Natural killer (NK) cell suppression of T cells is a key determinant of viral pathogenesis and vaccine efficacy. This process involves perforin-dependent elimination of activated CD4 T cells during the first three days of infection. Although this mechanism requires cell-cell contact, NK cells and T cells typically reside in different compartments of lymphoid tissues at steady state. Here, we showed that NK-cell suppression of T cells is associated with transient accumulation of NK cells within T cell-rich sites of the spleen during lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus infection. The chemokine receptor CXCR3 was required for this relocation and suppression of antiviral T cells. Accordingly, NK-cell migration was mediated by type I interferon (IFN)-dependent promotion of CXCR3 ligand expression. In contrast, adenoviral vectors that weakly induced type I IFN and did not stimulate NK-cell inhibition of T cells also did not promote measurable redistribution of NK cells to T-cell zones. Exogenous IFN rescued NK-cell migration during adenoviral vector immunization. Thus, type I IFN and CXCR3 were critical for properly positioning NK cells to constrain antiviral T-cell responses. Development of strategies to curtail migration of NK cells between lymphoid compartments may enhance vaccine-elicited immune responses.
Ayad Ali, Laura M. Canaday, H. Alex Feldman, Hilal Cevik, Michael T. Moran, Sanjeeth Rajaram, Nora Lakes, Jasmine A. Tuazon, Harsha Seelamneni, Durga Krishnamurthy, Eryn Blass, Dan H. Barouch, Stephen N. Waggoner
Seasonal influenza vaccination elicits a diminished adaptive immune response in the elderly, and the mechanisms of immunosenescence are not fully understood. Using Ig-Seq, we found a marked increase with age in the prevalence of cross-reactive (CR) serum antibodies that recognize both the H1N1 (vaccine-H1) and H3N2 (vaccine-H3) components of an egg-produced split influenza vaccine. CR antibodies accounted for 73% ± 18% of the serum vaccine responses in a cohort of elderly donors, 65% ± 15% in late middle-aged donors, and only 13% ± 5% in persons under 35 years of age. The antibody response to non-HA antigens was boosted by vaccination. Recombinant expression of 19 vaccine-H1+H3 CR serum monoclonal antibodies (s-mAbs) revealed that they predominantly bound to non-HA influenza proteins. A sizable fraction of vaccine-H1+H3 CR s-mAbs recognized with high affinity the sulfated glycans, in particular sulfated type 2 N-acetyllactosamine (Galβ1-4GalNAcβ), which is found on egg-produced proteins and thus unlikely to contribute to protection against influenza infection in humans. Antibodies against sulfated glycans in egg-produced vaccine had been identified in animals but were not previously characterized in humans. Collectively, our results provide a quantitative basis for how repeated exposure to split influenza vaccine correlates with unintended focusing of serum antibody responses to non-HA antigens that may result in suboptimal immunity against influenza.
Jiwon Jung, Sophia T. Mundle, Irina V. Ustyugova, Andrew P. Horton, Daniel R. Boutz, Svetlana Pougatcheva, Ponraj Prabakaran, Jonathan R. McDaniel, Gregory R. King, Daechan Park, Maria D. Person, Congxi Ye, Bing Tan, Yuri Tanno, Jin Eyun Kim, Nicholas C. Curtis, Joshua DiNapoli, Simon Delagrave, Ted M. Ross, Gregory C. Ippolito, Harry Kleanthous, Jiwon Lee, George Georgiou
The four serotypes of dengue virus (DENV1-4) are mosquito-borne flaviviruses that infect humans. Live attenuated tetravalent DENV vaccines are at different phases of clinical testing. DENV vaccine developers have relied on neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) as a correlate of protection. A leading tetravalent vaccine (Dengvaxia) stimulated NAbs to the 4 DENV serotypes, yet overall vaccine efficacy was low in children who were DENV seronegative at baseline before vaccination. We compared the properties of 1) NAbs induced by wild type DENV1 or 3 infections, which are strongly correlated with protection from repeat infections, and 2) NAbs induced by Dengvaxia in individuals who subsequently experienced DENV1 or DENV3 breakthrough infections. Wild type infections induced NAbs that recognized epitopes unique (type-specific) to each serotype, whereas the vaccine stimulated qualitatively different NAbs that recognized epitopes conserved (cross-reactive) between serotypes. Our results indicate that among children who were DENV seronegative at baseline, unbalanced replication of the DENV type 4 vaccine component in the tetravalent vaccine stimulates Abs capable of cross neutralizing DENV1 and 3 in vitro but not protect in vivo. In DENV seronegative individuals who are vaccinated, we propose that type specific NAbs are a better correlate of protection than total levels of NAbs.
Sandra Henein, Cameron Adams, Matthew Bonaparte, Janice M. Moser, Alina Munteanu, Ralph Baric, Aravinda M. Desilva
BACKGROUND. Currently used COVID-19 vaccines require two doses to achieve optimal vaccination, and there is no indication as to whether individuals who have been exposed to SARS-CoV-2 should be vaccinated, or should receive one or two vaccine doses. METHODS. Here, we tested the antibody response developed after administration of the Pfizer/BioNTech vaccine in 124 healthcare professionals of which 57 had a previous history of SARS-CoV-2 exposure (SARS-CoV-2-Exp), with or without symptoms. RESULTS. Post-vaccine antibodies in SARS-CoV-2 exposed individuals increased exponentially within 5-18 days after the first dose compared to naïve subjects (P < 0.0001). In a multivariate Linear Regression (LR) model we showed that the antibody response depended on the IgG pre-vaccine titer and on the exposure to SARS-CoV-2. In symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 exposed individuals, IgG reached a plateau after the second dose, and those that voluntarily refrained from receiving the second dose (n = 7) retained their antibody response. Gastrointestinal symptoms, muscle pain and fever significantly positively correlated with increased IgG responses. By contrast, all a/paucisymptomatic and unexposed individuals showed an important increase after the second dose. CONCLUSION. Thus, one vaccine dose is sufficient in symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 exposed subjects to reach a high titer of antibodies suggesting no need for a second dose, particularly in light of current vaccine shortage. TRIAL REGISTRATION. ClincalTrials.gov NCT04387929 FUNDING. This work was partially supported by a philantropic donation by Dolce & Gabbana and by the Italian Ministry of Health (Ricerca corrente).
Riccardo Levi, Elena Azzolini, Chiara Pozzi, Leonardo Ubaldi, Michele Lagioia, Alberto Mantovani, Maria Rescigno
A(H3N2) Influenza vaccine effectiveness (VE) were low during 2016-2019 seasons and varied by age. We analyzed neutralizing antibody responses to egg- and cell-propagated vaccine and circulating viruses following vaccination in 375 individuals (aged 7 months to 82 years) across all vaccine eligible age groups in 3 influenza seasons. Antibody responses to cell- compared to egg-propagated vaccine viruses were significantly reduced due to egg-adapted changes T160K, D225G, and L194P in the vaccine hemagglutinins. Vaccine egg-adaptation had differential impact on antibody responses across different age groups. Immunologically naive children immunized with egg-adapted vaccines mostly mounted antibodies targeting egg-adapted epitopes, whereas those previously primed with infection produced broader responses even when vaccinated with egg-based vaccines. In elderly, repeated boost of vaccine egg-adapted epitopes significantly reduced antibody responses to the wild type cell-grown viruses. Analysis with reverse genetics viruses suggested that the response to each egg-adapted substitution varied by age. Antibody responses did not differ in male versus female vaccinees. Here, the combination of age-specific responses to vaccine egg-adapted substitutions, diverse host immune priming histories and virus antigenic drift impacted antibody responses following vaccination and may have led to the low and variable VE against A(H3N2) viruses across different age groups.
Feng Liu, F. Liaini Gross, Stacie N. Jefferson, Crystal Holiday, Yaohui Bai, Li Wang, Bin Zhou, Min Z. Levine
Background. Vaccines that block human-to-mosquito Plasmodium transmission are needed for malaria eradication and clinical trials have targeted zygote antigen Pfs25 for decades. We reported that a Pfs25 protein-protein conjugate vaccine formulated in alum adjuvant induced significant serum functional activity in both US and Malian adults. However, antibody titers declined rapidly, and transmission-reducing activity required four vaccine doses. Functional immunogenicity and durability must be improved before advancing TBV further in clinical development. We hypothesized that the pre-fertilization protein Pfs230 alone or in combination with Pfs25 would improve functional activity.Methods. Transmission-blocking vaccine candidates based on gamete antigen Pfs230 or Pfs25 were conjugated with Exoprotein A, formulated in Alhydrogel, and administered to mice, rhesus macaques, and humans. Antibody titers were measured by ELISA and transmission-reducing activity was assess by the Standard Membrane Feeding Assay. Results. Pfs25-EPA/Alhydrogel and Pfs230D1-EPA/Alhydrogel induced similar serum functional activity in mice, but Pfs230D1-EPA induced significantly greater activity in rhesus monkeys that was enhanced by complement. In U.S. adults, two vaccine doses induced complement-dependent activity in 4 of 5 Pfs230D1-EPA/Alhydrogel recipients but no significant activity in five Pfs25-EPA recipients, and combination with Pfs25-EPA did not increase activity over Pfs230D1-EPA alone.Conclusion. The complement-dependent functional immunogenicity of Pfs230D1-EPA represents a significant improvement over Pfs25-EPA in this comparative study. The rhesus model is more predictive of the functional human immune response to Pfs230D1 than is the mouse model. Trial Registration. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02334462Funding. This work was supported by the Intramural Research Program of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health.
Sara A. Healy, Charles F. Anderson, Bruce J. Swihart, Agnes Mwakingwe-Omari, Erin E. Gabriel, Hope Decederfelt, Charlotte V. Hobbs, Kelly M. Rausch, Daming Zhu, Olga Muratova, Raul Herrera, Puthupparampil V. Scaria, Nicholas J. MacDonald, Lynn E. Lambert, Irfan Zaidi, Camila H. Coelho, Jonathan P. Renn, Yimin Wu, David L. Narum, Patrick E. Duffy
BACKGROUND. Immunization with replication-competent recombinant vectors provides exposure to transgene-encoded antigens in the context of inflammation that may drive more potent and durable immunity compared to non-replicating vaccines. To understand the features of a replicating vaccine that drive such responses we tested a replication-competent adenovirus type 4 encoding influenza virus H5 hemagglutinin (Ad4-H5-Vtn) administered by an oral capsule or via a tonsillar swab or nasal spray. METHODS. Viral shedding from the nose, mouth, and rectum was measured by PCR and culture. H5-specific IgG and IgA antibodies were measured by bead array binding assays. Serum antibodies were measured by a pseudovirus entry inhibition assay (PVEI), microneutralization (MN), and hemagglutinin inhibition (HAI). RESULTS. Ad4-H5-Vtn DNA was shed from most upper respiratory tract (URT)-immunized volunteers for 2-4 weeks, but cultured from only 60% of participants with a median duration of one day. Ad4-H5-Vtn vaccination induced increases in H5-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in the peripheral blood and IgG and IgA in nasal, cervical and rectal secretions. URT immunizations induced high levels of serum neutralizing antibodies (NAb) to H5 which remained stable at week 26. The duration of viral shedding correlated with the magnitude of the NAb response at week 26. Adverse events (AE) were mild, and peak NAb titer was associated with overall AE frequency or duration. Serum neutralizing antibody titers could be boosted to very high levels 2-5 years after Ad4-H5-Vtn vaccination with recombinant H5 or inactivated split H5N1 vaccine. CONCLUSION. Replicating Ad4 delivered to the URT causes prolonged exposure to antigen, drives durable systemic and mucosal immunity, and is a promising platform for the induction of immunity against viral surface glycoprotein targets. TRIAL REGISTRATION. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01443936, NCT01806909. FUNDING. Intramural and Extramural Research Programs of the NIAID, NIH; and the Centers of Influenza Virus Research and SurveillanceFunding. Intramural and Extramural Research Programs of the NIAID, NIH; and the Centers of Influenza Virus Research and Surveillance.
Kenta Matsuda, Stephen A. Migueles, Jinghe Huang, Lyuba Bolkhovitinov, Sarah Stuccio, Trevor Griesman, Alyssa A. Pullano, Byong H. Kang, Elise Ishida, Matthew Zimmerman, Neena Kashyap, Kelly M. Martins, Daniel Stadlbauer, Jessica Pederson, Andy Patamawenu, Nathaniel E. Wright, Tulley Shofner, Sean Evans, C. Jason Liang, Julián Candia, Angelique Biancotto, Giovanna Fantoni, April Poole, Jonathan Smith, Jeff Alexander, Marc Gurwith, Florian Krammer, Mark Connors
BACKGROUND. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) has caused over one million deaths worldwide, thus there is an urgent need to develop preventive and therapeutic strategies. The anti-tuberculosis vaccine Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) demonstrates non-specific protective innate immune-boosting effects. Here, we determined if history of BCG vaccination was associated with decreased SARS-CoV-2 infection and seroconversion in a retrospective observational study of a diverse cohort of health care workers (HCWs). METHODS. We assessed SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence and collected medical questionnaires, including BCG vaccination status and pre-existing demographic and clinical characteristics, from an observational cohort of HCWs in a multi-site Los Angeles healthcare organization. We used multi-variate analysis to estimate if history of BCG vaccination was associated with decreased rates of SARS-CoV-2 infection and seroconversion. RESULTS. Of the 6,201 HCWs, 29.6% reported a history of BCG vaccination whereas 68.9% did not receive BCG vaccination. Seroprevalence of anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG as well as incidence of self-reported clinical symptoms associated with COVID-19 were significantly decreased among HCWs with a history of BCG vaccination compared to those without BCG vaccination. After adjusting for age and sex, we found that history of BCG vaccination, but not meningococcal, pneumococcal or influenza vaccination, was associated with decreased SARS-CoV-2 IgG seroconversion. CONCLUSIONS. History of BCG vaccination was associated with decreased seroprevalence of anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG and reduced reported COVID-19-related clinical symptoms in this cohort of HCWs. Therefore, large randomized prospective clinical trials of BCG vaccination are urgently needed to confirm if BCG vaccination can induced a protective effect against SARS-CoV2 infection. FUNDING. This work was supported by the National Institutes of Health, National Cancer Institute (U54 CA26059) and the Erika J. Glazer Family Foundation. Key words: SARS-CoV-2, COVID-19, Bacillus Calmette-Guérin, BCG, anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG, healthcare workers, trained immunity.
Magali Noval Rivas, Joseph E. Ebinger, Min Wu, Nancy Sun, Jonathan Braun, Kimia Sobhani, Jennifer E. Van Eyk, Susan Cheng, Moshe Arditi
BACKGROUND Therapeutic vaccinations against cancer have mainly targeted differentiation antigens, cancer-testis antigens, and overexpressed antigens and have thus far resulted in little clinical benefit. Studies conducted by multiple groups have demonstrated that T cells recognizing neoantigens are present in most cancers and offer a specific and highly immunogenic target for personalized vaccination.METHODS We recently developed a process using tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes to identify the specific immunogenic mutations expressed in patients’ tumors. Here, validated, defined neoantigens, predicted neoepitopes, and mutations of driver genes were concatenated into a single mRNA construct to vaccinate patients with metastatic gastrointestinal cancer.RESULTS The vaccine was safe and elicited mutation-specific T cell responses against predicted neoepitopes not detected before vaccination. Furthermore, we were able to isolate and verify T cell receptors targeting KRASG12D mutation. We observed no objective clinical responses in the 4 patients treated in this trial.CONCLUSION This vaccine was safe, and potential future combination of such vaccines with checkpoint inhibitors or adoptive T cell therapy should be evaluated for possible clinical benefit in patients with common epithelial cancers.TRIAL REGISTRATION Phase I/II protocol (NCT03480152) was approved by the IRB committee of the NIH and the FDA.FUNDING Center for Clinical Research, NCI, NIH.
Gal Cafri, Jared J. Gartner, Tal Zaks, Kristen Hopson, Noam Levin, Biman C. Paria, Maria R. Parkhurst, Rami Yossef, Frank J. Lowery, Mohammad S. Jafferji, Todd D. Prickett, Stephanie L. Goff, Christine T. McGowan, Samantha Seitter, Mackenzie L. Shindorf, Anup Parikh, Praveen D. Chatani, Paul F. Robbins, Steven A. Rosenberg
After over three decades of research, an effective anti-HIV vaccine remains elusive. The recently halted HVTN702 clinical trial not only further stresses the challenge to develop an effective HIV vaccine, but also emphasizes that unconventional and novel vaccine strategies are urgently needed. Here, we report that a vaccine focusing the immune response on the sequences surrounding the 12 viral protease cleavage sites (PCSs) provided greater than 80% protection to Mauritian cynomolgus macaques (MCMs) against repeated intravaginal SIVmac251 challenges. The PCS-specific T cell responses correlated with vaccine efficacy. The PCS vaccine did not induce immune activation or inflammation known to be associated with increased susceptibility to HIV infection. Machine learning analyses revealed that the immune microenvironment generated by the PCS vaccine was predictive of vaccine efficacy. Our study demonstrates for the first time that a vaccine which targets only viral maturation, but lacks full-length Env and Gag immunogens, can prevent intravaginal infection in a stringent macaque/SIV challenge model. Targeting HIV maturation thus offers a novel approach to developing an effective HIV vaccine.
Hongzhao Li, Robert W. Omange, Binhua Liang, Nikki Toledo, Yan Hai, Lewis R. Liu, Dane Schalk, Jose Crecente-Campo, Tamara G. Dacoba, Andrew B. Lambe, So-Yon Lim, Lin Li, Mohammad Abul Kashem, Yanmin Wan, Jorge F. Correia-Pinto, Michael S. Seaman, Xiao-Qing Liu, Robert F. Balshaw, Qingsheng Li, Nancy Schultz-Darken, Maria Jose Alonso, Francis A. Plummer, James B. Whitney, Ma Luo
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