Because fibrin is commonly observed within arthritic joints, studies were undertaken to determine whether purified coagulation and fibrinolytic proteases degrade cartilage in vitro and to seek evidence for the activation of coagulation in arthritic joints through measurements of the levels of inhibitor-enzyme complexes and several other proteins associated with coagulation and fibrinolysis. The concentrations of 13 plasma proteins and complexes of thrombin and Factor Xa with antithrombin III were measured in synovial fluids recovered at the time of knee replacement surgery. All zymogens necessary to constitute the coagulation cascade were present. Thrombin and the combination of prothrombin plus prothrombinase induced proteoglycan release from both normal and arthritic cartilages. Factor Xa and plasmin induced release from diseased cartilage only, and urokinase, tissue plasminogen activator, and activated protein C were without effect at the levels used. At saturating levels of thrombin (> or = 2.0 microM) 80% of the proteoglycan content of normal cartilage was released within 24 h. Thrombin, which is cationic, reversibly binds cartilage with Kd = 7.0 +/- 1.0 microM and Bmax = 820 +/- 70 ng/mg of human cartilage. Levels of thrombin-antithrombin III complexes in synovial fluids and arthritis were 4-fold higher in osteo (OA) and 43-fold higher in rheumatoid (RA) than in controls (0.98 nM). Factor Xa-antithrombin III complex levels were threefold lower in OA and fivefold higher in RA than in controls (0.24 nM). These elevated levels of enzyme-inhibitor complexes imply a history of activation of coagulation within the joint, especially in RA. Since thrombin degrades cartilage in vitro and had been generated in vivo, as inferred by the existence of thrombin-antithrombin III complexes, intraarticular activation of coagulation may both contribute to the pathology of arthritis and comprise a target for therapy and diagnosis.
E Furmaniak-Kazmierczak, T D Cooke, R Manuel, A Scudamore, H Hoogendorn, A R Giles, M Nesheim
One of the major obstacles in allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (allo-BMT) is prolonged T cell dysfunction resulting in a variety of infectious complications in the months to years after hematologic engraftment. We previously showed that immobilized extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins such as fibronectin (FN), the CS-1 domain of FN, or collagen (CO) acted synergistically with immobilized anti-CD3 to induce T cell proliferation. In addition, the comitogenic effect of ECMs could be mimicked by immobilized mAb reactive with a common beta 1 chain (CD29) of very late activating (VLA) antigens which include ECM receptors. Since the interaction of T cells with ECMs appears to play an important role in the process of T cell reconstitution following allo-BMT, we examined the expression of VLA antigens (alpha 1-alpha 6, beta 1) and their functional roles in CD3-mediated T cell proliferation at various times after T cell depleted allo-BMT. VLA beta 1 as well as VLA alpha 4, alpha 5, and alpha 6 expression was lower than normal controls during the first 3 mo after allo-BMT and auto-BMT, whereas these expressions returned to normal levels by 4 mo after allo-BMT and auto-BMT. Although alpha 1 and alpha 2 were not expressed on lymphocytes from normal controls, these antigens were expressed on lymphocytes at the detectable levels (5-15%) from patients after allo-BMT and auto-BMT. Both CD29 and CD3 were expressed at normal levels on lymphocytes from patients > 3 mo after allo-BMT, whereas T cell interaction with ECM through VLA proteins or crosslinking of VLA beta 1 expressed by T cells with anti-CD29 mAb results in poor induction of CD3-mediated T cell proliferation for a prolonged period (> 1 yr) after allo-BMT. In contrast, T cell proliferation induced by crosslinking of anti-CD2 or anti-CD26 with anti-CD3 was almost fully recovered by 1 yr post-allo-BMT. After autologous BMT, impaired VLA-mediated T cell proliferation via the CD3 pathway after auto-BMT returned to normal levels within 1 yr despite no significant difference in CD3 and CD29 expression following either allo- or auto-BMT. The adhesion of T cells from post-allo-BMT patients to FN-coated plate was normal or increased compared to that of normal controls. Moreover, the induction of the tyrosine phosphorylation of pp105 protein by the ligation of VLA molecules was not impaired in allo-BMT patients. These results suggest that there are some other defects in the process of VLA-mediated signal transduction in such patients. Our results imply that disturbance of VLA function could explain, at least in part, the persistent immunoincompetent state after allo-BMT and may be involved in susceptibility to opportunistic infections after allo-BMT.
K Sugita, Y Nojima, K Tachibana, R J Soiffer, C Murray, S F Schlossman, J Ritz, C Morimoto
We have determined the frequency of EWS fusion transcripts in a series of primary Ewing's sarcomas and peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumors and cells lines. Type 1 and 2 EWS-Fli1 fusions were demonstrated in 8 cell lines and 14 patient samples. Five patients with cytogenetically characterized rearrangements of chromosome 22 that did not involve chromosome 11 were included in these studies. A novel EWS-Fli1 in-frame isoform fusing EWS to exon 8 of Fli1 was isolated from a tumor with a variant t(12;22;22)(q14;p1;q12) translocation. Three in-frame isoforms of a novel hybrid transcript derived from the fusion of EWS with the ETS domain of the human erg gene were identified in patient samples and a cell line with cytogenetically unidentified or cryptic translocations involving chromosomes 21 and 22. Interphase analysis by fluorescent in situ suppression hybridization using two overlapping erg yeast artificial chromosome clones demonstrated disruption of the erg gene on chromosome 21 in a patient sample with monosomy 22. Our results provide new information about the involvement of EWS in small round cell tumors involving exchange of its putative RNA-binding domain with DNA-binding domains derived from different members of the ETS family of transcription factors. These studies emphasize the utility of reverse transcriptase PCR analysis and fluorescent in situ hybridization as additional diagnostic tools for differential diagnosis among small round cell tumors.
M Giovannini, J A Biegel, M Serra, J Y Wang, Y H Wei, L Nycum, B S Emanuel, G A Evans
To evaluate the pathophysiological function of specific molecules in the renal glomerulus, selective, sustained, and modifiable expression of such molecules will be required. Towards achieving this end, we devised a gene transfer system using the glomerular mesangial cell as a vector for gene delivery. A reporter gene which encodes bacterial beta-galactosidase was introduced into cultured rat mesangial cells, and the stable transfectants were transferred into the rat kidney via the renal artery, leading to selective entrapment within the glomeruli. In the normal kidney, the reporter cells populated into 57 +/- 13% of glomeruli site specifically, and the expression of beta-galactosidase was sustained for 4 wk and declined thereafter. Within the glomerulus, some of the reporter cells remained in the glomerular capillaries, while others repopulated the mesangial area and, in part, extended their cytoplasmic processes toward the surrounding capillaries. When the cells were transferred into glomeruli subjected to transient mesangiolysis induced by monoclonal antibody 1-22-3, in situ expression of beta-galactosidase was amplified 7-12-fold, and the enhanced level of expression continued for up to 8 wk. The mesangial cell vector system thus achieves site-specific delivery of an exogenous gene into the glomerulus and is amenable to in situ amplification and sustained expression by preconditioning of the target site.
M Kitamura, S Taylor, R Unwin, S Burton, F Shimizu, L G Fine
Resistance to thyroid hormone (RTH), with elevated serum free thyroid hormones and nonsuppressed thyrotropin levels, is either relatively asymptomatic, suggesting a generalized disorder (GRTH) or associated with thyrotoxic features, indicating possible selective pituitary resistance (PRTH). 20 GRTH and 9 PRTH cases, sporadic or dominantly inherited, were analyzed. Affected individuals were heterozygous for single nucleotide substitutions in the thyroid hormone receptor beta gene, except for a single case of a seven nucleotide insertion. With one exception, the corresponding 13 novel and 7 known codon changes localized to and extended the boundaries of two mutation clusters in the hormone-binding domain of the receptor. 15 kindreds shared 6 different mutations, and haplotype analyses of the mutant allele showed that they occurred independently. The majority (14 out of 19) of the recurrent but a minority (1 out of 10) of unique mutations were transitions of CpG dinucleotides. Mutant receptor binding to ligand was moderately or severely impaired and did not correlate with the magnitude of thyroid dysfunction. There was no association between clinical features and the nature or location of a receptor mutation. These observations suggest that GRTH and PRTH are phenotypic variants of the same genetic disorder, whose clinical expression may be modulated by other non-mutation-related factors.
M Adams, C Matthews, T N Collingwood, Y Tone, P Beck-Peccoz, K K Chatterjee
The recently identified adrenoleukodystrophy (ALD) gene is predicted to encode a peroxisomal protein of 745 amino acids that includes one domain for ATP-binding, termed nucleotide-binding fold (NBF). To determine whether mutations occur in the putative NBF of ALD protein, we analyzed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) exon 6 and 8 that encode most part of this domain in 50 ALD patients. Four amino acid substitutions, three frameshift mutations leading to premature termination signal, and a splicing mutation were identified. These amino acid substitutions occurred at residues highly conserved in other ATP-binding cassette (ABC) proteins. In addition, a nonsense mutation was detected in exon 4.
P Fanen, S Guidoux, C O Sarde, J L Mandel, M Goossens, P Aubourg
To investigate the specific contribution of select MHC class II genes on the development of murine lupus, H-2 congenic (NZB x BXSB)F1 hybrid mice bearing either H-2b/b, H-2d/b, or H-2d/d haplotypes were generated. We compared the clinical development (autoantibody production and glomerulonephritis) of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) in these three F1 hybrids in the presence or absence of the mutant gene, Yaa (Y chromosome-linked autoimmune acceleration), which normally accelerates the progression of murine SLE. (NZB x BXSB)F1 hybrid female mice bearing either the H-2b/b or H-2d/b haplotype developed a rapid course of severe SLE, while the appearance of disease was markedly delayed in H-2d/d hybrid females. However, in the presence of the Yaa gene, H-2d/d F1 males developed SLE as severe as H-2b/b and H-2d/b F1 males. These data indicate that (a) the conventional H-2b is a haplotype leading to susceptibility for murine SLE, while H-2d is a relatively resistant haplotype; (b) the H-2b haplotype exhibits a dominant effect on autoimmune responses, similar to the classical MHC-linked Ir gene effect; and (c) most strikingly, the Yaa gene totally abrogates the MHC effect on murine lupus in (NZB x BXSB)F1 hybrid mice.
R Merino, M Iwamoto, M E Gershwin, S Izui
We have cloned the cDNA encoding human peroxisomal acyl-CoA oxidase, the first enzyme in the peroxisomal beta-oxidation of very long chain fatty acids. Its nucleotide sequence was found to be highly homologous (85%) to the rat cDNA counterpart. An 88% homology between rat and human was found in the COOH-terminal end of the cDNA which includes the Ser-Lys-Leu peroxisomal targeting signal common to many peroxisomal proteins. The gene spans approximately 30-40 kb and is poorly polymorphic. Southern blot analyses were performed in two previously reported siblings with an isolated peroxisomal acyl-CoA oxidase deficiency (pseudoneonatal adrenoleukodystrophy). A deletion of at least 17 kb, starting down-stream from exon 2 and extending beyond the 3' end of the gene, was observed in the two patients. These observations provide a molecular basis for the observed acyl-CoA oxidase deficiency in our family. In addition, our study will enable the characterization of the genetic defect in unrelated families with suspected acyl-CoA oxidase disorders.
B Fournier, J M Saudubray, B Benichou, S Lyonnet, A Munnich, H Clevers, B T Poll-The
The 8.12 idiotype characterizes a subpopulation of anti-DNA antibodies in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). The idiotype is present on lambda light chains and has previously been shown to be exclusively encoded by V lambda II light chains. RFLP analysis of the V lambda II gene family has shown the family to consist of 10 to 15 members. Thus far, the sequences of seven V lambda II germline genes are reported in the literature with one of these a pseudogene. To identify the V lambda II genes that encode 8.12 positive antibodies and to further characterize the V lambda II family, germline V lambda II clones were derived from a patient with SLE. Two libraries were constructed: a genomic DNA library and a library of PCR-derived V lambda II gene products obtained using a conserved V lambda II leader region primer and a primer for the nonamer region 3' of the coding sequence. We now describe seven new germline genes, two of which are pseudogenes. Comparison of V lambda II germline genes to sequences of 8.12 positive light chains produced by EBV-transformed B cell lines show that all 8.12 positive light chains are encoded by a limited number of highly homologous members of the V lambda II family. 8.12 negative V lambda II encoded light chains also derive from a limited number of V lambda II genes, suggesting that only a subset of the apparently available V lambda II genes are commonly expressed.
M Irigoyen, A Manheimer-Lory, B Gaynor, B Diamond
An increased expression of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) has been reported in activated macrophages of the acutely involuted rat thymus. We communicate here that ANP may reflect a common constituent of macrophages, as mRNA coding for ANP is present in peritoneal- as well as in bone marrow-derived macrophages (PM, BMM). Furthermore, both types of macrophages synthesize and release ANP which was found to mainly represent the biologically active fragment ANP99-126. ANP expression in macrophages is regulated by compounds affecting the activity of these immune cells. For example, incubation of PM or BMM in vitro with LPS and zymosan, respectively, increased ANP-mRNA up to sixfold as determined by competitive PCR quantification. Exposure of macrophages to dexamethasone (Dex, 10(-7) M) elicits moderate effects (1.4-fold), while PMA (10(-7) M) failed to affect its abundance. These findings are complemented by data regarding ANP synthesis and secretion. Incubation of macrophages with LPS, Dex or a combination of both results in an up to 3.5-fold increase of intracellular ANP99-126 (basal 10 fmol/mg protein), and an up to 6.6-fold increase of its secretion (basal 40 fmol/mg protein, 24 h). Since macrophages synthesize and release ANP, the peptide may be involved in the complex mechanisms of host defense, a major function of these immune cells.
A M Vollmar, R Schulz
We aim to correlate point mutations in the androgen receptor gene with receptor phenotypes and with clinical phenotypes of androgen resistance. In two families, the external genitalia were predominantly female at birth, and sex-of-rearing has been female. Their androgen receptor mutation changed arginine-839 to histidine. In a third family, the external genitalia were predominantly male at birth, and sex-of-rearing has been male: their codon 839 has mutated to cysteine. In genital skin fibroblasts, both mutant receptors have a normal androgen-binding capacity, but they differ in selected indices of decreased affinity for 5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone or two synthetic androgens. In transiently cotransfected androgen-treated COS-1 cells, both mutant receptors transactivate a reporter gene subnormally. The His-839 mutant is less active than its partner, primarily because its androgen-binding activity is more unstable during prolonged exposure to androgen. Adoption of a nonbinding state explains a part of this instability. In four other steroid receptors, another dibasic amino acid, lysine, occupies the position of arginine-839 in the androgen receptor. Androgen receptors with histidine or cysteine at position 839 are distinctively dysfunctional and appear to cause different clinical degrees of androgen resistance.
L K Beitel, P Kazemi-Esfarjani, M Kaufman, R Lumbroso, A M DiGeorge, D W Killinger, M A Trifiro, L Pinsky
The specificities of autoantibodies directed against the acetylcholine receptor (AChR) for embryonic and adult muscle AChR were studied in 22 mothers with myasthenia gravis (MG) and in their newborns using human fetus and normal adult muscle AChR preparations. 12 mothers had transmitted MG to their neonates with, in three cases, antenatal injury. A clear correlation was found between occurrence of neonatal MG (NMG) and the high overall level of anti-AChR antibodies (embryonic or adult muscle AChR). However, a strong correlation was also found between occurrence of NMG and the ratio of anti-embryonic AChR to anti-adult muscle (Te/Ta) AChR antibodies (P < 0.0002). Taken together, these data suggest that autoantibodies directed against the embryonic form of the AChR could play a predominant role in the pathogenesis of NMG. Paradoxically, the three cases with antenatal injury presumably the most severe form of NMG, were not associated with high Te/Ta. At the clinical level, these observations could prove helpful in the prediction of transmission of NMG.
B Vernet-der Garabedian, M Lacokova, B Eymard, E Morel, M Faltin, J Zajac, O Sadovsky, M Dommergues, P Tripon, J F Bach
A bone and cartilage enzyme with both 5'-nucleotide phosphodiesterase I and nucleotide pyrophosphohydrolase (NTPPPH) activity modulates physiologic mineralization and pathologic chondrocalcinosis by generating inorganic pyrophosphate. We hypothesized that, as for alkaline phosphatase, expression of an NTPPPH gene can be shared by cells from bone, cartilage, and liver and by certain leukocytes. Recently, we demonstrated the hepatocyte and murine plasma cell membrane glycoprotein PC-1 to have both 5'-nucleotide phosphodiesterase I and NTPPPH activity. We detected polypeptides cross-reactive with PC-1 in human U20S osteosarcoma cells, articular chondrocytes, homogenized human knee cartilages, human knee synovial fluids, hepatoma cells, and murine plasmacytoma cells. Constitutive low abundance PC-1 mRNA expression was detected in U20S cells and chondrocytes by a nested RNA-PCR assay and by Northern blotting. TGF beta is known to substantially increase NTPPPH activity in primary osteoblast cultures. We demonstrated that TGF beta 1 increased NTPPPH activity and the level of PC-1 mRNA and immunoprecipitable [35S]-methionine-labeled PC-1 polypeptides in U20S cells. The identification of PC-1 as an NTPPPH expressed in cells derived from bone and cartilage may prove useful in furthering the understanding of the role of NTPPPH i n physiologic and pathologic mineralization.
R Huang, M Rosenbach, R Vaughn, D Provvedini, N Rebbe, S Hickman, J Goding, R Terkeltaub
Histones can mediate the binding of DNA and anti-DNA to the glomerular basement membrane (GBM). In ELISA histone/DNA/anti-DNA complexes are able to bind to heparan sulfate (HS), an intrinsic constituent of the GBM. We questioned whether histone containing immune complexes are able to bind to the GBM, and if so, whether the ligand in the GBM is HS. Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) complexed to nucleosomal antigens and noncomplexed mAbs were isolated from culture supernatants of four IgG anti-nuclear mAbs. All noncomplexed mAbs showed strong anti-nucleosome reactivity in ELISA. One of them showed in addition anti-DNA reactivity in noncomplexed form. The other three mAbs only showed anti-DNA reactivity when they were complexed to nucleosomal antigens. After renal perfusion a fine granular binding of complexed mAbs to the glomerular capillary wall and activation of complement was observed in immunofluorescence, whereas noncomplexed mAbs did not bind. Immuno-electron microscopy showed binding of complexes to the whole width of the GBM. When HS in the GBM was removed by renal heparinase perfusion the binding of complexed mAb decreased, but did not disappear completely. We conclude that anti-nucleosome mAbs, which do not bind DNA, become DNA reactive once complexed to nucleosomal antigens. These complexed mAbs can bind to the GBM. The binding ligand in the GBM is partly, but not solely, HS. Binding to the GBM of immune complexes containing nucleosomal material might be an important event in the pathogenesis of lupus nephritis.
C Kramers, M N Hylkema, M C van Bruggen, R van de Lagemaat, H B Dijkman, K J Assmann, R J Smeenk, J H Berden
Exposure to hypoxia and subsequent development of pulmonary hypertension is associated with an impairment of the nitric oxide (NO) mediated response to endothelium-dependent vasodilators. Inhaled NO may reach resistive pulmonary vessels through an abluminal route. The aim of this study was to investigate if continuous inhalation of NO would attenuate the development of pulmonary hypertension in rats exposed to chronic hypoxia. In conscious rats previously exposed to 10% O2 for 3 wk, short-term inhalation of NO caused a dose-dependent decrease in pulmonary artery pressure (PAP) from 44 +/- 1 to 32 +/- 1 mmHg at 40 ppm with no changes in systemic arterial pressure, cardiac output, or heart rate. In normoxic rats, acute NO inhalation did not cause changes in PAP. In rats simultaneously exposed to 10% O2 and 10 ppm NO during 2 wk, right ventricular hypertrophy was less severe (P < 0.01), and the degree of muscularization of pulmonary vessels at both alveolar duct and alveolar wall levels was lower (P < 0.01) than in rats exposed to hypoxia alone. Tolerance to the pulmonary vasodilator effect of NO did not develop after prolonged inhalation. Brief discontinuation of NO after 2 wk of hypoxia plus NO caused a rapid increase in PAP. These data demonstrate that prolonged inhalation of low concentrations of NO induces sustained pulmonary vasodilation and reduces pulmonary vascular remodeling in response to chronic hypoxia.
C Kouyoumdjian, S Adnot, M Levame, S Eddahibi, H Bousbaa, B Raffestin
To investigate the role of IL-6 in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), we selectively inhibited IL-6 in lupus-prone NZB/NZW F1(B/W) mice by chronic administration of a rat mAb to mouse IL-6. Anti-IL-6 alone elicited an anti-rat response that blocked its biologic effects. To circumvent this problem, we rendered B/W mice tolerant to the rat mAb by administration of anti-CD4 concurrent with the first dose of anti-IL-6. Thereafter, the mice received weekly injections of anti-IL-6 alone. There were two control groups: one group received the tolerizing regimen of anti-CD4 along with a control rat IgG1 mAb (GL113) instead of anti-IL-6; the other control group received PBS. Mice that received anti-CD4 were tolerant to the rat mAb for 6 mo. Throughout this period, treatment with anti-IL-6 prevented production of anti-dsDNA, significantly reduced proteinuria, and prolonged life. Mice that received anti-IL-6 without anti-CD4 developed an immune response to the rat mAb and then developed anti-dsDNA antibodies, proteinuria, and mortality comparable with control mice. These findings establish that IL-6 promotes autoimmunity in B/W mice. They further indicate that, although mAb to IL-6 can suppress murine lupus, the development of host immunity to the mAb abrogates its beneficial effects. Finally, this is the first study to demonstrate that a brief course of anti-CD4 can induce tolerance to another therapeutic mAb, in this case an anti-cytokine mAb.
B K Finck, B Chan, D Wofsy
Antioxidants have been proposed to be anti-atherosclerotic agents; however, the mechanisms underlying their beneficial effects are poorly understood. We have examined the effect of alpha-tocopherol (alpha-tcp) on one cellular event in atherosclerotic plaque development, monocyte adhesion to stimulated endothelial cells (ECs). Human umbilical vein ECs were pretreated with alpha-tcp before stimulation with known agonists of monocyte adhesion: IL-1 (10 ng/ml), LPS (10 ng/ml), thrombin (30 U/ml), or PMA (10 nM). Agonist-induced monocytic cell adhesion, but not basal adhesion, was inhibited in a time- and concentration-dependent manner by alpha-tcp. The IC50 of alpha-tcp on an IL-1-induced response was 45 microM. The inhibition correlated with a decrease in steady state levels of E-selectin mRNA and cell surface expression of E-selectin which is consistent with the ability of a monoclonal antibody to E-selectin to inhibit monocytic cell adhesion in this system. Probucol (50 microM) and N-acetylcysteine (20 mM) also inhibited agonist-induced monocytic cell adhesion; whereas, several other antioxidants had no significant effect. Protein kinase C (PKC) does not appear to play a role in the alpha-tcp effect since no suppression of phosphorylation of PKC substrates was observed. Activation of the transcription factor NF-kappa B is reported to be necessary but not sufficient for E-selectin expression in EC. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays failed to show an alpha-tcp-induced decrease in activation of this transcription factor after cytokine stimulation. It has been hypothesized that alpha-tcp acts as an anti-atherosclerotic molecule by inhibiting generation of oxidized LDL--a putative triggering molecule in the atherosclerotic process. Our results point to a novel alternative mechanism of action of alpha-tcp.
R Faruqi, C de la Motte, P E DiCorleto
Dystrophin is associated with several novel sarcolemmal proteins, including a laminin-binding extracellular glycoprotein of 156 kD (alpha-dystroglycan) and a transmembrane glycoprotein of 50 kD (adhalin). Deficiency of adhalin characterizes a severe autosomal recessive muscular dystrophy prevalent in Arabs. Here we report for the first time two mongoloid (Japanese) patients with autosomal recessive muscular dystrophy deficient in adhalin. Interestingly, adhalin was not completely absent and was faintly detectable in a patchy distribution along the sarcolemma in our patients. Although the M and B2 subunits of laminin were preserved, the B1 subunit was greatly reduced in the basal lamina surrounding muscle fibers. Our results raise a possibility that the deficiency of adhalin may be associated with the disturbance of sarcolemma-extracellular matrix interaction leading to sarcolemmal instability.
I Higuchi, H Yamada, H Fukunaga, H Iwaki, R Okubo, M Nakagawa, M Osame, S L Roberds, T Shimizu, K P Campbell
Thyroid hormone receptor (TR) beta gene mutations identified in patients with resistance to thyroid hormone (RTH) revealed two clusters ("hot" areas) of mutations (RTHmut) in the triiodothyronine (T3)-binding domain. Furthermore, 45% of RTHmuts and 90% of recurring mutations are located in CpG dinucleotides ("hot spots"). To investigate why the region between the two hot areas lacks RTHmuts, we produced 10 artificial mutant TR beta s (ARTmut) in this "cold" region according to the hot spot rule (C-->T or G-->A substitutions in CpGs). The properties of ARTmuts were compared with those of six RTHmuts. Among all RTHmuts, R320H manifesting a mild form of RTH showed the least impairment of T3-binding affinity (Ka). In contrast, Ka was normal in six ARTmuts (group A), reduced to a lesser extent than R320H in three (group B), and one that was truncated (R410X) did not bind T3. All RTHmuts had impaired ability to transactivate T3-responsive elements and exhibited a strong dominant negative effect on cotransfected wild-type TR beta. Group B and A ARTmuts had minimally impaired or normal transactivation and weak or no dominant negative effect, respectively. R410X showed neither transactivation nor dominant negative effect. Natural mutations expected to occur in the cold region of TR beta should fail to manifest as RTH (group A) or should escape detection (group B) since the serum thyroid hormone levels required to compensate for the reduced binding affinity should be inferior to those found in subjects with R320H. R410X would manifest RTH only in the homozygote state. The cold region of the putative T3-binding domain is relatively insensitive to amino acid changes and, thus, may not be involved in a direct interaction with T3.
Y Hayashi, T Sunthornthepvarakul, S Refetoff
D Hollenbaugh, L H Wu, H D Ochs, S Nonoyama, L S Grosmaire, J A Ledbetter, R J Noelle, H Hill, A Aruffo
The effect of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) administration on regional myocardial function and blood flow in chronically ischemic hearts was studied in 26 pigs instrumented with proximal circumflex coronary artery (LCX) ameroid constrictors. In 13 animals bFGF was administered extraluminally to the proximal left anterior descending (LAD) and LCX arteries with heparin-alginate beads and 13 other animal served as controls. bFGF-treated pigs showed a fourfold reduction in left ventricular infarct size compared to untreated controls (infarct size: 1.2 +/- 0.4% vs. 5.1 +/- 1.3% of LV mass, mean +/- SEM, P < 0.05). Percent fractional shortening (% FS) in the LCX area at rest was reduced compared with the LAD region in both bFGF and control pigs. However, there was better recovery in the LCX area after rapid pacing in bFGF-treated pigs (% FSLCX/% FSLAD, 22.9 +/- 7.3%-->30.5 +/- 8.5%, P < 0.05 vs. prepacing) than in controls (16.0 +/- 7.8%-->14.3 +/- 7.0%, P = NS). Furthermore, LV end-diastolic pressure rise with rapid pacing was less in bFGF-treated than control pigs (pre-pacing; pacing; post-pacing, 10 +/- 1; 17 +/- 3; 11 +/- 1* mmHg vs 10 +/- 1; 24 +/- 4; 15 +/- 1 mmHg, *P < 0.05 vs. control). Coronary blood flow in the LCX territory (normalized for LAD flow) was also better during pacing in bFGF-treated pigs than in controls. Thus, periadventitial administration of bFGF in a gradual coronary occlusion model in pigs results in improvement of coronary flow and reduction in infarct size in the compromised territory as well as in prevention of pacing-induced hemodynamic deterioration.
K Harada, W Grossman, M Friedman, E R Edelman, P V Prasad, C S Keighley, W J Manning, F W Sellke, M Simons
Brown recluse spider (Loxosceles reclusa) venom induces severe dermonecrotic lesions. The mechanism for this is unknown but presents an interesting paradox: necrosis is completely dependent on the victim's neutrophils, yet neutrophils are not activated by the venom. We show Loxosceles venom is a potent, but disjointed, endothelial cell agonist. It weakly induced E-selectin expression, but not intercellular adhesion molecule-1 or IL-6 expression, yet significantly stimulated release of IL-8 and large amounts of GM-CSF by 4 h. In contrast, TNF strongly induced all of these, except for GM-CSF. PMN bound to E-selectin on venom-activated endothelial cells, apparently via counterreceptors different from those that bind E-selectin on TNF alpha-activated monolayers. Notably, PMN bound venom-activated monolayers only at intercellular junctions, did not polarize, and completely failed to migrate beneath the monolayer. Despite this, bound PMN demonstrated increased intracellular Ca2+ levels and secreted primary and secondary granule markers. The latter event was suppressed by sulfones used to treat envenomation. We have defined a new endothelial cell agonist, Loxosceles venom, that differentially stimulates the inflammatory response of endothelial cells. This, in turn, leads to a dysregulated PMN response where adhesion and degranulation are completely dissociated from shape change and transmigration.
K D Patel, V Modur, G A Zimmerman, S M Prescott, T M McIntyre
Nonviral retrotransposons, retropseudogenes, and short interspersed nuclear elements (SINEs) are mobile DNA segments capable of transposition to new genomic locations, where they may alter gene expression. De novo integration into specific genes has been described in both germ and somatic cells. We report a family with hereditary elliptocytosis and pyropoikilocytosis associated with a truncated alpha-spectrin protein. We present the biochemical characteristics of this abnormal protein and show that the alpha-spectrin gene is disrupted by a mobile element resulting in exon skipping. This element causes duplication of the insertion site and is terminated by a long poly-A tail downstream of multiple consensus polyadenylation signals. Southern blot analysis of human genomic DNA, using this element as probe, reveals one to three copies per individual. This element has no homology to any previously reported sequence and therefore appears to be a member of a novel family of mobile elements.
H Hassoun, T L Coetzer, J N Vassiliadis, K E Sahr, G J Maalouf, S T Saad, L Catanzariti, J Palek
The acute porphyrias in relapse are commonly treated with intravenous heme infusion to decrease the activity of delta-aminolevulinic acid synthase, normally the rate-controlling enzyme in heme biosynthesis. The biochemical effects of heme treatment are short-lived, probably due in part to heme-mediated induction of heme oxygenase, the rate-controlling enzyme for heme degradation. In this work, selected nonheme metalloporphyrins were screened for their ability to reduce delta-aminolevulinic acid synthase mRNA and induce heme oxygenase mRNA in chick embryo liver cell cultures. Of the metalloporphyrins tested, only zinc-mesoporphyrin reduced delta-aminolevulinic acid synthase mRNA without increasing heme oxygenase mRNA. The combination of zinc-mesoporphyrin and heme, at nanomolar concentrations, decreased delta-aminolevulinic acid synthase mRNA in a dose-dependent manner. The combination of zinc-mesoporphyrin (50 nM) and heme (200 nM) decreased the half-life of the mRNA for delta-aminolevulinic acid synthase from 5.2 to 2.5 h, while a similar decrease was produced by heme (10 microM) alone (2.2 h). The ability of zinc-mesoporphyrin to supplement the reduction of delta-aminolevulinic acid synthase mRNA by heme, in a process similar to that observed with heme alone, provides a rationale for further investigation of this compound for eventual use as a supplement to heme therapy of the acute porphyrias and perhaps other conditions in which heme may be of benefit.
E E Cable, J A Pepe, N C Karamitsios, R W Lambrecht, H L Bonkovsky
In an experimental model of arthritis, increased leukocyte adhesion is associated with the evolution of acute and chronic synovial inflammation. Whereas peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from control animals bind minimally to fibronectin matrices, PBMC from animals receiving arthropathic doses of bacterial cell walls demonstrate increased integrin mRNA expression and enhanced adhesion. To determine whether this augmented adhesion was causal in the development of synovial pathology, peptides synthesized from several fibronectin domains which inhibited leukocyte adhesion in vitro were administered to arthritic animals either as free peptides or coupled to a carrier molecule. Not only were peptides containing either the RGD or CS-1 cell-binding domains inhibitory to chronic synovial pathology (articular index = 10.5 +/- 0.3 for untreated animals compared to 1.25 +/- 0.25 for RGD and 2.5 +/- 0.7 for CS-1), but three peptides synthesized from the carboxy-terminal 33-kD heparin-binding domain of fibronectin were also found to significantly inhibit leukocyte recruitment and the evolution of arthritis. Based on these data, which are the first to explore the therapeutic potential of heparin-binding fibronectin peptides in chronic inflammation, it appears that antagonism of cellular adhesion and recruitment by fibronectin peptides may provide an important mechanism for modulating the multi-step adhesion process and attenuating aberrant inflammatory responses.
S M Wahl, J B Allen, K L Hines, T Imamichi, A M Wahl, L T Furcht, J B McCarthy
Exogenous administration of beta-adrenergic agonists has previously been reported to increase lung liquid clearance by stimulation of active sodium transport across the alveolar epithelium. We hypothesized for this study that endogenous release of epinephrine in septic shock would stimulate liquid clearance from the airspaces in rats. Liquid clearance from the air spaces was measured by the concentration of protein over 4 h in a test solution of 5% albumin instilled into one lung. Bacteremic rats developed severe systemic hypotension and metabolic acidosis that was associated with a 100-fold rise in plasma epinephrine levels. There was a 100% increase in liquid clearance from the airspaces of the lung in the bacteremic compared with control rats. To determine the mechanisms responsible for this accelerated lung liquid clearance, amiloride (10(-3) M), a sodium transport inhibitor, was added to the air spaces. Amiloride prevented the increase in liquid clearance from the airspaces, indicating that this effect depended on increased uptake of sodium across the lung epithelium. The addition of propranolol (10(-4) or 10(-5) M) to the instillate also prevented the acceleration in alveolar liquid clearance in the bacteremic rats. We conclude that the release of endogenous catecholamines associated with septic shock markedly stimulates fluid clearance from the distal airspaces of the lung by a beta-adrenergic mediated stimulation of active sodium transport across the epithelial barrier. This data provides evidence for a previously unrecognized mechanism that can protect against or hasten the resolution of alveolar edema in pathological conditions, such as septic shock, that are associated with the endogenous release of catecholamines.
J F Pittet, J P Wiener-Kronish, M C McElroy, H G Folkesson, M A Matthay
Affinity purification of crude acid extracts of rabbit polymorphonuclear leukocytes using Escherichia coli (J5) as adsorbent yields the bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein (BPI), two 15-kD species (p15s), and the two most potent (cationic) defensin species (neutrophil peptides [NP] -1 and -2). Tested in buffered isotonic medium, the relative antibacterial potency of these proteins against E. coli J5 is BPI (IC50 0.2 nM) > p15A (10 nM) > NP -1 (400 nM). Sublethal doses of p15A or NP-1 can synergize with BPI to decrease the dose required to inhibit the growth of E. coli by up to 50-fold. BPI and p15A display similar features of antibacterial action distinct from defensin NP-1, but NP-1 acts synergistically only with BPI and not with p15A. All aspects of the combined action of BPI and NP-1 resemble those observed with higher concentrations of BPI alone, implying that NP-1 enhances BPI potency. Neither NP-1 nor p15A alter the amount of BPI binding to E. coli but BPI enhances binding of p15A to E. coli, raising the possibility that synergy between these two proteins may occur at least partially at the level of binding. The potent synergistic actions of these proteins can also be demonstrated against serum-resistant clinical isolates of encapsulated E. coli tested in whole blood and plasma ex vivo, suggesting that such combined action may contribute to host defense in vivo.
O Levy, C E Ooi, J Weiss, R I Lehrer, P Elsbach
Measurements of integral membrane protein lateral mobility and rotational mobility have been separately used to investigate dynamic protein--protein and protein-lipid interactions that underlie plasma membrane structure and function. In model bilayer membranes, the mobilities of reconstituted proteins depend on the size of the diffusing molecule and the viscosity of the lipid bilayer. There are no direct tests, however, of the relationship between mechanisms that control protein lateral mobility and rotational mobility in intact biological membranes. We have measured the lateral and rotational mobility of band 3 in spectrin-deficient red blood cells from patients with hereditary spherocytosis and hereditary pyropoikilocytosis. Our data suggest that band 3 lateral mobility is regulated by the spectrin content of the red cell membrane. In contrast, band 3 rotational mobility is unaffected by changes in spectrin content. Band 3 lateral mobility and rotational mobility must therefore be controlled by different molecular mechanisms.
J D Corbett, P Agre, J Palek, D E Golan
Fetal macrosomia (FM) is a well-recognized complication of diabetic pregnancy but it is not known whether placental transport mechanisms are altered. We therefore studied the activity of the system A amino acid transporter, the system L amino acid transporter, and the Na+/H+ exchanger in microvillous membrane vesicles from placentas of macrosomic babies born to diabetic women (FM group), from placentas of appropriately grown babies born to diabetic women (appropriate for gestational age group) and from placentas of appropriately grown babies of normal women (control group). Sodium-dependent uptake of [14C]-methylaminoisobutyric acid at 30 s (initial rate, a measure of system A activity) was 49% lower into FM vesicles than into control vesicles (P < 0.02); this effect was due to a decrease in Vmax of the transporter with no change in Km. There was no significant difference in system A activity between the appropriate for gestational age group and control or FM group. There was also no difference between system L transporter or Na+/H+ exchanger activity between the three groups. We conclude that the number of system A transporters per milligram of membrane protein in the placental microvillous membrane is selectively reduced in diabetic pregnancies associated with FM.
A G Kuruvilla, S W D'Souza, J D Glazier, D Mahendran, M J Maresh, C P Sibley
T A Slotkin, C B Nemeroff, G Bissette, F J Seidler
Nucleotide excision repair is a DNA repair pathway that is highly conserved in nature, with analogous repair systems described in Escherichia coli, yeast, and mammalian cells. The rate-limiting step, DNA damage recognition and excision, is effected by the protein products of the genes ERCC1 and XPAC. We therefore assessed mRNA levels of ERCC1 and XPAC in malignant ovarian cancer tissues from 28 patients that were harvested before the administration of platinum-based chemotherapy. Cancer tissues from patients whose tumors were clinically resistant to therapy (n = 13) showed greater levels of total ERCC1 mRNA (P = 0.059), full length transcript of ERCC1 mRNA (P = 0.026), and XPAC mRNA (P = 0.011), as compared with tumor tissues from those individuals clinically sensitive to therapy (n = 15). In 19 of these tissues, the percentage of alternative splicing of ERCC1 mRNA was assessed. ERCC1 splicing was highly variable, with no difference observed between responders and nonresponders. The alternatively spliced species constituted 2-58% of the total ERCC1 mRNA in responders (median = 18%) and 4-71% in nonresponders (median = 13%). These data suggest greater activity of the DNA excision repair genes ERCC1 and XPAC in ovarian cancer tissues of patients clinically resistant to platinum compounds. These data also indicate highly variable splicing of ERCC1 mRNA in ovarian cancer tissues in vivo, whether or not such tissues are sensitive to platinum-based therapy.
M Dabholkar, J Vionnet, F Bostick-Bruton, J J Yu, E Reed
We present here a family with a clinical phenotype resembling Marfan syndrome (MFS), and displaying joint contracture and episodes of knee joint effusions, but lacking the cardiovascular features of the syndrome. The phenotype of this family represents a unique mixture of connective tissue symptoms, some of which are found in classical MFS and some of which are typical of dominant ectopia lentis. Linkage analyses suggested a linkage (LOD score 2.4; theta = 0) between the phenotype of the family and a polymorphic marker in the vicinity of the fibrillin locus on chromosome 15 (FBN1). Furthermore, a novel transition mutation was identified in the FBN1 gene in all the affected members of the family. In contrast to the majority of fibrillin mutations reported so far, this mutation substitutes a cysteine for arginine, producing an extra cysteine in one of the non-calcium-binding EGF-like motifs of the fibrillin polypeptide, most probably disturbing the formation of one of the three disulfide bridges known to be essential for the normal conformation of this motif.
C Ståhl-Hallengren, T Ukkonen, K Kainulainen, U Kristofersson, T Saxne, K Tornqvist, L Peltonen
Cardiac transplantation, effective therapy for end-stage heart failure, is frequently complicated by allograft rejection, the mechanisms of which remain incompletely understood. Nitric oxide (NO), a vasodilator which is cytotoxic and negatively inotropic, can be produced in large amounts by an inducible NO synthase (iNOS) in response to cytokines. To investigate whether iNOS is induced during cardiac allograft rejection, hearts from Lewis or Wistar-Furth rats were transplanted into Lewis recipients. At day 5, allogeneic grafts manifested reduced contractility and histologic evidence of rejection (inflammatory infiltrate, edema, necrosis of myocytes). The mRNA for iNOS and iNOS protein were detected in ventricular homogenates and in isolated cardiac myocytes from rejecting allogeneic grafts but not in tissue and myocytes from syngeneic control grafts. Immunocytochemistry showed increased iNOS staining in infiltrating macrophages and in microvascular endothelial cells and cardiac muscle fibers and also in isolated purified cardiac myocytes from the rejecting allografts. Using a myocardial cytosolic iNOS preparation, nitrite formation from L-arginine and [3H] citrulline formation from [3H]L-arginine were increased significantly in the rejecting allogeneic grafts (P < 0.01). Myocardial cyclic GMP was also increased significantly (P < 0.05). The data indicate myocardial iNOS mRNA, protein and enzyme activity are induced in infiltrating macrophages and cardiac myocytes of the rejecting allogeneic grafts. Synthesis of NO by iNOS may contribute to myocyte necrosis and ventricular failure during cardiac allograft rejection.
X Yang, N Chowdhury, B Cai, J Brett, C Marboe, R R Sciacca, R E Michler, P J Cannon
Using differential mRNA display to uncover potential mediators associated with chronic rejection, we identified a cDNA fragment induced in Lewis to F344 rat cardiac allografts with arteriosclerosis but not Lewis syngrafts. The full-length cDNA (1.4 kb) isolated from a rat cardiac allograft cDNA library was 99% identical to galactose/N-acetylgalactosamine (Gal/GalNAc) macrophage lectin, a cell-surface receptor. This cDNA hybridized in Northern analysis with total RNA from eight cardiac allografts but not with host hearts, syngrafts, or other organs. There was a significant allograft-specific increase in transcript levels measured by reverse transcriptase PCR at days 7, 14, 28, and 75 in comparison with paired F344 host hearts (subject to same circulation but histologically normal), day-0 hearts, and syngrafts (P < 0.008, n = 4 at each time). Transcript levels in cardiac allografts were higher than those in paired host spleens (a major source of inflammatory cells) (P < 0.0001), indicating the localized nature of Gal/GalNAc lectin induction. By in situ hybridization and immunostaining, Gal/GalNAc lectin expression localized to a subset of inflammatory cells in cardiac allografts. These findings link Gal/GalNAc macrophage lectin to the chronic rejection process, as a possible mediator of macrophage infiltration.
M E Russell, U Utans, A F Wallace, P Liang, R J Arceci, M J Karnovsky, L R Wyner, Y Yamashita, C Tarn
The aims of this study were (a) to determine if rat alveolar type II (ATII) cells and human pulmonary epithelial-derived cells (A549 cell line) could generate IL-6 in vitro, (b) to characterize the cytokine regulation of IL-6 gene and protein expression in these cells, and (c) to detect the in vivo expression of immunoreactive IL-6 by human ATII cells. Rat ATII cells in primary culture secreted bioactive IL-6 and immunostained with an anti-IL-6 antiserum. Spontaneous IL-6 secretion by rat ATII cells amounted to 5,690 +/- 770 pg/ml/10(6) cells (n = 12) and was fivefold higher than spontaneous rat alveolar macrophages IL-6 secretion (1,052 +/- 286 pg/ml/10(6) cells, n = 8, P = 0.001). Rat alveolar macrophage conditioned media (CM) increased IL-6 secretion by rat ATII cells through the effect of IL-1 and TNF. IL-6 gene expression and IL-6 secretion by A549 cells was induced by IL-1 beta, TNF alpha, and by human alveolar macrophages and THP1 cells CM. Induction was abolished when CM were preincubated with anti-IL-1 beta and anti-TNF alpha antibody. The combination of IFN gamma and LPS induced the expression of IL-6 mRNA by A549 cells whereas LPS alone had no effect. Immunohistochemical staining evidenced the expression of immunoreactive IL-6 by hyperplastic ATII cells in fibrotic human lung, a condition in which alveolar macrophages are known to be activated. ATII cells in normal human lung did not express immunoreactive IL-6. Our findings demonstrate that ATII cells may be an important source of IL-6 in the alveolar space thereby participating to the regulation of the intra-alveolar immune response.
B Crestani, P Cornillet, M Dehoux, C Rolland, M Guenounou, M Aubier
Brody's disease, i.e., sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca(2+)-dependent Mg(2+)-ATPase (Ca(2+)-ATPase) deficiency, is a rare inherited disorder of skeletal muscle function. Pseudo-myotonia is the most important clinical feature. SR Ca(2+)-ATPase and Ca2+ homeostasis are examined in m. quadriceps and/or cultured muscle cells of controls and 10 patients suffering from Brody's disease. In both m. quadriceps and cultured muscle cells of patients, the SR Ca(2+)-ATPase activity is decreased by approximately 50%. However, the concentration of SR Ca(2+)-ATPase and SERCA1 are normal. SERCA1 accounts for 83 and 100% of total SR Ca(2+)-ATPase in m. quadriceps and cultured muscle cells, respectively. This implies a reduction of the molecular activity of SERCA1 in Brody's disease. The cytosolic Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) at rest and the increase of [Ca2+]i after addition of acetylcholine are the same in cultured muscle cells of controls and patients. The half-life of the maximal response, however, is raised three times in the pathological muscle cells. Addition of dantrolene or verapamil after the maximal response accelerates the restoration of the [Ca2+]i in these muscle cells. The differences in Ca2+ handling disappear by administration of dantrolene or verapamil concomitantly with acetylcholine. The reduced Ca2+ re-uptake from the cytosol presumably due to structural modification(s) of SERCA1 may explain the pseudo-myotonia in Brody's disease. Single cell measurements suggest a beneficial effect of dantrolene or verapamil in treating patients suffering from Brody's disease.
A A Benders, J H Veerkamp, A Oosterhof, P J Jongen, R J Bindels, L M Smit, H F Busch, R A Wevers
Experiments were designed to test the hypothesis that chronic exposure to tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF) alters the function of activated T lymphocytes. Pretreatment of tetanus toxoid-specific T cell clones with TNF for up to 16 d impaired rechallenge proliferative responses to antigen in a dose- and time-dependent fashion. IL-2 and PHA responses were preserved. Prolonged treatment with TNF impaired production of IL-2, IL-10, IFN gamma, TNF, and lymphotoxin (LT) following stimulation with immobilized OKT3, and resulted in suboptimal expression of the IL-2R alpha chain (Tac) but not CD3, CD4, or HLA-DR antigens, when compared to untreated control cells. By contrast, pretreatment of T cells for prolonged periods in vitro with neutralizing anti-TNF monoclonal antibodies (mAb) enhanced proliferative responses, increased lymphokine production, and upregulated Tac expression following stimulation with OKT3. To determine whether TNF exerts immunosuppressive effects on T cells in vivo, we studied cell-mediated immunity in patients with active rheumatoid arthritis (RA), before and after treatment with a chimeric anti-TNF mAb. Treatment with anti-TNF restored the diminished proliferative responses of PBMC to mitogens and recall antigens towards normal in all patients tested. These data demonstrate that persistent expression of TNF in vitro and in vivo impairs cell-mediated immune responses.
A P Cope, M Londei, N R Chu, S B Cohen, M J Elliott, F M Brennan, R N Maini, M Feldmann
The pathogenesis of gastrointestinal (GI) dysmotility in scleroderma is incompletely understood, although previous studies have proposed a neuropathic mechanism. We studied patients with scleroderma as compared with other connective tissue disease patients and normal controls for the presence of circulating antibodies to myenteric neurons. Serial dilutions of sera were overlaid on rat intestine, double-labeled with antineurofilament antibody as a myenteric plexus marker, and imaged using indirect immunofluorescence techniques. High titer sera (> or = 1:50) from 19 out of 41 scleroderma patients stained myenteric neurons, whereas none of 22 normals or 5 patients with idiopathic GI dysmotility were positive. Although 6 out of 20 SLE and 6 out of 10 mixed connective tissue disease patients' sera stained myenteric plexus neurons, when positive sera were absorbed with calf thymus extract to remove antinuclear antibody, 15 scleroderma sera, 0 SLE, and 2 mixed connective tissue disease patients retained positive staining of myenteric neurons. Western blotting using actin and neuronal intermediate filament preparations failed to show immunoreactivity with scleroderma sera containing antimyenteric neuronal antibodies. Paraneoplastic sera associated with GI dysmotility stained myenteric neurons in a different pattern than seen with scleroderma sera. A positive correlation between the presence of Raynaud's phenomenon and antimyenteric neuronal antibodies was observed in scleroderma patients. Our results indicate that IgG antibodies reacting with myenteric neurons are present in many patients with scleroderma. Although the neuronal antigen has not yet been identified, the presence of myenteric neuronal antibodies in patients with GI dysmotility and scleroderma suggests a neuropathic process.
S Howe, E Y Eaker, J E Sallustio, C Peebles, E M Tan, R C Williams Jr
Oxidized lipoproteins may be important in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Because diabetic subjects are particularly prone to vascular disease, and glucose autoxidation and protein glycation generate reactive oxygen species, we explored the role of glucose in lipoprotein oxidation. Glucose enhanced low density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation at concentrations seen in the diabetic state. Conjugated dienes, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, electrophoretic mobility, and degradation by macrophages were increased when LDL was modified in the presence of glucose. In contrast, free lysine groups and fibroblast degradation were reduced. Although loss of reactive lysine groups could be due to either oxidative modification or nonenzymatic glycation of apolipoprotein B-100, inhibition of lipid peroxidation by the metal chelator, diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid, blocked the changes in free lysines. Thus, glycation of lysine residues is unlikely to account for the alterations in macrophage and fibroblast uptake of LDL modified in the presence of glucose. Glucose-mediated enhancement of LDL oxidation was partially blocked by superoxide dismutase and nearly completely inhibited by butylated hydroxytoluene. These findings indicate that glucose enhances LDL lipid peroxidation by an oxidative pathway involving superoxide and raise the possibility that the chronic hyperglycemia of diabetes accelerates lipoprotein oxidation, thereby promoting diabetic vascular disease.
M Kawamura, J W Heinecke, A Chait
The response of cultured human nasal epithelia to hypertonic bathing solutions was tested using ion-selective microelectrode and quantitative microscopy. Raised luminal, but not serosal, osmolality (+/- 150 mM mannitol) decreased Na+ absorption but did not induce Cl- secretion. Raised luminal osmolality increased cell Cl- activity, Na+ activity, and transepithelial resistance and decreased both apical and basolateral membrane potentials and the fractional resistance of the apical membrane; equivalent circuit analysis revealed increases in apical, basolateral, and shunt resistances. Prolonged exposure (10 min) to 430 mosM luminal solution elicited no regulation of any parameter. Optical measurements revealed a reduction in the thickness of preparations only in response to luminal hypertonic solutions. We conclude that (a) airway epithelial cells exhibit asymmetric water transport properties, with the apical membrane water permeability exceeding that of the basolateral membrane; (b) the cellular response to volume loss is a deactivation of the basolateral membrane K+ conductance and the apical membrane Cl- conductance; (c) luminal hypertonicity slows the rate of Na+ absorption but does not induce Cl- secretion; and (d) cell volume loss increases the resistance of the paracellular path. We speculate that these properties configure human nasal epithelium to behave as an osmotic sensor, transducing information about luminal solutions to the airway wall.
N J Willumsen, C W Davis, R C Boucher
In vivo, epithelial cells which line the intestine are intimately associated with lymphocytes, termed intraepithelial lymphocytes. Previous studies have demonstrated that intraepithelial lymphocytes are present in the uninflamed mucosa, and become especially prominent in various human enteropathies including coeliac disease, tropical sprue, dermatitis herpetiformis, and giardiasis. Using the intestinal crypt cell line T84, and a previously well-defined human mucosa-derived lymphocyte (MDL) line with phenotypic features similar to (but not specific for) intraepithelial lymphocytes, we describe a co-culture model to study the functional sequellae of MDL-T84 cell interactions in vitro. A co-culture method was defined which permitted reconstitution of the paracellular spaces of physiologically confluent epithelial monolayers with MDL. Such co-cultures thus mimicked the correct geometry of intraepithelial lymphocytes-epithelial cell interactions. The presence of physiologically positioned MDL brought about specific and dramatic effects on intestinal epithelial monolayer function. In a dose-dependent fashion, the presence of MDL significantly attenuated barrier function (expressed as a decrease in monolayer resistance), decreased epithelial electrogenic Cl- secretion, and modulated epithelial-neutrophil interactions. Such effects were not reproduced in monolayers similarly reconstituted with inert polystyrene beads equivalent in size to MDL. These MDL-elicited effects on epithelial function specifically required direct MDL apposition to the epithelial basolateral membrane. Furthermore, this specific form of MDL-epithelial basolateral contact released soluble factors which were able to confer the MDL-reconstituted phenotype on virgin epithelial monolayers in the absence of MDL. We have previously shown that many aspects of the MDL converted epithelial phenotype described here can be induced by IFN-gamma. While IFN-gamma, a cytokine produced by many lymphocytes including intraepithelial lymphocytes, was detectable in conditioned supernatants from co-cultures, it existed at concentrations insufficient to fully explain the physiologic effects observed here.
P Kaoutzani, S P Colgan, K L Cepek, P G Burkard, S Carlson, C Delp-Archer, M B Brenner, J L Madara
Antigen-specific, CD8+, cytolytic T lymphocytes (CTLs) could potentially provide resistance to several infectious and malignant diseases. However, the cellular requirements for the generation of specific CTLs in human lymphocyte cultures are not well defined, and repetitive stimulation with antigen is often required. We find that strong CD8+ CTL responses to influenza virus can be generated from freshly isolated blood T cells, as long as dendritic cells are used as antigen presenting cells (APCs). Small numbers of dendritic cells (APC:T cell ratio of 1:50-1:100) induce these CTL responses from most donors in 7 d of culture, but monocytes are weak or inactive. Whereas both dendritic cells and monocytes are infected with influenza virus, the former serve as effective APCs for the induction of CD8+ T cells while the latter act as targets for the CTLs that are induced. The strong CD8+ response to influenza virus-infected dendritic cells is accompanied by extensive proliferation of the CD8+ T cells, but the response can develop in the apparent absence of CD4+ helpers or exogenous lymphokines. CD4+ influenza virus-specific CTLs can also be induced by dendritic cells, but the cultures initially must be depleted of CD8+ cells. These findings should make it possible to use dendritic cells to generate human, antigen-specific, CD8+ CTLs to other targets. The results illustrate the principle that efficient T cell-mediated responses develop in two stages: an afferent limb in which dendritic cells are specialized APCs and an efferent limb in which the primed T cells carry out an immune response to many types of presenting cells.
N Bhardwaj, A Bender, N Gonzalez, L K Bui, M C Garrett, R M Steinman
Although collagen is known to enhance hepatocyte differentiation and hepatocytes produce collagen in vivo, the transcriptional factors responsible for collagen type I gene expression in hepatic cells are not known. LAP (Liver Activator Protein) is a member of the C/EBP family, which in differentiated hepatocytes contributes to the high levels of liver-specific gene expression. In this study we show that LAP binds to the collagen alpha 1(I) promoter at both reverse CCAAT motifs and activates transcription. Furthermore, an upstream element, collagen element I (-370/-344), which shares homology with the LAP binding cis-element of the albumin promoter (9 of 13 bp) is described. This collagen element I stimulates transcription in both orientations and when placed in front of either a homologous or a heterologous chimeric report construct. These experiments suggest that LAP may be important in the expression of collagen in differentiated hepatocytes through both the promoter and a newly described upstream element.
K Houglum, M Buck, V Adir, M Chojkier
G S Worthen, N Avdi, A M Buhl, N Suzuki, G L Johnson
In addition to the atria, recent evidence suggests that atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) is also synthesized in other tissues. Of particular interest is the location of ANP mRNA in the vessel wall. We and others have shown that exogenously added ANP inhibited the growth of endothelial cells and vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) in culture. However, it is not known if the locally synthesized ANP would act similarly. Because cultured endothelial cells and VSMC have lost the ability to express the endogenous ANP gene, we have transfected cells in culture with an expression vector expressing rat ANP and have examined the effects on growth. Cultured endothelial cells transfected with an ANP expression vector synthesized and secreted high levels of ANP. These cells also showed significantly lower rates of DNA synthesis under basal and fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-stimulated conditions. Addition of conditioned medium from endothelial cells transfected with ANP vector to nontransfected endothelial cells resulted in the significant increase in cyclic GMP. Similarly, conditioned media collected from endothelial cells transfected with ANP vector also decreased DNA synthesis in VSMC. Coculture of ANP-transfected endothelial cells with quiescent VSMC showed that released ANP from endothelial cells inhibited DNA synthesis in VSMC. Finally, we examined the autocrine effect of direct transfection of ANP vector into VSMC. Transfection of the ANP vector decreased DNA synthesis in VSMC under basal and angiotensin II-stimulated conditions. Similarly, transfection of the ANP vector resulted in a decrease in the PDGF and serum (5%)-stimulated DNA synthesis of VSMC. These results demonstrate that endogenously produced ANP can exert autocrine and paracrine inhibitory effects on endothelial cell and VSMC growth. In vivo gene transfer of ANP may provide us with the opportunity of gene therapy for vascular diseases in which the abnormalities are vasoconstriction and pathological growth.
R Morishita, G H Gibbons, R E Pratt, N Tomita, Y Kaneda, T Ogihara, V J Dzau
The loop of Henle contributes to renal acidification by reabsorbing about 15% of filtered bicarbonate. To study the effects on loop of Henle bicarbonate transport (JHCO3) of acid-base disturbances and of several factors known to modulate sodium transport, these in vivo microperfusion studies were carried out in rats during: (a) acute and chronic metabolic acidosis, (b) acute and chronic (hypokalemic) metabolic alkalosis, (c) a control sodium diet, (d) a high-sodium diet, (e) angiotensin II (AII) intravenous infusion, (f) simultaneously intravenous infusion of both AII and the AT1 receptor antagonist DuP 753, (g) acute ipsilateral mechanicochemical renal denervation. Acute and chronic metabolic acidosis increased JHCO3; acute metabolic alkalosis significantly reduced JHCO3, whereas chronic hypokalemic alkalosis did not alter JHCO3. Bicarbonate transport increased in animals on a high-sodium intake and following AII administration, and the latter was inhibited by the AII (AT1) receptor antagonist DuP 753; acute renal denervation lowered bicarbonate transport. These data indicate that bicarbonate reabsorption along the loop of Henle in vivo is closely linked to systemic acid-base status and to several factors known to modulate sodium transport.
G Capasso, R Unwin, F Ciani, N G De Santo, G De Tommaso, F Russo, G Giebisch
Angiokeratoma corporis diffusum with glycopeptiduria is a recently recognized inborn error of glycoprotein catabolism resulting from the deficient activity of human alpha-N-acetylgalactosaminidase (E.C. 220.127.116.11; alpha-GalNAc). The first patient with this autosomal recessive disorder, a 46-yr-old consanguineous Japanese woman, presented with diffuse angiokeratoma, mild intellectual impairment, and peripheral neuroaxonal degeneration. Deficient alpha-GalNAc activity also has been reported in consanguineous brothers with an infantile-onset form of neuroaxonal dystrophy resulting from a missense mutation (designated E325K) in the alpha-GalNAc gene. To identify the mutation causing the phenotypically distinct adult-onset disorder, Southern and Northern hybridization analyses of DNA and RNA from the affected homozygote were performed which revealed a grossly normal alpha-GalNAc gene structure and normal transcript size and abundancy. Reverse transcription, amplification, and sequencing of the alpha-GalNAc transcript identified a single C to T transition at nucleotide (nt) 985 that predicted an arginine to tryptophan substitution in residue 329 (designated R329W) of the alpha-GalNAc polypeptide. This base substitution was confirmed by hybridization of PCR-amplified genomic DNA from family members with allele-specific oligonucleotides. Transient expression of an alpha-GalNAc construct containing the R329W mutation resulted in the expression of an immunoreactive polypeptide which had no detectable alpha-GalNAc activity. Comparison of the biosynthesis and stabilities of the transiently expressed and radiolabeled normal, E325K (infantile-onset) and R329W (adult-onset) alpha-GalNAc polypeptides in COS-1 cells indicated that both the mutant precursors were processed to the mature form; however, the E325K mutant polypeptide was more rapidly degraded than the R329W subunit, thereby providing a basis for the distinctly different infantile- and adult-onset phenotypes.
A M Wang, T Kanzaki, R J Desnick
Bone marrow failure is a consistent feature of Fanconi anemia (FA) but it is not known whether the bone marrow failure is a direct and specific result of the inherited mutation or a consequence of accumulated stem cell losses resulting from nonspecific DNA damage. We tested the hypothesis that the protein encoded by the FA group C complementing gene (FACC) plays a regulatory role in hematopoiesis. We exposed normal human lymphocytes, bone marrow cells, endothelial cells, and fibroblasts to an antisense oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN) complementary to bases -4 to +14 of FACC mRNA. The mitomycin C assay demonstrated that the antisense ODN, but not missense or sense ODNs, repressed FACC gene expression in lymphocytes. Treatment with the antisense ODN substantially reduced, in a sequence-specific fashion, cytoplasmic levels of FACC mRNA in bone marrow cells and lymphocytes. Escalating doses of antisense ODN increasingly inhibited clonal growth of erythroid and granulocyte-macrophage progenitor cells but did not inhibit growth of fibroblasts or endothelial cells. The antisense ODN did not inhibit growth factor gene expression by low density bone marrow cells or marrow-derived fibroblasts. We conclude that, while the FACC gene product plays a role in defining cellular tolerance to cross-linking agents, it also functions to regulate growth, differentiation, and/or survival of normal hematopoietic progenitor cells.
G M Segal, R E Magenis, M Brown, W Keeble, T D Smith, M C Heinrich, G C Bagby Jr
Metabolic and vascular factors have been invoked in the pathogenesis of diabetic neuropathy but their interrelationships are poorly understood. Both aldose reductase inhibitors and vasodilators improve nerve conduction velocity, blood flow, and (Na+,K+)-ATPase activity in the streptozotocin diabetic rat, implying a metabolic-vascular interaction. NADPH is an obligate cofactor for both aldose reductase and nitric oxide synthase such that activation of aldose reductase by hyperglycemia could limit nitric oxide synthesis by cofactor competition, producing vasoconstriction, ischemia, and slowing of nerve conduction. In accordance with this construct, N-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester, a competitive inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase reversed the increased nerve conduction velocity afforded by aldose reductase inhibitor treatment in the acutely diabetic rat without affecting the attendant correction of nerve sorbitol and myo-inositol. With prolonged administration, N-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester fully reproduced the nerve conduction slowing and (Na+,K+)-ATPase impairment characteristic of diabetes. Thus the aldose reductase-inhibitor-sensitive component of conduction slowing and the reduced (Na+,K+)-ATPase activity in the diabetic rat may reflect in part impaired nitric oxide activity, thus comprising a dual metabolic-ischemic pathogenesis.
M J Stevens, J Dananberg, E L Feldman, S A Lattimer, M Kamijo, T P Thomas, H Shindo, A A Sima, D A Greene
Late-onset and sporadic Alzheimer's disease are associated with the apolipoprotein E (apoE) type 4 allele expressing the protein isoform apoE4. Apolipoprotein E binds avidly to beta amyloid (A beta) peptide, a major component of senile plaque of Alzheimer's disease, in an isoform-specific manner. The apoE4 isoform binds to A beta peptide more rapidly than apoE3. We observed that soluble SDS-stable complexes of apoE3 or apoE4, formed by coincubation with A beta peptide, precipitated after several days of incubation at 37 degrees C with apoE4 complexes precipitating more rapidly than apoE3 complexes. A beta(1-28) and A beta(1-40) peptides were incubated in the presence or absence of apoE3, apoE4, or bovine serum albumin for 4 d at 37 degrees C (pH 7.3). Negative stain electron microscopy revealed that the A beta peptide alone self-assembled into twisted ribbons containing two or three strands but occasionally into multistranded sheets. The apoE/A beta coincubates yielded monofibrils 7 nm in diameter. ApoE4/A beta coincubates yielded a denser matrix of monofibrils than apoE3/A beta coincubates. Unlike purely monofibrillar apoE4/A beta coincubates, apoE3/A beta coincubates also contained double- and triple-stranded structures. Both apoE isoforms were shown by immunogold labeling to be uniformly distributed along the A beta peptide monofibrils. Monofibrils appeared earlier in apoE4/A beta than in apoE3/A beta in time-course experiments. Thus apoE3 and apoE4 each interact with beta amyloid peptide to form novel monofibrillar structures, apoE4 more avidly, a finding consistent with the biochemical and genetic association between apoE4 and Alzheimer's disease.
D A Sanan, K H Weisgraber, S J Russell, R W Mahley, D Huang, A Saunders, D Schmechel, T Wisniewski, B Frangione, A D Roses
The mechanisms involved in the initiation and maintenance of skin inflammation in atopic dermatitis (AD) are poorly understood. Recent data suggest that the pattern of cytokines expressed locally plays a critical role in modulating the nature of tissue inflammation. In this study, we used in situ hybridization to investigate the expression of interleukin 4 (IL-4), IL-5, and interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) messenger RNA (mRNA) in skin biopsies from acute and chronic skin lesions of patients with AD. As compared with normal control skin or uninvolved skin of patients with AD, acute and chronic skin lesions had significantly greater numbers of cells that were positive for mRNA, IL-4 (P < 0.01), and IL-5 (P < 0.01), but not for IFN-gamma mRNA expressing cells. However, as compared with acute AD skin lesions, chronic AD skin lesions had significantly fewer IL-4 mRNA-expressing cells (P < 0.01), but significantly greater IL-5 mRNA (P < 0.01). T cells constituted the majority of IL-5-expressing cells in acute and chronic AD lesions. Chronic lesions also expressed significantly greater numbers of activated EG2+ eosinophils than acute lesions (P < 0.01). These data indicate that although acute and chronic AD lesions are associated with increased activation of IL-4 and IL-5 genes, initiation of acute skin inflammation in AD is associated with a predominance of IL-4 expression whereas maintenance of chronic inflammation is predominantly associated with increased IL-5 expression and eosinophil infiltration.
Q Hamid, M Boguniewicz, D Y Leung
In a previous survey of inbred mouse strains on an atherogenic diet, we observed that the susceptibility to aortic atherosclerotic lesion formation was associated with the accumulation of lipid peroxidation products, induction of inflammatory genes, and the activation of NF-kB-like transcription factors (Liao, F., A. Andalibi, F. C. deBeer, A. M. Fogelman, and A.J. Lusis. 1993. J. Clin. Invest. 91:2572-2579). We hypothesized that the inflammation-related processes were stimulated by oxidized lipids, since injection of minimally oxidized LDL (MM-LDL) activated the same set of genes. We now report that the induction of inflammatory genes and activation of NF-kB-like transcription factors cosegregate with aortic atherosclerotic lesion formation in BXH recombinant inbred strains derived from parental C57BL/6J (susceptible) and C3H/HeJ (resistant) mice. In addition, the accumulation of hepatic conjugated dienes exhibited a significant correlation with inflammatory gene activation. These results provide strong evidence for the role of inflammatory mediators inducible by oxidative stress in atherogenesis. They also suggest that a major gene contributing to aortic lesion development in this mouse model, designated Ath-1, may control either the accumulation of lipid peroxides in tissues or the cellular responses to such lipid peroxides.
F Liao, A Andalibi, J H Qiao, H Allayee, A M Fogelman, A J Lusis
Hemodynamic forces induce various functional changes in vascular endothelium, many of which reflect alterations in gene expression. We have recently identified a cis-acting transcriptional regulatory element, the shear stress response element (SSRE), present in the promoters of several genes, that may represent a common pathway by which biomechanical forces influence gene expression. In this study, we have examined the effect of shear stress on endothelial expression of three adhesion molecules: intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), which contains the SSRE in its promoter, and E-selectin (ELAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), both of which lack the SSRE. Cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells, subjected to a physiologically relevant range of laminar shear stresses (2.5-46 dyn/cm2) in a cone and plate apparatus for up to 48 h, showed time-dependent but force-independent increases in surface immunoreactive ICAM-1. Upregulated ICAM-1 expression was correlated with increased adhesion of the JY lymphocytic cell line. Northern blot analysis revealed increased ICAM-1 transcript as early as 2 h after the onset of shear stress. In contrast, E-selectin and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 transcript and cell-surface protein were not upregulated at any time point examined. This selective regulation of adhesion molecule expression in vascular endothelium suggests that biomechanical forces, in addition to humoral stimuli, may contribute to differential endothelial gene expression and thus represent pathophysiologically relevant stimuli in inflammation and atherosclerosis.
T Nagel, N Resnick, W J Atkinson, C F Dewey Jr, M A Gimbrone Jr
Since mouse keratinocytes are tolerogenic antigen presenting cells for T cell activation, the expression of second signal molecules such as B7-1 was targeted to epidermal keratinocytes (KC) in vivo in transgenic mice. The expression vector used to create transgenic mice consisted of a keratin 14 promoter fused 5' to the full length open reading frame of the cDNA encoding mouse B7-1 (between 10 and 30 copies of the transgene per genome). Expression of B7-1 cell surface protein was assessed by in situ immunostaining of cryostat sections of tail skin with CTLA-4/Ig fusion protein, revealing high levels of cell surface expression of B7 by all epidermal KC of transgenic mice, and a lack of such expression in nontransgenic animals. The skin of such transgenic mice (derived from three different founder mice) was grossly and histologically normal, with normal numbers of Langerhans cells and dendritic epidermal T cells. Immunologic challenge of transgenic mice with epicutaneous haptens such as fluorescein isothiocyanate revealed enhanced and persistent delayed-type hypersensitivity responses, with an altered kinetics of resolution when compared with nontransgenic controls. These data indicate that in normal, nontransgenic mice, tolerogenic antigen presentation by KC plays an important physiologic role in damping T cell-mediated inflammation in the skin by competing with professional APC for TCR occupancy in antigen specific T-lymphocytes that migrate into the epidermis. This also implies that altered regulation of B7-1 gene expression by epidermal cells may account for skin "hyperresponsiveness" encountered in some chronic dermatologic disorders.
A Nasir, B Ferbel, W Salminen, R K Barth, A A Gaspari
Apolipoprotein E (apo E)-deficient mice are severely hypercholesterolemic and develop advanced atheromas independent of diet. The C57BL/6 strain differs from most inbred strains by having lower HDL concentrations and a high risk of developing early atherosclerotic lesions when fed an atherogenic diet. The relative HDL deficiency and atherosclerosis susceptibility of the C57BL/6 strain are corrected with the expression of a human apolipoprotein AI (apo AI) transgene in this genetic background. To examine if increases in apo AI and HDL are also effective in minimizing apo E deficiency--induced atherosclerosis, we introduced the human apo AI transgene into the hypercholesterolemic apo E knockout background. Similar elevations of total plasma cholesterol occurred in both the apo E knockout and apo E knockout mice also expressing the human apo AI transgene. The latter animals, however, also showed a two- to threefold increase in HDL and a sixfold decrease in susceptibility to atherosclerosis. This study demonstrates that elevating the concentration of apo AI reduces atherosclerosis in apo E deficient-mice and suggests that elevation of apo AI and HDL may prove to be a useful approach for treating unrelated causes of heightened atherosclerosis susceptibility.
C Pászty, N Maeda, J Verstuyft, E M Rubin