The importance of renal perfusion pressure (RPP), the sympathetic beta adrenergic nervous system and renal prostaglandins (PG) on renin release during a uniform 15-17% reduction in blood pressure by hemorrhage (HH) was studied systematically in anesthetized dogs. All groups of animals had similar decrements in systemic and renal hemodynamics with HH. In control dogs (n = 7), both plasma renin activity (PRA, 4.1-9.0 ng angiotensin I/ml per h, P < 0.05) and renin secretory rate (RSR, 26-228 ng/ml per h·min, P < 0.005) increased significantly with HH. This increase in renin release during HH was not abolished by any single maneuver alone including beta adrenergic blockade with d,l-propranolol (n = 6), renal PG inhibition with indomethacin (n = 7), or control of RPP (n = 6). However, when beta adrenergic blockade was combined with control of RPP (n = 7) during HH, neither PRA (1.9-2.7 ng/ml per h, NS) nor RSR (16-53 ng/ml per h·min, NS) increased significantly. Similarly, a combination of beta adrenergic blockade and PG inhibition (n = 6) also abolished the increase in PRA (1.5-1.4 ng/ml per h, NS) and RSR (14-55 ng/ml per h·min, NS) during HH despite significant decreases in sodium excretion. Finally, a combination of PG inhibition and RPP control was associated with significant increases in PRA and RSR during HH. These results support a multifactorial mechanism in renin release during HH and implicate both the beta adrenergic receptors, renal baroreceptors, and possibly the macula densa as constituting the primary pathways of renin release during HH of this magnitude. Because either constant RPP or PG inhibition blunted renin release during HH in the setting of beta adrenergic blockade, the present results strongly suggest that the renal baroreceptor, and probably the macula densa mechanism are PG mediated.
William L. Henrich, Robert W. Schrier, Tomas Berl, David Hyde, Marilyn Bard, Richard Rush, Abby Erickson
The importance of adhesion in regulating locomotion and accumulation of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) has remained vague. We found that the chemotaxis of human PMN resuspended in heat-inactivated plasma was maximal toward 1-10 nM N-formyl-met-leu-phe (f-Met-Leu-Phe), but fell below random motility toward ≥ 100 nM. This impressive decrease of motility was paralleled by increased cell adherence on Petri dishes being minimal at 1 nM and maximal at >10 nM f-Met-Leu-Phe (6±1 and 37±2% [SE] adherent cells, respectively). Checked by phase-contrast microscopy, cells under stimulated adhesion lost the typical bipolar shape of moving PMN and became immobilized and highly flattened. PMN, preexposed to 250 nM f-Met-Leu-Phe and tested after washing, retained increased adhesiveness and showed extremely low random and chemotactic motility. In contrast, preexposure to 1 nM f-Met-Leu-Phe had no effect on chemotaxis. Supporting the concept that immobilizing hyperadhesiveness does not correspond to a general functional hyporesponsiveness of PMN, no depression of the initial ingestion rate was observed in the presence of 250 nM f-Met-Leu-Phe. Moreover, a close correlation was found between the induction of PMN adhesiveness and the stimulation of the hexose monophosphate pathway activity as well as of lysomal enzyme release (r ≥ 0.98). Thus, “chemotactic deactivation” and “high-dose inhibition of chemotaxis” by N-formyl peptides is the consequence of increased cell adhesiveness. This phenomenon provides a mechanism for cell trapping at the inflammatory site. Conversely, if operative in circulating blood, e.g., in septicemia, it may impair PMN emigration to such sites.
Jorg Fehr, Clemens Dahinden
The mechanism of postarrhythmic renal vasoconstriction was studied in 28 dogs anesthetized with pentobarbital sodium (30 mg/kg i.v.). Rapid atrial or ventricular pacing or induction of atrial fibrilation were used to produce at least 20% prompt decrease in cardiac output and mean arterial blood pressure. Return to control cardiac output and blood pressure occurred within 3 minutes after cessation of the arrhythmia, but renal blood flow remained significantly decreased (26%) with gradual recovery by 17.7 +/- 6.6 min. Infusion of phentolamine (0.25 mg/min) into the renal artery, intravenous hexamethonium (l mg/kg), adrenal demedullation, or cooling the cervical vagi prevented postarrhythmic renal vasoconstriction. In contrast, renal denervation, intravenous bretylium (10 mg/kg), intravenous atropine (0.5 mg/kg) or intrarenal SQ 20881 (0.20 mg/min) has no effect on postarrhythmic renal vasoconstriction. Intravenous propranolol (0.5 mg/kg) intensified postarrhythmic renal vasoconstriction. These data suggested that the postarrhythmic renal vasoconstrictive response required intact vagi and was due to alpha adrenergic stimulation by adrenal catecholamines. However, femoral arterial catecholamine levels were not elevated above control during postarrhythmic renal vasoconstriction. We therefore sought local vascular pathways by which catecholamines might reach the kidneys. An adrenorenal vascular network was found in each dog. Collection of catecholamines from these vessels during postarrhythmic renal vasoconstriction in six dogs revealed catecholamine concentrations threefold higher than simultaneously collected femoral arterial catecholamines levels. Because ligation of these vessels abolished postarrhythmic renal vasoconstriction in each dog, we conclude that postarrhythmic renal vasconstriction is due to adrenal catecholamines reaching the kidneys through an adreno-renal vascular network and that the response requires intact vagi.
R E Katholi, S Oparil, F Urthaler, T N James
Fibroblast cultures from patients with dominant dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa of the albopapuloid variety display deranged glycosaminoglycan metabolism. These cells accumulate increased amounts of sulfated glycosaminoglycans. The mechanism for the greater content of glycosaminoglycans appears to be related to increased synthesis. During the first 6-12 h, intracellular labeled glycosaminoglycans accumulated in the dominant dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa cells at about twice the rate as that of control fibroblasts. In addition, secretion of sulfated glycosaminoglycans was two- to threefold greater than in control cultures. In contrast, both pulse-chase and cross-correction experiments failed to show any evidence for defective degradation of the material. The biochemical trait is genetically specific for albopapuloid dominant dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa, since fibroblasts from patients with other varieties of epidermolysis bullosa did not accumulate increased glycosaminoglycans. The data suggest that in vitro abnormality in glycosaminoglycan metabolism could serve as an important marker for this variety of epidermolysis bullosa and be of genetic and prognostic value in the sporadic patient with epidermolysis bullosa. Although the precise relationship of the defect to the disease has not yet been defined, it is possible that excessive tissue accumulation of glycosaminoglycans may alter collagen fibril deposition, thus, impairing the structural integrity of the skin and leading to posttraumatic blisters and erosions that characterize the disease.
E A Bauer, W K Fiehler, N B Esterly
Factors that influence hemoglobin (Hb)AIc synthesis by intact erythrocytes were studied in vitro. After incubation cells were lysed, and hemoglobins were separated by isoelectric focusing on polyacrylamide slab gels and quantitated by microdensitometry. HbAIc increased with time, glucose concentrations (5-500 mM), and incubation temperature (4°-37°C). Low temperatures allowed prolonged incubations with minimal hemolysis. At 4°C HbAIc increased linearly with time for 6 wk; after incubation at the highest glucose concentration, HbAIc comprised 50% of total hemoglobin.
Kenneth M. Spicer, Robert C. Allen, David Hallett, Maria G. Buse
Aerosolized doses of the ionophore, A23187, and arachidonic acid individually resulted in no airway response in rhesus monkeys. When these two agents were given simultaneously, by aerosol, an airway response occurred. The pulmonary function abnormalities that occurred qualitatively simulated those of an antigen-induced airway response. This is the first demonstration in our laboratory of two agents which singly will not produce a response but which are reactive when delivered in combination. Other fatty acids did not produce a similar response. The response to A23187 and arachidonic acid occurred only in rhesus monkeys from our colony which had been demonstrated to have airway responses to aerosolized antigen challenge, a response shown previously to be associated with hyperreactive airways to pharmacologic stimuli. The A23187 and arachidonic acid response was inhibited by aerosolized 5,8,11,14-eicosatetraynoic acid, an inhibitor of the cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase pathways of arachidonic acid metabolism. Further, indomethacin, a prostaglandin synthetase inhibitor of the cyclooxygenase pathway, inhibited the response, although previous studies showed that this drug will potentiate an antigen-induced response in this animal model of asthma. The slow-reacting substance of anaphylaxis antagonist, FPL 55712, did not inhibit the A23187-arachidonic acid response under the conditions of these experiments. The mechanism of the A23187-arachidonic acid airway response in rhesus monkeys may or may not be the same as the antigen-induced response.
Roy Patterson, Kathleen E. Harris, Paul A. Greenberger
The interactions of adrenergic agonists and thyroid hormones on the growth of erythroid colony-forming units were studied in cultures of dog marrow before and after the establishment of hypothyroidism. Erythroid colony growth in cultures form euthyroid dogs was enhanced by isoproterenol and other adrenergic agonists having beta 2-receptor specificity. With hypothyroidism, however, this responsiveness was lost, and sensitivity to alpha-agonists, such as phenylephrine and norepinephrine, was acquired. This alteration in receptor specificity appeared to be dependent upon thyroid hormone and was rapidly reversible. Preincubation of marrow cells from hypothyroid animals with thyroid hormone resulted in the reappearance of responsiveness to beta-adrenergic agonists and the loss of sensitivity to alpha-agonists. These findings are in agreement with previous suggestions that beta-adrenergic receptor activity is modulated by thyroid hormone levels and demonstrate that the specificity of adrenergic modulations of erythropoiesis in culture may accurately reflect the thyroid status of the intact animal.
W J Popovic, J E Brown, J W Adamson
To further characterize mechanisms of glucose counterregulation in man, the effects of pharmacologically inducd deficiencies of glucagon, growth hormone, and catecholamines (alone and in combination) on recovery of plasma glucose from insulin-induced hypoglycemia and attendant changes in isotopically ([3-3H]glucose) determined glucose fluxes were studied in 13 normal subjects. In control studies, recovery of plasma glucose from hypoglycemia was primarily due to a compensatory increase in glucose production; the temporal relationship of glucagon, epinephrine, cortisol, and growth hormone responses with the compensatory increase in glucose appearance was compatible with potential participation of all these hormones in acute glucose counterregulation. Infusion of somatostatin (combined deficiency of glucagon and growth hormone) accentuated insulin-induced hypoglycemia (plasma glucose nadir: 36±2 ng/dl during infusion of somatostatin vs. 47±2 mg/dl in control studies, P < 0.01) and impaired restoration of normoglycemia (plasma glucose at min 90: 73±3 mg/dl at end of somatostatin infusion vs. 92±3 mg/dl in control studies, P<0.01). This impaired recovery of plasma glucose was due to blunting of the compensatory increase in glucose appearance since glucose disappearance was not augmented, and was attributable to suppression of glucagon secretion rather than growth hormone secretion since these effects of somatostatin were not observed during simultaneous infusion of somatostatin and glucagon whereas infusion of growth hormone along with somatostatin did not prevent the effect of somatostatin. The attenuated recovery of plasma glucose from hypoglycemia observed during somatostatin-induced glucagon deficiency was associated with plasma epinephrine levels twice those observed in control studies. Infusion of phentolamine plus propranolol (combined α-and β-adrenergic blockade) had no effect on plasma glucose or glucose fluxes after insulin administration. However, infusion of somatostatin along with both phentolamine and propranolol further impaired recovery of plasma glucose from hypoglycemia compared to that observed with somatostatin alone (plasma glucose at end of infusions: 52±6 mg/dl for somatostatin-phentolamine-propranolol vs. 72±5 mg/dl for somatostatin alone, P < 0.01); this was due to further suppression of the compensatory increase in glucose appearance (maximal values: 1.93±0.41 mg/kg per min for somatostatin-phentolamine-propranolol vs. 2.86±0.32 mg/kg per min for somatostatin alone, P < 0.05). These results indicate that in man (a) restoration of normoglycemia after insulin-induced hypoglycemia is primarily due to a compensatory increase in glucose production; (b) intact glucagon secretion, but not growth hormone secretion, is necessary for normal glucose counterregulation, and (c) adrenergic mechanisms do not normally play an essential role in this process but become critical to recovery from hypoglycemia when glucagon secretion is impaired.
Robert A. Rizza, Philip E. Cryer, John E. Gerich
A man with polymyalgia rheumatica (patient 1) and two patients (2 and 3) with Felty's syndrome had neutropenia at the time of diagnosis. Bone marrow samples in each patient were cellular but showed an "arrest" of granulocyte maturation at the myelocyte stage. Agar colony growth of marrow cells from each patient was subnormal but increased after removal of sheep erythrocytes rosette-forming cells (thymus-dependent [T] cells) from marrow cell suspensions before culture. Preincubation of marrow cells with cortisol also enhanced colony growth. Maximum enhancement with cortisol occurred at 1 mM (patient 1), 1 microM (patient 2), and 10 nM (patient 3). Cortisol failed to enhance colony growth after removal of T cells from marrow cell suspensions. Peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) and PBL-conditioned medium from all three patients inhibited colony growth of normal human marrow cells. Cortisol treatment of PBL or T depletion from PBL abrogated the inhibition in coculture and with conditioned medium. Prednisone therapy resulted in the disappearance of suppressor T-cell function concomitant with hematologic improvement in patients 2 and 3, but suppressor T cells persisted in patient 1, who did not respond to prednisone. We conclude that cortisol-sensitive T lymphocytes inhibited granulopoiesis in vitro probably by elaboration of a soluble factor or factors. Our results suggest (a) that neutropenia in these patients resulted, at least in part, from T-cell suppression of granulopoiesis, (b) that the effectiveness of prednisone therapy was a result of its inhibition of suppressor T cells, and (c) that responses to glucocorticoid therapy may be predicted in such patients with the agar culture technique and cortisol dose response in vitro.
G C Bagby Jr, J D Gabourel
Detailed studies were undertaken to better define the role of the liver and the folate enterohepatic cycle in folate homeostasis. Three isotopes of folate were employed in a rat model to study several parameters: (a) intestinal transport; (b) variation in hepatic uptake after different routes of administration; (c) hepatic reduction, methylation, and polyglutamate formation; (d) biliary excretion; (e) transport of folate to tissue and its return to liver for re-entry into the enterohepatic cycle.
Stephen E. Steinberg, Caryl L. Campbell, Robert S. Hillman
The effect of adenosine on the mitogenic response of peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) and on the nucleotide pools of erythrocytes from normal horses, horses heterozygous for the combined immunodeficiency (CID) trait (carriers), and foals with CID was studied. When PBL from normal, carrier, and CID horses were stimulated by phytohemagglutinin (PHA), concanavalin A, or pokeweed mitogen, [3H]thymidine uptake was inhibited by adenosine (0.1 microM) to 1.0 mM) in a dose-dependent manner. Adenosine (100 microM) mediated inhibition of [3H]thymidine uptake was prevented in both normal and carrier horse PBL by incubation with uridine. Uridine had no sparing effect on PBL from horses with CID. Differences were detected between human and horse PBL in response to adenosine and erythro-9(2-hydroxy-3-nonyl) adenine (EHNA), a competitive inhibitor of adenosine deaminase. In the first assay, mitogen-stimulated PBL from horses were more sensitive to adenosine. In the second assay, adenosine was added to PBL cultures at various times after PHA addition. Adenosine inhibited mitogenesis in horse PBL if added within the first 24 h. In human PBL cultures, adenosine inhibited mitogenesis only if added within the first 4 h. The third assay measured capacity of PHA-stimulated human and horse lymphocytes to escape inhibition by adenosine or EHNA. At the end of a 72-h culture period, horse PBL were still inhibited of mitogenesis in both human and horse PBL. With prolonged incubation (72 h), synergistic inhibition was detected only in horse PB. With high-pressure liquid chromatography, nucleotide levels in erythrocytes of normal, carrier, and CID horses were found to be similar. Incubation with adenosine produced a 1.5- to 2-fold increase in total adenine nucleotide pools in erythrocytes from all horses. However, these increases were accompanied by alterations in the relative amounts of the nucleotide components. This was seen as a significant decrease in the ATP:(AMP plus ADP plus ATP) ratio and energy charge in erythrocytes from normal horses. In contrast, the ATP:(AMP plus ADP plus ATP) ratio decreased only slightly in erythrocytes from CID horses, whereas no change in the energy charge was detected. The data from these studies indicate a difference in adenosine metabolism exists between human and horse lymphoyctes, and an abnormality may exist in purine metabolism or in an interconnecting pathway in horses with CID.
N S Magnuson, L E Perryman
To define the nature of the disturbance of the corticosteroid feedback mechanism in Cushing's disease, the dynamic aspects of the ACTH response to corticosteroid administration have been studied in patients with Cushing's disease after total adrenalectomy (C.d. post adx.). The results were compared with those obtained in patients with Addison's disease (control group). Different experimental designs for administration of cortisol were chosen to provide extreme variations in the input signal. The response of the system was evaluated by measuring plasma ACTH concentrations (radioimmunoassay) at short time intervals.
H. L. Fehm, K. H. Voigt, G. Kummer, E. F. Pfeiffer
The pattern of urinary catecholamine excretion in fasting differs in pregnant and nonpregnant rats, which suggests that the sympathoadrenal response to fasting is altered by pregnancy. In fasting nonpregnant animals, urinary norepinephrine (NE) excretion decreases and epinephrine (E) excretion remains unchanged, whereas the excretion of both catecholamines rises significantly with refeeding. In contrast, fasting third-trimester pregnant rats exhibit a 420% increase in urinary E and a 345% increase in urinary NE, elevations which fall with refeeding. Specific evaluation of sympathoadrenal activity in fasting pregnant rats reveals stimulation of the adrenal medulla and suppression of sympathetic nerves. In fasting third-trimester rats the adrenal content of E is 37% lower in innervated adrenals as compared with contralateral denervated glands, which indicates the presence of neurally-mediated adrenal medullary activation. Adrenalectomy completely abolishes the fasting-induced rise in urinary E and NE in pregnant rats. Studies with 2-deoxy-D-glucose suggest that stimulation of the adrenal medulla results from hypoglycemia, which is present after 3 d of fasting in pregnant rats (plasma glucose 36.7 mg/dl). Sympathetic nervous system activity, as measured by [3H]NE turnover in the heart, decreases in fasting pregnant rats despite hypoglycemia, a response similar to that seen in fasting nonpregnant animals where plasma glucose is maintained above 50 mg/dl. The calculated NE turnover rate is 44% lower in 2-d fasted pregnant rats than in fed pregnant animals (17.6 ± 1.3 vs. 31.3 ± 1.8 ng NE/heart per h, respectively). Thus adrenal medullary and sympathetic nervous system responses in fasting pregnant rats appear to be dissociated, which suggests that diet-induced changes in sympathetic activity and stimulation of the adrenal medulla by hypoglycemia may be independently regulated.
James B. Young, Lewis Landsberg
Iopanoic acid has been shown to block thyroxine (T4)-5'-monodeiodination in rat anterior pituitary in vitro. To test the hypothesis that the acute decrease in thyrotropin (TSH) after infusion of T4 into hypothyroid rats requires intrapituitary T4 to 3,5,3'-triiodothyroxine (T3) conversion, the effect of iopanoic acid treatment on the generation of nuclear T3 from intrapituitary conversion and the response to TSH were compared in control and iopanoic acid-treated animals. 5 mg/100 g body weight iopanoic acid given 24, 16, and 1.5 h before administration of 125I-T4 reduced the quantity of pituitary nuclear 125I-T3 from local (intrapituitary) T4 to T3 conversion by 60-100%. In association with inhibition of intrapituitary T4 to T3 conversion, there was an increase in the binding of 125I-T4 to the nuclear receptor of the pituitary but the total iodothyronine content of the nuclei was still less than half of the nuclear iodothyronine in control animals. Iopanoic acid did not affect the nuclear/plasma ratio of injected 131I-T3 in the same animals, but did appear to impair 131I-T3 clearance or reduce its distribution volume. Treatment with iopanoic acid did not reduce the quantity of nuclear 125I-T3 in the liver, kidney, or heart of the same animals more than expected from the changes in serum 125I-T3. In control hypo-thyroid animals pretreated with iopanoic acid, the mean TSH was not significantly decreased from the initial value by T4 injection. Iopanoic acid pretreatment did not interfere with the acute TSH response of chronically hypothyroid rats to 70 ng of T3/100 g body weight. These results establish that intrapituitary generations of T3 from T4 is required for the acute decrease in TSH which occurs after T4 infusion. The data also are consistent with the content that it is nuclear binding of the T3 generated from T4 which initiates the inhibition of TSH release.
P R Larsen, T E Dick, B P Markovitz, M M Kaplan, T G Gard
Iron-deficient rats have an impaired work performance, even when their anemia is corrected by exchange transfusion. Muscle activity is associated with a higher blood lactate concentration than is observed in iron-replete animals. The accumulation of lactate is a result of excessive production as lactate clearance from the blood was shown to be unaffected. By adjusting the work load to a lower level, it was possible to divide iron-deficient animals into two groups, one capable of continued treadmill running and another in which animals stopped before 20 min. In the former, blood lactate concentration reached a plateau at moderate levels, whereas it continued to increase in the latter until the animal stopped running. Levels of α-glycerophosphate oxidase in skeletal muscle mitochondria were found to be much lower in the second group (P < 0.001). Lactate infusion into normal animals was shown to interfere with work performance, and maintenance of a normal pH in iron-deficient and iron-replete animals did not prevent the impairment in work associated with high blood lactate concentrations. Additional evidence was obtained that energy substrate (blood glucose and free fatty acids, muscle glycogen) was adequate in irondeficient animals. Oxygen tension in their vena caval blood was higher than in controls. Furthermore, the in situ behavior of electrically stimulated gastroenemius and soleus muscles appeared similar to that of control animals. Because the stimulation of the single muscle in the iron-deficient animal did not result in appreciable elevation of blood lactate and did not show impaired contractility further supported the hypothesis that the elevation of blood lactate caused the decreased work performance. It is concluded that iron deficiency by a depletion in the iron-containing mitochondrial enzyme, α-glycerophosphate oxidase, impairs glycolysis, resulting in excess lactate formation, which at high levels leads to cessation of physical activity.
Clement A. Finch, Philip D. Gollnick, Michael P. Hlastala, Louise R. Miller, Erick Dillmann, Bruce Mackler
Polymorphonuclear leukocytes from humans and mice with the Chediak-Higashi syndrome were characterized by spin label electron spin resonance spectrometry. Our results suggest that cells from afflicted mice and humans have membranes more fluid than controls. Order parameters for a spin label that probes near the membrane surface were 0.652 for normals and 0.645 for two Chediak-Higashi patients. Cells from Chediak-Higashi mice showed similar differences, as did isolated plasma membrane fractions. An increased membrane fluidity was also detected with a spin label that probes deeper in the bilayer. In vitro treatment of Chediak-Higashi mouse cells with 0.01 M ascorbate increased the order parameter to normal levels. In vitro incubation of mouse Chediak-Higashi cells with glucose oxidase increased the order parameter, similar to the effect of ascorbate. This increase was abolished when catalase was added to the incubation medium. In vitro incubation with dibutyryl cyclic guanosine monophosphate (1 μM to 0.1 mM) did not normalize order parameters. These results indicate that fluidity of Chediak-Higashi cell membranes was affected by treatments expected to alter the oxidation: reduction potential of the environment but was not affected by treatments expected to alter the ratio of intracellular cyclic nucleotides. The latter treatment would affect microtubule assembly. Therefore, it appears that the membrane fluidity abnormalities as demonstrated by electron spin resonance and the earlier demonstrated microtubule dysfunctions characteristic of Chediak-Higashi cells are coexisting defects and are probably not directly related.
Richard A. Haak, Leah M. Ingraham, Robert L. Baehner, Laurence A. Boxer
These studies were undertaken to investigate (a) the permeability properties of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) to the major gonadal and adrenal steroid hormones, and (b) the role of the binding proteins of plasma (albumin and specific globulins) in the regulation of BBB steroid hormone transport.
William M. Pardridge, Lawrence J. Mietus
We studied whether creatine kinase appearance in venous effluent was specific for, and quantitatively proportional to, the amount of loss of functioning myocardium. Cell viability was determined by simultaneously monitoring tissue 42K content and mechanical performance during anoxia and reoxygenation in isolated, arterially perfused, interventricular rabbit septa. The septa were paced at 42 beats/min and perfused at 1.8 ml/min per g tissue with a modified Tyrode solution at 28°C. Net total creatine kinase losses of 5.3±2.7, 20.6±7.2, 55.3±7.6, and 110.7±27.1 IU/g dry wt (mean±SEM) were observed after 20, 30, 40, and 60 min of anoxia, respectively. Maximum 42K losses during the same intervals of anoxia were 16.8±3.4, 38.3±2.9, 47.0±1.4, and 84.3±14.8 mmol K+/kg dry wt and correlated with creatine kinase losses, r = 0.97. Upon reoxygenation, 42K content returned to a new plateau which was expressed as a percentage of decrease from control content. These unrecovered 42K losses were −2.7±0.9, 0.7±2.9, 6.6±1.9, and 14.0±6.5% after 20, 30, 40, and 60 min of anoxia, respectively, and correlated with the creatine kinase loss, r = 0.97. Net loss of developed tension after reoxygenation was 9.0±2.3, 26.7±17.9, 31.7±1.1, and 60.7±8.8% of control after these anoxic intervals and correlated with creatine kinase loss, r = 0.92. The small enzyme loss that occurred after 20 min anoxia without evidence for irreversible loss of cell function was ≅0.1% of total tissue enzyme content. The significant correlation of enzyme loss with the irreversible losses of potassium content and contractile performance supported the hypothesis that creatine kinase appearance in the venous effluent was the result of cell death.
Gary L. Conrad, Eric E. Rau, Kenneth I. Shine
Small chylomicrons (CM) labeled with cholesterol, cholesterol ester, phospholipid, and, in some cases, protein, were used to study the fate of these constituents as the CM are catabolized in the circulations of the hepatectomized and intact rat. In the hepatectomized animal after ½ h, CM are greatly reduced in volume, surface area, and diameter. During this period, the CM lost >92% of the mass of their triacylglycerol, >77% of the mass of their phospholipid, and >39% of their protein. Compared to the injected CM, the chemically altered particles, called CM “remnants,” have a reduction in volume of 96% and in surface area of 88%. The labeled cholesterol esters remain with the CM remnants but, strikingly, a major fraction of the labeled phospholipids and labeled soluble apoproteins leave the CM and are found in the high density lipoprotein (HDL) fraction.
T. G. Redgrave, D. M. Small
Female sex and estrogen administration are associated with increased hepatic production of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins; the basis for this has not been fully elucidated. Inasmuch as hepatic lipoprotein production is also influenced by FFA availability and triglyceride biosynthesis, we investigated sex differences in FFA utilization in rat hepatocyte suspensions and in the components of the triglyceride biosynthetic pathway.
Robert K. Ockner, David A. Burnett, Nina Lysenko, Joan A. Manning
Thyroid disease is often accompanied by changes in the concentrations of serum lipids and lipoproteins. To evaluate the hepatic contribution to the serum abnormalities in thyroid disease, we examined fatty acid metabolism in perfused livers from pair-fed rats made hypothyroid with propylthiouracil (PTU) or made hyperthyroid by treatment with triiodothyronine (T3). The animals treated with T3 became hyperphagic, depending on dose of drug and duration of hyperthyroidism. It was necessary, therefore, for appropriate controls, that food intake of T3-treated rats be restricted to quantities consumed by euthyroid rats. Animals treated with PTU for 2 wk became hypophagic, and therefore, food consumption of controls was restricted to that eaten by rats receiving PTU. Dependent on dose of T3 and duration of treatment, the output of triglyceride and glucose was diminished, whereas output of ketone bodies was increased by livers from hyperthyroid animals. In contrast, livers from PTU-treated animals secreted increased amounts of triglyceride and glucose, whereas ketogenesis was diminished. The best models for study proved to be animals treated with either 10 μg T3/100 g body wt per d or 1 mg PTU/100 g body wt per d for 7 d. Under these conditions, all animals consumed the same quantity of food as did the euthyroid rats, but continued to display the metabolic alterations outlined above. The effects of PTU on hepatic metabolism were readily reversible by simultaneous administration of T3. It is clear from these data that the thyroid status of the rat regulates hepatic triglyceride formation and secretion, and ketogenesis.
William G. Keyes, Murray Heimberg
Although it is generally accepted that DNA:anti-DNA immune complexes play a significant role in the pathogenesis of tissue injury in systemic lupus erythematosus, their presence in the circulation is still a matter of controversy. In this study, we detected DNA:anti-DNA compexes by identification of both the antigen and(or) the antibody, the necessary requisites for immune complex definition, in 14 of 24 plasmas (7 of 11 patients). These antibodies were specific for native DNA and could be adsorbed by anti-immunoglobulin (Ig)G antisera. The DNA recovered was, at least in part, of low molecular weight. The presence of DNA:anti-DNA compexes was not related to high molecular weight IgG, cryoprecipitins, positive polyethylene glycol precipitation, or low plasma C3 levels. It was related significantly to low plasma C4 levels and to the presence of diffuse proliferative nephritis. The lack of correlation with other methods of detection of immune complexes and with the presence of heavy IgG (above 13 S) is in favor of the existence of other antigen-antibody systems (or aggregated immunoglobulins) in systemic lupus erythematosus plasmas. From the results, it appears that methods directed towards the demonstration of specific immune complexes are more informative than those detecting heavy or altered immunoglobulins.
C Bruneau, J Benveniste
Once ventilatory acclimatization begins in sea level residents sojourning at high altitude, abrupt restoration of normal oxygen tensions will not restore ventilation to normal. We have investigated the role of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) [H+] in this sustained hyperventilation by measuring CSF acid-base status in seven men (lumbar) and five ponies (cisternal) in normoxia, first at sea level and then periodically over 13-24 h of “deacclimatization” after 3-5 d in hypoxia (PB = 440 mm Hg). After 1 h deacclimatization, hyperventilation continued at a level only slightly less than that obtained in chronic hypoxia (+1−2 mm Hg PaCO2), whereas CSF pH was either equal (in man) or alkaline (in pony, +0.02, P < 0.01) to sea level values. Between 1 and 12-13 h deacclimatization in all humans and ponies Va fell progressively (PaCO2 increased 4-7 mm Hg) and CSF pH became increasingly more acid (−0.02 to −0.05, P < 0.01). Between 12 and 24 h of normoxic deacclimatization in ponies, PaCO2 rose further toward normal, coincident with an increasing acidity in CSF (−0.02 pH). Similar negative correlations were found between changes in arterial pH and Va throughout normoxic deacclimatization. We conclude that [H+] in the lumbar or cisternal CSF is not the mediator of the continued hyperventilation and its gradual dissipation with time during normoxic deacclimatization from chronic hypoxia. These negative relationships of Va to CSF [H+] in normoxia are analogous to those previously shown during acclimatization to hypoxia.
J. A. Dempsey, H. V. Forster, G. E. Bisgard, L. W. Chosy, P. G. Hanson, A. L. Kiorpes, D. A. Pelligrino
A primary chick kidney cell culture is described, capable of forming 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1,25(OH)2D3], 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [24,25(OH)2D3], and 1,24,25-trihydroxyvitamin D3 [1,24,25(OH)3D3] over several days. The apparent Km values were 0.125 microM for the 1-hydroxylase and 2.1 microM for the 24-hydroxylase. Exogenous 1,25(OH)2D3 decreased 1-hydroxylase and increased 24-hydroxylase within 4 h. 24,25(OH)2D3 produced similar effects, but only in the absence of fetal calf serum. R and S isomers of 1,24,25(OH)3D3 were about fives times less active than 1,25(OH)2D3. Bovine parathyroid hormone stimulated the 1- and reduced the 24-hydroxylase in 6 h, but this only occurred in cultures either previously treated with 1,25(OH)2D3 and EGTA to lower Ca to 0.8 mM or in cultures grown in the presence of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25(OH)D3). Under the latter condition, the sensitivity to bovine parathyroid hormone was enhanced, 0.04 U/ml producing a maximum response. Synthetic aminoterminal tetratriacontapeptide (1-34) human parathyroid hormone was equally effective. In the absence of D metabolites, estradiol for 6 h produced a dose-dependent inhibition of the 1-hydroxylase, but no change in the 24-hydroxylase. Progesterone, testosterone, and corticosterone had no significant effect. In cultures grown in the presence of 25(OH)D3 no reproducible effects were obtained with either 1 microM estradiol or 1 microM testosterone, alone or in combination, but 5 microM corticosterone decreased the 1- and increased the 24-hydroxylase. Changes in Ca and P concentrations of the medium as well as addition of ethane-l-hydroxy-1, 1-diphosphate for 48 h did not affect any of the hydroxylase activities. The modulation of the hydroxylase activities by vitamin D3 metabolites and parathyroid hormone suggests that these factors regulate the renal hydroxylase by direct actions, whereas it would appear that ethane-1-hydroxy-1,1-diphosphate, Ca, P, and steroid may exert their influence indirectly.
U Trechsel, J P Bonjour, H Fleisch
Mean plasma 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D[1α,25(OH)2D] was significantly increased and serum parathyroid hormone was suppressed in three patients with sarcoidosis and hypercalcemia. Prednisone lowered the mean plasma 1α,25(OH)2D to normal range and corrected the hypercalcemia. To elucidate the mechanism for the increased sensitivity to vitamin D in this disorder, the effects of orally-administered vitamin D2 were determined in seven normal subjects, four patients with sarcoidosis and normal calcium metabolism and three patients with sarcoidosis and a history of hypercalcemia who were normocalcemic when studied. Serum and urinary calcium, serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD), plasma 1α,25(OH)2D and, in some studies, calcium balance were measured. Vitamin D2, 250 μg a day for 12 d, produced little, if any, change in mean plasma 1α,25(OH)2D and in urinary calcium in the normals and in the patients with normal calcium metabolism. In contrast, vitamin D2 produced increases in plasma 1α,25(OH)2D from concentrations which were within the normal range (20-55 pg/ml) to abnormal values and increased urinary calcium in two patients with abnormal calcium metabolism. In an abbreviated study in the third patient, vitamin D2, 250 μg a day for 4 d, also increased plasma 1α,25(OH)2D abnormally from a normal value. There was a highly significant correlation between plasma 1α,25(OH)2D and urinary calcium. Serum 25-OHD and serum calcium remained within the normal range in all subjects and patients. These findings provide evidence that the defect in calcium metabolism in sarcoidosis probably results from impaired regulation of the production and(or) degradation of 1α,25(OH)2D. Prednisone may act to correct the abnormal calcium metabolism by reducing circulating 1α,25(OH)2D.
Norman H. Bell, Paula H. Stern, Elizabeth Pantzer, Tushar K. Sinha, Hector F. Deluca
Host responses to infectious organisms should be modulated so that tissue-damaging products of inflammatory cells do not produce excessive destruction of normal tissue. Lysozyme, which is continuously secreted by monocytes, which, in turn, migrate relatively late to inflammatory areas, was found to significantly dampen several responses of neutrophils to inflammatory stimulants. Thus, human lysozyme obtained and purified from the urine of patients with monocytic leukemia (but not its structurally similar and comparably cationic analogue, eggwhite lysozyme) depresses chemotaxis of normal neutrophils to activated complement, bacterial supernate, and N-formylmethionyl-phenylalanine. In addition, human (but not eggwhite) lysozyme depresses oxidative metabolism (hexose monophosphate shunt activity) and superoxide generation of neutrophils. The specificity of the suppressive effects was indicated by inhibition studies with rabbit antihuman lysozyme antibody, and with the trisaccharide of N-acetylglucosamine, a specific inhibitor of lysozyme. The results suggest that lysozyme, a product of inflammatory cells themselves, may function in a negative feedback system to modulate the inflammatory response.
L I Gordon, S D Douglas, N E Kay, O Yamada, E F Osserman, H S Jacob
To explore the role of the human intestine as a source of apolipoproteins, we have studied intestinal lipoproteins and apoprotein secretion in two subjects with chyluria (mesenteric lymphatic—urinary fistulae). After oral corn oil, apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) and apolipoprotein A-II (apoA-II) output in urine increased in parallel to urinary triglyceride. One subject, on two occasions, after 40 g of corn oil, excreted 8.4 and 8.6 g of triglyceride together with 196 and 199 mg apoA-I and on one occasion, 56 mg apoA-II. The other subject, after 40 g corn oil, excreted 0.3 g triglyceride and 17.5 mg apoA-I, and, after 100 g of corn oil, excreted 44.8 mg apoA-I and 5.8 mg apoA-II. 14.5±2.1% of apoA-I and 17.7±4.3% of apoA-II in chylous urine was in the d < 1.006 fraction (chylomicrons and very low density lipoprotein). Calculations based on the amount of apoA-I and apoA-II excreted on triglyceride-rich lipoproteins revealed that for these lipid loads, intestinal secretion could account for 50 and 33% of the calculated daily synthetic rate of apoA-I and apoA-II, respectively. Similarly, subject 2 excreted 48-70% and 14% of the calculated daily synthetic rate of apoA-I and apoA-II, respectively.
Peter H. R. Green, Robert M. Glickman, Christopher D. Saudek, Conrad B. Blum, Alan R. Tall
Plasma insulin concentrations after pulse intravenous injection of glucose show an early rise, which declines towards the prestimulation level smoothly. This pattern is the effect of both continuing secretion and hormone disappearance from the plasma. To reconstruct the time-course of the acutal secretory response, we measured insulin disappearance from the plasma of 17 healthy volunteers by means of a bolus intravenous injection of 125I-insulin, and then performed an intravenous glucose tolerance test with frequent blood sampling. The data were analyzed by deconvolution, which made it possible to compute the glucose-induced posthepatic insulin delivery rate minute by minute. Under basal conditions, 2.64 +/- 0.28 (mean +/-SEM) mU/min.m2 reaches the systemic circulation. In the 90 min that follow acute glucose stimulation, 0.86 +/- 0.11 U/m2, a 270% increment over the basal production rate, is made available to the periphery. A wide individual variability was found to exist in both the basal and the glucose-stimulated delivery. They were strongly (P less than 0.001) related to each other in a direct fashion. A first spike of insulin release (107 +/- 12 mU/min) occurred in all the subjects at 2.2 +/- 0.2 min followed, in 16 subjects, by a second spike (38 +/- 6 mU/min), at 11.3 +/- 0.9 min. Two-thirds of the total postglucose insulin output were associated with the initial, oscillatory phase (from 0 to 25 min, on average), and one-third with the "tail" phase (from 25 to 90 min), during which the average delivery rate was 5.0 +/- 0.9 mU/min.m2. The delivery curves were closely (mean squared deviation of 4.5 +/- 0.5 mU/min) reproduced by computer stimulation upon assuming that insulin secretion is a function of both glucose concentration and glucose rate of change. Both the first and the second spike of insulin delivery, but not the total insulin output during the test, showed a significant, positive correlation with the plasma glucose disappearance rate computed between 10 and 60 min. Furthermore, with a time shift of approximately equal to 15 min, a significant relationship between the phases of insulin secretion and the glucose decay rates, computed over corresponding time intervals, was evident throughout the test.
E Ferrannini, A Pilo
Abnormal granulocyte chemotaxis has been described in chronic hemodialysis patients. In this study, sera from 53 hemodialysis patients were tested for chemotactic inhibitory activity by a modified Boyden technique. Chemotactic inhibitory activity, defined as >20% inhibition of normal granulocyte chemotaxis, was found in 45% of patients. Only sera from patients having undergone >3 mo hemodialysis displayed chemotactic inhibitory activity and retained this inhibitory activity when retested 9 mo later. Four of five patients who had initially undergone <3 mo hemodialysis and lacked serum chemotactic inhibitory activity developed inhibitory activity when tested 9 mo later. Clinical evaluation of patients with serum chemotactic inhibitory activity showed that these patients did not have a significantly increased incidence of infection, although a trend toward decreased mortality during the time of study was observed (P = 0.0721).
Simeon E. Goldblum, Dennis E. Van Epps, William P. Reed
Earlier studies indicated that initial exposure of thyroid slices to thyrotropin diminished responsiveness of the adenylate cyclase-cyclic AMP system, glucose oxidation, and 32Pi incorporation into phospholipids upon readdition of the hormone. The present studies demonstrate that slices from dog, beef, and human thyroid glands initially incubated with thyrotropin (TSH) were less responsive to subsequent addition of the hormone when organification of iodide was examined. Increasing the amount of TSH did not overcome the refractoriness induced by the initial exposure to the hormone. Furthermore, the stimulatory effects of dibutyryl cyclic AMP and prostagladin E1 were abolished in slices previously incubated with TSH. Development of such refractoriness did not depend upon new protein synthesis and was not abolished by 1 mM prophylthiouracil in the first incubation. Addition of 0.1 μM thyroxine or triiodothyronine or 1.5 μM iodide during all three incubations did not modify the response to TSH, added for the first time in the third incubation. However, 1 mM iodide in the buffer during all three incubations inhibited the response to TSH during the third incubation. During the refractory period, effects of TSH on colloid droplet formation were also diminished. The in vivo effect of TSH on serum l- triiodothyronine in rats was significantly reduced when the rats had been injected with TSH 8 h earlier. These studies demonstrate that TSH-induced refractoriness also includes effects on organification of iodine and secretion of thyroid hormone. The results cannot be adequately explained by unresponsiveness of adenylate cyclase because effects of dibutyryl cyclic AMP and prostagladin E1 were also inhibited by prior exposure to TSH.
James B. Field, Andrew Dekker, Gail Titus, Mary Eleanor Kerins, William Worden, Rosalyn Frumess
We have shown that levels of circulating immune complexes are closely associated with the presence of precipitating antibodies to bovine milk proteins in individuals with selective immunoglobin (Ig)A deficiency. To test whether milk proteins are involved in immune complex formation, sera of seven IgA-deficient individuals were studied for the appearance of complexes after milk ingestion. In three of the seven, an initial fall in the level of complexes was followed by an increasing value, which peaked at 120-150 min. In another three, there was a tendency toward the formation of two peaks of complexes, the first at 30-60 min and the second at 120-150 min after drinking milk. One subject, who had had recent treatment for two separate neoplasms, had a steady level of complexes that did not change during the course of this test. After drinking milk, the molecular weight of the complexes found in the sera of one individual at the start of the milk test fell from >19S to 7-11S, and in vitro additions of progressively increasing amounts of a mixture of milk proteins or bovine gamma globulin, to sera that contained complexes produced a progressive reduction in the level of complexes detectable. We conclude that the circulating immune complexes found in some patients who lack IgA contain bovine milk proteins and that periodic fluctuation of the molecular weight of such complexes, depending upon antigen ingestion, appears likely. It remains uncertain what effect the chronic circulation of complexes has upon the clinical state of this group of patients.
Charlotte Cunningham-Rundles, Werner E. Brandeis, Robert A. Good, Noorbibi K. Day
Hereditary angioedema (HAE), an auto-somal dominant disorder characterized by attacks of episodic edema is associated with decreased functional levels of the C1 esterase inhibitor. Approximately 85% of patients have lowered antigen levels of a normal inhibitor protein. 15% of patients have normal or elevated antigenic levels of functionless protein. We have examined the response to danazol therapy of patients with the variant HAE phenotypes possessing the abnormal protein in an effort to determine if these patients possess a normal structural C1 inhibitor allele. Four patients with a variant HAE phenotype were treated successfully with danazol. In two patients, distinguished by the presence of a functionless, albumin-bound, C1 inhibitor (phenotype 2), phenotypic analysis of the danazol response by bidirectional immunoelectrophoresis revealed the appearance of the normal C1 inhibitor gene product during danazol therapy. This relatively cathodal C1 inhibitor peak appears in conjunction with the development of nearly normal functional activity. All of the functional C1 inhibitory activity which appeared in the phenotype 2 treatment serum was associated with the electrophoretically normal inhibitor. This normal protein could be separated from the functionless inhibitor protein by immunoadsorption and molecular sieve chromatography. Danazol therapy of the two patients with an electrophoretically normal, functionless C1 inhibitor (phenotype 3) also resulted in a clinical remission associated with development of a significant increment in functional serum C1 inhibitory activity and C1 inhibitor protein. These findings demonstrate that these two HAE phenotypic variants are heterozygous for the normal serum C1 inhibitor, a finding which was not apparent before phenotypic analysis of this serum during danazol therapy. These data provide strong evidence for a basic similarity between the common form of HAE and its phenotypic variants. They also suggest that a structural gene lesion may result in the abnormalities of serum C1 inhibitor function and disease expression in all three of these HAE phenotypes.
James E. Gadek, Stephen W. Hosea, Jeffrey A. Gelfand, Michael M. Frank
The possibility that dopamine may play a role in the in vivo control of aldosterone production in man was suggested to us by reports from others; (a) that bromocriptine, a dopaminergic agonist, inhibits the aldosterone response to diuresis and to the infusion of angiotensin or ACTH; and (b) that metaclopramide, a dopamine blocking agent, causes elevations in plasma aldosterone levels. To determine whether such effects were direct or indirect, we examined the action of dopamine on aldosterone biosynthesis in isolated, bovine adrenal cells. Dopamine significantly inhibits the aldosterone response to angiotensin (P < 0.001), but does not influence basal aldosterone biosynthesis.
Terence J. Mc Kenna, Donald P. Island, Wendell E. Nicholson, Grant W. Liddle
A new kindred with asymptomatic hypobetalipoproteinemia is reported. The proband, age 67, differs from previously described cases in several respects: (a) unusually low levels of low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol (4-8 mg/dl); (b) normal triglyceride levels; (c) low levels of high density lipoprotein; (d) mild fat malabsorption; and (e) a defect in chylomicron clearance. On a high-carbohydrate diet his plasma triglyceride levels, instead of rising, actually fell. Turnover of triglycerides in very low density lipoproteins (VLDL) was low (2.8 mg/kg per h). Fractional catabolic rate of LDL protein was just above the normal range (0.655/d) but net turnover was <10% of normal (0.65 mg/kg per d). The half-life of his chylomicrons was 29 min, five times the normal value. Postheparin lipoprotein lipase activity was normal and apolipoprotein C-II, the activator protein for lipoprotein lipase, was present and functional. Apolipoprotein C-III1, however, was not detected in the VLDL fraction, a finding previously reported in patients with abetalipoproteinemia. Fecal excretion of cholesterol was almost twice normal; total sterol balance was increased by ≅40%. The unusual features in the proband that distinguish him from previously described cases and from his affected first-degree relatives suggested that, in addition to the basic gene defect affecting LDL metabolism, he might have a second abnormality affecting clearance of chylomicrons and VLDL. The ratio of apolipoprotein E3 to E2 in his VLDL fraction was 0.93, just below the lower limit of normal, suggesting heterozygosity for E3 deficiency. Whether or not this contributes to his hypertriglyceridemia remains to be established.
Daniel Steinberg, Scott M. Grundy, Henry Y. I. Mok, John D. Turner, David B. Weinstein, W. Virgil Brown, John J. Albers
Both acute and chronic cellular inflammatory reactions were suppressed in rats bearing malignant tumors. Inhibition of the acute inflammatory reactions was demonstrated in immune complex-induced vasculitis and in the accumulation of leukocytes in subcutaneously implanted polyvinyl sponges. Suppression of chronic inflammatory reactions was demonstrated in delayed type hypersensitivity skin reactions. In spite of these suppressed reactions, dermal reactivity to vasopermeability mediators was not diminished. Neither serum complement levels nor numbers of circulating leukocytes were depressed in animals with tumors. Suppression of inflammatory reactions was paralleled by a leukotactic defect which involved both neutrophils and monocytes. This defect could be ascribed to an abnormality in the serum that rendered both cell types leukotactically defective.
J P Brozna, P A Ward
Bile acid-independent secretion and the choleretic response to taurocholate were determined in rhesus monkeys fitted with indwelling silastic cannulas in the common bile ducts. Bile acids were infused intravenously in random order at 3.5, 7.0, or 10.5 μmol/min for 1.5 h each. When data were analyzed with a single regression line, bile flow increased in proportion to the level of bile acid secretion, although the y-intercepts (the conventional measurement of bile acid-independent secretion) varied widely (77.9±40.9 ml/24 h). The variation in y-intercepts was observed between animals and with repeated studies in the same animal and could not be explained by sex differences or the effects of the indwelling silastic cannulas, but seemed to be related to the order of bile acid infusion. With only two taurocholic acid infusion rates (7.0 and 3.5 μmol/min), [14C]erythritol clearance was greater per mole of secreted bile acid when the initial bile acid infusion was at the high level, but approached zero at low bile acid secretion rates, which suggests that so-called bile acid-independent canalicular flow is closely related to bile acid secretion or is small in size. The augmentation in [14C]erythritol clearance when the high infusion rate was given first was also associated with an increase in biliary clearance of [3H]inulin, which indicates that the premeability to inulin was also enhanced. Identical experiments which substituted equimolar infusions of a nonmicelle-forming bile acid (taurodehydrocholate) for taurocholate failed to demonstrate any difference in choleretic response or biliary clearance of [3H]inulin with the order of bile acid infusion. These experiments demonstrate that a micelleforming bile acid, taurocholate, can increase the permeability of the biliary system to large molecular weight solutes and simultaneously modify the y-intercept and the volume of bile secreted in response to the transported bile acid. Taurocholate may, therefore, modify its own choleretic response, perhaps by altering the structure or function of bile secretory membranes, and appears to be a major determinant of so-called bile acid-independent flow in rhesus monkeys.
Alfred L. Baker, R. A. B. Wood, A. R. Moossa, James L. Boyer
Turnover of membrane constituents appears important in many biologic processes. We studied this process in neutrophils by immunologic methods. The capacity of neutrophils to recognize other neutrophils coated with antibodies against membrane antigens was used to determine the changes that occur after attachment of the antibody to the neutrophil membrane. Neutrophils were sensitized for 30 min at 22°C with antibodies from three patients with antineutrophil autoantibodies. The sensitized neutrophils were recognized by normal neutrophils, which responded with an increase in glucose oxidation. If, after sensitization, the sensitized neutrophils were not immediately exposed to normal neutrophils, but instead were incubated at 37°C for varying times, the capacity to elicit a recognition response decayed and was gone by 30 min. Additionally, the capacity of the cells to be resensitized by reexposure to antibody also decayed during this period. However, after further incubation at 37°C, the neutrophils recovered the capacity to become sensitized; and this recovery was not inhibited by the addition of cycloheximide. Control incubations with normal immunoglobulin (Ig)G did not elicit a recognition response. The decay in recognition response was temperature dependent. Direct immunofluorescent studies with fluorescein-conjugated antineutrophil IgG revealed that the antibodies were cleared by aggregation and endocytosis. We conclude that: (a) neutrophils clear antibody from the cell surface by a temperature-dependent mechanism; (b) antigenicity is cleared concomitantly; (c) the mechanism of clearance involves internalization; and (d) with time, antigenicity reappears on the cell surface.
Sigmund A. Weitzman, Mary C. Desmond, Thomas P. Stossel
Hereditary pyropikilocytosis is a hemolytic anemia in which the erythrocytes show increased sensitivity to heat-induced fragmentation. Circular dichroism measurements were employed to study the effect of heat on the secondary structure of pyropoikilocyte membrane proteins. The magnitude of the ellipticity at 222 nm over the temperature range from 25 degrees to 70 degrees C was determined for erythrocyte ghosts, spectrin, and ghost residue after extraction. In pyropoikilocyte ghosts, protein denaturation began at a lower temperature and the midpoint of the structural transition was displaced from 49 degrees C (the value for normal ghosts) to 44 degrees C. This thermal transition was present in spectrin, but not in the ghost residue after extraction. We conclude that an abnormality in the spectrin molecule alters the physical and morphologic properties of the erythrocyte membrane in pyropoikilocytosis.
K Chang, J R Williamson, H S Zarkowsky
The vascular endothelium is a rich source of plasminogen activator (PA) and thus of blood vessel-associated fibrinolytic activity. Cultured bovine aortic endothelial cells were employed to determine if components of the coagulation system interact with the endothelium to modify expression of this activity. The addition of thrombin to these cultures led to a rapid decline in intracellular PA activity, with as little as 3 ng/ml, or 0.1 nM thrombin causing a 50% decrease within 30 min. Thrombin inactivated with diisopropylflurophosphate or hirudin did not elicit the response. Although control cultures secreted high levels of PA, no PA activity could be detected in the media surrounding the thrombin-treated cells. This loss of activity did not appear to result from direct inactivation of PA by thrombin. These observations indicate that the fibrinolytic potential of cultured endothelial cells is rapidly suppressed by trace amounts of thrombin. The generation of thrombin at sites of vascular injury may have a similar effect on the endothelium.
D J Loskutoff
The ability of antipili antibody to prevent ascending urinary tract infection was investigated in rats. One group of rats was immunized passively with rabbit antisera to purified pili and challenged by intravesicular inoculation of 5 x 10(7) heavily piliated Escherichia coli. Only 2 of 14 immunized animals developed cortical abscesses as compared to 13 of 15 control rats given normal rabbit serum (P equals 0.0001). The mean log titer of bacteria in the kidneys of the immunized rats was 0.85 vs. 6.08 in the controls (P less than 0.005). A second group was actively immunized with pili. 3 of 16 immunized animals became infected as compared to 10 of 15 controls (P equals 0.01). The mean log titers were 2.13 and 4.54, respectively (P less than 0.01). A third group was passively immunized and challenged with a strain that had different O, K, and H antigens but shared pili antigens. Abscesses occurred in 4 of 15 immunized animals as compared to 13 of 15 controls (P equals 0.001). The mean log titers were 2.37 and 5.63, respectively (P less than 0.005). These results indicate that antipili antibody protects rats against ascending urinary tract infections.
F J Silverblatt, L S Cohen
The human lympholine osteoclast activating factor (OAF) is thought to be involved in several bone-destroying diseases. The current studies were designed to produce monoclonal antibodies against OAF for use in the subsequent design of immunoassays for OAF in clinical samples. Spleen cells from mice immunized with purified human OAF were hybridized with mouse plasmacytoma cells in vitro to yield hybridomas. Several clones of these hybridomas secreted into the culture medium antibodies, which neutralized the biological activity of OAF at dilutions as high as 1:100,000 relative to the initial culture medium. These antibodies did not interfere with the activities of parathyroid hormone in the same systems. These results represent the first report of monoclonal antibodies against a human lympholine, and validate the concept that hybridoma production is a useful technique for developing antibodies against weak or scarce antigens.
R A Luben, M A Mohler, G E Nedwin