Heterogeneity in human immune responses is difficult to model in standard laboratory mice. To understand how host variation affects BCG-induced immunity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis, we studied 24 unique Collaborative Cross (CC) mouse strains, which differ primarily in the genes and alleles they inherit from founder strains. The CC strains were vaccinated with or without BCG, and then challenged with aerosolized M. tuberculosis. As BCG protects only half of the CC strains tested, we conclude that host genetics has a major influence on BCG-induced immunity against M. tuberculosis infection, making it an important barrier to vaccine-mediated protection. Importantly, BCG efficacy is dissociable from inherent susceptibility to TB. T cell immunity was extensively characterized to identify components associated with protection that were stimulated by BCG and recalled after Mtb infection. Although considerable diversity is observed, BCG has little impact on the composition of T cells in the lung after infection. Instead, variability is largely shaped by host genetics. BCG-elicited protection against TB correlated with changes in immune function. Thus, CC mice can be used to define correlates of protection and to identify vaccine strategies that protect a larger fraction of genetically diverse individuals instead of optimizing protection for a single genotype.
Rocky Lai, Diana N. Gong, Travis Williams, Abiola F. Ogunsola, Kelly Cavallo, Cecilia S. Lindestam Arlehamn, Sarah Acolatse, Gillian Beamer, Martin T. Ferris, Christopher M. Sassetti, Douglas A. Lauffenburger, Samuel M. Behar
BACKGOUND. Basic immune processes exhibit circadian rhythms, but it is unclear if rhythms exist in clinical endpoints like vaccine protection. Here, we examined associations between Coronavirus Infectious Disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccination timing and effectiveness. METHODS. We retrospectively analyzed a large Israeli cohort with timestamped COVID-19 vaccinations (n=1,515,754 patients over 12 years-old, 99.2% receiving BNT162b2). Endpoints included COVID-19 breakthrough infection, COVID-19 associated emergency department (ED) visits, and hospitalizations. Our main comparison was between patients vaccinated during morning (8:00-11:59), afternoon (12:00-15:59), or evening hours (16:00-19:59). We employed Cox regression to adjust for differences in age, sex, and co-morbidities. RESULTS. Breakthrough infections differed based on vaccination time, with lowest rates associated with late morning to early afternoon, and highest rates with evening vaccination. Vaccination timing remained significant after adjustment for patient age, sex, and co-morbidities. Results were consistent in patients who received the basic two-dose series and who received booster doses. The relationship between COVID-19 immunization time and breakthrough infections was sinusoidal, consistent with a biological rhythm that modifies vaccine effectiveness by 8.6-25%. The benefits of daytime vaccination were concentrated in younger (<20 years old) and older patients (>50 years old). COVID-19 related hospitalizations varied significantly with the timing of the second booster dose, an intervention reserved for older and immunosuppressed patients (HR=0.64 morning vs. evening, 0.43-0.97 95% CI, p=0.038). CONCLUSION. We report a significant association between the time of COVID-19 vaccination and its effectiveness. This has implications for mass vaccination programs. FUNDING. National Institutes of Health.
Guy Hazan, Or A. Duek, Hillel Alapi, Huram Mok, Alexander T. Ganninger, Elaine M. Ostendorf, Carrie Gierasch, Gabriel Chodick, David Greenberg, Jeffrey A. Haspel
BACKGROUND. Maintaining durable immunity to vaccination represents a major challenge, but whether booster mRNA vaccination improves durability is unknown. METHODS. We measured antibody responses in 55 healthy adults who received a booster dose of Pfizer-BioNTech or Moderna vaccine against SARS-CoV-2 and calculated the half-life of antibody titers. We also measured memory B and T cell responses in a subset of 28 participants. In 13 volunteers who received a second booster, we measured serum antibody titers, and memory B and T cell responses. RESULTS. The booster (3rd immunization) dose at 6 - 10 months increased the half-life of serum neutralizing antibody (nAb) titers to 76 days from 56 - 66 days after the primary two-dose vaccination. A second booster dose (4th immunization) a year after the primary vaccination increased the half-life further to 88 days. However, despite this modestly improved durability in nAb responses against the ancestral (WA.1) strain, there was a loss in neutralization capacity against Omicron subvariants BA.2.75.2, BQ.1.1, and XBB.1.5 (48, 71, and 66-fold drop in titers respectively, relative to the WA.1 strain). While only 45 – 65% of participants demonstrated a detectable nAb titer against the newer variants after the booster (3rd dose), the response declined to below the detection limit in almost all individuals by 6 months. In contrast, booster vaccination induced antigen-specific memory B and T cells that persisted for at least 6 months. CONCLUSION. The durability of serum antibody responses improves only marginally following booster immunizations with the Pfizer-BioNTech or Moderna mRNA vaccines.
Prabhu S Arunachalam, Lilin Lai, Hady Samaha, Yupeng Feng, Mengyun Hu, Harold Sai-yin Hui, Bushra Wali, Madison L. Ellis, Meredith E. Davis-Gardner, Christopher M. Huerta, Kareem Bechnak, Sarah Bechnak, Matthew Lee, Matthew B. Litvack, Cecilia Losada, Alba Grifoni, Alessandro Sette, Veronika I. Zarnitsyna, Nadine Rouphael, Mehul S. Suthar, Bali Pulendran
BACKGROUND Mosaic and consensus HIV-1 immunogens provide two distinct approaches to elicit greater breadth of coverage against globally circulating HIV-1 and have shown improved immunologic breadth in nonhuman primate models.METHODS This double-blind randomized trial enrolled 105 healthy HIV-uninfected adults who received 3 doses of either a trivalent global mosaic, a group M consensus (CON-S), or a natural clade B (Nat-B) gp160 env DNA vaccine followed by 2 doses of a heterologous modified vaccinia Ankara–vectored HIV-1 vaccine or placebo. We performed prespecified blinded immunogenicity analyses at day 70 and day 238 after the first immunization. T cell responses to vaccine antigens and 5 heterologous Env variants were fully mapped.RESULTS Env-specific CD4+ T cell responses were induced in 71% of the mosaic vaccine recipients versus 48% of the CON-S recipients and 48% of the natural Env recipients. The mean number of T cell epitopes recognized was 2.5 (95% CI, 1.2–4.2) for mosaic recipients, 1.6 (95% CI, 0.82–2.6) for CON-S recipients, and 1.1 (95% CI, 0.62–1.71) for Nat-B recipients. Mean breadth was significantly greater in the mosaic group than in the Nat-B group using overall (P = 0.014), prime-matched (P = 0.002), heterologous (P = 0.046), and boost-matched (P = 0.009) measures. Overall T cell breadth was largely due to Env-specific CD4+ T cell responses.CONCLUSION Priming with a mosaic antigen significantly increased the number of epitopes recognized by Env-specific T cells and enabled more, albeit still limited, cross-recognition of heterologous variants. Mosaic and consensus immunogens are promising approaches to address global diversity of HIV-1.TRIAL REGISTRATION ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02296541.FUNDING US NIH grants UM1 AI068614, UM1 AI068635, UM1 AI068618, UM1 AI069412, UL1 RR025758, P30 AI064518, UM1 AI100645, and UM1 AI144371, and Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation grant OPP52282.
Kristen W. Cohen, Andrew Fiore-Gartland, Stephen R. Walsh, Karina Yusim, Nicole Frahm, Marnie L. Elizaga, Janine Maenza, Hyman Scott, Kenneth H. Mayer, Paul A. Goepfert, Srilatha Edupuganti, Giuseppe Pantaleo, Julia Hutter, Daryl E. Morris, Stephen C. De Rosa, Daniel E. Geraghty, Merlin L. Robb, Nelson L. Michael, Will Fischer, Elena E. Giorgi, Harman Malhi, Michael N. Pensiero, Guido Ferrari, Georgia D. Tomaras, David C. Montefiori, Peter B. Gilbert, M. Juliana McElrath, Barton F. Haynes, Bette T. Korber, Lindsey R. Baden, the NIAID HVTN 106 Study Group
There is an unmet need for monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) for prevention or as adjunctive treatment of herpes simplex virus (HSV) disease. Most vaccine and mAb efforts focus on neutralizing antibodies, but for HSV this strategy has proven ineffective. Preclinical studies with a candidate HSV vaccine strain, ΔgD-2, demonstrated that non-neutralizing antibodies that activate Fc-gamma receptors (FcɣRs) to mediate antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) provide active and passive protection against HSV-1 and HSV-2. We hypothesized that this vaccine provides a tool to identify and characterize protective mAbs. We isolated HSV-specific mAbs from germinal center and memory B cells and bone marrow plasmacytes of ΔgD-2 vaccinated mice and evaluated these mAbs for binding, neutralizing and FcɣR-activating activity and for protective efficacy in mice. The most potent protective mAb, BMPC-23, was not neutralizing but activated murine FcɣRIV, a biomarker of ADCC. The cryo-EM structure of the Fab-glycoprotein B (gB) assembly identified domain IV of gB as the epitope. A single dose of BMPC-23 administered 24 hours before or after viral challenge provided significant protection when configured as mouse IgG2c and protected mice expressing human FcɣRIII when engineered as a human IgG1. These results highlight the importance of FcɣR-activating antibodies in protecting against HSV.
Masayuki Kuraoka, Clare Burn Aschner, Ian W. Windsor, Aakash Mahant Mahant, Scott J. Garforth, Susan Luozheng Kong, Jacqueline M. Achkar, Steven C. Almo, Garnett Kelsoe, Betsy C. Herold
The emergence of the novel henipavirus, Langya virus, received global attention earlier this month after the virus sickened over three dozen people in China. There is heightened concern henipaviruses as respiratory pathogens could spark another pandemic, most notably the deadly Nipah virus (NiV). NiV causes near annual outbreaks in Bangladesh and India and induces a highly fatal respiratory disease and encephalitis in humans. No licensed countermeasures against this pathogen exist. An ideal NiV vaccine would confer both fast-acting and long-lived protection. Recently, we reported the generation of a recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus (rVSV)-based vaccine expressing the NiV glycoprotein (rVSV-ΔG-NiVBG) that protected 100% of nonhuman primates from NiV-associated lethality within a week. Here, to evaluate the durability of rVSV-ΔG-NiVBG, we vaccinated African green monkeys (AGMs) one year prior to challenge with a uniformly lethal dose of NiV. The rVSV-ΔG-NiVBG vaccine induced stable and robust humoral responses, whereas cellular responses were modest. All immunized AGMs (whether receiving a single dose or prime-boosted) survived with no detectable clinical signs or NiV replication. Transcriptomic analyses indicated adaptive immune signatures correlated with vaccine-mediated protection. While vaccines for certain respiratory infections (e.g., COVID-19) have yet to provide durable protection, our results suggest rVSV-ΔG-NiVBG elicits long-lasting immunity.
Courtney Woolsey, Viktoriya Borisevich, Alyssa C. Fears, Krystle N. Agans, Daniel J. Deer, Abhishek N. Prasad, Rachel O'Toole, Stephanie L. Foster, Natalie S. Dobias, Joan B. Geisbert, Karla A. Fenton, Robert W. Cross, Thomas Geisbert
The SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) glycoprotein is synthesized as large precursor protein and must be activated by proteolytic cleavage into S1 and S2. A recombinant modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) expressing native, full-length S protein (MVA-SARS-2-S) is currently under investigation as candidate vaccine in phase I clinical studies. Initial results from immunogenicity monitoring revealed induction of S-specific antibodies binding to S2, but low-level antibody responses to the S1 domain. Follow-up investigations of native S antigen synthesis in MVA-SARS-2-S infected cells revealed limited levels of S1 protein on the cell surface. In contrast, we found superior S1 cell surface presentation upon infection with a recombinant MVA expressing a stabilized version of SARS-CoV-2 S protein with an inactivated S1/2 cleavage site and K986→P and V987→P mutations (MVA-SARS-2-ST). When comparing immunogenicity of MVA vector vaccines, mice vaccinated with MVA-SARS-2-ST mounted substantial levels of S broadly reactive antibodies that effectively neutralized different SARS-CoV-2 variants. Importantly, intramuscular MVA-SARS-2-ST immunization of hamsters and mice resulted in potent immune responses upon challenge infection and protected from disease and severe lung pathology. Our results suggest that MVA-SARS-2-ST represents an improved clinical candidate vaccine and that the presence of plasma membrane-bound S1 is highly beneficial to induce protective antibody levels.
Christian Meyer zu Natrup, Alina Tscherne, Christine Dahlke, Malgorzata Ciurkiewicz, Dai-Lun Shin, Anahita Fathi, Cornelius Rohde, Georgia Kalodimou, Sandro Halwe, Leonard Limpinsel, Jan H. Schwarz, Martha Klug, Meral Esen, Nicole Schneiderhan-Marra, Alex Dulovic, Alexandra Kupke, Katrin Brosinski, Sabrina Clever, Lisa-Marie Schünemann, Georg Beythien, Federico Armando, Leonie Mayer, Leonie M. Weskamm, Sylvia Jany, Astrid Freudenstein, Tamara Tuchel, Wolfgang Baumgärtner, Peter Kremsner, Rolf Fendel, Marylyn M. Addo, Stephan Becker, Gerd Sutter, Asisa Volz
BACKGROUND. Heterologous effects of vaccines are mediated by ‘trained immunity’ whereby myeloid cells are metabolically and epigenetically reprogrammed resulting in heightened responses to subsequent insults. Adenovirus vaccine vector has been reported to induce trained immunity in mice. Therefore, we sought to determine if the ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccine (AZD1222), which uses an adenoviral vector, could induce trained immunity in vivo in humans. METHODS. Ten healthy volunteers donated blood on the day before receiving the ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccine and on day 14, 56 and 90 post vaccination. Monocytes were purified from PBMC; cell phenotype was determined by flow cytometry, expression of metabolic enzymes were quantified by RT-qPCR and production of cytokines and chemokine in response to stimulation ex vivo were analyzed by multiplex ELISA. RESULTS. Monocyte frequency and count were increased in peripheral blood up to 3 months post vaccination compared with their own pre-vaccine control. Expression of HLA-DR, CD40 and CD80 was enhanced on monocytes for up to 3 months following vaccination. Moreover, monocytes had increased expression of glycolysis-associated enzymes 2 months post vaccination. Upon stimulation ex vivo with unrelated antigens, monocytes produced increased IL-1β, IL-6, IL-10, CXCL1, and MIP-1α, and decreased TNF, compared with pre-vaccine controls. Resting monocytes produced more IFN-γ, IL-18, and MCP-1 up to 3 months post vaccination compared with pre-vaccine controls. CONCLUSION. These data provide evidence for the induction of trained immunity following a single dose of the ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccine. FUNDING. This work was funded by The Health Research Board (EIA-2019-010) and Science Foundation Ireland Strategic Partnership Programme (Proposal ID 20/SPP/3685).
Dearbhla M. Murphy, Donal J. Cox, Sarah A. Connolly, Eamon P Breen, Aenea A.I. Brugman, James J. Phelan, Joseph Keane, Sharee A. Basdeo
Adoptive cell therapy (ACT) with tumor-specific memory T cells has shown increasing efficacy in regressing solid tumors. However, tumor antigen heterogeneity represents a longitudinal challenge for durable clinical responses due to the therapeutic selective pressure for immune escape variants. Here, we demonstrate that delivery of class I histone deacetylase inhibitor, MS-275, promotes sustained tumor regression by synergizing with ACT in a coordinated manner to enhance cellular apoptosis. We find that MS-275 alters the tumor inflammatory landscape to support antitumor immunoactivation through the recruitment and maturation of cross-presenting CD103+ and CD8+ dendritic cells and depletion of regulatory T cells. Activated endogenous CD8+ T cell responses against non-target tumor antigens was critically required for the prevention of tumor recurrence. Importantly, MS-275 alters the immunodominance hierarchy by directing epitope spreading towards endogenous retroviral tumor-associated antigen, p15E. Our data suggest that MS-275 multi-mechanistically improves epitope spreading to promote long-term clearance of solid tumors.
Andrew Nguyen, Louisa Ho, Richard Hogg, Lan Chen, Scott R. Walsh, Yonghong Wan
BACKGROUND. Long-term prognosis of WHO grade II low-grade glioma (LGG) is poor secondary to risk of recurrence and malignant transformation into high-grade glioma. Given the relatively intact immune system of patients with LGG and the slow tumor growth rate, vaccines are an attractive treatment strategy. METHODS. We conducted a pilot study to evaluate the safety and immunological effects of vaccination with GBM6-AD, lysate of an allogeneic glioblastoma stem cell line, with poly-ICLC in patients with LGG. Patients were randomized to receive the vaccines before surgery (Arm 1) or not (Arm 2) and all patients received adjuvant vaccine. Co-primary outcomes were to evaluate the safety and immune response in the tumor. RESULTS. A total of 17 eligible patients were enrolled – nine into Arm 1 and eight into Arm 2. This regimen was well-tolerated with no regimen-limiting toxicity. Neoadjuvant vaccination induced upregulation of type-1 cytokines and chemokines, and increased activated CD8+ T-cells in peripheral blood. Single-cell RNA/TCR-sequencing detected CD8+ T-cell clones that expanded with effector phenotype and migrated into tumor microenvironment (TME) in response to neoadjuvant vaccination. Mass cytometric analyses detected increased tissue resident-like CD8+ T-cells with effector memory phenotype in TME following the neoadjuvant vaccination. CONCLUSION. The current regimen induces effector CD8+ T-cell response in peripheral blood and enables vaccine-reactive CD8+ T-cells to migrate into TME. Further refinements of the regimen may have to be integrated into future strategies. TRIAL REGISTRATION. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02549833. FUNDING. NIH (1R35NS105068, 1R21CA233856), Dabbiere Foundation, Parker Institute for Cancer Immunotherapy, and Daiichi Sankyo Foundation of Life Science.
Hirokazu Ogino, Jennie W. Taylor, Takahide Nejo, David Gibson, Payal B. Watchmaker, Kaori Okada, Atsuro Saijo, Meghan R. Tedesco, Anny Shai, Cynthia M. Wong, Jane E. Rabbitt, Michael R. Olin, Christopher L. Moertel, Yasuhiko Nishioka, Andres M. Salazar, Annette M. Molinaro, Joanna J. Phillips, Nicholas A. Butowski, Jennifer L. Clarke, Nancy Ann Oberheim Bush, Shawn L. Hervey-Jumper, Philip Theodosopoulos, Susan M. Chang, Mitchel S. Berger, Hideho Okada
No posts were found with this tag.