W A Border, N A Noble
Thromboxane (TX) plays important roles in control of renal hemodynamics and water and electrolyte metabolism, and is involved in the pathophysiology of many renal diseases. The aim of the present study is to isolate a rat kidney cDNA encoding functional TX receptor, and to reveal its intrarenal expression localization. A clone (rTXR2) was isolated from a rat kidney cDNA library by a homology screening approach. rTXR2 was shown to encode the amino acid sequence containing seven transmembrane spanning domains representing rat (r) TX receptor. The membrane from COS-7 cells transiently transfected with rTXR2 cDNA was shown to be specifically bound by a thromboxane receptor antagonist, SQ29548. Either in Xenopus oocyte expression or in transfected COS-7 cells, rTX receptor was shown to be linked with Ca2+ messenger system. TX receptor-mediated increase in cytosolic Ca2+ was also observed in cultured glomerular mesangial cells. In situ hybridization showed that rTX receptor mRNA was detected in renal glomeruli, smooth muscle cells in renal arterioles, and transitional cell epithelium of renal pelvis. Reverse transcription linked to PCR applied to microdissected nephron segments indicated the presence of rTX receptor mRNA exclusively in the glomerulus. In conclusion, we have cloned a functional rat kidney TX receptor, which is expressed specifically in renal glomerulus, arterial smooth muscle cells, and transitional cell epithelium of renal pelvis. The present study will provide important insights into the etiology and pathophysiology of renal diseases with relation to TX metabolism.
T Abe, K Takeuchi, N Takahashi, E Tsutsumi, Y Taniyama, K Abe
To elucidate mechanisms of glucagon-induced bicarbonate-rich choleresis, we investigated the effect of glucagon on ion transport processes involved in the regulation of intracellular pH (pHi) in isolated rat hepatocyte couplets. It was found that glucagon (200 nM), without influencing resting pHi, significantly stimulates the Cl-/HCO3- exchange activity. The effect of glucagon was associated with a sevenfold increase in cAMP levels in rat hepatocytes. The activity of the Cl-/HCO3- exchanger was also stimulated by DBcAMP + forskolin. The effect of glucagon on the Cl-/HCO3- exchange was individually blocked by two specific and selective inhibitors of protein kinase A, Rp-cAMPs (10 microM) and H-89 (30 microM), the latter having no influence on the glucagon-induced cAMP accumulation in isolated rat hepatocytes. The Cl- channel blocker, NPPB (10 microM), showed no effect on either the basal or the glucagon-stimulated Cl-/HCO3 exchange. In contrast, the protein kinase C agonist, PMA (10 microM), completely blocked the glucagon stimulation of the Cl-/HCO3- exchange; however, this effect was achieved through a significant inhibition of the glucagon-stimulated cAMP accumulation in rat hepatocytes. Colchicine pretreatment inhibited the basal as well as the glucagon-stimulated Cl-/HCO3- exchange activity. The Na+/H+ exchanger was unaffected by glucagon either at basal pHi or at acid pHi values. In contrast, glucagon, at basal pHi, stimulated the Na(+)-HCO3- symport. The main findings of this study indicate that glucagon, through the cAMP-dependent protein kinase A pathway, stimulates the activity of the Cl-/HCO3- exchanger in isolated rat hepatocyte couplets, a mechanism which could account for the in vivo induced bicarbonate-rich choleresis.
D Alvaro, P Della Guardia, A Bini, A Gigliozzi, S Furfaro, T La Rosa, C Piat, L Capocaccia
Extraintestinally invasive Escherichia coli (EC) that possess both a complete LPS and K1 capsule evade both complement-mediated bacteriolysis and neutrophil-mediated killing. Since C3H/HeJ mice that are hyporesponsive to LPS were uniquely susceptible to lethal infection with EC of this phenotype, we speculated there was an LPS-initiated host defense mechanism against this pathogenic phenotype. The LPS-normoresponsive C3H/HeN as well as the C3H/HeJ mice cleared these EC from the circulation within 4 h of intravenous administration. Whereas electron micrographs of the liver demonstrated these EC undergoing degeneration within the phagolysosomes of of both macrophages and Kupffer cells of C3H/HeN mice, these EC replicated within these cells of the C3H/HeJ mice. Restoration of anti-EC activity of C3H/HeJ mice occurred with activation of Kupffer cells and peritoneal macrophages in vivo with BCG and in vitro with IFN-gamma, but not with LPS. Pretreatment of C3H/HeJ mice with a combination of recombinant murine IL-1 and TNF-alpha also restored the killing of K1(+)-EC but did not enhance the killing of a K1(-)-EC mutant. These data are consistent with the hypothesis that (a) there is no intrinsic inability of C3H/HeJ phagocytes to kill EC, but (b) an LPS-initiated, cytokine-mediated host defense mechanism is required for such killing. These studies emphasize the importance of bacterial surface characteristics in the interaction with specific host defenses.
A Cross, L Asher, M Seguin, L Yuan, N Kelly, C Hammack, J Sadoff, P Gemski Jr
The renin-angiotensin system regulates blood pressure and sodium balance. The angiotensinogen gene which encodes the key substrate within this system has been linked to essential hypertension in White Europeans. It has been suggested that people of West African ancestry may have a different genetic basis for hypertension. In this study we have tested whether there is linkage of the angiotensinogen gene to essential hypertension in African Caribbeans from St. Vincent and the Grenadines. DNA from 63 affected sibling pairs with hypertension was tested for linkage by analyzing whether there was excess allele sharing among siblings genotyped using an angiotensinogen dinucleotide repeat sequence. There was significant support for linkage (T = 3.07, P = 0.001) and association of this locus to hypertension (chi 2 = 50.2, 12 degrees of freedom, P << 0.001). A DNA polymorphism which alters methionine to threonine at position 235 (M235T) within the angiotensinogen peptide has been associated previously with hypertension. However, we found no association of this variant with hypertension in this study. These findings provide support for linkage and association of the angiotensinogen locus to hypertension in African Caribbeans and suggest some similarities in the genetic basis of essential hypertension in populations of different ethnicity.
M Caulfield, P Lavender, J Newell-Price, M Farrall, S Kamdar, H Daniel, M Lawson, P De Freitas, P Fogarty, A J Clark
We have previously shown in a large X-linked pedigree that a deletion removing the dystrophin muscle promoter, the first muscle exon and part of intron 1 caused a severe dilated cardiomyopathy with no associated muscle weakness. Dystrophin expression was present in the muscle of affected males and transcription studies indicated that this dystrophin originated from the brain and Purkinje cell isoforms, upregulated in this skeletal muscle. We have now studied dystrophin transcription and expression in the heart of one member of this family. In contrast to the skeletal muscle, dystrophin transcription and expression were absent in the heart, with the exception of the distal Dp71 dystrophin isoform, normally present in the heart. The 43- and 50-kD dystrophin-associated proteins were severely reduced in the heart, despite the presence of Dp71, but not in skeletal muscle. The absence of dystrophin and the down-regulation of the dystrophin-associated proteins in the heart accounted for the severe cardiomyopathy in this family. The mutation present in these males selectively affects dystrophin expression in the heart; this could be secondary to the removal of cardiac-specific regulatory sequences. This family may represent the first example of a mutation specifically affecting the cardiac expression of a gene, present physiologically in both the skeletal and cardiac muscles.
F Muntoni, L Wilson, G Marrosu, M G Marrosu, C Cianchetti, L Mestroni, A Ganau, V Dubowitz, C Sewry
Clinical interventions that accelerate conversion of cholesterol to bile acids reduce circulating low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol concentrations. The initial and rate-limiting step in the bile acid biosynthetic pathway is catalyzed by hepatic cholesterol 7 alpha-hydroxylase. To examine the effects of transient primary overexpression of this enzyme on sterol metabolism and lipoprotein transport, we constructed a recombinant adenovirus in which a cDNA encoding rat 7 alpha-hydroxylase is expressed from the human cytomegalovirus immediate-early promoter (AdCMV7 alpha). Syrian hamsters administered AdCMV7 alpha intravenously accumulated transgene-specific mRNA in the liver and demonstrated a dose-dependent increase in hepatic microsomal 7 alpha-hydroxylase activity. The increased conversion of cholesterol to bile acids resulted in a compensatory increase in hepatic cholesterol synthesis. In addition, overexpression of 7 alpha-hydroxylase reduced the rate of LDL cholesterol entry into the plasma space and, in animals maintained on a Western-type diet, restored hepatic LDL receptor expression. As a consequence, plasma LDL concentrations fell by approximately 60% in animals maintained on control diet and by approximately 75% in animals consuming a Western-type diet. Plasma high density lipoprotein cholesterol levels were reduced to a lesser degree. These results demonstrate that transient upregulation of bile acid synthesis by direct transfer of a 7 alpha-hydroxylase gene favorably alters circulating lipoprotein profiles and suggest one potential molecular target for genetic strategies aimed at reducing cardiovascular risk.
D K Spady, J A Cuthbert, M N Willard, R S Meidell
The intracellular signaling involved in the mechanism of action of zonula occludens toxin (ZOT) was studied using several in vitro and ex vivo models. ZOT showed a selective effect among various cell lines tested, suggesting that it may interact with a specific receptor, whose surface expression on various cells differs. When tested in IEC6 cell monolayers, ZOT-containing supernatants induced a redistribution of the F-actin cytoskeleton. Similar results were obtained with rabbit ileal mucosa, where the reorganization of F-actin paralleled the increase in tissue permeability. In endothelial cells, the cytoskeletal rearrangement involved a decrease of the soluble G-actin pool (-27%) and a reciprocal increase in the filamentous F-actin pool (+22%). This actin polymerization was time- and dose-dependent, and was reversible. Pretreatment with a specific protein kinase C inhibitor, CGP41251, completely abolished the ZOT effects on both tissue permeability and actin polymerization. In IEC6 cells ZOT induced a peak increment of the PKC-alpha isoform after 3 min incubation. Taken together, these results suggest that ZOT activates a complex intracellular cascade of events that regulate tight junction permeability, probably mimicking the effect of physiologic modulator(s) of epithelial barrier function.
A Fasano, C Fiorentini, G Donelli, S Uzzau, J B Kaper, K Margaretten, X Ding, S Guandalini, L Comstock, S E Goldblum
Hyperglycemia-induced beta-cell dysfunction may be an important component in the pathogenesis of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. However, most available data in this field were obtained from rodent islets. To investigate the relevance of this hypothesis for human beta-cells in vivo, human pancreatic islets were transplanted under the renal capsule of nude mice. Experimental groups were chosen so that grafted islets were exposed to either hyper- or normoglycemia or combinations of these for 4 or 6 wk. Grafts of normoglycemic recipients responded with an increased insulin release to a glucose stimulus during perfusion, whereas grafts of hyperglycemic recipients failed to respond to glucose. The insulin content of the grafts in the latter groups was only 10% of those observed in controls. Recipients initially hyperglycemic (4 wk), followed by 2 wk of normoglycemia regained a normal graft insulin content, but a decreased insulin response to glucose remained. No ultrastructural signs of beta-cell damage were observed, with the exception of increased glycogen deposits in animals hyperglycemic at the time of killing. It is concluded that prolonged exposure to a diabetic environment induces a long-term secretory defect in human beta-cells, which is not dependent on the size of the islet insulin stores.
L Jansson, D L Eizirik, D G Pipeleers, L A Borg, C Hellerström, A Andersson
FK506 is an immunosuppressive drug that inhibits T cell receptor-mediated signal transduction. This drug can induce immunological tolerance in allograft recipients. In this study, we investigated the in vivo effects of FK506 on T cell receptor-mediated apoptosis induction. Injection of anti-CD3 antibody (Ab) in mice resulted in the elimination of CD4+ CD8+ thymocytes by DNA fragmentation. FK506 treatment significantly augmented thymic apoptosis induced by in vivo anti-CD3 Ab administration. Increased thymic apoptosis resulted in the disappearance of CD4+ CD8+ thymocytes after anti-CD3 Ab/FK506 treatment. DNA fragmentation triggered by FK506 was induced exclusively in antigen-stimulated T cells, since enhanced DNA fragmentation induced by in vivo staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB) injection was confirmed in SEB-reactive V beta 8+ thymocytes but not in SEB-nonreactive V beta 6+ thymocytes. In addition to thymocytes, mature peripheral T cells also die by activation-induced programmed cell death. A similar effect of FK506 on activation-induced programmed cell death was observed in SEB-activated peripheral spleen T cells. In contrast, cyclosporin A treatment did not enhance activation-induced programmed cell death of thymocytes and peripheral T cells. Apoptosis is required for the generation and maintenance of self-tolerance in the immune system. Our findings suggest that FK506-triggered apoptosis after elimination of antigen-activated T cells may represent a potential mechanism of the immunological tolerance achieved by FK506 treatment.
K Migita, K Eguchi, Y Kawabe, T Tsukada, A Mizokami, S Nagataki
Inhibition of Na+,K(+)-ATPase activity by hyperglycemia could be an important etiological factor of chronic complications in diabetic patients. The biochemical mechanism underlying hyperglycemia's inhibitory effects has been thought to involve the alteration of the protein kinase C (PKC) pathway since agonists of PKC can normalize hyperglycemia-induced inhibition of Na+,K(+)-ATPase activity. Paradoxically, elevated glucose levels and diabetes have been shown to increase PKC activities in vascular cells. The present study tested the hypothesis that the inhibition of Na+,K(+)-ATPase activity is mediated by the sequential activation of PKC and cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2). In cultured rat vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC), increasing glucose levels in the medium from 5.5 to 22 mM elevated cPLA2 activity and increased [3H]arachidonic acid release and PGE2 production by 2.3-, 1.7- and 2-fold, respectively. Similar increases in cPLA2 activity were also induced by elevated glucose levels in human VSMC and rat capillary endothelial cells. The activation of cPLA2 was mediated by PKC since the increases in cPLA2 phosphorylation and enzymatic activity were inhibited by the PKC inhibitor GFX. In contrast, elevation of glucose levels decreased Na+,K(+)-ATPase activity as measured by ouabain-sensitive 86Rb uptake by twofold in rat VSMC. Surprisingly, both PMA, a PKC agonist, and GFX, a PKC inhibitor, were able to prevent glucose-induced decreases in 86Rb uptake. Further, the PLA2 inhibitor AACOCF3 abolished both glucose-induced activation of cPLA2 and the decrease in 86Rb uptake. These data indicated that hyperglycemia is inhibiting Na+,K(+)-ATPase activity by the sequential activation of PKC and cPLA2, resulting in the liberation of arachidonic acid and increased the production of PGE2, which are known inhibitors of Na+,K(+)-ATPase.
P Xia, R M Kramer, G L King
In view of the evidence linking plasma high density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol levels to a protective effect against coronary artery disease and the widespread use of fibrates in the treatment of hyperlipidemia, the goal of this study was to analyze the influence of fibrates on the expression of apolipoprotein (apo) A-II, a major protein constituent of HDL. Administration of fenofibrate (300 mg/d) to 16 patients with coronary artery disease resulted in a marked increase in plasma apo A-II concentrations (0.34 +/- 0.11 to 0.45 +/- 0.17 grams/liter; P < 0.01). This increase in plasma apo A-II was due to a direct effect on hepatic apo A-II production, since fenofibric acid induced apo A-II mRNA levels to 450 and 250% of control levels in primary cultures of human hepatocytes and in human hepatoblastoma HepG2 cells respectively. The induction in apo A-II mRNA levels was followed by an increase in apo A-II secretion in both cell culture systems. Transient transfection experiments of a reporter construct driven by the human apo A-II gene promoter indicated that fenofibrate induced apo A-II gene expression at the transcriptional level. Furthermore, several other peroxisome proliferators, such as the fibrate, Wy-14643, and the fatty acid, eicosatetraynoic acid (ETYA), also induced apo A-II gene transcription. Unilateral deletions and site-directed mutagenesis identified a sequence element located in the J-site of the apo A-II promoter mediating the responsiveness to fibrates and fatty acids. This element contains two imperfect half sites spaced by 1 oligonucleotide similar to a peroxisome proliferator responsive element (PPRE). Cotransfection assays showed that the peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR) transactivates the apo A-II promoter through this AII-PPRE. Gel retardation assays demonstrated that PPAR binds to the AII-PPRE with an affinity comparable to its binding affinity to the acyl coA oxidase (ACO)-PPRE. In conclusion, in humans fibrates increase plasma apo A-II concentrations by inducing hepatic apo A-II production. Apo A-II expression is regulated at the transcriptional level by fibrates and fatty acids via the interaction of PPAR with the AII-PPRE, thereby demonstrating the pivotal role of PPAR in controlling human lipoprotein metabolism.
N Vu-Dac, K Schoonjans, V Kosykh, J Dallongeville, J C Fruchart, B Staels, J Auwerx
We purified the major mitogen for human smooth muscle-like cells in leiomyoma extracts by sequential liquid chromatography on (a) carboxymethyl-Sepharose, (b) heparin-Sepharose columns, (c) cartridges of C18 silica, and (d) linear gradient reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography. The mitogenic activity of the leiomyoma extract throughout purification was tested by tritiated thymidine incorporation and DNA content in NIH/3T3 fibroblasts and KW human smooth muscle-like cells. Purification of the leiomyoma-derived growth factor (LDGF) for KW smooth muscle-like cells confirmed that its partial NH2-terminal amino acid (aa) sequence (1-20 aa) was identical to 113-132 aa of the human cysteine-rich protein (hCRP). A synthetic peptide which was engineered based on the purified aa sequence, stimulated the proliferation and growth of KW cells. An oligonucleotide probe constructed by the cDNA of the hcrp gene that encodes this aa sequence depicted the expression of 1.9-kb LDGF mRNA in leiomyomas and myometrium. The expression of the LDGF mRNA was three to sixfold higher in leiomyomas compared with adjacent myometrium of women harboring leiomyomas by in situ hybridization analysis. These data suggest that LDGF may participate in the pathophysiology of uterine leiomyomas.
A Sourla, M Koutsilieris
Epstein-Barr virus-immortalized B lymphoblasts obtained from hypertensive patients with enhanced Na+/H+ exchanger activity (HT cells) proliferate distinctly faster upon serum stimulation than those from normotensive controls with low exchanger activity (NT cells) (Rosskopf, D., E. Frömter, and W. Siffert. 1993. J. Clin. Invest. 92:2553-2559). Stimulation with platelet-activating factor (PAF) as well caused an enhanced proliferation of HT cells. In analyzing possible differences in signal transduction between the immortalized NT and HT lymphoblasts, we observed that cell stimulation with PAF and somatostatin caused a twofold higher increase in [Ca2+]i in HT than in NT cell lines. This difference was completely abrogated by pertussis toxin (PTX) treatment. Furthermore, PAF-stimulated formation of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) was twofold enhanced in HT cell lines. On the other hand, PAF receptor density and affinity, total cellular phospholipase C activity, expression of PTX-sensitive G proteins, and control binding of the stable GTP analogue, guanosine 5'-[gamma-thio]triphosphate (GTP gamma S), to membrane G proteins were not different in NT and HT cell lines. However, PAF- and mastoparan-stimulated binding of GTP gamma S to G proteins, which was fully PTX-sensitive, was 2.5-fold higher in HT than NT cell lines. These data suggest an enhanced receptor-mediated activation of PTX-sensitive G proteins despite unchanged receptor and G protein expression. Thus, this study not only suggests that enhanced signal transduction and cell proliferation are abnormalities in a certain group of patients with essential hypertension but also explains these findings as a result of an enhanced G protein activation in this common disorder.
W Siffert, D Rosskopf, A Moritz, T Wieland, S Kaldenberg-Stasch, N Kettler, K Hartung, S Beckmann, K H Jakobs
Intermittent treatment with parathyroid hormone (PTH) increases bone mass in experimental animals and humans. In vitro studies have suggested that the anabolic effect of PTH may be mediated by local growth factors. However, the relevance of these findings to in vivo situations remains unclear. In this study, we examined a time course of daily s.c. injections of hPTH (1-34) on the skeletal concentration of insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I, IGF-II, and transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) in the proximal tail vertebrae of male rats. PTH caused a time and dose-dependent increase in the bone mineral density of the lumbar spine. This anabolic effect on bone mass was accompanied by progressive increases in bone matrix-associated IGF-I and TGF-beta 1. Increases in IGF-I and TGF-beta 1 became apparent after four and eight weeks of PTH treatment respectively and persisted through week 12. PTH had no effect on circulating IGF-I, suggesting that the increase of bone matrix IGF-I was due to the local effect of PTH on bone tissue directly rather than to an increase of circulating IGF-I. These data are consistent with the hypothesis that IGF-I and TGF-beta 1 may play a role as local mediators of the anabolic effects of PTH on bone metabolism.
J Pfeilschifter, F Laukhuf, B Müller-Beckmann, W F Blum, T Pfister, R Ziegler
Antibodies against HIV-1 proteins in HIV-1-infected individuals share a cross-reactive idiotype defined by the monoclonal antiidiotypic antibody 1F7 (5). Using a computer algorithm based on the molecular recognition theory, regions of inverse hydropathy between the variable sequence of 1F7 and human monoclonal anti-HIV-1 antibodies were identified, which are assumed to be involved in idiotype-antiidiotype contacts. A peptide was designed from the proposed contact in the variable heavy chain framework 3-complementarity determining region 3 (FR3-CDR3) of human antibodies and was synthesized. This peptide is recognized by the antiidiotype 1F7 and inhibits the binding of 1F7 to human anti-HIV-1 antibodies which express the 1F7 idiotype. A survey of normal and HIV-1-infected sera revealed the presence of antibodies in infected sera which bind to the FR3-CDR3 peptide. The biological relevance of autoantibodies against a self idiotope associated with HIV-1 infection is discussed in the context of the regulation of the antibody response to HIV-1.
Q L Wang, H T Wang, E Blalock, S Müller, H Köhler
TTF-1 and Pax-8 are thyroid-specific transcription factors, from homeo and paired box genes, respectively, that are responsible for thyroid development and for thyroglobulin and thyroperoxidase gene expression. However, TTF-1 and Pax-8 preferentially bind to the thyroglobulin and thyroperoxidase promoters, respectively. Here, we have studied a patient with defective thyroglobulin synthesis. Thyroglobulin mRNA was found at very low levels while the mRNA for thyroperoxidase was found to be more abundant compared with control tissue. The low levels of thyroglobulin mRNA are caused by a transcriptional defect due to the virtual absence of TTF-1 expression as determined by Northern blot analysis, reverse transcriptase-PCR, and electrophoretic mobility shift assays. The level of Pax-8 mRNA was the same in the goiter and in the control thyroid. These results are the first reported evidence of a congenital goiter with a thyroglobulin synthesis defect due to the low expression of the thyroid-specific transcription factor TTF-1. Moreover, these data suggest that TTF-1 and Pax-8 would be differentially regulating thyroglobulin and thyroperoxidase gene transcription.
A Acebrón, P Aza-Blanc, D L Rossi, L Lamas, P Santisteban
Whether insulin-mediated vasodilation is important in determining insulin's overall action to stimulate glucose uptake is unknown. To this end, we measured leg glucose uptake during euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamps performed at two insulin doses (40 mU/m2 per min, n = 6 and 120 mU/m2 per min, n = 15) alone and during a superimposed intrafemoral artery infusion of GN-monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA) designed to blunt insulin-mediated vasodilation. During the higher dose study, hyperinsulinemia resulted in about a twofold rise in basal leg blood flow from 0.24 +/- 0.02 to 0.45 +/- 0.05 liter/min, P < 0.0001. L-NMMA infusion resulted in a net 21% reduction in leg glucose uptake from 114 +/- 18 mg/min to 85 +/- 13 mg/min, P < 0.001. We also found a significant relationship between the rate of insulin-stimulated whole body glucose uptake and the magnitude of flow dependent glucose uptake (r = 0.57, P = 0.02). Data obtained during the lower dose insulin infusion resulted in similar findings. In conclusion, in healthy lean subjects, insulin-stimulated muscle blood flow contributes to both insulin responsiveness and insulin sensitivity. The most insulin-sensitive subjects appear to be the most reliant on muscle perfusion for insulin action. Insulin-mediated vasodilation is an important physiological determinant of insulin action.
A D Baron, H O Steinberg, H Chaker, R Leaming, A Johnson, G Brechtel
Hypertensive mechanisms are postulated to play a major role in the progressive glomerulosclerosis (GS) after renal mass reduction. But, in contrast to converting enzyme inhibitors, BP reduction by calcium channel blockers, has not provided consistent protection. Radiotelemetric BP monitoring for 7 wk was used to compare nifedipine (N) and enalapril (E) in the rat approximately 5/6 renal ablation model. After the first week, rats received N, E, or no treatment (C). The overall averaged systolic BP in C (173 +/- 7 mmHg) was reduced by both E and N (P < 0.001), but E was more effective (113 +/- 2 vs. 134 +/- 3 mmHg, P < 0.01). GS was prevented by E (2 +/- 1 vs. 26 +/- 5% in C) but not by N (25 +/- 6%). GS correlated well with the overall averaged BP in individual animals of all groups, but the slope of the relationship was significantly steeper in N compared with C+E rats (P < 0.02), suggesting greater pressure transmission to the glomeruli and GS for any given BP. Since autoregulatory mechanisms provide the primary protection against pressure transmission, renal autoregulation was examined at 3 wk in additional rats. Autoregulation was impaired in C rats, was not additionally altered by E, but was completely abolished by N. These data demonstrate the importance of autoregulatory mechanisms in the pathogenesis of hypertensive injury and suggest that calcium channel blockers which adversely affect pressure transmission may not provide protection despite significant BP reduction.
K A Griffin, M M Picken, A K Bidani
We investigated the cellular mechanisms of the unique disorder of insulin action found in the polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Approximately 50% of PCOS women (PCOS-Ser) had a significant increase in insulin-independent beta-subunit [32P]phosphate incorporation (3.7-fold, P < 0.05 vs other groups) in skin fibroblast insulin receptors that was present in serine residues while insulin-induced tyrosine phosphorylation was decreased (both P < 0.05 vs other groups). PCOS skeletal muscle insulin receptors had the same abnormal phosphorylation pattern. The remaining PCOS women (PCOS-n1) had basal and insulin-stimulated receptor autophosphorylation similar to control. Phosphorylation of the artificial substrate poly GLU4:TYR1 by the PCOS-Ser insulin receptors was significantly decreased (P < 0.05) compared to control and PCOS-n1 receptors. The factor responsible for excessive serine phosphorylation appeared to be extrinsic to the receptor since no insulin receptor gene mutations were identified, immunoprecipitation before autophosphorylation corrected the phosphorylation defect and control insulin receptors mixed with lectin eluates from affected PCOS fibroblasts displayed increased serine phosphorylation. Our findings suggest that increased insulin receptor serine phosphorylation decreases its protein tyrosine kinase activity and is one mechanism for the post-binding defect in insulin action characteristic of PCOS.
A Dunaif, J Xia, C B Book, E Schenker, Z Tang
Glucose initiates insulin secretion by closing K(+)-ATP channels, leading to Ca2+ influx (E1); it also potentiates Ca(2+)-induced secretion (E2) when the K(+)-ATP channel is kept open using diazoxide and depolarizing concentrations of K+ are provided. To examine the roles of purine nucleotides in E2, we compared the effects of glucose to those of the mitochondrial fuel monomethylsuccinate. Either agonist could induce E2 accompanied by significant increases in ATP, ATP/ADP ratio, and GTP/GDP ratio; GTP increased significantly only with glucose. Mycophenolic acid (MPA), an inhibitor of cytosolic GTP synthesis, markedly inhibited glucose-induced E2 (either in perifusions or in static incubations) and decreased GTP and the GTP/GDP ratio, but did not alter the ATP/ADP ratio. Provision of guanine (but not adenine) reversed these changes pari passu. In contrast, MPA had no effect on succinate-induced E2, despite generally similar changes in nucleotides. A similar lack of effect of MPA on E2 was seen with a second mitochondrial fuel, alpha-ketoisocaproic acid (KIC). However, in the absence of diazoxide and K+, MPA blunted the secretory effects of either glucose, succinate, or KIC. These studies suggest that GTP plays a role in both glucose and succinate or KIC-induced insulin secretion at a step dependent on mitochondrial metabolism and the K(+)-ATP channel. In addition to mitochondrial effects, glucose appears to have extramitochondrial effects important to its potentiation of Ca(2+)-induced insulin secretion that are also dependent on GTP.
M Meredith, M E Rabaglia, S A Metz
Certain pathogenic bacteria produce a family of heat stable enterotoxins (STa) which activate intestinal guanylyl cyclases, increase cGMP, and elicit life-threatening secretory diarrhea. The intracellular effector of cGMP actions has not been clarified. Recently we cloned the cDNA for a rat intestinal type II cGMP dependent protein kinase (cGK II) which is highly enriched in intestinal mucosa. Here we show that cGK II mRNA and protein are restricted to the intestinal segments from the duodenum to the proximal colon, with the highest amounts of cGK II protein in duodenum and jejunum. cGK II mRNA and protein decreased along the villus to crypt axis in the small intestine, whereas substantial amounts of both were found in the crypts of cecum. In intestinal epithelia, cGK II was specifically localized in the apical membrane, a major site of ion transport regulation. In contrast to cGK II, cGK I was localized in smooth muscle cells of the villus lamina propria. Short circuit current (ISC), a measure of Cl- secretion, was increased to a similar extent by STa and by 8-Br-cGMP, a selective activator of cGK, except in distal colon and in monolayers of T84 human colon carcinoma cells in which cGK II was not detected. In human and mouse intestine, the cyclic nucleotide-regulated Cl- conductance can be exclusively accounted for by the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) Cl- channel. Viewed collectively, the data suggest that cGK II is the mediator of STa and cGMP effects on Cl- transport in intestinal-epithelia.
T Markert, A B Vaandrager, S Gambaryan, D Pöhler, C Häusler, U Walter, H R De Jonge, T Jarchau, S M Lohmann
Immunoglobulin secretion by plasma cells infiltrating synovial membranes is a prominent feature of RA. Previous analyses of a cDNA library generated from synovium of RA patient BC revealed immunoglobulin kappa light chain transcripts with extensive somatic mutation, frequent N region addition, and unexpected variation in the lengths of CDR3 regions which form the center of the antigen binding site. To determine if these characteristics are present in other individuals, we performed reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction amplification and sequenced > or = 10 V kappa-containing amplicons from nine tissue samples: synovia of three individuals with long-standing RA (including patient BC), PBLs of two of these individuals, and PBLs or splenocytes of four normal individuals. Increased levels of somatic mutation in PBLs appeared to correlate with increased age, which may reflect accumulation of circulating memory cells and/or decreased bone marrow production of naive B lymphocytes. Two of three RA synovial samples and both RA PBL samples exhibited increased proportions of clones with unusual CDR3 lengths. Enrichment for these antibody binding sites could be due to abnormal regulation of the emerging repertoire or to selection for B lymphocytes bearing antibodies of unusual specificity, and may play a role in the pathogenesis of RA.
S L Bridges Jr, S K Lee, M L Johnson, J C Lavelle, P G Fowler, W J Koopman, H W Schroeder Jr
Previous studies from other laboratories suggest that linoleic acid and its metabolites, hydroperoxyoctadecadienoic acids, play an important role in modulating the growth of some cells. A correlation has been demonstrated between hydroperoxyoctadecadienoic acids and conditions characterized by abnormal cell growth such as atherosclerosis and psoriasis. To determine if linoleic acid and its metabolites modulate cell growth in atherosclerosis, we measured DNA synthesis, protooncogene mRNA expression, and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activation in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC). Linoleic acid induces DNA synthesis, c-fos, c-jun, and c-myc mRNA expression and MAPK activation in VSMC. Furthermore, nordihydroguaiaretic acid, a potent inhibitor of the lipoxygenase system, significantly reduced the growth-response effects of linoleic acid in VSMC, suggesting that conversion of linoleic acid to hydroperoxyoctadecadienoic acids (HPODEs) is required for these effects. HPODEs also caused significant induction of DNA synthesis, protooncogene mRNA expression, and MAPK activation in growth-arrested VSMC, suggesting that linoleic acid and its metabolic products, HPODEs, are potential mitogens in VSMC, and that conditions such as oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation which provoke the production of these substances may alter VSMC growth.
G N Rao, R W Alexander, M S Runge
Angiotensin (ANG) II is not only a potent vasoconstrictor but may also be involved in the regeneration of new blood vessels. In proliferative endometrium, ANG II-like immunoreactivity was detected in glandular epithelium and stroma with negligible staining around the vascular endothelium. In contrast, in secretory endometrium intense immunostaining was seen in the perivascular stromal cells around the endometrial spiral arterioles with negligible staining of the other cell types. Quantitative receptor autoradiography using the nonselective radioligand [125I]-ANG II and subtype selective competing compounds showed that endometrium contained predominantly AT2 receptors, with relatively low expression of AT1 receptors and a novel non-AT1/non-AT2 angiotensin II recognition site that was insensitive to AT1 or AT2 selective ligands. Levels of specific [125I]-ANG II receptor binding displayed cyclic changes during the menstrual cycle, reaching a maximum in early secretory endometrium and then decreasing in mid to late secretory endometrium to levels seen in early to mid proliferative endometrium. In situ hybridization showed AT1 receptor mRNA expression in the glands and in the endometrial blood vessels. The cyclic changes in ANG II-like immunoreactivity together with expression of both the known and the novel AT receptor subtypes imply that this octopeptide may play a dual role both in the control of the uterine vascular bed and also in the regeneration of the endometrium after endometrial shedding, acting as an angiogenic and mitogenic mediator.
A Ahmed, X F Li, M Shams, J Gregory, T Rollason, N M Barnes, J R Newton
Continued adverse remodeling of myocardium after infarction may lead to progressive ventricular dilation and heart failure. We tested the hypothesis that exercise training in a healed myocardial infarction-dysfunction rat model can favorably modify the adverse effects of ventricular remodeling including attenuation of abnormal myosin gene expression. Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to either proximal LAD ligation or sham operation. At 5 wk after the operation, animals were randomly assigned to sedentary conditions or 6 wk of graduated swim training, creating four experimental groups: infarct sedentary (IS), infarct exercise (IE), sham sedentary (SS), and sham exercise (SE). At 11 wk all rats were sacrificed and analyzed. Compared to sedentary infarct controls, exercise training attenuated left ventricular (LV) dilation and allowed more hypertrophy of the non infarct wall. The exercise-trained hearts also showed a reduction in the estimated peak wall tension. Northern blot analysis showed an increase in beta-myosin heavy chain expression in the hearts of the sedentary infarction group soon after infarction when compared to sham controls. However, with exercise training, there was a significant attenuation of the beta-myosin heavy chain expression in the myocardium. Exercise training in a model of left ventricular dysfunction after healed myocardial infarction can improve the adverse remodeling process by attenuating ventricular dilation and reducing wall tension. The abnormal beta-myosin expression was also attenuated in the exercise trained group. This is evidence that abnormal gene expression following severe myocardial infarction dysfunction can be favorably modified by an intervention.
T L Orenstein, T G Parker, J W Butany, J M Goodman, F Dawood, W H Wen, L Wee, T Martino, P R McLaughlin, P P Liu
Identification of the components of protective immunity are crucial for the development of effective prophylactic and therapeutic vaccine strategies. Analysis of HIV-specific responses in exposed but uninfected individuals might thus provide a unique resource to elucidate the components and correlates of protective immunity to HIV. In the present study we analyzed HIV-specific cytotoxic and helper T lymphocyte responses in health care workers (HCW) exposed to body fluids from HIV-positive individuals. HCW exposed to blood from HIV-negative individuals as well as healthy donors served as controls. Cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) responses to HIV envelope (env) peptides were detected in 7/20 (35%) HCW exposed to HIV-positive blood and in none of the 20 health care workers exposed to uninfected blood or the seven healthy blood donors studied. HIV-specific CTL responses were detected only after in vitro stimulation, and were MHC class I restricted. No MHC class I restriction elements were uniformly identified among the different responders. 21/28 (75%) HCW exposed to contaminated blood responded to env as measured by IL-2 production to the peptides, in contrast to only 9/38 (24%) HCW exposed to HIV seronegative blood and 3/35 (9%) healthy blood donors. All the HIV exposed individuals were seronegative on repeated ELISA tests, and no evidence of infection was obtained by PCR analysis. These findings indicate that a single exposure to HIV can induce CTL immunity to HIV antigens, in the absence of other evidence of infection.
L A Pinto, J Sullivan, J A Berzofsky, M Clerici, H A Kessler, A L Landay, G M Shearer
We investigated whether minor histocompatibility (mH) antigen-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) can discriminate between leukemic hematopoietic progenitor cells (leukemic-HPC) from AML or CML patients, the HPC from their remission bone marrow (remission-HPC), and normal HPC from their HLA-identical sibling bone marrow donor (donor-HPC). Specific lysis by CD8+ CTL clones was observed not only of the leukemic-HPC but also of the donor-HPC in 3/4 patient/donor combinations expressing mH antigen HA-1, 3/5 combinations expressing mH antigen HA-2, 2/3 combinations expressing mH antigen HA-3, and 2/2 combinations expressing mH antigen HY-A1. In four patient/donor combinations the recognition of the donor-HPC was clearly less than of the leukemic-HPC, indicating differential susceptibility to lysis by these mH CTL clones. In addition, differential recognition of leukemic-HPC and remission-HPC within seven patients was analyzed. In one patient expressing the HA-2 antigen on the leukemic cells the recognition of the remission-HPC was clearly less than of the leukemic-HPC. One CD4+ CTL clone showed specific lysis of the leukemic-HPC from an AML patient and a CML patient as well as of normal remission-HPC and donor-HPC. These results illustrate that in general CD8+ and CD4+ mH antigen specific CTL clones do not differentially recognize leukemic-HPC and normal-HPC. However, differences in susceptibility to lysis of malignant versus normal cells may contribute to a differential GVL effect.
L M Faber, J van der Hoeven, E Goulmy, A L Hooftman-den Otter, S A van Luxemburg-Heijs, R Willemze, J H Falkenburg
The effect of human recombinant interleukin-1 receptor antagonist on intestinal inflammation, tissue destruction, and bacterial invasion during experimental shigellosis caused by Shigella flexneri was studied in the rabbit-ligated loop infection model. Intravenous infusion of the inhibitor at a dose of 2 mg/kg per h, was initiated 30 min before intestinal loops were ligated and infected, and continued during the 8-h period of infection. The animals treated with IL-1 receptor antagonist showed a striking decrease in inflammation, destruction, and bacterial invasion of their tissues, both at the level of the villous intestine and Peyer's patches. This is conclusive evidence that interleukin-1 plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of shigellosis. This proinflammatory cytokine is here proposed as a major trigger of the inflammatory reaction which is characteristic of this invasive disease of the intestine, due to the particular interaction existing between S. flexneri and macrophages.
P J Sansonetti, J Arondel, J M Cavaillon, M Huerre
Thyroid hormone (T3) plays a critical role in the development of the central nervous system and its deficiency during the early neonatal period results in severe brain damage. However the mechanisms involved and the genes specifically regulated by T3 during brain development are largely unknown. By using a subtractive hybridization technique we have isolated a number of cDNAs that represented mitochondrial genes (12S and 16S rRNAs and cytochrome c oxidase subunit III). The steady state level of all three RNAs was reduced in hypothyroid animals during the postnatal period and T3 administration restored control levels. During fetal life the level of 16S rRNA was decreased in the brain of hypothyroid animals, suggesting a prenatal effect of thyroid hormone on brain development. Since T3 does not affect the amount of mitochondrial DNA, the results suggest that the effect of T3 is at transcriptional and/or postranscriptional level. In addition, the transcript levels for two nuclear-encoded mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunits: subunits IV and VIc were also decreased in the brains of hypothyroid animals. Hypothyroidism-induced changes in mitochondrial RNAs were followed by a concomitant 40% decrease in cytochrome c oxidase activity. This study shows that T3 is an important regulator of mitochondrial function in the neonatal brain and, more importantly, provides a molecular basis for the specific action of this hormone in the developing brain.
E Vega-Núñez, A Menéndez-Hurtado, R Garesse, A Santos, A Perez-Castillo
Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) is a nutritionally dependent bone trophic hormone which stimulates osteoblast function and collagen synthesis in vivo and in vitro. We hypothesized that in the fasting state, IGF-I levels would decline significantly and would establish a model in which we could investigate the effects of IGF-I administration on bone turnover. We therefore studied 14 normal women ages 19-33 (mean, 24 +/- 4 [SD] years) during a complete 10-d fast. After 4 d of fasting, subjects were randomized to receive rhIGF-I or placebo subcutaneously twice a day for 6 d. Bone turnover was assessed using specific markers of formation (osteocalcin and type I procollagen carboxyl-terminal propeptide [PICP]) and resorption (pyridinoline, deoxypyridinoline, type I collagen crosslinked N-telopeptide [N-telopeptide] and hydroxyproline). Serum levels of PICP and osteocalcin decreased from 143 +/- 52 to 60 +/- 28 ng/ml (P = 0.001) and from 7.6 +/- 5.4 to 4.2 +/- 3.1 ng/ml (P = 0.001) respectively with 4 d of fasting. Urinary excretion of pyridinoline and deoxypyridinoline decreased from 96 +/- 63 to 47 +/- 38 nmol/mmol creatinine (P < 0.05) and from 28 +/- 17 to 14 +/- 11 nmol/mmol creatinine (P < 0.05) respectively. Mean IGF-I levels decreased from 310 +/- 81 to 186 +/- 78 ng/ml (P = 0.001). In the second part of the experimental protocol, serum osteocalcin and PICP levels increased 5- and 3-fold, respectively with rhIGF-I administration and were significantly elevated compared with the placebo group at the end of treatment (20.9 +/- 17.3 vs. 5.9 +/- 6.4 ng/ml for osteocalcin [P < 0.05] and 188 +/- 45 vs. 110 +/- 37 ng/ml for PICP [P < 0.05]). In contrast, all four markers of bone resorption, including urinary pyridinoline, deoxypyridinoline, N-telopeptide and hydroxyproline were unchanged with rhIGF-I administration. This report is the first to demonstrate that bone turnover falls rapidly with acute caloric deprivation in normal women. RhIGF-I administration uncouples bone formation in this setting by significantly increasing bone formation, but not resorption. These data suggest a novel use of rhIGF-I to selectively stimulate bone formation in states of undernutrition and low bone turnover.
S K Grinspoon, H B Baum, S Peterson, A Klibanski
Germ line C transcripts can be induced by IL-4 in the human B cell line, BL-2. Utilizing a IFN-gamma activation site-like DNA sequence element located upstream of the I epsilon exon, we demonstrated by gel mobility shift assays that IL-4 induced a binding activity in the cytosol and nucleus of BL-2 cells. This factor was designated IL-4 NAF (IL-4-induced nuclear-activating factors) and was identified as a tyrosine phosphoprotein, which translocates from the cytosol to the nucleus upon IL-4 treatment. Because these are the characteristics of a signal transducer and activator of transcription (Stat) protein, we determined whether antibodies to Stat proteins will interfere with gel mobility shift and found that antibodies to IL-4 Stat, also known as Stat6, but not antibodies to other Stat proteins, interfere with the formation of the IL-4 NAF complex. Congruous with the involvement of a Stat protein, IL-4 induced robust Janus kinase 3 (JAK3) activity in BL-2 cells. Cotransfection of JAK3 with IL-4 Stat into COS-7 cells produced an intracellular activity which bound the same IFN-gamma activation site-like sequence and comigrated with IL-4 NAF in electrophoretic mobility shift assay. These results show that IL-4 NAF is IL-4 Stat, which is activated by JAK3 in response to IL-4 receptor engagement.
X Fenghao, A Saxon, A Nguyen, Z Ke, D Diaz-Sanchez, A Nel
apo E has been shown to modulate cholesterol balance in arterial wall cells. Production of apo E by macrophages in atherosclerotic plaques could thereby influence the development of the plaque lesion. Cytokines, including TNF alpha, have been identified in human lesions, therefore, we undertook a series of studies to evaluate the effect of TNF alpha on monocyte/macrophage apo E production. The addition of TNF alpha to freshly isolated human monocytes led to a four- to fivefold increase of apo E mRNA abundance. The addition of TNF alpha to fully differentiated macrophages either had no effect or modestly inhibited apo E mRNA expression. THP1 human monocytic cells also responded to TNF alpha in a phenotype-specific manner. Treatment of these cells with TNF alpha produced a dose- and time-dependent increase in apo E mRNA. This increase was reflected in apo E synthesis and was associated with inhibition of DNA synthesis, and with induction of c-fos and ICAM-1 gene expression. Cell-permanent analogues of ceramide did not reproduce TNF alpha effect on apo E, but antagonists of protein kinase C did inhibit its effect. TNF alpha induction of apo E mRNA abundance was associated with stimulation of apo E promoter-dependent gene transcription. In summary, TNF alpha stimulates apo E gene transcription, mRNA abundance, and protein synthesis in the monocyte/macrophage in a phenotype-specific manner. Such regulation could significantly modify the amount of apo E present in vessel wall lesions.
H Duan, Z Li, T Mazzone
In serum-free mouse osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells, basic fibroblastic growth factor (bFGF) induced mRNA and protein for prostaglandin G/H synthase-2 (PGHS-2), the major enzyme in arachidonic acid (AA) conversion to prostaglandins. mRNA accumulation peaked at 1 h with bFGF 1 nM. In cells stably transfected with a 371-bp PGHS-2 promoter-luciferase reporter, bFGF stimulated luciferase activity, which peaked at 2-3 h with bFGF 1-10 nM. In the presence of exogenous AA, bFGF stimulated PGE2 production, which paralleled luciferase activity. In serum-free neonatal mouse calvarial cultures, bFGF stimulated PGE2 production in the absence of exogenous AA. bFGF stimulated PGHS-2 mRNA accumulation, which peaked at 2-4 h and then decreased; there were later mRNA elevations at 48 and 96 h that were inhibited by indomethacin. In both MC3T3-E1 cells and neonatal calvariae, bFGF produced smaller and slower increases in PGHS-1 mRNA levels than for PGHS-2. bFGF stimulated bone resorption in mouse calvariae with a maximal increase of 80% at 1 nM. Stimulation was partially inhibited by nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. We conclude that bFGF rapidly stimulates PGE2 production in osteoblasts, largely through transcriptional regulation of PGHS-2, and that prostaglandins mediate some of bFGF's effects on bone resorption.
H Kawaguchi, C C Pilbeam, G Gronowicz, C Abreu, B S Fletcher, H R Herschman, L G Raisz, M M Hurley
The mechanisms by which interferon-alpha (IFN-alpha) restores normal hematopoiesis in chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) are not well understood. We have recently demonstrated that IFN-alpha acts directly on CML hematopoietic progenitors to restore their adhesion to marrow stroma by modulating beta 1 integrin receptor function. In the present study we examined the effect of IFN-alpha treatment of marrow stroma on subsequent adhesion of CML progenitors. Stromal layers were preincubated with IFN-alpha (10,000 microns/ml) for 48 h. Subsequent coincubation with CML progenitors for 2 h resulted in significantly increased adhesion of CML progenitors. We demonstrated that alpha 4 beta 1 and alpha 5 beta 1 integrin receptors were involved in the enhanced adhesion of CML progenitors, suggesting that IFN-alpha-treated stroma can upregulate CML integrin function. This effect is due, at least in part, to IFN-alpha-induced increased stromal production of the chemokine macrophage inflammatory protein-1 alpha (MIP-1 alpha), which upregulates beta 1 integrin-dependent adhesion of CML progenitors to stroma. Thus, IFN-alpha treatment of marrow stroma restores beta 1 integrin-dependent adhesion of CML progenitors, at least in part through induction of MIP-1 alpha production. These observations provide further insights into mechanisms by which IFN-alpha may restore normal hematopoiesis in CML.
R Bhatia, P B McGlave, C M Verfaillie
Imbalance in the network of soluble mediators may play a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of Kaposi's sarcoma (KS). In this study, we demonstrated that KS cells grown in vitro produced and in part released platelet activating factor (PAF), a powerful lipid mediator of inflammation and cell-to-cell communication. IL-1, TNF, and thrombin enhanced the synthesis of PAF. PAF receptor mRNA and specific, high affinity binding site for PAF were present in KS cells. Nanomolar concentration of PAF stimulated the chemotaxis and chemokinesis of KS cells, endothelial cells, and vascular smooth muscle cells. The migration response to PAF was inhibited by WEB 2170, a hetrazepinoic PAF receptor antagonist. Because neoangiogenesis is essential for the growth and progression of KS and since PAF can activate vascular endothelial cells, we examined the potential role of PAF as an instrumental mediator of angiogenesis associated with KS. Conditioned medium (CM) from KS cells (KS-CM) or KS cells themselves induced angiogenesis and macrophage recruitment in a murine model in which Matrigel was injected subcutaneously. These effects were inhibited by treating mice with WEB 2170. Synthetic PAF or natural PAF extracted from plasma of patients with classical KS also induced angiogenesis, which in turn was inhibited by WEB 2170. The action of PAF was amplified by expression of other angiogenic factors and chemokines: these included basic and acidic fibroblast growth factor, placental growth factor, vascular endothelial growth factor and its specific receptor flk-1, hepatocyte growth factor, KC, and macrophage inflammatory protein-2. Treatment with WEB 2170 abolished the expression of the transcripts of these molecules within Matrigel containing KS-CM. These results indicate that PAF may cooperate with other angiogenic molecules and chemokines in inducing vascular development in KS.
F Bussolino, M Arese, G Montrucchio, L Barra, L Primo, R Benelli, F Sanavio, M Aglietta, D Ghigo, M R Rola-Pleszczynski
The development of progressive glomerulosclerosis in the renal ablation model has been ascribed to a number of humoral and hemodynamic events, including the peptide growth factor, transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-beta 1). An important role has also been attributed to angiotensin II (AII), which, in addition to its hemodynamic effects, can stimulate transcription of TGF-beta 1. We postulated that increased glomerular production of AII, resulting from enhanced intrinsic angiotensinogen expression, stimulates local TGF-beta 1 synthesis, activating glomerular matrix protein synthesis, and leads to sclerosis. Using in situ reverse transcription, the glomerular cell sites of alpha-1 (IV) collagen, fibronectin, laminin B1, angiotensinogen, and TGF-beta 1 mRNA synthesis were determined at sequential periods following renal ablation. The early hypertrophic phase was associated with global, but transient, increases in the mRNA for alpha-1 (IV) collagen. No changes were noted for fibronectin, TGF-beta 1, and angiotensinogen mRNAs. At 24 d after ablation, at which time sclerosis is not evident, endothelial cells, particularly in the dilated capillaries at the vascular pole, expressed angiotensinogen and TGF-beta 1 mRNAs, as well as fibronectin and laminin B1 RNA transcripts. By 74 d after ablation angiotensinogen and TGF-beta 1 mRNAs were widely distributed among endothelial and mesangial cells, and were particularly prominent in regions of evolving sclerosis. These same regions were also notable for enhanced expression of matrix protein mRNAs, particularly fibronectin. All receptor blockade inhibited angiotensinogen, TGF-beta 1, fibronectin, and laminin B1 mRNA expression by the endothelium. We conclude that, as a result of hemodynamic changes, injured or activated endothelium synthesizes angiotensinogen, triggering a cascade of TGF-beta 1 and matrix protein gene expression with resultant development of the segmental glomerular sclerotic lesion.
L K Lee, T W Meyer, A S Pollock, D H Lovett
Erythema migrans (EM), persistent skin infection, and visceral dissemination can be induced reproducibly in the adult male New Zealand White rabbit by intradermal injection of as few as 10(3) Borrelia burgdorferi. EM was found to persist for 7 +/- 3 d. Skin culture positivity (infection) cleared within a mean of 6.7 +/- 1.4 wk after infection and similarly visceral infection was not demonstrated after 8 wk; infection-derived immunity to intradermal challenge was evident 5 mo after initial infection. The extent of the protection against EM and dermal infection induced by untreated infection was directly related to the extent of prior in vitro passage of the B31 strain. Initial infection with as few as 4 x 10(3) B31 passage 4 induced complete protection against EM and skin infection upon subsequent challenge with 4 x 10(7) B31, passage 4. Initial infection with B31 passage 27 led to partial protection against EM along with complete protection against skin infection. Initial infection with passage 47 led to partial protection against EM, but conferred no protection against skin infection. Using serum from rabbits fully immune to reinfection, we defined a set of B. burgdorferi proteins present in virulent B31, but absent in the avirulent American Type Culture Collection B31 strain, termed "va" for virulent strain associated. The va proteins of B31 passages 1, 27, and 47 differed strikingly, thus raising the possibility that these changes may relate in a causal way to the differences in induction of protective immunity observed.
D M Foley, R J Gayek, J T Skare, E A Wagar, C I Champion, D R Blanco, M A Lovett, J N Miller
In extrahepatic tissues lipoprotein lipase (LPL) hydrolyzes triglycerides thereby generating FFA for tissue uptake and metabolism. To study the effects of increased FFA uptake in muscle tissue, transgenic mouse lines were generated with a human LPL minigene driven by the promoter of the muscle creatine kinase gene. In these mice human LPL was expressed in skeletal muscle and cardiac muscle, but not in other tissues. In proportion to the level of LPL overexpression, decreased plasma triglyceride levels, elevated FFA uptake by muscle tissue, weight loss, and premature death were observed in three independent transgenic mouse lines. The animals developed a severe myopathy characterized by muscle fiber degeneration, fiber atrophy, glycogen storage, and extensive proliferation of mitochondria and peroxisomes. This degree of proliferation suggests that FFA play an important role in the biogenesis of these organelles. Our experiments indicate that LPL is rate limiting for the supply of muscle tissue with triglyceride-derived FFA. Improper regulation of muscle LPL can lead to major pathological changes and may be important in the pathogenesis of some human myopathies. Muscle-specific LPL transgenic mouse lines will serve as a useful animal model for the investigation of myopathies and the biogenesis of mitochondria and peroxisomes.
S Levak-Frank, H Radner, A Walsh, R Stollberger, G Knipping, G Hoefler, W Sattler, P H Weinstock, J L Breslow, R Zechner
Antigen-specific T cell activation requires two independent signalling events, one mediated through T cell receptor engagement by the antigen-presenting cell-expressed peptide/class II major histocompatibility complex, and the second through the cognate interactions of costimulatory molecules expressed on the T cell and antigen-presenting cell. There is evidence from in vitro and in vivo experimental systems suggesting that the CD28/B7 costimulatory pathway is crucial for induction of maximal T cell proliferation and T helper-B cell collaboration for IgG production. This pathway can be blocked by CTLA-4-Ig, a soluble form of CTLA-4 which binds with high avidity to the CD28 ligands, B7-1 and B7-2. Here, we show that CTLA-4-Ig treatment prevents clinical and histological manifestations of disease in a collagen-induced arthritis model of rheumatoid arthritis in the diabetes resistant BB/Wor rat, when therapy is initiated before immunization with bovine type II collagen (BIIC). Anti-BIIC antibody titers are reduced in CTLA-4-Ig-treated rats compared to diseased control animals. Histologically, joints from CTLA-4-Ig-treated animals show no histological abnormalities, in contrast to control antibody-treated animals, which show complete erosion of the articular cartilage and bone. Despite the efficacy of CTLA-4-Ig in preventing clinical and histological signs of arthritis and reducing antibody responses to BIIC, delayed type hypersensitivity responses to collagen 18 d or more after CTLA-4-Ig treatment ends are similar in CTLA-4-Ig-treated and untreated rats, suggesting that the prolonged disease suppression observed does not result from induction of T cell anergy.
D B Knoerzer, R W Karr, B D Schwartz, L J Mengle-Gaw
Since colchicine-sensitive microtubules regulate the expression and topography of surface glycoproteins on a variety of cells, we sought evidence that colchicine interferes with neutrophil-endothelial interactions by altering the number and/or distribution of selectins on endothelial cells and neutrophils. Extremely low, prophylactic, concentrations of colchicine (IC50 = 3 nM) eliminated the E-selectin-mediated increment in endothelial adhesiveness for neutrophils in response to IL-1 (P < 0.001) or TNF alpha (P < 0.001) by changing the distribution, but not the number, of E-selectin molecules on the surface of the endothelial cells. Colchicine inhibited stimulated endothelial adhesiveness via its effects on microtubules since vinblastine, an agent which perturbs microtubule function by other mechanisms, diminished adhesiveness whereas the photoinactivated colchicine derivative gamma-lumicolchicine was inactive. Colchicine had no effect on cell viability. At higher, therapeutic, concentrations colchicine (IC50 = 300 nM, P < 0.001) also diminished the expression of L-selectin on the surface of neutrophils (but not lymphocytes) without affecting expression of the beta 2-integrin CD11b/CD18. In confirmation, L-selectin expression was strikingly reduced (relative to CD11b/CD18 expression) on neutrophils from two individuals who had ingested therapeutic doses of colchicine. These results suggest that colchicine may exert its prophylactic effects on cytokine-provoked inflammation by diminishing the qualitative expression of E-selectin on endothelium, and its therapeutic effects by diminishing the quantitative expression of L-selectin on neutrophils.
B N Cronstein, Y Molad, J Reibman, E Balakhane, R I Levin, G Weissmann
Essential hypertension is characterized by skeletal muscle insulin resistance but it is unknown whether insulin resistance also affects heart glucose uptake. We quantitated whole body (euglycemic insulin clamp) and heart and skeletal muscle (positron emission tomography and 18F-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose) glucose uptake rates in 10 mild essential hypertensive (age 33 +/- 1 yr, body mass index 23.7 +/- 0.8 kg/m2, blood pressure 146 +/- 3/97 +/- 3 mmHg, VO2max 37 +/- 3 ml/kg per min) and 14 normal subjects (29 +/- 2 yr, 22.5 +/- 0.5 kg/m2, 118 +/- 4/69 +/- 3 mmHg, 43 +/- 2 ml/kg per min). Left ventricular mass was similar in the hypertensive (155 +/- 15 g) and the normotensive (164 +/- 13 g) subjects. In the hypertensives, both whole body (28 +/- 3 vs 44 +/- 3 mumol/kg per min, P < 0.01) and femoral (64 +/- 11 vs 94 +/- 8 mumol/kg muscle per min, P < 0.05) glucose uptake rates were decreased compared to the controls. In contrast, heart glucose uptake was 33% increased in the hypertensives (939 +/- 51 vs 707 +/- 46 mumol/kg muscle per min, P < 0.005), and correlated with systolic blood pressure (r = 0.66, P < 0.001) and the minute work index (r = 0.48, P < 0.05). We conclude that insulin-stimulated glucose uptake is decreased in skeletal muscle but increased in proportion to cardiac work in essential hypertension. The increase in heart glucose uptake in mild essential hypertensives with a normal left ventricular mass may reflect increased oxygen consumption and represent an early signal which precedes the development of left ventricular hypertrophy.
P Nuutila, M Mäki, H Laine, M J Knuuti, U Ruotsalainen, M Luotolahti, M Haaparanta, O Solin, A Jula, V A Koivisto
Histoplasmosis, an increasingly important opportunistic infection in immunosuppressed subjects, is characterized by hematogenous dissemination of the yeast from the lung. The mechanism of this dissemination is not fully understood. Laminin, the major glycoprotein of the extracellular matrix, is known to mediate the attachment of various invasive pathogens to host tissues. In the current study, laminin is demonstrated to bind to Histoplasma capsulatum in a rapid, specific, and saturable manner. Scatchard analysis with 125I-labeled laminin revealed an estimated 3.0 x 10(4) binding sites per yeast with an apparent Kd for laminin binding of 1.6 x 10(-9) M. Laminin binding to H. capsulatum was decreased from 62 +/- 1 to 17 +/- 1 ng (P < 0.001) in the presence of 3,000 nM of Ile-Lys-Val-Ala-Val, a pentapeptide within one major cell attachment site of laminin. A 50-kD H. capsulatum laminin-binding protein was demonstrated using an 125I-Ln blot of H. capsulatum cell wall proteins. The 50-kD protein is also recognized by antibodies directed at the 67-kD laminin receptor, suggesting they are related. This study proposes a possible mechanism for H. capsulatum attachment to laminin, an important first step required for the yeast to recognize and traverse the basement membrane.
J P McMahon, J Wheat, M E Sobel, R Pasula, J F Downing, W J Martin 2nd
Previous studies have suggested that EGF or other members of the EGF family of mitogenic proteins are involved in proliferation of renal tubular epithelial cells occurring during recovery from injury to the kidney. The present studies examined whether expression of mRNA for the recently identified heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor (HB-EGF) is regulated in response to renal injury induced by either ischemia/reperfusion or mercuric chloride. Increased expression of HB-EGF mRNA was demonstrated in the post-ischemic kidney within 45 min of unilateral ischemia/reperfusion in the rat. Induction of HB-EGF mRNA occurred only when ischemia was followed by reperfusion, and was not eliminated by removal of blood cells from the post-ischemic kidney by saline perfusion. In situ hybridization with 35S-labeled antisense riboprobes of HB-EGF indicated that compared with control, there was increased HB-EGF mRNA expression in the 6 h post-ischemic kidney in the inner cortex and outer medulla in a patchy distribution, with the greatest expression in the inner stripe of the outer medulla. Expression occurred primarily in tubular epithelial cells. Recombinant human HB-EGF stimulated [3H]-thymidine incorporation in both primary cultures of rabbit proximal tubule cells and NRK 52E normal rat kidney epithelial cells, with potency similar to that of EGF. Induction of HB-EGF mRNA was observed in tubules freshly isolated from rat renal cortex or outer medulla when the tubules were subjected to reoxygenation after incubation in anoxic conditions. The nephrotoxin, mercuric chloride, also caused induction of HB-EGF mRNA both in vivo and in isolated rat cortical tubules. The anoxia/reoxygenation-induced expression of HB-EGF mRNA in isolated tubules was inhibited by the free radical scavengers, di- and tetra-methylthiourea, indicating involvement of reactive oxygen species. These findings indicate that HB-EGF mRNA is inducible in the kidney in vivo by acute tubular injury and suggest that HB-EGF may act as an autocrine/paracrine growth factor involved in proliferation of tubular epithelial cells and repair of the kidney.
T Homma, M Sakai, H F Cheng, T Yasuda, R J Coffey Jr, R C Harris
8-Cl-cAMP, a site-selective analogue of cAMP, decreased mdr-1 expression in multidrug-resistant human breast cancer cells. A sixfold reduction of mdr-1 mRNA expression by 8-Cl-cAMP began within 8 h of treatment and was associated with a decrease in the synthesis of P-glycoprotein and with an increase in vinblastine accumulation. A reduction in mdr-1 expression after 8-Cl-cAMP treatment was also observed in multidrug-resistant human ovarian cancer cell lines. 8-Cl-cAMP is known to change the ratio between the two regulatory subunits, RI and RII, of protein kinase A (PKA). We observed that RI alpha decreased within 24 h of 8-Cl-cAMP treatment, that RII beta increased after as few as 3 h of treatment, and that PKA catalytic activity remained unchanged during 48 h of 8-Cl-cAMP treatment. The results are consistent with the hypothesis that mdr-1 expression is regulated in part by changes in PKA isoenzyme levels. Although 8-Cl-cAMP has been used to differentiate cells in other model systems, the only differentiating effect that could be detected after 8-Cl-cAMP treatment in the MCF-7TH cells was an increase in cytokeratin expression. Evidence that the reduction of mdr-1 mRNA occurred at the level of gene transcription was obtained by measuring chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) mRNA in MCF-7TH cells transfected with an mdr-1 promoter-CAT construct prior to 8-Cl-cAMP treatment. Thus, 8-Cl-cAMP is able to downregulate mdr-1 expression and suggests a new approach to reversal of drug resistance in human breast cancer.
S Scala, A Budillon, Z Zhan, Y S Cho-Chung, J Jefferson, M Tsokos, S E Bates
Prolonged myocardial cell damage initiated by acute myocarditis is thought to be one of the most important etiology of dilated cardiomyopathy. To investigate the immunological mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of dilated cardiomyopathy, we analyzed the phenotypes of infiltrating cells and examined the expression of perforin in infiltrating cells in the hearts of patients with dilated cardiomyopathy as well as acute myocarditis. We also examined the expression of HLA and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) in myocardial tissue of these patients. Furthermore, to evaluate the antigen specificity of infiltrating T cells and persistence of viral genomes in the myocardial tissue, we analyzed the expression of T cell receptor (TCR) V alpha and V beta genes as well as enterovirus genomes by PCR. We found infiltration of perforin-expressing killer cells and enhanced expression of HLA class I and ICAM-1 in the myocardial tissue. We also found that the repertoires of TCR V alpha as well as V beta gene transcripts were restricted, indicating that a specific antigen in the hearts was targeted. Because no enterovirus genomes were detected in all patients, it is strongly suggested that a cell-mediated autoimmune mechanism triggered by virus infection may play a critical role in the pathogenesis of dilated cardiomyopathy. However, we could not exclude the possibility that viruses other than enteroviruses could be pathogenic in these patients.
Y Seko, S Ishiyama, T Nishikawa, T Kasajima, M Hiroe, N Kagawa, K Osada, S Suzuki, H Yagita, K Okumura
TNF alpha mRNA and protein biosynthesis were examined in the adult feline heart after stimulation with endotoxin. When freshly isolated hearts were stimulated with endotoxin in vitro, de novo TNF alpha mRNA expression occurred within 30 min, and TNF alpha protein production was detected within 60-75 min; however, TNF alpha mRNA and protein production were not detected in diluent-treated hearts. Immunohistochemical studies localized TNF alpha to endothelial cells, smooth muscle cells, and cardiac myocytes in the endotoxin-treated hearts, whereas TNF alpha immunostaining was absent in the diluent-treated hearts. To determine whether the cardiac myocyte was a source for TNF alpha production, two studies were performed. First, in situ hybridization studies, using highly specific biotinylated probes, demonstrated TNF alpha mRNA in cardiac myocytes from endotoxin-stimulated hearts; in contrast, TNF alpha mRNA was not expressed in myocytes from diluent-treated hearts. Second, TNF alpha protein production was observed when cultured cardiac myocytes were stimulated with endotoxin, whereas TNF alpha protein production was not detected in the diluent-treated cells. The functional significance of the intramyocardial production of TNF alpha was determined by examining cell motion in isolated cardiac myocytes treated with superfusates from endotoxin- and diluent-stimulated hearts. These studies showed that cell motion was depressed in myocytes treated with superfusates from the endotoxin-treated hearts, but was normal with the superfusates from the diluent-treated hearts; moreover, the negative inotropic effects of the superfusates from the endotoxin-treated hearts could be abrogated completely by pretreatment with an anti-TNF alpha antibody. Finally, endotoxin stimulation was also shown to result in the intramyocardial production of TNF alpha mRNA and protein in vivo. Thus, this study shows for the first time that the adult mammalian myocardium synthesizes biologically active TNF alpha.
S Kapadia, J Lee, G Torre-Amione, H H Birdsall, T S Ma, D L Mann
Intermolecular end-to-middle domain pairing between a thrombin-exposed 'A' polymerization site in the central 'E' domain of fibrin, and a constitutive complementary 'a' site in each outer 'D' domain ('D:E'), is necessary but not alone sufficient for normal fibrin assembly, as judged from previous studies of a congenital dysfibrinogen, Tokyo II (gamma 275 arg-->cys), which showed defective fibrin clot assembly and a normal D:E interaction (Matsuda, M., M. Baba, K. Morimoto, and C. Nakamikawa, 1983. J. Clin. Invest. 72:1034-1041). In addition to the 'a' polymerization site, two other constitutive intermolecular association sites on fibrinogen D domains have been defined: between gamma chain regions containing the carboxy-terminal factor XIIIa crosslinking site ('gamma XL:gamma XL'); and between sites located at the outer ends of each molecule ('D:D') (Mosesson, M. W., K. R. Siebenlist, J. F. Hainfeld, and J. S. Wall, manuscript submitted for publication). We evaluated the function of these sites in Tokyo II fibrinogen, and confirmed that there was a normal fibrin D:E interaction, as determined from a normal fibrin crosslinking rate in the presence of factor XIIIa. We also found a normal gamma XL: gamma XL interaction, as assessed by a normal fibrinogen crosslinking rate. Judging from electron microscopic images, factor XIIIa-crosslinked Tokyo II fibrinogen failed to form elongated double-stranded fibrils like normal fibrinogen. Instead, it formed aggregated disordered collections of molecules, with occasional short fibrillar segments. In addition, Tokyo II fibrin formed an abnormal, extensively branched clot network containing many tapered terminating fibers. These findings indicate that the Tokyo II fibrinogen defect results in a functionally abnormal D:D self-association site, and that a normal D:D site interaction is required, in addition to D:E, for normal fibrin or fibrinogen assembly.
M W Mosesson, K R Siebenlist, J P DiOrio, M Matsuda, J F Hainfeld, J S Wall
The present study was aimed to test the role of endothelin-1 (ET-1) as a possible autocrine/paracrine growth factor for cardiac fibroblasts, and to examine its interaction with cardiac natriuretic hormones. Expression of preproET-1 (ppET-1) mRNA by cultured cardiac fibroblasts from neonatal rats was demonstrated by Northern blot analysis using cDNA for rat ppET-1 as a probe. Angiotensin II (ANG II) and ET-1 transiently (30 min) increased steady-state ppET-1 mRNA levels in cardiac fibroblasts. Both ET-1 and ANG II significantly stimulated [3H] thymidine incorporation into cardiac fibroblasts, whose effects were dose-dependently inhibited by an ETA receptor antagonist (BQ123), BQ123 also inhibited both ET-1- and ANG II-induced ppET-1 mRNA expression. Both atrial and brain natriuretic peptides (ANP, BNP), which activate particulate guanylate cyclase, inhibited ppET-1 mRNA expression and [3H]thymidine incorporation stimulated by ANG II and ET-1. Sodium nitroprusside, a soluble guanylate cyclase activator, and 8-bromocyclic GMP, a membrane-permeable cGMP derivative, similarly inhibited ppET-1 mRNA expression and [3H]-thymidine incorporation. BNP was more potent than ANP to inhibit ANG II- and ET-1-stimulated DNA synthesis, whereas BNP and ANP were almost equipotent in stimulating cGMP generation in cardiac fibroblasts. Our data demonstrated that ANG II and ET-1 upregulate ET-1 gene expression in rat cardiac fibroblasts partly via cyclic GMP-dependent mechanism, and that natriuretic peptides inhibit ANG II-stimulated proliferation of cardiac fibroblasts, possibly by inhibiting ET-1 gene expression. Our data suggest the possible role of endogenous ET-1 as an autocrine/paracrine growth factor for cardiac fibroblasts and its close interaction with natriuretic peptides in the regulation of cardiac fibrosis.
H Fujisaki, H Ito, Y Hirata, M Tanaka, M Hata, M Lin, S Adachi, H Akimoto, F Marumo, M Hiroe
Open-chest dogs (total number used, 117) underwent 10 5-min coronary occlusions (O) interspersed with 10 min of reperfusion (R). When systolic thickening fraction was measured 9 min after each R, the first O-R cycle was found to cause the largest decrement, with only a slight additional loss during the next four cycles and no further loss during the last five cycles (group IV), suggesting that the first few episodes of ischemia preconditioned the myocardium against the stunning induced by the last five episodes. However, different results were obtained when the total deficit of wall thickening during the final 4-h R interval was measured. The total deficit was similar after one and three 5-min O (groups V and VI, respectively), indicating that the first ischemic episode did precondition against the next two episodes; however, it was approximately 2.5-fold greater after 10 O (group IV) than after 3, indicating that the first 3 episodes failed to precondition against the next 7. Thus, at some point between the 4th and 10th O, the preconditioning effect was lost and recurrent ischemic episodes started to have a cumulative effect. Measurements of free radicals with alpha-phenyl N-tert-butyl nitrone (PBN) demonstrated a burst of free radical generation immediately after the 1st, 5th, and 10th R (group VIII). The total cumulative release of PBN adducts during the initial 5 min of reflow was 58% less after the 5th R than after the 1st (P < 0.05) but did not differ significantly between the 1st and 10th R. When administered throughout the 10 O-R cycles, the .OH scavenger mercaptopropionyl glycine significantly enhanced the recovery of function (group I) and markedly suppressed the formation of free radicals (group VII). However, the beneficial effects of mercaptopropionyl glycine were completely, or largely, lost if the drug was discontinued after the first five (group II) or eight (group III) O-R cycles, respectively, implying that (a) the oxidative stress associated with the last five, or even two, cycles was sufficient to cause severe postischemic dysfunction, and (b) the cumulative injury caused by repetitive ischemic episodes is mediated by recurrent oxidative stress. This study provides direct in vivo evidence that oxygen radicals play an important role in the pathogenesis of myocardial stunning after repetitive ischemia, and implicates .OH as a primary culprit. Taken together, the data indicate that recurrent brief ischemic episodes result in recurrent bouts of oxyradical-mediated injury that have a cumulative effect on contractility, a situation that could lead to protracted or even chronic myocardial stunning.
R Bolli, M Zughaib, X Y Li, X L Tang, J Z Sun, J F Triana, P B McCay
IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha, potent inhibitors of hematopoiesis, induce nitric oxide synthase (NOS) in various cell types. When normal human bone marrow (BM) or CD34+ cells were exposed to NO, inhibition of colony formation was dose dependent and direct. NO induced apoptosis in BM progenitors, as shown by electrophoretic detection of DNA degradation and deoxynucleotidyl transferase assay. Using PCR and immunoprecipitation, we found inducible NOS (iNOS) mRNA and iNOS protein in BM after stimulation with IFN-gamma or TNF-alpha. iNOS mRNA was also detected by PCR in highly purified CD34+ cells; TNF-alpha or IFN-gamma increased iNOS expression. The presence of iNOS in CD34+ cells was confirmed in single cells by immunochemical staining. NG-Monomethyl-L-arginine (MM-Arg), an NOS inhibitor, partially reversed the effects of TNF-alpha and, to a lesser extent, IFN-gamma in methylcellulose culture of total BM and CD34+ cells, and inhibited apoptosis of BM cells induced by these cytokines. When the effects of competitive iNOS inhibition were tested on more immature progenitors, MM-Arg increased the number of long-term BM culture-initiating cells in control cultures but failed to protect these cells from the inhibitory action of IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha. Our results suggest that NO may be one mediator of cytokine-induced hematopoietic suppression.
J P Maciejewski, C Selleri, T Sato, H J Cho, L K Keefer, C F Nathan, N S Young
Mononuclear cell infiltration and local cytokine elaboration are hallmarks of inflammatory and immunologic heart diseases. To test the hypothesis that cytokines can modulate cardiac myocyte growth and phenotype, myocytes cultured from neonatal rat hearts were exposed to IL-1 beta, an inflammatory cytokine prevalent in myocardial inflammation. IL-1 beta (2 ng/ml, 24 h) increased [3H]leucine incorporation by 30 +/- 4% (P < 0.001, n = 29) and net cellular protein content by 20 +/- 4% (P < 0.001, n = 27), but had no effect on DNA synthesis. Northern hybridization showed that IL-1 beta increased prepro-atrial natriuretic factor (ANF) mRNA (5.8 +/- 1.5-fold, P < 0.01, n = 13) and beta-myosin heavy chain (beta-MHC) mRNA (> 10-fold, n = 4), and decreased mRNA levels for sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase (SERCA2) (-46 +/- 7%; P < 0.001; n = 11), calcium release channel (CRC) (-65 +/- 11%, P < 0.001, n = 8) and voltage-dependent calcium channel (VDCC) (-53 +/- 7%, P < 0.001, n = 8). NG-monomethyl-L-arginine (1 mM), an inhibitor of nitric oxide (NO) synthesis, did not inhibit the IL-1 beta-induced protein synthesis or changes in mRNA levels. In ventricular myocardium obtained from adult rats treated with lipopolysaccharide (4 mg/kg intraperitoneally 18 h) to stimulate systemic cytokine production, there were changes in the mRNA levels for beta-MHC (6 +/- 1-fold, P < 0.01, n = 4), SERCA2 (-65 +/- 4%, P < 0.0001, n = 4), CRC (-67 +/- 5%, P < 0.001, n = 4), and VDCC (-58 +/- 5%, P < 0.001; n = 4) that were qualitatively similar to those observed in cultured myocytes. Thus, IL-1 beta, acting via an NO-independent mechanism, caused myocyte hypertrophy associated with induction of fetal genes (ANF and beta-MHC) and downregulation of three important calcium regulatory genes (SERCA2, CRC, and VDCC). IL-1 beta may contribute to the abnormal structural and functional alterations of cardiac myocytes in conditions marked by mononuclear cell infiltration.
C M Thaik, A Calderone, N Takahashi, W S Colucci
Type III hyperlipoproteinemia is characterized by delayed chylomicron and VLDL remnant catabolism and is associated with homozygosity for the apoE-2 allele. We have identified a kindred in which heterozygosity for an apoE mutant, apoE-1 (Lys146-->Glu), is dominantly associated with the expression of type III hyperlipoproteinemia. DNA sequence analysis of the mutant apoE gene revealed a single-point mutation that resulted in the substitution of glutamic acid (GAG) for lysine (AAG) at residue 146 in the proposed receptor-binding domain of apoE. The pathophysiological effect of this mutation was investigated in vivo by kinetic studies in the patient and six normal subjects, and in vitro by binding studies of apoE-1 (Lys146-->Glu) to LDL receptors on human fibroblasts and to heparin. The kinetic studies revealed that apoE-1 (Lys146-->Glu) was catabolized significantly slower than apoE-3 in normals (P < 0.005). In the proband, the plasma residence times of both apoEs were substantially longer and the production rate of total apoE was about two times higher than in the control subjects. ApoE-1 (Lys146-->Glu) was defective in interacting with LDL receptors, and its ability to displace LDL in an in vitro assay was reduced to 7.7% compared with apoE-3. The affinity of apoE-1 (Lys146-->Glu) to heparin was also markedly reduced compared with both apoE-2 (Arg158-->Cys) and apoE-3. These abnormal in vitro binding characteristics and the altered in vivo metabolism of apoE-1 (Lys146-->Glu) are proposed to result in the functional dominance of this mutation in the affected kindred.
W A Mann, P Lohse, R E Gregg, R Ronan, J M Hoeg, L A Zech, H B Brewer Jr
The majority of gamma/delta T cell receptors (TCR) in the human intestinal mucosa are thought to use the TCRDV1 (V delta 1) variable region gene segment, whereas gamma/delta T cells in the circulation predominantly express the TCRDV2 (V delta 2) gene segment. delta T cell receptors that use the TCRDV2 variable region gene segment generally have been regarded as highly diverse, whereas those that use the TCRDV1 gene segment are oligoclonal, whether present in the intestinal tract or in peripheral blood. We report herein that oligoclonality is a general feature of the peripheral delta T cell receptor repertoire in healthy human adults, irrespective of the variable region used and regardless of whether gamma/delta T cells reside in the intestinal mucosa or in peripheral blood. In addition, the delta T cell receptor repertoire is shown to be highly compartmentalized between such sites as the colon and peripheral blood, relatively stable over at least a 10-16-mo period, and unique in each individual. Further, the spectrum of variable region genes used by delta T cell receptor transcripts in the human colon is greater than previously recognized. Thus, in addition to the TCRDV1 and TCRDV2 variable region gene segments, delta T cell receptors in normal intestinal mucosa can use TCRDV3 (V delta 3) and TCRAV (V alpha) gene segments which, in some individuals, comprise a significant component of the mucosal delta T cell receptor repertoire. Our studies indicate that the potential of delta T cell receptors for extensive diversity is not reflected in the mature human repertoire. Moreover, these findings suggest a model wherein the delta T cell receptor repertoire in the colon and peripheral blood is shaped by selection and clonal expansion of gamma/delta T cells that ultimately seed throughout the length of the colon mucosa and populate the circulation.
W Holtmeier, Y Chowers, A Lumeng, E Morzycka-Wroblewska, M F Kagnoff
Apo E, a key regulator of cholesterol-rich lipoprotein metabolism, is synthesized by numerous extrahepatic tissues. Although its synthesis in macrophages is documented, the contribution of macrophage-derived apo E to hepatic clearance of serum cholesterol is unknown. To address this issue bone marrow transplantation was performed on hypercholesterolemic apo E-deficient mice with either syngeneic apo E-deficient mouse bone marrow cells (E0-control) or wild-type mouse bone marrow cells expressing apo E (E0-treated). E0-control and E0-treated mice were fed either a regular chow diet or an atherogenic diet (designated E0-control-HF and E0-treated-HF). Serum cholesterol levels dropped dramatically in the E0-treated mice largely due to a reduction in their VLDL cholesterol. No changes were seen in the E0-control mice. After 4 wk serum cholesterol in E0-treated-HF mice was about four-fold lower compared to E0-control-HF animals. Moreover, the extent of atherosclerosis in the E0-treated-HF mice after 14-16 wk was greatly reduced. Wild-type apo E mRNA was detected in the liver, spleen, and brain of the E0-treated mice indicating that apo E gene transfer was successfully achieved through bone marrow transplantation. More importantly, the level of apo E expression was sufficient to reduce the severe hypercholesterolemia of the apo E-deficient mice fed either chow or atherogenic diets.
W A Boisvert, J Spangenberg, L K Curtiss
HST-1 (FGF-4) gene product is a member of the fibroblast growth factor family with a signal peptide and plays a crucial role in limb development. We showed previously that an intraperitoneal injection of replication-deficient adenovirus containing the HST-1 gene (Adex1HST-1) into normal mice caused a twofold increase in peripheral platelet count. To investigate whether Adex1HST-1 could effectively prevent experimentally induced thrombocytopenia in mice, we injected Adex1HST-1 intraperitoneally into thrombocytopenic mice induced by administration of a chemotherapeutic agent and/or by irradiation. A single Adex1HST-1 injection caused continuously increased levels of serum HST-1 protein for at least 30 d and increased the count of large megakaryocytes in bone marrow, which specifically recovered platelet counts and more efficiently diminished the extent and duration of thrombocytopenia than any other reported cytokine or any combination of cytokines so far. In the other peripheral hematological parameters, no discernible differences were detected. No other apparent side effects were observed. Therefore, this method could be useful for treatment and/or prevention of thrombocytopenia induced by chemotherapy and/or irradiation for cancer treatment.
H Konishi, T Ochiya, H Sakamoto, M Tsukamoto, I Saito, T Muto, T Sugimura, M Terada
We determined that mitochondrial respiration reduced cytosolic oxidant stress in vivo and scavenged extramitochondrial superoxide anion (O2-.) in vitro. First, Saccharomyces cerevisiae deficient in both the cytosolic antioxidant cupro-zinc superoxide dismutase (Cu,Zn-SOD) and electron transport (Rho0 state) grew poorly (P < 0.05) in 21% O2 compared with parent yeast and yeast deficient only in electron transport or Cu,Zn-SOD, whereas anaerobic growth was the same (P > 0.05) in all yeast. Second, isolated yeast and mammalian mitochondria scavenged extramitochondrial O2-. generated by xanthine/xanthine oxidase. Yeast mitochondria scavenged 42% more (P < 0.05) extramitochondrial O2-. during pyruvate/malate-induced respiration than in the resting state. Addition of either antimycin (respiratory chain inhibitor) or FCCP (respiratory chain uncoupler) prevented increased O2-. scavenging. Mitochondria isolated from yeast deficient in the mitochondrial manganous superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD) increased (P < 0.05) O2-. scavenging 56% during respiration. This apparent SOD activity, expressed in units of SOD activity per milligram of mitochondrial protein, was the same (9 +/- 0.6 vs. 10 +/- 1.0; P = 0.43) as the O2-. scavenging of mitochondria with Mn-SOD, suggesting that respiration-dependent mitochondrial O2-. scavenging was nonenzymatic. Finally, isolated rat liver and lung mitochondria also increased (P < 0.05) O2-. scavenging during respiration. We speculate that respiring mitochondria, via the protonmotive pump, present a polarized, proton-rich surface that enhances nonenzymatic dismutation of extramitochondrial O2-. and that this is a previously unrecognized function of mitochondrial respiration with potential physiological ramifications.
D M Guidot, J E Repine, A D Kitlowski, S C Flores, S K Nelson, R M Wright, J M McCord
P Bernasconi, E Torchiana, P Confalonieri, R Brugnoni, R Barresi, M Mora, F Cornelio, L Morandi, R Mantegazza
The molecular defect in sickle cell disease resides in the beta globin gene, with consequent defects in erythrocytes only, suggesting that the vascular occlusion and vasomotor instability which characterize this disease are the result of interactions between abnormal sickle erythrocytes and cells of the blood vessel wall. We explored whether sickle erythrocytes may have effects on vascular tone, exclusive of adhesion events. Exposure of human endothelial cells in culture to previously sickled sickle erythrocytes resulted in a four to eight-fold transcriptional induction of the gene encoding the potent vasoconstrictor endothelin-1 (ET-1). Unsickled sickle erythrocytes or normal erythrocytes exposed to "sickling" conditions had no effect on ET-1 gene induction. Contact of the sickled erythrocytes with the endothelium was not required. Elevations in the ET-1 transcript peaked at 3 h after exposure and persisted for up to 24 h. Four to sixfold increases in the amount of ET-1 peptide was released into the medium surrounding the endothelial cells after exposure to sickled sickle erythrocytes. This is the first demonstration of the regulation of gene expression in endothelial cells as a result of interaction with sickle cells, with induction of genes encoding vasoconstrictors. Furthermore, these findings suggest that sickle erythrocytes may have the capacity to affect local vasomotor tone directly.
M Phelan, S P Perrine, M Brauer, D V Faller
Excitability is governed primarily by the complement of ion channels in the cell membrane that shape the contour of the action potential. To modify excitability by gene transfer, we created a recombinant adenovirus designed to overexpress a Drosophila Shaker potassium channel (AdShK). In vitro, a variety of mammalian cell types infected with AdShK demonstrated robust expression of the exogenous channel. Spontaneous action potentials recorded from cardiac myocytes in primary culture were abbreviated compared with noninfected myocytes. Intravascular infusion of AdShK in neonatal rats induced Shaker potassium channel mRNA expression in the liver, and large potassium currents could be recorded from explanted hepatocytes. Thus, recombinant adenovirus technology has been used for in vitro and in vivo gene transfer of ion channel genes designed to modify cellular action potentials. With appropriate targeting, such a strategy may be useful in gene therapy of arrhythmias, seizure disorders, and myotonic muscle diseases.
D C Johns, H B Nuss, N Chiamvimonvat, B M Ramza, E Marban, J H Lawrence
Oxygen free radical activity is elevated in diabetes mellitus and has been implicated in the etiology of vascular complications. Recent studies have shown that impaired perfusion of nerve endoneurium is a major cause of nerve fiber dysfunction in experimental diabetes. Free radical scavenger treatment prevents the development of nerve conduction abnormalities in diabetic rats. In vitro experiments suggest that autoxidation reactions of glucose, catalyzed by free transition metal ions, are a potential source of free radicals in diabetes. We investigated whether chronic treatment with deferoxamine and trientine, transition metal chelating agents which can prevent autoxidation, could correct nerve conduction and blood flow changes in streptozotocin-diabetic rats. A 20% reduction in sciatic nerve motor conduction velocity after 2 mo diabetes was 90% ameliorated by 2 wk of treatment with deferoxamine or trientine. Sciatic endoneurial nutritive blood flow was 45% reduced by diabetes, but was completely corrected by treatment. In contrast, transition metal chelation had no effect on blood flow or conduction velocity in nondiabetic rats. Thus, the data support the hypothesis that increased free radical activity by glucose autoxidation as a result of impaired transition metal handling is a major cause of early neurovascular deficits in diabetes.
N E Cameron, M A Cotter
Tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA) is a serine protease, catalyzing the initial step in the fibrinolytic process. Intravenously administered t-PA is rapidly cleared from the circulation by the liver. Two distinct clearance mechanisms, which are mediated by the low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein (LRP) on liver parenchymal cells and by the mannose receptor on liver endothelial cells, have been described. Using competitors and inhibitors of the receptors, we investigated the role of LRP and carbohydrate receptors in t-PA clearance in vivo. To inhibit LRP, the 39-kD protein, which is a potent inhibitor of LRP activity, was overexpressed in the liver of mice using an adenoviral gene transfer technique. Expression of the 39-kD protein resulted in a sustained plasma concentration and an increase in the plasma half-life of 125I-t-PA from less than 1 min to 4-5 min. Blockade of the mannose receptor by intravenous administration of ovalbumin also prolonged the plasma half-life of 125I-t-PA to 3-4 min. The same degree of inhibition of t-PA clearance was also observed after administration of an inhibitor of the fucose receptor, fucosyl-BSA. However, under the conditions established for the complete blockade of the mannose receptor, no additional inhibition of t-PA clearance was observed using fucosyl-BSA, suggesting little or no role for the fucose receptor in the clearance of t-PA. Furthermore, a dramatic increase of the plasma half-life of 125I-t-PA (>> 20 min) was observed in mice overexpressing 39-kD protein and administered ovalbumin +/- fucosyl-BSA. Our results clearly demonstrate that two independent receptor systems, LRP and the mannose receptor, are involved in the hepatic clearance of t-PA.
M Narita, G Bu, J Herz, A L Schwartz
Hemodynamic forces, such as fluid shear stress, that act on the endothelial lining of the cardiovascular system can modulate the expression of an expanding number of genes crucial for homeostasis and the pathogenesis of vascular disease. A 6-bp core element (5'-GAGACC-3'), defined previously as a shear-stress response element is present in the promoters of many genes, including the PDGF B-chain, whose expression is modulated by shear stress. The identity of the nuclear protein(s) binding to this element has not yet been elucidated. Using electrophoretic mobility shift assays and in vitro DNase I footprinting, we demonstrate that nuclear factor-kappa B p50-p65 heterodimers, which accumulate in the nuclei of cultured vascular endothelial cells exposed to fluid shear stress, bind to the PDGF-B shear-stress response element in a specific manner. Mutation of this binding motif abrogated its interaction with p50-p65 and abolished the ability of the promoter to mediate increased gene expression in endothelial cells exposed to shear stress. Transient cotransfection studies indicate that p50-p65 is able to activate PDGF-B shear-stress response element-dependent reporter gene expression in these cells. These findings thus implicate nuclear factor-kappa B in the transactivation of an endothelial gene responding to a defined fluid mechanical force.
L M Khachigian, N Resnick, M A Gimbrone Jr, T Collins
I Masuda, J Hamada, A L Haas, L M Ryan, D J McCarthy