Genomics of primary prostate cancer differs from that of metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). We studied genomic aberrations in primary prostate cancer biopsies from patients who developed mCRPC, also studying matching, same patient, diagnostic and mCRPC biopsies following treatment. We profiled 470 treatment-naïve, prostate cancer diagnostic biopsies and for 61 cases, mCRPC biopsies using targeted and low-pass whole genome sequencing (n = 52). Descriptive statistics were used to summarize mutation and copy number profile. Prevalence was compared using Fisher's exact test. Survival correlations were studied using log-rank test. TP53 (27%) and PTEN (12%) and DDR gene defects (BRCA2 7%; CDK12 5%; ATM 4%) were commonly detected. TP53, BRCA2, and CDK12 mutations were significantly commoner than described in the TCGA cohort. Patients with RB1 loss in the primary tumour had a worse prognosis. Among 61 men with matched hormone-naïve and mCRPC biopsies, differences were identified in AR, TP53, RB1, and PI3K/AKT mutational status between same-patient samples. In conclusion, the genomics of diagnostic prostatic biopsies acquired from men who develop mCRPC differs to that of the primary prostatic cancers. RB1/TP53/AR aberrations are enriched in later stages, but the prevalence of DDR defects in diagnostic samples is similar to mCRPC.
Joaquin Mateo, George Seed, Claudia Bertan, Pasquale Rescigno, David Dolling, Ines Figueiredo, Susana Miranda, Daniel Nava Rodrigues, Bora Gurel, Matthew Clarke, Mark Atkin, Rob Chandler, Carlo Messina, Semini Sumanasuriya, Diletta Bianchini, Maialen Barrero, Antonella Petremolo, Zafeiris Zafeiriou, Mariane Sousa Fontes, Raquel Perez-Lopez, Nina Tunariu, Ben A. Fulton, Robert Jones, Ursula B. McGovern, Christy Ralph, Mohini Varughese, Omi Parikh, Suneil Jain, Tony Elliott, Shahneen Sandhu, Nuria Porta, Emma Hall, Wei Yuan, Suzanne Carreira, Johann S. de Bono
Recent findings have shown that inhibitors targeting BET (bromodomain and extraterminal domain) proteins, such as the small molecule JQ1, are potent growth inhibitors of many cancers and hold promise for cancer therapy. However, some reports also have revealed that JQ1 can activate additional oncogenic pathways and may affect EMT (epithelial mesenchymal transition). Therefore, it is important to address the potential unexpected effect of JQ1 treatment, such as cell invasion and metastasis. Here, we showed that in prostate cancer, JQ1 inhibited cancer cell growth but promoted invasion and metastasis in a BET protein independent manner. Multiple invasion pathways including EMT, BMP (bone morphogenetic protein) signaling, chemokine signaling and focal adhesion pathway were activated by JQ1 to promote invasion. Notably, JQ1 induced upregulation of invasion genes through inhibition of FOXA1, an invasion suppressor in prostate cancer. JQ1 directly interacted with FOXA1, inactivated FOXA1 binding to its interacting repressors, TLE3, HDAC7, and NFIC, thus blocking FOXA1 repressive function and activating the invasion genes. Our finding indicates that JQ1 has an unexpected effect of promoting invasion in prostate cancer. Thus, the ill effect of JQ1 or its derived therapeutic agents cannot be ignored during cancer treatment, especially in FOXA1 related cancers.
Leiming Wang, Mafei Xu, Chung-Yang Kao, Sophia Y. Tsai, Ming-Jer Tsai
The incidence of human papillomavirus (HPV)+ head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) has surpassed that of cervical cancer and is projected to increase rapidly until 2060. The co-evolution of HPV with transforming epithelial cells leads to the shutdown of host immune detection. Targeting proximal viral nucleic acid-sensing machinery is an evolutionarily conserved strategy among viruses to enable immune evasion. However, E7 from the dominant HPV subtype-16 in HNSCC shares low homology with HPV18 E7, which was shown to inhibit the STING-DNA-sensing pathway. The mechanisms by which HPV16 suppresses STING remain unknown. Recently, we characterized the role of the STING-type-I interferon (IFN-I) pathway in maintaining immunogenicity of HNSCC in mouse models. Here we extended those findings into clinical domain utilizing tissue microarrays and machine-learning-enhanced profiling of STING signatures with immune subsets. We additionally showed that HPV16 E7 employs distinct mechanisms than HPV18 E7 to antagonize the STING pathway. We identified NLRX1 as a critical intermediary partner to facilitate HPV16 E7-potentiated STING turnover. The depletion of NLRX1 resulted in significantly improved IFN-I-dependent T-cell infiltration profiles and tumor control. Overall, we discovered a unique HPV16 viral strategy to thwart host innate immune detection that can be further exploited to restore cancer immunogenicity.
Xiaobo Luo, Christopher R. Donnelly, Wang Gong, Blake R. Heath, Yuning Hao, Lorenza A. Donnelly, Toktam Moghbeli, Yee Sun Tan, Xin Lin, Emily Bellile, Benjamin A. Kansy, Thomas E. Carey, J. Chad Brenner, Lei Cheng, Peter J. Polverini, Meredith A. Morgan, Haitao Wen, Mark E. Prince, Robert L. Ferris, Yuying Xie, Simon Young, Gregory T. Wolf, Qianming Chen, Yu L. Lei
HSP27 is highly expressed in, and supports oncogene addiction of, many cancers. HSP27 phosphorylation is a limiting step for activation of this protein and a target for inhibition, but its highly disordered structure challenges rational structure-guided drug discovery. We performed multistep biochemical, structural, and computational experiments to define a spherical 24-monomer complex composed of 12 HSP27 dimers with a phosphorylation pocket flanked by serine residues between their N-terminal domains. Ivermectin directly binds this pocket to inhibit MAPKAP2-mediated HSP27 phosphorylation and depolymerization, thereby blocking HSP27-regulated survival signaling and client-oncoprotein interactions. Ivermectin potentiated activity of anti–androgen receptor and anti-EGFR drugs in prostate and EGFR/HER2-driven tumor models, respectively, identifying a repurposing approach for cotargeting stress-adaptive responses to overcome resistance to inhibitors of oncogenic pathway signaling.
Lucia Nappi, Adeleke H. Aguda, Nader Al Nakouzi, Barbara Lelj-Garolla, Eliana Beraldi, Nada Lallous, Marisa Thi, Susan Moore, Ladan Fazli, Dulguun Battsogt, Sophie Stoffeliene, Fuqiang Ban, Nham T. Nguyen, Neetu Saxena, Evgenia Dueva, Fan Zhang, Takeshi Yamazaki, Amina Zoubeidi, Artem Cherkasov, Gary D. Brayer, Martin Gleave
Alterations in gut microbiota impact the pathophysiology of several diseases, including cancer. Radiotherapy (RT), an established curative and palliative cancer treatment, exerts potent immune modulatory effects, inducing tumor-associated antigen (TAA) cross-priming with antitumor CD8+ T cell elicitation and abscopal effects. We tested whether the gut microbiota modulates antitumor immune response following RT distal to the gut. Vancomycin, an antibiotic that acts mainly on gram-positive bacteria and is restricted to the gut, potentiated the RT-induced antitumor immune response and tumor growth inhibition. This synergy was dependent on TAA cross presentation to cytolytic CD8+ T cells and on IFN-γ. Notably, butyrate, a metabolite produced by the vancomycin-depleted gut bacteria, abrogated the vancomycin effect. In conclusion, depletion of vancomycin-sensitive bacteria enhances the antitumor activity of RT, which has important clinical ramifications.
Mireia Uribe-Herranz, Stavros Rafail, Silvia Beghi, Luis Gil-de-Gómez, Ioannis Verginadis, Kyle Bittinger, Sergey Pustylnikov, Stefano Pierini, Renzo Perales-Linares, Ian A. Blair, Clementina A. Mesaros, Nathaniel W. Snyder, Frederic Bushman, Constantinos Koumenis, Andrea Facciabene
Background: DICER1 is the only miRNA biogenesis component associated with an inherited tumor syndrome, featuring multinodular goiter (MNG) and rare pediatric-onset lesions. Other susceptibility genes for familial forms of MNG likely exist. Methods: Whole exome sequencing of a kindred with early-onset MNG and schwannomatosis was followed by investigation of germline pathogenic variants that fully segregated with the disease. Genome wide analyses were performed on 13 tissue samples from familial and non-familial DGCR8-E518K positive tumors, including MNG, schwannomas, papillary thyroid cancers (PTC) and Wilms Tumors. MiRNA profiles of four tissue types were compared, and sequencing of miRNA, pre-miRNA and mRNA was performed in a subset of 9 schwannomas, four of which harbor DGCR8-E518K. Results: We identified c.1552G>A;p.E518K in DGCR8, a microprocessor located in 22q, in the kindred. The variant identified is a somatic hotspot in Wilms Tumors and has been identified in two PTCs. Copy number loss of chromosome 22q, leading to loss of heterozygosity at the DGCR8 locus, was found in all 13 samples harboring c.1552G>A;p.E518K. miRNA profiling of PTC, MNG, schwannomas and Wilms Tumors revealed a common profile among E518K hemizygous tumors. In vitro cleavage demonstrated improper processing of pre-miRNA by DGCR8-E518K. MicroRNA and RNA profiling show that this variant disrupts precursor microRNA production, impacting populations of canonical microRNAs and mirtrons. Conclusions: We identified DGCR8 as the cause of an unreported autosomal dominant mendelian tumor susceptibility syndrome: familial multinodular goiter with schwannomatosis. Funded by CIHR, Compute Canada, Alex’s Lemonade Stand Foundation, and the Mia Neri Foundation for Childhood Cancer.
Barbara Rivera, Javad Nadaf, Somayyeh Fahiminiya, Maria Apellaniz-Ruiz, Avi Saskin, Anne-Sophie Chong, Sahil Sharma, Rabea Wagener, Timothée Revil, Vincenzo Condello, Zineb Harra, Nancy Hamel, Nelly Sabbaghian, Karl Muchantef, Christian Thomas, Leanne de Kock, Marie-Noëlle Hébert-Blouin, Angelia V. Bassenden, Hannah Rabenstein, Ozgur Mete, Ralf Paschke, Marc P. Pusztaszeri, Werner Paulus, Albert Berghuis, Jiannis Ragoussis, Yuri E. Nikiforov, Reiner Siebert, Steffen Albrecht, Robert Turcotte, Martin Hasselblatt, Marc R. Fabian, William D. Foulkes
Cancer cachexia is a major cause of patient morbidity and mortality, with no efficacious treatment or management strategy. Despite sharing pathophysiological features with a number of neuromuscular wasting conditions, including age-related sarcopenia, the mechanisms underlying cachexia remain poorly understood. Studies of related conditions suggest that pathological targeting of the neuromuscular junction (NMJ) may play a key role in cachexia, but this has yet to be investigated in human patients. Here, high-resolution morphological analyses were undertaken on NMJs of rectus abdominis obtained from patients undergoing upper GI cancer surgery compared with controls (N=30; n=1,165 NMJs). Cancer patients included those with cachexia and weight-stable disease. Despite the low skeletal muscle index and significant muscle fibre atrophy in patients with cachexia, NMJ morphology was fully conserved. No significant differences were observed in any of the pre- and post-synaptic variables measured. We conclude that NMJs remain structurally intact in rectus abdominis in both cancer and cachexia, suggesting that denervation of skeletal muscle is not a major driver of pathogenesis. The absence of NMJ pathology is in stark contrast to related conditions, such as age-related sarcopenia, and supports the hypothesis that intrinsic changes within skeletal muscle, independent of any changes in motor neurons, represent the primary locus of neuromuscular pathology in cancer cachexia.
Ines Boehm, Janice Miller, Thomas M. Wishart, Stephen J. Wigmore, Richard J.E. Skipworth, Ross A. Jones, Thomas H. Gillingwater
The drug efflux pump ABCB1 is a key driver of chemoresistance, and high expression predicts for treatment failure in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). In this study, we identified and functionally validated the network of enhancers that controls expression of ABCB1. We show that exposure of leukemia cells to daunorubicin activated an integrated stress response-like transcriptional program to induce ABCB1 through remodeling and activation of an ATF4-bound, stress-responsive enhancer. Protracted stress primed enhancers for rapid increases in activity following re-exposure of cells to daunorubicin, providing an epigenetic memory of prior drug treatment. In primary human AML, exposure of fresh blast cells to daunorubicin activated the stress-responsive enhancer and led to dose-dependent induction of ABCB1. Dynamic induction of ABCB1 by diverse stressors, including chemotherapy, facilitated escape of leukemia cells from targeted third-generation ABCB1 inhibition, providing an explanation for the failure of ABCB1 inhibitors in clinical trials. Stress-induced up regulation of ABCB1 was mitigated by combined use of pharmacologic inhibitors U0126 and ISRIB, which inhibit stress signalling and have potential for use as adjuvants to enhance the activity of ABCB1 inhibitors.
Mark S. Williams, Fabio M.R. Amaral, Fabrizio Simeoni, Tim C.P. Somervaille
The c-MYC (MYC) oncoprotein is often overexpressed in human breast cancer; however, its role in driving disease phenotypes is poorly understood. Here, we investigate the role of MYC in HER2+ disease, examining the relationship between HER2 expression and MYC phosphorylation in HER2+ patient tumors and characterizing the functional effects of deregulating MYC expression in the murine NeuNT model of amplified-HER2 breast cancer. Deregulated MYC alone was not tumorigenic, but coexpression with NeuNT resulted in increased MYC Ser62 phosphorylation and accelerated tumorigenesis. The resulting tumors were metastatic and associated with decreased survival compared with NeuNT alone. MYC;NeuNT tumors had increased intertumoral heterogeneity including a subtype of tumors not observed in NeuNT tumors, which showed distinct metaplastic histology and worse survival. The distinct subtypes of MYC;NeuNT tumors match existing subtypes of amplified-HER2, estrogen receptor–negative human tumors by molecular expression, identifying the preclinical utility of this murine model to interrogate subtype-specific differences in amplified-HER2 breast cancer. We show that these subtypes have differential sensitivity to clinical HER2/EGFR–targeted therapeutics, but small-molecule activators of PP2A, the phosphatase that regulates MYC Ser62 phosphorylation, circumvents these subtype-specific differences and ubiquitously suppresses tumor growth, demonstrating the therapeutic utility of this approach in targeting deregulated MYC breast cancers.
Tyler Risom, Xiaoyan Wang, Juan Liang, Xiaoli Zhang, Carl Pelz, Lydia G. Campbell, Jenny Eng, Koei Chin, Caroline Farrington, Goutham Narla, Ellen M. Langer, Xiao-Xin Sun, Yulong Su, Colin J. Daniel, Mu-Shui Dai, Christiane V. Löhr, Rosalie C. Sears
Mosaic-variegated aneuploidy (MVA) syndrome is a rare childhood disorder characterized by biallelic BUBR1, CEP57, or TRIP13 aberrations; increased chromosome missegregation; and a broad spectrum of clinical features, including various cancers, congenital defects, and progeroid pathologies. To investigate the mechanisms underlying this disorder and its phenotypic heterogeneity, we mimicked the BUBR1L1012P mutation in mice (BubR1L1002P) and combined it with 2 other MVA variants, BUBR1X753 and BUBR1H, generating a truncated protein and low amounts of wild-type protein, respectively. Whereas BubR1X753/L1002P and BubR1H/X753 mice died prematurely, BubR1H/L1002P mice were viable and exhibited many MVA features, including cancer predisposition and various progeroid phenotypes, such as short lifespan, dwarfism, lipodystrophy, sarcopenia, and low cardiac stress tolerance. Strikingly, although these mice had a reduction in total BUBR1 and spectrum of MVA phenotypes similar to that of BubR1H/H mice, several progeroid pathologies were attenuated in severity, which in skeletal muscle coincided with reduced senescence-associated secretory phenotype complexity. Additionally, mice carrying monoallelic BubR1 mutations were prone to select MVA-related pathologies later in life, with predisposition to sarcopenia correlating with mTORC1 hyperactivity. Together, these data demonstrate that BUBR1 allelic effects beyond protein level and aneuploidy contribute to disease heterogeneity in both MVA patients and heterozygous carriers of MVA mutations.
Cynthia J. Sieben, Karthik B. Jeganathan, Grace G. Nelson, Ines Sturmlechner, Cheng Zhang, Willemijn H. van Deursen, Bjorn Bakker, Floris Foijer, Hu Li, Darren J. Baker, Jan M. van Deursen