inhibited by pretreatment with the alpha blocker, phentolamine. Arterial plasma concentrations of norepinephrine and epinephrine, measured by a single isotopic radioenzymatic assay, rose (from 117.9 +/- 6.7 to 201.8 +/- 13.3 pg/ml, P less than 0.001; and from 71.6 +/- 4.5 to 124.1 +/- 8.4 pg/ml, P less than 0.001, respectively) during nicotine infusion. The findings suggest that nicotine exerts a deleterious effect on uterine blood flow mediated through the release of catecholamines.
R Resnik, G W Brink, M Wilkes
We have studied the fate of inert phagocytized particles in rabbit neutrophils. Neutrophils release significant quantities of preingested oil emulsion. Roughly 50% of an ingested load is released in 40 min at 37 degrees C. By electron microscopy the process of release appears to be by exocytosis: particles appear extruded through a network of processes often accompanied by membranous vesicles. Exocytosis is temperature and glucose dependent but unlike phagocytosis does not require divalent cations. From Coulter counter measurements virtually the entire cell population appears to undergo the phagocytosis-exocytosis sequence. Neutrophils undergoing exocytosis remain intact as determined by direct counts, electron microscopy, and absence of lactate dehydrogenase release. Moreover, by sequentially feeding differently labeled particles, it is shown that the processes of phagocytosis and exocytosis can occur concurrently. Indeed, it is found that ingestion accelerates release. The implications of these phenomena for membrane recycling, lysosomal enzyme release, and the killing of microorganisms are briefly discussed.
R D Berlin, J P Fera, J R Pfeiffer
Studies were performed to explore the mechanism underlying the impaired generation of 125-I-3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (T3) from 125I-thyroxine (T4) (T3-neogenesis)) in preparations of liver from rats fasted for 48 h and the prevention of this effect by the feeding of glucose. T3-neogenesis in livers from fasted animals and those fed chow or glucose was assessed in various mixtures of crude microsomal fractions with either buffer or cytosols. T3-neogenesis was mediated by an enzyme present in the microsomal fraction whose activity was enhanced by cytosolic cofactor(s). In livers from animals fasted for 48 h, the supporting activity of cytosol was decreased, whereas the activity of the enzyme was unaffected. Administration of glucose as the sole nutritional source prevented the decrease in the supporting activity of hepatic cytosol that was regularly observed in the case of animals totally deprived of food. The diminished supporting activity for T3-neogenesis provided by liver cytosol from fasted animals was restored to normal by enrichment with either NADPH or GSH, but the two cofactors appeared to act at different loci. GSH stimulated T3-neogenesis in microsomes incubated in the absence of cytosol, i.e., in buffer, whereas NADPH did not. The stimulatory effect of both agents was blocked by the sulfhydryl oxidant, diamide, which also inhibited T3-neogenesis in mixtures of microsomes with cytosols. Taken together, these observations suggest that GSH acts directly on the enzyme in the crude microsomal fraction, whereas NADPH acts within the cytosol, possibly by increasing the concentration of GSH through the action of the enzyme glutathione reductase, for which NADPH is a cofactor. In this light, the decreased supporting activity of hepatic cytosol from starved animals appears to reflect, at least partly, a decreased concentration of one or both cofactors. The direct stimulation of enzyme activity by GSH, and the apparent lack of inhibition of unstimulated activity by diamide, suggests that the 5'-monodeiodinase for thyroxine that mediates T3-neogenesis may be a GSH transhydrogenase.
A Balsam, S H Ingbar
Studies were designed to investigate whether the suppressor cell systems that regulate the humoral and cell-mediated immune responses belong to the same subsets of T cells or different subsets. Mitogen-activated suppressor cells were simultaneously assayed for their ability to inhibit (a) pokeweed mitogen-induced generation of plasma cells, (b) blastogenic response of lymphocytes to allogeneic cells, and (c) generation of killer cells in the cell-mediated lymphocytotoxicity assay. We found that suppressor cells that inhibited the generation of plasma cells were activated by concanavalin A (Con A) and were both radiation and prednisone sensitive. Suppressors that inhibited the blastogenic response in lymphocytes to allogenic cells were also activated by Con A but differed in that they were both radiation and prednisone resistant. In contrast, suppressors that inhibited the generation of the killer cells were activated with phytohemagglutinin and not Con A. These suppressors were prednisone and radiation resistant. These observations cannot be explained by differences at the pro-suppressor or suppressor activator levels as both T cell subsets are radiosensitive. Alternatively, heterogeneity of suppressor cell systems may explain these differences.
P I Lobo, C E Spencer
A permeable cell technique was used to measure the alterations in synthesis of DNA and poly-(adenosine diphosphoribose) in normal human lymphocytes after treatment of the cells with different types of DNA-damaging agents. The lymphocytes showed an abrupt increase in the unscheduled synthesis of DNA and poly(adenosine diphosphoribose) in response to ultraviolet (UV) irradiation. The increases were apparent within 1 h and reached a maximum between 2 and 4 h after irradiation. The magnitude of the increases in DNA and poly(adenosine diphosphoribose) synthesis was dependent upon the UV dose. Alkaline CsCl gradient studies, with bromodeoxyuridine triphosphate density labeling of DNA, demonstrated that the unscheduled DNA synthesis, which occurred in response to UV irradiation, was actually a result of the repair mode of DNA synthesis. Similar increases in DNA synthesis, and poly(adenosine diphosphoribose) synthesis occurred when lymphocytes were treated with several other DNA-damaging agents, including bleomycin, N-methyl-N′-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine or N-acetoxyacetyl aminofluorene. Treatment of lymphocytes with DNase, under conditions which allowed degradation of cellular DNA, also resulted in increased synthesis of poly(adenosine diphosphoribose). Cycloheximide did not inhibit the increase in synthesis of DNA or poly(adenosine diphosphoribose) that occurred in response to treatment with the DNA-damaging agents.
Nathan A. Berger, Georgina W. Sikorski, Shirley J. Petzold, Kevin K. Kurohara
We have previously demonstrated that 3,5,3′-triiodothyronine (T3), whether administered in vivo or added to suspending media in vitro, promptly stimulates the in vitro accumulation of the nonmetabolized amino acids, alpha-aminoisobutyric acid, and cycloleucine (CLE) by thymocytes isolated from weanling rats. In these studies, we have examined the in vitro interaction between catecholamines and T3 with respect to this effect. The previously reported enhancement of CLE accumulation in thymocytes by T3 in vitro (1 μM) was confirmed. When added alone in concentrations ranging between 10 nM and 0.1 mM, the adrenergic agonists, epinephrine and norepinephrine, had no effect on CLE accumulation. At a concentration of 1 μM, isoproterenol, terbutaline, and phenylephrine were also without effect. However, the effect of T3 was clearly potentiated by the concomitant addition of epinephrine, norepinephrine, and possibly isoproterenol, whereas terbutaline and phenylephrine were without effect. Neither basal nor T3-enhanced CLE accumulation was affected by the addition alone of the adrenergic blocking agents, propranolol (0.1 mM), phentolamine (10 μM), or practolol (0.1 mM). Nevertheless, the beta1- and beta2-antagonist, propranol, and the beta1-antagonist, practolol, blocked the increment in CLE accumulation produced by epinephrine; the alpha-antagonist, phentolamine, was without effect.
James Etzkorn, Patricia Hopkins, Janet Gray, Joseph Segal, Sidney H. Ingbar
The human polymorphonuclear (PMN) leukocyte chemotactic activity of the hydroxy-fatty acid metabolites of arachidonic acid, 12-l-hydroxy-5,8,10-heptadecatrienoic acid (HHT) and 12-l-hydroxy-5,8,10,14-eicosatetraenoic acid (HETE), is eliminated by methylation. Both methyl esters are specific competitive inhibitors of the PMN leukotactic responses to the parent stimuli, and exert no effect on the responses to formyl-methionyl peptides or chemotactic fragments of the fifth component of complement. 50% inhibition of the in vitro chemotactic responses of PMN leukocytes to HETE and HHT was achieved by an equimolar concentration of the corresponding methyl esters, whereas reciprocal cross-inhibition was observed at molar ratios of HETE methyl ester to HHT and HHT methyl ester to HETE which reflected the three- to fivefold greater chemotactic potency of HETE relative to HHT. Methyl esters of structurally related, but nonchemotactic, fatty acids did not competitively inhibit the chemotaxis elicited by HETE or HHT. The intraperitoneal injection of HETE in guinea pigs evoked an eosinophil response at 30 min and a neutrophil response at 5 h, which were prevented by a one-to twofold molar ratio of HETE methyl ester. The competitive inhibition of the in vitro chemotactic activity and the in vivo leukotactic effect of the unsaturated hydroxy-fatty acids by homologous methyl ester derivatives suggests that the cellular component of natural inflammatory reactions may be susceptible to specific regulation by receptor-directed modulation of the activity of the predominant chemotactic principles.
Edward J. Goetzl, Frank H. Valone, Vernon N. Reinhold, Robert R. Gorman
Little is known about host defense mechanisms responsible for protective immunity in malaria. The intravascular location of the infection suggested that removal of parasitized erythrocytes by reticuloendothelial organs might be important. To study this possibility, we examined the clearance of 51Crlabeled Plasmodium berghei-infected erythrocytes in rats. Infected erythrocytes were removed more rapidly from circulation than homologous uninfected erythrocytes. The rate of clearance of infected cells during the 1st hour after inoculation was approximately three times greater in rats rendered immune by prior infection than in control rats. This accelerated clearance resulted from greater splenic uptake in immune rats and appeared to correlate with spleen size. Since the clearance pattern of infected erythrocytes more closely resembled the clearance of Heinz body-containing uninfected erythrocytes than of antibody-coated (immunoglobulin G) uninfected erythrocytes, rheologic alterations of parasitized erythrocytes might be a more important determinant of clearance than an antibody-dependent process. During the phase of malaria infection in which increasing parasitemia is observed, organ uptake of infected erythrocytes did not increase despite splenic and hepatic enlargement. However during the spontaneous onset of resolution of malaria infection characterized by decreasing parasitemia, a marked enhancement of splenic clearance was noted. These observations suggest that sudden alteration in splenic clearance of parasitized erythrocytes might be important in the resolution of acute malaria.
Thomas C. Quinn, David J. Wyler
The role of particle-bound complement proteins in the induction of noncytotoxic enzyme release from human granulocytes was investigated with the use of sera genetically deficient in complement and highly purified complement components. Release of histaminase, one of two important histamine catabolizing enzymes, and beta-glucuronidase from polymorphonuclear leukocytes was solely dependent on particle-bound C3b (the larger cleavage product of the third component of complement) when fluid-phase complement was excluded. The extent of enzyme release was a function of particle-bound C3b input, was reduced by exposing the particles to C3b inactivator, and was blocked by fluid-phase C3b. Phagocytosis of the C3b-coated particles was not required for enzyme release from neutrophils. In contrast, phagocytosis of "opsonized" particles was required for noncytotoxic release of histaminase and arylsulfatase from eosinophils; other proteins, as well as C3b, were able to opsonize particles for induction of enzyme release from eosinophils. These studies suggest a dual role for complement (particularly C3) in modulating vascular permeability phenomena, i.e., release of vasoactive mediators by the action of C3a and C5a, and release of the corresponding enzymes that inactivate the mediators by C3b.
J J Herman, I K Rosner, A E Davis 3rd, R S Zeiger, M A Arnaout, H R Colten
To investigate the role of parathyroid hormone (PTH) and(or) an intrinsic renal tubular reabsorptive defect for phosphate in mice with hereditary hypophosphatemic rickets, we performed clearance and micropuncture studies in hypophosphatemic mutants and nonaffected littermate controls. Increased fractional excretion of phosphate in mutants (47.2±4 vs. 30.8±2% in controls) was associated with reduced fractional and absolute reabsorption in the proximal convoluted tubule and more distal sites. Acute thyropara-thyroidectomy (TPTX) increased phosphate reabsorption in both mutants and controls with a fall in fractional phosphate excretion to ≅7.5% in both groups indicating that PTH modified the degree of phosphaturia in the intact mutants. Absolute reabsorption in the proximal tubule and beyond remained reduced in the mutants, however, possibly because of the reduced filtered load. Serum PTH levels were the same in intact mutants and normals as was renal cortical adenylate cyclase activity both before and after PTH stimulation.
Larry D. Cowgill, Stanley Goldfarb, Kai Lau, Eduardo Slatopolsky, Zalman S. Agus
We have studied the interaction between thrombin and washed, human platelets using prostacyclin, a reversible inhibitor of platelet secretion. The effect of thrombin is limited to those reactions that are not inhibited by an increased concentration of platelet cyclic adenosine 3′,5′-monophosphate, because prostacyclin is a potent inducer of the latter. Prostacyclin-treated platelets were briefly (15-30 s) exposed to low concentrations of human thrombin (0.01-0.2 U/ml). After removal of the prostacyclin and thrombin, the platelets were incubated with fresh thrombin. Although they had not undergone the release reaction after the first thrombin incubation, these platelets had a diminished capacity to secrete [3H]serotonin when exposed to thrombin the second time. Refractoriness was concentration dependent: the higher the initial thrombin concentration, the greater the degree of inhibition of serotonin secretion on subsequent thrombin exposure. Inhibition was closely related to the ability of thrombin to induce platelet secretion and not to its esterase or fibrinogen clotting activity. Diisopropyl fluorophosphate-inactive thrombin did not induce refractoriness. Refractoriness to thrombin did not increase when the time of the initial incubation with thrombin was lengthened, nor was it reversible.
M. A. Shuman, M. Botney, J. W. Fenton II
When Escherichia coli was grown in sublethal concentrations of streptomycin, mannose binding activity and epithelial cell adherence of the E. coli cultures at stationary phase were significantly reduced in the drug-grown organisms. In a strain whose minimal inhibitory concentrations was 30 μg/ml, the percentage of reduction in mannose binding activity was dose related over a range of concentrations between 0.5 and 10 μg/ml streptomycin. Concomitant with the drug-induced suppression of mannose binding activity, antigenic and ultrastructural alterations on the surface of the drug-grown organisms were observed by agglutination tests and electron microscopy, respectively.
Barry I. Eisenstein, Itzhak Ofek, Edwin H. Beachey
We have previously demonstrated that L-triiodothyronine (L-T3) induces an increase in growth hormone synthesis and messenger RNA in cultured GH1 cells, a rat pituitary cell line. In addition to regulating the growth hormone response, L-T3 elicits a time- and dose-dependent reduction in the level of its nuclear receptor, which is a direct function of the occupancy of the receptor binding site. In this study we have compared the relative affinity of L-T3, triiodothyroacetic acid, D-triiodothyronine (D-T3), and L-thyroxine (L-T4) for the receptor with the induction of the growth hormone synthesis and the ability of these compounds to elicit a reduction in thyroid hormone nuclear receptor levels. Triiodothyroacetic acid and D-T3 were specifically examined because the biologic effect of these compounds in the intact rat is significantly lower than predicted by their affinity for the receptor using isolated rat liver nuclei in vitro. In intact cells each compound demonstrated an excellent relationship between the relative receptor affinity, the induction of growth hormone production, and the concentration-dependent reduction in nuclear receptor levels. With the exception of D-T3, the relative affinity of iodothyronine was identical for the receptor using intact cells in serum-free media, or isolated GH1 cell nuclei in vitro. The apparent receptor affinity of D-T3 with intact cells was 5.5-fold lower than with isolated nuclei, which suggests a decrease in cell entry of D-T3 relative to the other iodothyronines. Quantitation of the [125I]iodothyronine associated with the receptor in GH1 cells after a 36-h incubation with L-125I-T4 was 90% L-T4 and 10% L-T3, which indicates that the major effect of L-T4 in GH1 cells is a result of intrinsic L-T4 activity. Studies with dispersed rat anterior pituitary cells demonstrated that L-T3 induces growth hormone synthesis and elicits a reduction in nuclear receptor levels in the same fashion as GH1 cells. The observation that thyroid hormone influences dispersed rat pituitary cells in a fashion qualitatively similar to GH1 cells may have implications for the growth hormone response of the somatotroph cell in vivo to different thyroidal states.
H H Samuels, F Stanley, J Casanova
Tryptophol (3-indole ethanol) is a compound which induces sleep, and is formed: (a) in the liver after disulfiram treatment, and (b) by the parasite in trypanosomal sleeping sickness. We prepared, purified, and characterized radiolabeled tryptophol for the purpose of defining its tissue distribution in animals. Tryptophol was found to be highly lipophilic, with an octanol:water partition coefficient of 29.8. Brain extraction, determined after intracarotid injection, was high (brain uptake index = 117 +/- 3.5%), and nonsaturable, suggesting the absence of a carrier system. After intravenous administration, tryptophol distribution to tissues correlated with relative blood flow. More than 85% of the radioactivity remaining in brain 2-5 min after intravenous injection co-migrated with tryptophol standards when analyzed by thin-layer chromatography. Other evidence suggested that tryptophol binds to serum and in vivo may be stripped from serum albumin and taken up by brain in a single capillary transit. Our study suggests that in states such as trypanosomal sleeping sickness or disulfiram treatment, remotely formed tryptophol gains ready access to brain (it is 100% cleared in a single capillary passage), and could thus cause somnolence.
E M Cornford, W D Bocash, L D Braun, P D Crane, W H Oldendorf, A J MacInnis
Quantitative electron microscopic autoradiographic studies in cultured human lymphocytes and isolated rat hepatocytes have demonstrated that labeled insulin initially localizes to the plasma membrane and is subsequently internalized to a limited region of the peripheral cytoplasm. When 0.5 nm 125I-insulin is incubated with isolated rat hepatocytes, binding to the plasma membrane occurs at both 20 degrees C and 37 degrees C. Under steady-state binding conditions approximately equal to 30--40% of the labeled hormone is internalized to a distance of approximately equal to 15% of the radius of the cell. When the localization of the internalized labeled material is analyzed, by 2--5 min of incubation at 37 degrees C there is a fivefold preferential association of autoradiographic grains with lysosomal structures, and by 30--60 min of incubation at 37 degrees C there is a 10-fold preferential association. When the cell-associated radioactivity is extracted and filtered on Sephadex G-50 at each time point of incubation, radioactivity elutes predominantly in the position of 125I-insulin and is predominantly in the position of 125I-insulin and is predominantly trichloracetic acid precipitable, bindable to talc, and rebindable to liver membranes. With increasing time of association at 37 degrees C the initial rate and absolute amount of labeled material dissociable from the cell is reduced. With increasing time of dissociation both the cell-associated radioactivity and the radioactivity released into the incubation medium is progressively degraded. These data demonstrate that in isolated rat hepatocytes labeled insulin initially localizes to the plasma membrane, is progressively internalized, and associates preferentially with lysosomal structures. These events may provide a mechanism that links cell surface binding to the degradation of insulin and to insulin-induced loss of its specific receptor.
J L Carpentier, P Gorden, P Freychet, A Le Cam, L Orci
A model for the synthesis and degradation of very low density lipoprotein triglyceride (VLDL-TG) in man is proposed to explain plasma VLDL-TG radioactivity data from studies conducted over a 48-h interval after injection of glycerol labeled with 14C, 3H, or both. The curve describing the radioactivity of plasma VLDL triglycerides reaches a maximum at about 2 h, after which the decay is biphasic in all cases; the late curvature becoming evident only after 8--12 h. To fit the complex curve, it was necessary to postulate two pathways for the incorporation of plasma glycerol into VLDL-TG, one much slower than the other. A process of stepwise delipidation of VLDL in the plasma compartment, previously proposed for VLDL apoprotein models, was also necessary. Predicted VLDL-TG synthesis rates calculated with this model can differ significantly from those based on experiments of shorter duration in which the slow VLDL-TG component is not apparent. The results of these studies strongly support the interpretation that the late, slow component of the VLDL-TG activity curve is predominantly due to the slowly turning-over precursor compartment in the conversion pathway and is not due either to a slow compartment in the labeled precursor, plasma free glycerol, or to an exchange of plasma VLDL-TG with an extravascular compartment. It also cannot, in these studies, be attributed to a slowly turning-over VLDL-TG moiety in the plasma. The model was tested with data from 59 studies including normal subjects and patients with obesity and(or) various forms of hyperlipoproteinemia. Good fits were obtained in all cases, and the estimated parameter values and their uncertainties for 13 normolipemic nonobese subjects are presented. Sensitivty testing was carried out to determine how critical various parameter estimations are to the assumptions introduced in the modeling.
L A Zech, S M Grundy, D Steinberg, M Berman
Measurements of transport of triglycerides (TG) in very low density lipoproteins (VLDL) were carried out in 59 patients by injection of radioactive glycerol, determinations of specific activities of VLDL-TG for 48 h thereafter, and treatment of the data by multicompartmental analysis. The patients were divided into three groups: normal weight (89-120% ideal weight), mildly obese (120-135% ideal weight), and markedly obese (135% ideal weight). They had varying levels of VLDL-TG ranging from normal to markedly elevated. In many subjects, there was a positive correlation between concentrations and transport of VLDL indicating that overproduction of VLDL-TG contributed to hypertriglyceridemia. In others, and particularly in several markedly obese subjects, transport rates were greatly increased without significant hypertriglyceridemia, suggesting that they had enhanced capacity to clear TG. In all groups, however, there were patients whose degree of hypertriglyceridemia seemed out of proportion to their transport rates. This finding and the fact that many patients have increased secretion of VLDL-TG without elevated plasma TG suggests that both overproduction of VLDL-TG and insufficient enhancement of clearance contributed to the development of hypertriglyceridemia.
Scott M. Grundy, Henry Y. I. Mok, Loren Zech, Daniel Steinberg, Mones Berman
In the pancreatic B cell, microtubules are thought to be involved in the process of insulin release. Their possible participation in the sequence of events leading from the biosynthesis and conversion of proinsulin to the release of newly synthesized insulin was investigated in rat isolated islets exposed to colchicine (0.1 mM). When the islets were preincubated for 30 min with colchicine and [3H]-leucine and, thereafter, incubated for two successive periods of 90 min each, still in the presence of colchicine, the release of preformed insulin was progressively inhibited and that of newly synthesized hormone delayed. When the islets were preincubated for 120 min with colchicine, subsequently pulse-labeled with [3H]leucine, and eventually examined by ultrastructural autoradiography, the export of newly synthesized proinsulin out of the rough endoplasmic reticulum, its transit through the Golgi complex, and its eventual packaging in secretory granules were all retarded. This situation was associated with a delayed conversion of proinsulin to insulin. Under the same experimental conditions, colchicine failed to affect the oxidation of glucose and adenylate charge in the islets. The effect of colchicine upon the release of preformed and newly synthesized insulin was not reproduced by lumicolchicine. It is concluded that colchicine interferes with the system controlling the intracellular transfer of secretory material from site of synthesis to site of release. This interference is likely to be linked to the effect of colchicine on microtubules.
F Malaisse-Lagae, M Amherdt, M Ravazzola, A Sener, J C Hutton, L Orci, W J Malaisse
Recent immunohistochemical demonstration of calcitonin in rat pituitary has suggested that calcitonin, in addition to ACTH, endorphins, lipotropins, and melanocyte-stimulating hormones might be derived from a 31,000-dalton glycoprotein percursor molecule. This immunoperoxidase study demonstrates a similar distribution for beta-endorphin and ACTH immunoreactivity in human pituitary; however, the two peptides are not necessarily present in the same cells at all times. Calcitonin could not be demonstrated in human pituitary under conditions suitable for demonstration of the peptide in thyroid C cells. Weakly positive immunostaining could be obtained only with much increase in antiserum concentration and length of incubation, and higher concentrations of calcitonin were needed to abolish staining in preabsorption studies. It thus appears that the immunoreactive calcitonin in human pituitary differs from that in thyroid C cells. Likewise, we could not demonstrate immunoreactive endorphin in any developmental stage of medullary thyroid carcinoma. Our study suggests that caution should be applied in considering a physiologic role for calcitonin in the pituitary and in postulating a common peptide origin for endorphin and calcitonin in humans.
G Mendelsohn, R D'Agostino, J C Eggleston, S B Baylin
Induration is a characteristic feature of delayed-type hypersensitivity skin reactions and is the usual measure of their intensity. The precise basis of induration has not been established, although activation of the clotting system with consequent fibrin deposition has been clearly implicated. In this study, two subjects with congenital afibrinogenemia, a genetic defect in fibrinogen synthesis, were skin tested with standard microbial antigens: streptokinase-streptodornase, monilia, mumps, and tuberculin purified protein derivative. One positive delayed reaction from each subject was biopsied at 40-48 h and compared with 23 biopsies of similar skin tests in normal volunteers.
Robert B. Colvin, Michael W. Mosesson, Harold F. Dvorak
The alpha-thalassemia syndromes are a group of inherited anemias, the clinical severity of which has been shown to increase with the number of alpha-globin structural genes deleted. Employing restriction endonuclease gene mapping, we defined the organization of the alpha-globin genes in cellular DNA from Chinese subjects with various alpha-thalassemia syndromes. The four alpha-globin genes of normals are at two loci located on a 23.0-kilobase pair (kb) Eco RI fragment. In deletion type hemoglobin-H disease the 5' alpha-globin locus is deleted and the single 3' alpha-globin locus is found on a 19.0-kb Eco RI fragment. In alpha-thalassemia-2 there are two alpha-globin genes on a 23.0-kb Eco RI fragment and one on a 19.0-kb fragment. In alpha-thalassemia-1 and the nondeletion type of hemoglobin-H disease the two alpha-globin genes are at two loci on one chromosome and none reside on the other chromosome.
S H Embury, R V Lebo, A M Dozy, Y W Kan