Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is a potent lipid mediator with various biological functions mediated through six G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), LPA1–6. Previous studies have demonstrated that LPA-Gα12/Gα13 signaling plays an important role in embryonic vascular development. However, the responsible LPA receptors and underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Here, we show a critical role of LPA4 and LPA6 in developmental angiogenesis. In mice, Lpa4;Lpa6 double knockout (DKO) embryos were lethal due to global vascular deficiencies, and endothelial cell (EC)-specific Lpa4;Lpa6 DKO retinas had impaired sprouting angiogenesis. Mechanistically, LPA activated the transcriptional regulators YAP and TAZ through LPA4/LPA6-mediated Gα12/Gα13-Rho-ROCK signaling in ECs. YAP/TAZ knockdown increased β-catenin- and Notch intracellular domain (NICD)-mediated endothelial expression of the Notch ligand delta-like 4 (DLL4). Fibrin gel sprouting assay revealed that LPA4/LPA6, Gα12/Gα13, or YAP/TAZ knockdown consistently blocked EC sprouting, which was rescued by a Notch inhibitor. Of note, the inhibition of Notch signaling also ameliorated impaired retinal angiogenesis in EC-specific Lpa4;Lpa6 DKO mice. Overall, these results suggest that the Gα12/Gα13-coupled receptors LPA4 and LPA6 synergistically regulate endothelial Dll4 expression through YAP/TAZ activation. This could in part account for the mechanism of YAP/TAZ-mediated developmental angiogenesis. Our findings provide a novel insight into the biology of GPCR-activated YAP/TAZ.
Daisuke Yasuda, Daiki Kobayashi, Noriyuki Akahoshi, Takayo Ohto-Nakanishi, Kazuaki Yoshioka, Yoh Takuwa, Seiya Mizuno, Satoru Takahashi, Satoshi Ishii
Combined germline and somatic second hit inactivating mutations of the RASA1 gene, which encodes a negative regulator of the Ras signaling pathway, cause blood and lymphatic vascular lesions in the human autosomal dominant vascular disorder capillary malformation-arteriovenous malformation (CM-AVM). How RASA1 mutations in endothelial cells (EC) result in vascular lesions in CM-AVM is unknown. Here, using different murine models of RASA1-deficiency, we found that RASA1 was essential for the survival of EC during developmental angiogenesis in which primitive vascular plexuses are remodeled into hierarchical vascular networks. RASA1 was required for EC survival during developmental angiogenesis because it was necessary for export of collagen IV from EC and deposition in vascular basement membranes. In the absence of RASA1, dysregulated Ras mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signal transduction in EC resulted in impaired folding of collagen IV and its retention in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) leading to EC death. Remarkably, the chemical chaperone, 4-phenylbutyric acid, and small molecule inhibitors of MAPK and 2-oxoglutarate dependent collagen IV modifying enzymes rescued ER retention of collagen IV and EC apoptosis and resulted in normal developmental angiogenesis. These findings have important implications with regards an understanding of the molecular pathogenesis of CM-AVM and possible means of treatment.
Di Chen, Joyce Teng, Paula North, Philip E. Lapinski, Philip D. King
Impaired lymphangiogenesis is a complication of chronic complex diseases, including diabetes. VEGF-C/VEGFR3 signaling promotes lymphangiogenesis, but how this pathway is affected in diabetes remains poorly understood. We previously demonstrated that loss of epsins 1 and 2 in lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs) prevented VEGF-C–induced VEGFR3 from endocytosis and degradation. Here, we report that diabetes attenuated VEGF-C–induced lymphangiogenesis in corneal micropocket and Matrigel plug assays in WT mice but not in mice with inducible lymphatic-specific deficiency of epsins 1 and 2 (LEC-iDKO). Consistently, LECs isolated from diabetic LEC-iDKO mice elevated in vitro proliferation, migration, and tube formation in response to VEGF-C over diabetic WT mice. Mechanistically, ROS produced in diabetes induced c-Src–dependent but VEGF-C–independent VEGFR3 phosphorylation, and upregulated epsins through the activation of transcription factor AP-1. Augmented epsins bound to and promoted degradation of newly synthesized VEGFR3 in the Golgi, resulting in reduced availability of VEGFR3 at the cell surface. Preclinically, the loss of lymphatic-specific epsins alleviated insufficient lymphangiogenesis and accelerated the resolution of tail edema in diabetic mice. Collectively, our studies indicate that inhibiting expression of epsins in diabetes protects VEGFR3 against degradation and ameliorates diabetes-triggered inhibition of lymphangiogenesis, thereby providing a novel potential therapeutic strategy to treat diabetic complications.
Hao Wu, H.N. Ashiqur Rahman, Yunzhou Dong, Xiaolei Liu, Yang Lee, Aiyun Wen, Kim H.T. To, Li Xiao, Amy E. Birsner, Lauren Bazinet, Scott Wong, Kai Song, Megan L. Brophy, M. Riaj Mahamud, Baojun Chang, Xiaofeng Cai, Satish Pasula, Sukyoung Kwak, Wenxia Yang, Joyce Bischoff, Jian Xu, Diane R. Bielenberg, J. Brandon Dixon, Robert J. D’Amato, R. Sathish Srinivasan, Hong Chen
Protease-activated receptor 2 (PAR-2), an airway epithelial pattern recognition receptor (PRR), participates in the genesis of house dust mite–induced (HDM-induced) asthma. Here, we hypothesized that lung endothelial cells and proangiogenic hematopoietic progenitor cells (PACs) that express high levels of PAR-2 contribute to the initiation of atopic asthma. HDM extract (HDME) protease allergens were found deep in the airway mucosa and breaching the endothelial barrier. Lung endothelial cells and PACs released the Th2-promoting cytokines IL-1α and GM-CSF in response to HDME, and the endothelium had PAC-derived VEGF-C–dependent blood vessel sprouting. Blockade of the angiogenic response by inhibition of VEGF-C signaling lessened the development of inflammation and airway remodeling in the HDM model. Reconstitution of the bone marrow in WT mice with PAR-2–deficient bone marrow also reduced airway inflammation and remodeling. Adoptive transfer of PACs that had been exposed to HDME induced angiogenesis and Th2 inflammation with remodeling similar to that induced by allergen challenge. Our findings identify that lung endothelium and PACs in the airway sense allergen and elicit an angiogenic response that is central to the innate nonimmune origins of Th2 inflammation.
Kewal Asosingh, Kelly Weiss, Kimberly Queisser, Nicholas Wanner, Mei Yin, Mark Aronica, Serpil Erzurum
Although nonmalignant stromal cells facilitate tumor growth and can occupy up to 90% of a solid tumor mass, better strategies to exploit these cells for improved cancer therapy are needed. Here, we describe a potent MMAE-linked antibody-drug conjugate (ADC) targeting tumor endothelial marker 8 (TEM8, also known as ANTXR1), a highly conserved transmembrane receptor broadly overexpressed on cancer-associated fibroblasts, endothelium, and pericytes. Anti-TEM8 ADC elicited potent anticancer activity through an unexpected killing mechanism we term DAaRTS (drug activation and release through stroma), whereby the tumor microenvironment localizes active drug at the tumor site. Following capture of ADC prodrug from the circulation, tumor-associated stromal cells release active MMAE free drug, killing nearby proliferating tumor cells in a target-independent manner. In preclinical studies, ADC treatment was well tolerated and induced regression and often eradication of multiple solid tumor types, blocked metastatic growth, and prolonged overall survival. By exploiting TEM8+ tumor stroma for targeted drug activation, these studies reveal a drug delivery strategy with potential to augment therapies against multiple cancer types.
Christopher Szot, Saurabh Saha, Xiaoyan M. Zhang, Zhongyu Zhu, Mary Beth Hilton, Karen Morris, Steven Seaman, James M. Dunleavey, Kuo-Sheng Hsu, Guo-Jun Yu, Holly Morris, Deborah A. Swing, Diana C. Haines, Yanping Wang, Jennifer Hwang, Yang Feng, Dean Welsch, Gary DeCrescenzo, Amit Chaudhary, Enrique Zudaire, Dimiter S. Dimitrov, Brad St. Croix
Intake of hemoglobin by the hemoglobin-haptoglobin receptor CD163 leads to a distinct alternative non–foam cell antiinflammatory macrophage phenotype that was previously considered atheroprotective. Here, we reveal an unexpected but important pathogenic role for these macrophages in atherosclerosis. Using human atherosclerotic samples, cultured cells, and a mouse model of advanced atherosclerosis, we investigated the role of intraplaque hemorrhage on macrophage function with respect to angiogenesis, vascular permeability, inflammation, and plaque progression. In human atherosclerotic lesions, CD163+ macrophages were associated with plaque progression, microvascularity, and a high level of HIF1α and VEGF-A expression. We observed irregular vascular endothelial cadherin in intraplaque microvessels surrounded by CD163+ macrophages. Within these cells, activation of HIF1α via inhibition of prolyl hydroxylases promoted VEGF-mediated increases in intraplaque angiogenesis, vascular permeability, and inflammatory cell recruitment. CD163+ macrophages increased intraplaque endothelial VCAM expression and plaque inflammation. Subjects with homozygous minor alleles of the SNP rs7136716 had elevated microvessel density, increased expression of CD163 in ruptured coronary plaques, and a higher risk of myocardial infarction and coronary heart disease in population cohorts. Thus, our findings highlight a nonlipid-driven mechanism by which alternative macrophages promote plaque angiogenesis, leakiness, inflammation, and progression via the CD163/HIF1α/VEGF-A pathway.
Liang Guo, Hirokuni Akahori, Emanuel Harari, Samantha L. Smith, Rohini Polavarapu, Vinit Karmali, Fumiyuki Otsuka, Rachel L. Gannon, Ryan E. Braumann, Megan H. Dickinson, Anuj Gupta, Audrey L. Jenkins, Michael J. Lipinski, Johoon Kim, Peter Chhour, Paul S. de Vries, Hiroyuki Jinnouchi, Robert Kutys, Hiroyoshi Mori, Matthew D. Kutyna, Sho Torii, Atsushi Sakamoto, Cheol Ung Choi, Qi Cheng, Megan L. Grove, Mariem A. Sawan, Yin Zhang, Yihai Cao, Frank D. Kolodgie, David P. Cormode, Dan E. Arking, Eric Boerwinkle, Alanna C. Morrison, Jeanette Erdmann, Nona Sotoodehnia, Renu Virmani, Aloke V. Finn
The endothelial tyrosine kinase receptor Tie1 remains poorly characterized, largely owing to its orphan receptor status. Global Tie1 inactivation causes late embryonic lethality, thereby reflecting its importance during development. Tie1 also plays pivotal roles during pathologies such as atherosclerosis and tumorigenesis. In order to study the contribution of Tie1 to tumor progression and metastasis, we conditionally deleted Tie1 in endothelial cells at different stages of tumor growth and metastatic dissemination. Tie1 deletion during primary tumor growth in mice led to a decrease in microvessel density and an increase in mural cell coverage with improved vessel perfusion. Reduced angiogenesis and enhanced vascular normalization resulted in a progressive increase of intratumoral necrosis that caused a growth delay only at later stages of tumor progression. Concomitantly, surgical removal of the primary tumor decreased the number of circulating tumor cells, reduced metastasis, and prolonged overall survival. Additionally, Tie1 deletion in experimental murine metastasis models prevented extravasation of tumor cells into the lungs and reduced metastatic foci. Taken together, the data support Tie1 as a therapeutic target by defining its regulatory functions during angiogenesis and vascular abnormalization and identifying its role during metastasis.
Silvia La Porta, Lise Roth, Mahak Singhal, Carolin Mogler, Carleen Spegg, Benjamin Schieb, Xianghu Qu, Ralf H. Adams, H. Scott Baldwin, Soniya Savant, Hellmut G. Augustin
Adaptation to respiration at birth depends upon the synthesis of pulmonary surfactant, a lipid-protein complex that reduces surface tension at the air-liquid interface in the alveoli and prevents lung collapse during the ventilatory cycle. Herein, we demonstrated that the gene encoding a subunit of the endoplasmic reticulum membrane complex, EMC3, also known as TMEM111 (Emc3/Tmem111), was required for murine pulmonary surfactant synthesis and lung function at birth. Conditional deletion of Emc3 in murine embryonic lung epithelial cells disrupted the synthesis and packaging of surfactant lipids and proteins, impaired the formation of lamellar bodies, and induced the unfolded protein response in alveolar type 2 (AT2) cells. EMC3 was essential for the processing and routing of surfactant proteins, SP-B and SP-C, and the biogenesis of the phospholipid transport protein ABCA3. Transcriptomic, lipidomic, and proteomic analyses demonstrated that EMC3 coordinates the assembly of lipids and proteins in AT2 cells that is necessary for surfactant synthesis and function at birth.
Xiaofang Tang, John M. Snowball, Yan Xu, Cheng-Lun Na, Timothy E. Weaver, Geremy Clair, Jennifer E. Kyle, Erika M. Zink, Charles Ansong, Wei Wei, Meina Huang, Xinhua Lin, Jeffrey A. Whitsett
Mast cells are classically thought to play an important role in protection against helminth infections and in the induction of allergic diseases; however, recent studies indicate that these cells also contribute to neovascularization, which is critical for tissue remodeling, chronic inflammation, and carcinogenesis. Here, we demonstrate that mast cells are essential for sprouting angiogenesis in a murine model of oxygen-induced retinopathy (OIR). Although mouse strains lacking mast cells did not exhibit retinal neovascularization following hypoxia, these mice developed OIR following infusion of mast cells or after injection of mast cell tryptase (MCT). Relative hypoxia stimulated mast cell degranulation via transient receptor potential ankyrin 1. Subsequent surges in MCT stimulated retinal endothelial cells to produce monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP1) and angiogenic factors, leading to sprouting angiogenesis. Mast cell stabilizers as well as specific tryptase and MCP1 inhibitors prevented the development of OIR in WT mice. Preterm infants with early retinopathy of prematurity had markedly higher plasma MCT levels than age-matched infants without disease, suggesting mast cells contribute to human disease. Together, these results suggest therapies that suppress mast cell activity should be further explored as a potential option for preventing eye diseases and subsequent blindness induced by neovascularization.
Kenshiro Matsuda, Noriko Okamoto, Masatoshi Kondo, Peter D. Arkwright, Kaoru Karasawa, Saori Ishizaka, Shinichi Yokota, Akira Matsuda, Kyungsook Jung, Kumiko Oida, Yosuke Amagai, Hyosun Jang, Eiichiro Noda, Ryota Kakinuma, Koujirou Yasui, Uiko Kaku, Yasuo Mori, Nobuyuki Onai, Toshiaki Ohteki, Akane Tanaka, Hiroshi Matsuda
Demyelination in the central nervous system (CNS) leads to severe neurological deficits that can be partially reversed by spontaneous remyelination. Because the CNS is isolated from the peripheral milieu by the blood-brain barrier, remyelination is thought to be controlled by the CNS microenvironment. However, in this work we found that factors derived from peripheral tissue leak into the CNS after injury and promote remyelination in a murine model of toxin-induced demyelination. Mechanistically, leakage of circulating fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21), which is predominantly expressed by the pancreas, drives proliferation of oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) through interactions with β-klotho, an essential coreceptor of FGF21. We further confirmed that human OPCs expressed β-klotho and proliferated in response to FGF21 in vitro. Vascular barrier disruption is a common feature of many CNS disorders; thus, our findings reveal a potentially important role for the peripheral milieu in promoting CNS regeneration.
Mariko Kuroda, Rieko Muramatsu, Noriko Maedera, Yoshihisa Koyama, Machika Hamaguchi, Harutoshi Fujimura, Mari Yoshida, Morichika Konishi, Nobuyuki Itoh, Hideki Mochizuki, Toshihide Yamashita
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