Adipose thermogenesis is repressed in obesity, reducing the homeostatic capacity to compensate for chronic overnutrition. Inflammation inhibits adipose thermogenesis, but little is known about how this occurs. Here we showed that the innate immune transcription factor IRF3 is a strong repressor of thermogenic gene expression and oxygen consumption in adipocytes. IRF3 achieved this by driving expression of the ubiquitin-like modifier ISG15, which became covalently attached to glycolytic enzymes, thus reducing their function and decreasing lactate production. Lactate repletion was able to restore thermogenic gene expression, even when the IRF3/ISG15 axis was activated. Mice lacking ISG15 phenocopied mice lacking IRF3 in adipocytes, as both had elevated energy expenditure and were resistant to diet-induced obesity. These studies provide a deep mechanistic understanding of how the chronic inflammatory milieu of adipose tissue in obesity prevents thermogenic compensation for overnutrition.
Shuai Yan, Manju Kumari, Haopeng Xiao, Christopher Jacobs, Shihab Kochumon, Mark Jedrychowski, Edward Chouchani, Rasheed Ahmad, Evan D. Rosen
Dystonia is a debilitating hyperkinetic movement disorder, which can be transmitted as a monogenic trait. Here, we describe homozygous frameshift, nonsense, and missense variants in TSPOAP1, which encodes the active-zone RIM-binding protein 1 (RIMBP1), as a genetic cause of autosomal recessive dystonia in 7 subjects from 3 unrelated families. Subjects carrying loss-of-function variants presented with juvenile-onset progressive generalized dystonia, associated with intellectual disability and cerebellar atrophy. Conversely, subjects carrying a pathogenic missense variant (p.Gly1808Ser) presented with isolated adult-onset focal dystonia. In mice, complete loss of RIMBP1, known to reduce neurotransmission, led to motor abnormalities reminiscent of dystonia, decreased Purkinje cell dendritic arborization, and reduced numbers of cerebellar synapses. In vitro analysis of the p.Gly1808Ser variant showed larger spike-evoked calcium transients and enhanced neurotransmission, suggesting that RIMBP1-linked dystonia can be caused by either reduced or enhanced rates of spike-evoked release in relevant neural networks. Our findings establish a direct link between dysfunction of the presynaptic active zone and dystonia and highlight the critical role played by well-balanced neurotransmission in motor control and disease pathogenesis.
Niccolò E. Mencacci, Marisa M. Brockmann, Jinye Dai, Sander Pajusalu, Burcu Atasu, Joaquin Campos, Gabriela Pino, Paulina Gonzalez-Latapi, Christopher Patzke, Michael Schwake, Arianna Tucci, Alan Pittman, Javier Simon-Sanchez, Gemma L. Carvill, Bettina Balint, Sarah Wiethoff, Thomas T. Warner, Apostolos Papandreou, Audrey Soo, Reet Rein, Liis Kadastik-Eerme, Sanna Puusepp, Karit Reinson, Tiiu Tomberg, Hasmet Hanagasi, Thomas Gasser, Kailash P. Bhatia, Manju A. Kurian, Ebba Lohmann, Katrin Õunap, Christian Rosenmund, Thomas C. Südhof, Nicholas W. Wood, Dimitri Krainc, Claudio Acuna
Tregs restrain both the innate and adaptive immune systems to maintain homeostasis. Allergic airway inflammation, characterized by a Th2 response that results from a breakdown of tolerance to innocuous environmental antigens, is negatively regulated by Tregs. We previously reported that prostaglandin I2 (PGI2) promoted immune tolerance in models of allergic inflammation; however, the effect of PGI2 on Treg function was not investigated. Tregs from mice deficient in the PGI2 receptor IP (IP KO) had impaired suppressive capabilities during allergic airway inflammatory responses compared with mice in which PGI2 signaling was intact. IP KO Tregs had significantly enhanced expression of immunoglobulin-like transcript 3 (ILT3) compared with WT Tregs, which may contribute to the impairment of the IP KO Treg’s ability to suppress Th2 responses. Using fate-mapping mice, we reported that PGI2 signaling prevents Treg reprogramming toward a pathogenic phenotype. PGI2 analogs promoted the differentiation of naive T cells to Tregs in both mice and humans via repression of β-catenin signaling. Finally, a missense variant in IP in humans was strongly associated with chronic obstructive asthma. Together, these data support that PGI2 signaling licenses Treg suppressive function and that PGI2 is a therapeutic target for enhancing Treg function.
Allison E. Norlander, Melissa H. Bloodworth, Shinji Toki, Jian Zhang, Weisong Zhou, Kelli Boyd, Vasiliy V. Polosukhin, Jacqueline-Yvonne Cephus, Zachary J. Ceneviva, Vivek D. Gandhi, Nowrin U. Chowdhury, Louis-Marie Charbonnier, Lisa M. Rogers, Janey Wang, David M. Aronoff, Lisa Bastarache, Dawn C. Newcomb, Talal A. Chatila, R. Stokes Peebles Jr.
Autophagy modulates lipid turnover, cell survival, inflammation, and atherogenesis. Scavenger receptor class B type I (SR-BI) plays a crucial role in lysosome function. Here, we demonstrate that SR-BI regulates autophagy in atherosclerosis. SR-BI deletion attenuated lipid-induced expression of autophagy mediators in macrophages and atherosclerotic aortas. Consequently, SR-BI deletion resulted in 1.8- and 2.5-fold increases in foam cell formation and apoptosis, respectively, and increased oxidized LDL–induced inflammatory cytokine expression. Pharmacological activation of autophagy failed to reduce lipid content or apoptosis in Sr-b1–/– macrophages. SR-BI deletion reduced both basal and inducible levels of transcription factor EB (TFEB), a master regulator of autophagy, causing decreased expression of autophagy genes encoding VPS34 and Beclin-1. Notably, SR-BI regulated Tfeb expression by enhancing PPARα activation. Moreover, intracellular macrophage SR-BI localized to autophagosomes, where it formed cholesterol domains resulting in enhanced association of Barkor and recruitment of the VPS34–Beclin-1 complex. Thus, SR-BI deficiency led to lower VPS34 activity in macrophages and in atherosclerotic aortic tissues. Overexpression of Tfeb or Vps34 rescued the defective autophagy in Sr-b1–/– macrophages. Taken together, our results show that macrophage SR-BI regulates autophagy via Tfeb expression and recruitment of the VPS34–Beclin-1 complex, thus identifying previously unrecognized roles for SR-BI and potentially novel targets for the treatment of atherosclerosis.
Huan Tao, Patricia G. Yancey, John L. Blakemore, Youmin Zhang, Lei Ding, W. Gray Jerome, Jonathan D. Brown, Kasey C. Vickers, MacRae F. Linton
Ovarian cancer (OC) is the most deadly gynecological malignancy, with unmet clinical need for new therapeutic approaches. The relaxin peptide is a pleiotropic hormone with reproductive functions in the ovary. Relaxin induces cell growth in several types of cancer, but the role of relaxin in OC is poorly understood. Here, using cell lines and xenograft models, we demonstrate that relaxin and its associated GPCR RXFP1 form an autocrine signaling loop essential for OC in vivo tumorigenesis, cell proliferation, and viability. We determined that relaxin signaling activates expression of prooncogenic pathways, including RHO, MAPK, Wnt, and Notch. We found that relaxin is detectable in patient-derived OC tumors, ascites, and serum. Further, inflammatory cytokines IL-6 and TNF-α activated transcription of relaxin via recruitment of STAT3 and NF-κB to the proximal promoter, initiating an autocrine feedback loop that potentiated expression. Inhibition of RXFP1 or relaxin increased cisplatin sensitivity of OC cell lines and abrogated in vivo tumor formation. Finally, we demonstrate that a relaxin-neutralizing antibody reduced OC cell viability and sensitized cells to cisplatin. Collectively, these data identify the relaxin/RXFP1 autocrine loop as a therapeutic vulnerability in OC.
Helen E. Burston, Oliver A. Kent, Laudine Communal, Molly L. Udaskin, Ren X. Sun, Kevin R. Brown, Euihye Jung, Kyle E. Francis, Jose La Rose, Joshua Lowitz, Ronny Drapkin, Anne-Marie Mes-Masson, Robert Rottapel
Neutrophils amplify inflammation in lupus through the release of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs). The endoplasmic reticulum stress sensor inositol-requiring enzyme 1 α (IRE1α) has been implicated as a perpetuator of inflammation in various chronic diseases; however, IRE1α has been little studied in relation to neutrophil function or lupus pathogenesis. Here, we found that neutrophils activated by lupus-derived immune complexes demonstrated markedly increased IRE1α ribonuclease activity. Importantly, in neutrophils isolated from patients with lupus, we also detected heightened IRE1α activity that was correlated with global disease activity. Immune complex–stimulated neutrophils produced both mitochondrial ROS (mitoROS) and the activated form of caspase-2 in an IRE1α-dependent fashion, whereas inhibition of IRE1α mitigated immune complex–mediated NETosis (in both human neutrophils and a mouse model of lupus). Administration of an IRE1α inhibitor to lupus-prone MRL/lpr mice over 8 weeks reduced mitoROS levels in peripheral blood neutrophils, while also restraining plasma cell expansion and autoantibody formation. In summary, these data identify a role for IRE1α in the hyperactivity of lupus neutrophils and show that this pathway is upstream of mitochondrial dysfunction, mitoROS formation, and NETosis. We believe that inhibition of the IRE1α pathway is a novel strategy for neutralizing NETosis in lupus, and potentially other inflammatory conditions.
Gautam Sule, Basel H. Abuaita, Paul A. Steffes, Andrew T. Fernandes, Shanea K. Estes, Craig Dobry, Deepika Pandian, Johann E. Gudjonsson, J. Michelle Kahlenberg, Mary X. O’Riordan, Jason S. Knight
Multiple studies have shown loss of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2–specific (SARS-CoV-2–specific) antibodies over time after infection, raising concern that humoral immunity against the virus is not durable. If immunity wanes quickly, millions of people may be at risk for reinfection after recovery from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). However, memory B cells (MBCs) could provide durable humoral immunity even if serum neutralizing antibody titers decline. We performed multidimensional flow cytometric analysis of S protein receptor binding domain–specific (S-RBD–specific) MBCs in cohorts of ambulatory patients with COVID-19 with mild disease (n = 7), and hospitalized patients with moderate to severe disease (n = 7), at a median of 54 days (range, 39–104 days) after symptom onset. We detected S-RBD–specific class-switched MBCs in 13 of 14 participants, failing only in the individual with the lowest plasma levels of anti–S-RBD IgG and neutralizing antibodies. Resting MBCs (rMBCs) made up the largest proportion of S-RBD–specific MBCs in both cohorts. FCRL5, a marker of functional memory on rMBCs, was more dramatically upregulated on S-RBD–specific rMBCs after mild infection than after severe infection. These data indicate that most SARS-CoV-2-infected individuals develop S-RBD–specific, class-switched rMBCs that resemble germinal center–derived B cells induced by effective vaccination against other pathogens, providing evidence for durable B cell–mediated immunity against SARS-CoV-2 after mild or severe disease.
Clinton O. Ogega, Nicole E. Skinner, Paul W. Blair, Han-Sol Park, Kirsten Littlefield, Abhinaya Ganesan, Santosh Dhakal, Pranay Ladiwala, Annukka A.R. Antar, Stuart C. Ray, Michael J. Betenbaugh, Andrew Pekosz, Sabra L. Klein, Yukari C. Manabe, Andrea L. Cox, Justin R. Bailey
Podocytes are key to the glomerular filtration barrier by forming a slit diaphragm between interdigitating foot processes; however, the molecular details and functional importance of protein folding and degradation in the ER remain unknown. Here, we show that the SEL1L-HRD1 protein complex of ER-associated degradation (ERAD) is required for slit diaphragm formation and glomerular filtration function. SEL1L-HRD1 ERAD is highly expressed in podocytes of both mouse and human kidneys. Mice with podocyte-specific Sel1L deficiency develop podocytopathy and severe congenital nephrotic syndrome with an impaired slit diaphragm shortly after weaning and die prematurely, with a median lifespan of approximately 3 months. We show mechanistically that nephrin, a type 1 membrane protein causally linked to congenital nephrotic syndrome, is an endogenous ERAD substrate. ERAD deficiency attenuated the maturation of nascent nephrin, leading to its retention in the ER. We also show that various autosomal-recessive nephrin disease mutants were highly unstable and broken down by SEL1L-HRD1 ERAD, which attenuated the pathogenicity of the mutants toward the WT allele. This study uncovers a critical role of SEL1L-HRD1 ERAD in glomerular filtration barrier function and provides insights into the pathogenesis associated with autosomal-recessive disease mutants.
Sei Yoshida, Xiaoqiong Wei, Gensheng Zhang, Christopher L. O’Connor, Mauricio Torres, Zhangsen Zhou, Liangguang Lin, Rajasree Menon, Xiaoxi Xu, Wenyue Zheng, Yi Xiong, Edgar Otto, Chih-Hang Anthony Tang, Rui Hua, Rakesh Verma, Hiroyuki Mori, Yang Zhang, Chih-Chi Andrew Hu, Ming Liu, Puneet Garg, Jeffrey B. Hodgin, Shengyi Sun, Markus Bitzer, Ling Qi
Cx43, a major cardiac connexin, forms precursor hemichannels that accrue at the intercalated disc to assemble as gap junctions. While gap junctions are crucial for electrical conduction in the heart, little is known about the potential roles of hemichannels. Recent evidence suggests that inhibiting Cx43 hemichannel opening with Gap19 has antiarrhythmic effects. Here, we used multiple electrophysiology, imaging, and super-resolution techniques to understand and define the conditions underlying Cx43 hemichannel activation in ventricular cardiomyocytes, their contribution to diastolic Ca2+ release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum, and their impact on electrical stability. We showed that Cx43 hemichannels were activated during diastolic Ca2+ release in single ventricular cardiomyocytes and cardiomyocyte cell pairs from mice and pigs. This activation involved Cx43 hemichannel Ca2+ entry and coupling to Ca2+ release microdomains at the intercalated disc, resulting in enhanced Ca2+ dynamics. Hemichannel opening furthermore contributed to delayed afterdepolarizations and triggered action potentials. In single cardiomyocytes, cardiomyocyte cell pairs, and arterially perfused tissue wedges from failing human hearts, increased hemichannel activity contributed to electrical instability compared with nonfailing rejected donor hearts. We conclude that microdomain coupling between Cx43 hemichannels and Ca2+ release is a potentially novel, targetable mechanism of cardiac arrhythmogenesis in heart failure.
Maarten A.J. De Smet, Alessio Lissoni, Timur Nezlobinsky, Nan Wang, Eef Dries, Marta Pérez-Hernández, Xianming Lin, Matthew Amoni, Tim Vervliet, Katja Witschas, Eli Rothenberg, Geert Bultynck, Rainer Schulz, Alexander V. Panfilov, Mario Delmar, Karin R. Sipido, Luc Leybaert
Adoptive T cell therapies (ACTs) hold great promise in cancer treatment, but low overall response rates in patients with solid tumors underscore remaining challenges in realizing the potential of this cellular immunotherapy approach. Promoting CD8+ T cell adaptation to tissue residency represents an underutilized but promising strategy to improve tumor-infiltrating lymphocyte (TIL) function. Here, we report that deletion of the HIF negative regulator von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) in CD8+ T cells induced HIF-1α/HIF-2α–dependent differentiation of tissue-resident memory–like (Trm-like) TILs in mouse models of malignancy. VHL-deficient TILs accumulated in tumors and exhibited a core Trm signature despite an exhaustion-associated phenotype, which led to retained polyfunctionality and response to αPD-1 immunotherapy, resulting in tumor eradication and protective tissue-resident memory. VHL deficiency similarly facilitated enhanced accumulation of chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells with a Trm-like phenotype in tumors. Thus, HIF activity in CD8+ TILs promotes accumulation and antitumor activity, providing a new strategy to enhance the efficacy of ACTs.
Ilkka Liikanen, Colette Lauhan, Sara Quon, Kyla Omilusik, Anthony T. Phan, Laura Barceló Bartrolí, Amir Ferry, John Goulding, Joyce Chen, James P. Scott-Browne, Jason T. Yustein, Nicole E. Scharping, Deborah A. Witherden, Ananda W. Goldrath
No posts were found with this tag.