S J Tapscott, H Weintraub
In reticulocytes, the enzyme 15-lipoxygenase (15-LO) is believed to contribute to cellular differentiation, and in leukocytes and airway cells 15-LO generates inflammatory mediators. The recent availability of antibodies to 15-LO now allows us to determine which specific cells contain the enzyme, to characterize its subcellular localization, and to determine its expression at the translational level. A polyclonal antibody to recombinant human reticulocyte 15-LO was used with a standard immunofluorescent technique. In rabbit red blood cells, fluorescence appeared during the course of anemia. Early reticulocytes did not fluoresce, but more mature reticulocytes showed increased fluorescent intensity. Late reticulocytes contained little fluorescence. Among human leukocytes, only eosinophils fluoresced. In human trachea, 15-LO immunofluorescence was localized to epithelial cells, and both basal and ciliated cells fluoresced. In all cells studied, fluorescence was localized to the cytoplasm and was variable in degree among cells in each preparation. We conclude that the 15-LO of airway cells and eosinophils is immunologically related to the reticulocyte 15-LO. Furthermore, the variable fluorescence among cells (e.g., in epithelium) and during development (e.g., reticulocytes) suggests a role of 15-LO in cell growth and development.
J A Nadel, D J Conrad, I F Ueki, A Schuster, E Sigal
Oxidatively modified low density lipoprotein (LDL) exhibits several potentially atherogenic properties, and inhibition of LDL oxidation in rabbits decreases the rate of the development of atherosclerotic lesions. In vitro studies have suggested that cellular lipoxygenases may be involved in LDL oxidation, and we have shown previously that 15-lipoxygenase and oxidized LDL are present in rabbit atherosclerotic lesions. We now report that epitopes of oxidized LDL are also found in macrophage-rich areas of human fatty streaks as well as in more advanced human atherosclerotic lesions. Using in situ hybridization and immunostaining techniques, we also report that 15-lipoxygenase mRNA and protein colocalize to the same macrophage-rich areas. Moreover, these same lesions express abundant mRNA for the acetyl LDL receptor but no detectable mRNA for the LDL receptor. We suggest that atherogenesis in human arteries may be linked to macrophage-induced oxidative modification of LDL mediated by 15-lipoxygenase, leading to subsequent enhanced macrophage uptake, partly by way of the acetyl LDL receptor.
S Ylä-Herttuala, M E Rosenfeld, S Parthasarathy, E Sigal, T Särkioja, J L Witztum, D Steinberg
To examine the mechanisms which regulate the functions of the intercalated cells (ICs) in the cortical collecting duct (CCD), the effect of isoproterenol on intracellular pH (pHi) of ICs was studied with the in vitro microperfused rabbit CCD, using the single cell pHi determination technique with fluorescent dye, 2',7'-bis-(2-carboxyethyl)-5(and-6)carboxyfluorescein. The pHi of beta-IC was significantly decreased with the addition of basolateral 10(-6) M isoproterenol (7.21 +/- 0.04 to 7.05 +/- 0.04), whereas alpha-IC did not show any change. This response of beta-IC to isoproterenol was dose-dependent and completely inhibited by the beta-blockers, atenolol or propranolol. The addition of forskolin or 8-Br-cAMP mimicked the effects of isoproterenol, suggesting that the activation of adenylate cyclase induced the decrease in pHi. The rate of pHi changes after the Cl- removal from the perfusate, which is considered to reflect the activity of luminal anion exchanger, was significantly higher with isoproterenol (0.032 +/- 0.009 pH unit/s) than that in the control (0.023 +/- 0.009 pH unit/s). The present studies provide direct evidence for the regulation of beta-IC function by beta-adrenergic receptor; and the luminal Cl-/HCO3- exchanger was considered to be stimulated by beta-agonist, directly.
M Hayashi, Y Yamaji, M Iyori, W Kitajima, T Saruta
Endothelin (ET) is a vasoactive peptide produced by both endothelial epithelial cells with documented mitogenic action on mesangial cells. The present studies were designed to test the hypothesis that ET is also produced by human mesangial cells (HMC) and that other mitogens such as arginine vasopressin (AVP) and insulin stimulate cellular proliferation, in part, through modulation of endogenous production of this peptide. Studies were conducted on cultured normal HMC between the third and seventh passages. All mitogenesis experiments were carried out in 96-well plates and assessed by tritiated thymidine incorporation into DNA under various concentrations of AVP in the presence and absence of insulin, antiendothelin antisera (ETAS), a MAb against ET-1 (AbET), and a vasopressin-1 receptor antagonist. ET concentrations were measured daily from conditioned medium by a sensitive and specific RIA. ET was present in all concentrations of FCS as well as conditioned medium compared with medium alone. AVP (10(-6) M) in the presence of insulin increased ET production by quiescent HMC by 261% as well as cellular proliferation by 440% after 48 h incubation. In addition, cells cultured with ETAS or AbET demonstrated a blunted mitogenic response to AVP, a response not observed in cells cultured with ETAS where ET was added. Insulin significantly potentiated the mitogenic effects of AVP as well as media levels of ET, an effect significantly blunted by AbET. We conclude that ET is produced by HMC and its production is affected, in part, by both AVP and insulin. ET may thus serve to modulate the mitogenic effects of AVP on human mesangial cells.
G L Bakris, R Fairbanks, A M Traish
Complete deficiency of lipoprotein lipase (LPL) causes the chylomicronemia syndrome. To understand the molecular basis of LPL deficiency, two siblings with drastically reduced postheparin plasma lipolytic activities were selected for analysis of their LPL gene. We used the polymerase chain reaction to examine the nine coding LPL exons in the two affected siblings and three relatives. DNA sequence analysis revealed a single nucleotide change compared with the normal LPL cDNA: a G----A substitution at nucleotide position 680. This transition caused a replacement of glutamic acid for glycine at amino acid residue 142 of the mature LPL protein. Amino acid sequence comparisons of the region surrounding glycine-142 indicated that it is highly conserved among lipases from different species, suggesting a crucial role of this domain for the LPL structure. Expression studies of the mutant LPL cDNA in COS-7 cells produced normal amounts of enzyme mass. However, the mutated LPL was not catalytically active, nor was it efficiently secreted from the cells. This established that the Gly----Glu substitution at amino acid 142 is sufficient to abolish enzymatic activity and to result in the chylomicronemia syndrome observed in these patients.
D Ameis, J Kobayashi, R C Davis, O Ben-Zeev, M J Malloy, J P Kane, G Lee, H Wong, R J Havel, M C Schotz
Prolidase deficiency is an autosomal recessive disorder with highly variable symptoms, including mental retardation, skin lesions, and abnormalities of collagenous tissues. In Japanese female siblings with polypeptide negative prolidase deficiency, and with different degrees of severity of skin lesions, we noted an abnormal mRNA with skipping of 192 bp sequence corresponding to exon 14 in lymphoblastoid cells taken from these patients. Transfection and expression analyses using the mutant prolidase cDNA revealed that a mutant protein translated from the abnormal mRNA had an Mr of 49,000 and was enzymatically inactive. A 774-bp deletion, including exon 14 was noted in the prolidase gene. The deletion had termini within short, direct repeats ranging in size of 7 bp (CCACCCT). The "slipped mispairing" mechanism may predominate in the generation of the deletion at this locus. This mutation caused a 192-bp in-frame deletion of prolidase mRNA and was inherited from the consanguineous parents. The same mutation caused a different degree of clinical phenotype of prolidase deficiency in this family, therefore factor(s) not related to the PEPD gene product also contribute to development of the clinical symptoms. Identification of mutations in the PEPD gene from subjects with prolidase deficiency provides further insight into the physiological role and structure-function relationship of this biologically important enzyme.
A Tanoue, F Endo, I Akaboshi, T Oono, J Arata, I Matsuda
We report that nucleic acid sequence analysis of a full-length cDNA clone for a rabbit serum amyloid A (SAA)-like protein has identified this protein as more closely related to SAA3 than to SAA1. SAA3 induced collagenase synthesis in rabbit synovial fibroblasts, and immune IgG raised against this SAA protein abrogated the induction. Using antisera to immunoprecipitate biosynthetically labeled 3H-SAA and 3H-collagenase from culture medium, we compared the levels of SAA and collagenase synthesized by cultures of rabbit fibroblasts at early passage (passages 3-6) with those synthesized by late passage cells (passage 16). Comparatively high levels of both proteins were produced constitutively by fibroblasts at low passage. With increasing passage, levels of both proteins drop so that by passage 16, constitutive production of SAA and collagenase was only approximately 15-20% that of passage 3 cells. Cells at low passage could be readily stimulated with phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) or interleukin 1 (IL-1) to synthesize increased amounts of both SAA and collagenase. In passage 5 cells treated with PMA, we detected increased SAA mRNA by 1.5 h and collagenase mRNA by 5 h. However, older passage cells were more refractory to stimulation and required longer induction times. We suggest that SAA3 may be expressed by fibroblasts at sites of acute inflammation or injury, and that elevated levels of SAA3 may signify "activated" fibroblasts which are already producing increased amounts of collagenase constitutively and which are predisposed to further stimulation.
T I Mitchell, C I Coon, C E Brinckerhoff
We have estimated the capacity and affinity of insulin-mediated glucose uptake (IMGU) in whole body and in leg muscle of obese non-insulin-dependent diabetics (NIDDM, n = 6) with severe hyperglycemia, glycohemoglobin (GHb 14.4 +/- 1.2%), lean controls (ln, n = 7) and obese nondiabetic controls (ob, n = 7). Mean +/- SEM weight (kg) was 67 +/- 2 (ln), 100 +/- 7 (ob), and 114 +/- 11 (NIDDM), P = NS between obese groups. NIDDM were also studied after 3 wk of intensive insulin therapy, GHb post therapy was 10.1 +/- 0.9, P less than 0.01 vs. pretherapy. Insulin (120 mu/m2 per min) was infused and the arterial blood glucose (G) sequentially maintained at approximately 4, 7, 12, and 21 mmol/liter utilizing the G clamp technique. Leg glucose uptake (LGU) was calculated as the product of the femoral arteriovenous glucose difference (FAVGd) and leg blood flow measured by thermodilution. Compared to ln, ob and NIDDM had significantly lower rates of whole body IMGU and LGU at all G levels. Compared to ob, the NIDDM exhibited approximately 50% and approximately 40% lower rates of whole body IMGU over the first two G levels (P less than 0.02) but did not differ at the highest G, P = NS. LGU was 83% lower in NIDDM vs. ob, P less than 0.05 at the first G level only. After insulin therapy NIDDM were indistinguishable from ob with respect to whole body IMGU or LGU at all G levels. A significant correlation was noted between the percent GHb and the EG50 (G at which 1/2 maximal FAVGd occurs) r = 0.73, P less than 0.05. Thus, (a) insulin resistance in NIDDM and obese subjects are characterized by similar decreases in capacity for skeletal muscle IMGU, but differs in that poorly controlled NIDDM display a decrease in affinity for skeletal muscle IMGU, and (b) this affinity defect is related to the degree of antecedent glycemic control and is reversible with insulin therapy, suggesting that it is an acquired defect.
A D Baron, M Laakso, G Brechtel, S V Edelman
The Finnish type of familial amyloidosis is a systemic disease characterized by progressive cranial neuropathy, corneal lattice dystrophy, and distal sensimotor neuropathy. Amyloid fibrils were isolated from the kidney and heart of a patient with Finnish amyloidosis. After solubilization, the amyloid proteins were fractionated by gel filtration and purified by reverse-phase HPLC. Complete amino acid sequence analyses show that the two amyloid components obtained are fragments of gelsolin, an actin-modulating protein occurring in plasma and the cytoskeleton. The larger component represents residues 173-243 and the minor component residues 173-225, respectively, of mature gelsolin. When compared with the predicted primary structure of human gelsolin a single amino acid substitution is present in amyloid: at position 15 of the amyloid proteins an asparagine is found instead of an aspartic acid residue at the corresponding position (187) in gelsolin. Antibodies to a dodecapeptide of the amyloidogenic region of gelsolin specifically stain the tissue amyloid deposits in Finnish hereditary amyloidosis. The results show that the amyloid subunit protein in Finnish hereditary amyloidosis represents a new type of amyloid that is derived from an actin filament-binding region of a variant gelsolin molecule by limited proteolysis.
C P Maury
This study was undertaken to investigate the mechanisms by which an infusion of recombinant human insulin-like growth factor I (rhIGF-I) increases GFR and renal plasma flow (RPF) in rats. Glomerular micropuncture studies were carried out in 14 nonstarved Munich Wistar rats and in 12 rats deprived of food for 60-72 h. Animals were given an intravenous injection and infusion of either rhIGF-I or vehicle. In both nonstarved and starved animals, the IGF-I injection and infusion increased the serum IGF-I levels, left kidney GFR, single nephron glomerular filtration rate (SNGFR), single nephron blood flow rate (SNBF), and single nephron plasma flow rate (SNPF). The increase in SNPF and SNGFR was in part due to a fall in efferent arteriolar resistance (RE); there was a tendency, not significant, for afferent arteriolar resistance (RA) to fall in comparison to controls. The increase in SNGFR was partly caused by a rise in SNPF but was primarily due to an increase in glomerular ultrafiltration coefficient (LpA) to twice the control values. The increase in LpA resulted in an increase in SNGFR because the rats operated at ultrafiltration pressure disequilibrium. Control starved as compared with nonstarved rats had lower SNGFR, SNBF, and SNPF. This reduction was due to a tendency, not significant, for both RA and RE to be higher. Decreased SNGFR in food-deprived rats resulted from a reduced SNPF, a lower glomerular transcapillary hydrostatic pressure difference (delta P), and possibly a somewhat reduced LpA. These data indicate that IGF-I increases SNGFR, SNPF, and SNBF primarily by increasing LpA and also by decreasing RE without affecting delta P. Short-term starvation lowers SNGFR, SNPF, and SNBF primarily by decreasing delta P and possibly by lowering LpA and increasing RA and RE. IGF-I reverses some of the glomerular hemodynamic effects of short-term food deprivation.
R Hirschberg, J D Kopple, R C Blantz, B J Tucker
We have studied the molecular bases of maple syrup urine disease by analyzing the activity, subunit structure, mRNA sequence, and the genome of the affected enzyme. The branched chain alpha-keto acid dehydrogenase (BCKDH) activity in the patient was 4.2-4.5% of the control level. Immunoblot analysis revealed that the E2 subunit of BCKDH (Mr 52,000) was absent and another protein band with an Mr of 49,000 was present. We amplified the cDNA of the E2 subunit obtained from the patient's cell using the polymerase chain reaction method, then sequenced the amplified cDNA, in which a 78-bp deletion was identified. The consanguineous parents and a sister had two species of mRNA; the one corresponding to the normal E2 subunit and the other with a 78-bp deletion, whereas findings in a brother were normal. The molecular size of the translation products as deduced from the abnormal mRNA sequence was compatible with an abnormal protein band (Mr 49,000) detected in the patient's cells by immunoblot analysis. Analysis of genomic DNA of BCKDH-E2 subunit revealed that the 78-bp deletion in the mRNA was caused by an exon skipping due to a single base deletion in the 5'-splice donor site. As a result of the mutation, part of the inner E2 core domain was omitted. The specified region of the inner E2 core domain was highly homologous to the region of the E2 subunit of pyruvate dehydrogenase and alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase. These observations imply the biological importance of the region in the inner E2 core domain of BCKDH to maintain normal function of the activity.
H Mitsubuchi, Y Nobukuni, I Akaboshi, Y Indo, F Endo, I Matsuda
Muscle is an important target tissue for insulin-like growth factor (IGF) action. The presence of specific, high affinity IGF receptors, as well as the expression of IGF peptides and binding proteins by muscle suggest that a significant component of IGF action in this tissue is mediated through autocrine and/or paracrine mechanisms. To explore autocrine/paracrine action of IGFs in muscle, we studied the regulation of the IGF-I receptor and the expression of IGF peptides during differentiation of the mouse BC3H-1 muscle cell line. Differentiation from myoblasts to myocytes was associated with a 60% decrease in IGF-I receptor sites determined by Scatchard analysis. Analysis of mRNA abundance and protein labeling studies indicated that the decrease in IGF-I receptor sites was associated with similar reductions in IGF-I receptor gene expression and receptor biosynthesis. IGF-II peptide gene expression was detected in myoblasts and increased 15-fold with differentiation; the increase in IGF-II gene expression preceded the decrease in IGF-I receptor gene expression. In contrast, IGF-I peptide gene expression was low in myoblasts and decreased slightly with differentiation. To explore the potential role of endogenous IGF-II in the differentiation-associated decrease in IGF-I receptor expression, we investigated the effects of IGF-II treatment in myoblasts. The addition of IGF-II to undifferentiated myoblasts resulted in downregulation of the IGF-I receptor which was associated with decreased IGF-I receptor biosynthesis and decreased IGF-I receptor mRNA abundance. These studies suggest, therefore, that IGF-I receptor expression during muscle cell differentiation may be regulated, at least in part, through autocrine production of IGF-II.
S M Rosenthal, A Brunetti, E J Brown, P W Mamula, I D Goldfine
Many variants of von Willebrand disease (vWD) with qualitatively abnormal von Willebrand factor (vWF) are recognized. In vWD type IIB, the abnormal protein displays enhanced affinity for a platelet vWF receptor, the glycoprotein Ib-IX complex. 14 patients from 7 unrelated families with vWD type IIB were studied to determine the molecular basis for this phenotype. Specific oligonucleotide primers were used to amplify portions of vWF exon 28 encoding a domain that interacts with the platelet glycoprotein Ib-IX complex. Candidate missense mutations were identified for all 14 patients by DNA sequencing, allele specific oligonucleotide hybridization, and restriction endonuclease digestion. These sequence changes occur in an 11 amino acid segment within a single disulfide loop bounded by Cys(509) and Cys(695). All of these sequence changes are C----T transitions within CG dinucleotides. Six patients from two unrelated families were heterozygous for the encoded sequence Arg(543)----Trp. Seven patients from four unrelated families were heterozygous for the encoded sequence Arg(545)----Cys; this sequence change appears to have occurred independently three times, once as a new spontaneous mutation. One patient with apparently sporadic vWD type IIB was heterozygous for the encoded sequence Val(553)----Met, and this appears to be a new mutation. None of these sequence changes was found in 100 normal alleles. These findings suggest that vWD type IIB may be caused by relatively few distinct mutations, that these mutations may cluster within a specific region of one disulfide loop in vWF domain A1, and that this region can modulate the affinity of vWF for the platelet glycoprotein Ib-IX complex.
A M Randi, I Rabinowitz, D J Mancuso, P M Mannucci, J E Sadler
Type IIB von Willebrand Disease (vWD) is characterized by the selective loss of large von Willebrand Factor (vWF) multimers from plasma, presumably due to their increased reactivity with platelets and subsequent clearance from the circulation. Using the PCR, one of a panel of four potential missense mutations was identified in each of the 14 patients studied from 11 unrelated families. None of these substitutions was encountered in a large panel of normal DNAs. These changes all represent C----T transitions at CpG dinucleotides, proposed "hot spots" for mutation in the human genome. The four resulting amino acid substitutions, Arg543----Trp, Arg545----Cys, Val553----Met, and Arg578----Gln, are all clustered within the GpIb binding domain of vWF. Disruption of this latter functional domain may explain the pathogenesis of Type IIB vWD. By sequence polymorphism analysis, the Arg543----Trp substitution was shown to have occurred as at least two independent mutational events. This latter observation, along with the identification of mutations in all 14 patients studied and their localization to the GpIb binding domain, all strongly suggest that these substitutions represent the authentic defects responsible for Type IIB vWD. This panel of mutations may provide a useful diagnostic tool for the majority of patients with Type IIB vWD.
K A Cooney, W C Nichols, M E Bruck, W F Bahou, A D Shapiro, E J Bowie, H R Gralnick, D Ginsburg
Exposure of platelets to shear stress leads to aggregation in the absence of exogenous agonists. We have now found that different adhesive proteins and platelet membrane glycoproteins are involved in aggregation depending on the shear stress conditions and the concentration of divalent cations in the medium. When blood is collected with trisodium citrate as anticoagulant, which causes a decrease in the levels of external ionized calcium ([Ca2+]o), platelet aggregation can be induced under low shear force (12 dyn/cm2) and is mediated by fibrinogen binding to the glycoprotein IIb-IIIa complex. Aggregates formed under these conditions are not stable, and when shear force is increased to 68 dyn/cm2, disaggregation results. By contrast, platelets from blood collected with hirudin as anticoagulant, wherein [Ca2+]o is within normal plasma levels, do not undergo low shear-induced aggregation; however, after exposure to a shear force above 80 dyn/cm2, aggregation is observed but only when von Willebrand factor is present and can interact with both its platelet binding sites, glycoprotein Ib-IX and glycoprotein IIb-IIIa. Fibrinogen is not involved in high shear-induced aggregation which, in fact, occurs normally in patients with severe afibrinogenemia. Thus, von Willebrand factor in the absence of exogenous agonists can mediate platelet aggregation in experimental conditions that may mimic the hemorheological situation of partially occluded arteries. This pathway of platelet aggregation involving only one adhesive ligand and two membrane adhesion receptors may play a relevant role in thrombogenesis.
Y Ikeda, M Handa, K Kawano, T Kamata, M Murata, Y Araki, H Anbo, Y Kawai, K Watanabe, I Itagaki
The ED50 of insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I-stimulated alpha-aminoisobutyric acid (AIB) uptake (mean +/- SD) in cultured fibroblasts from a child with short stature that we have reported (1.40 +/- 0.24 nM), is significantly higher than the ED50 of IGF-I-stimulated AIB uptake in fibroblasts from 11 normal subjects (0.42 +/- 0.12 nM) and from 127 short children (0.35 +/- 0.11 nM). Similarly, the ED50 of IGF-I-stimulated thymidine incorporation in fibroblasts from this child is 2.8 times higher than that in fibroblasts from four normal subjects. To minimize potential modulation of IGF-I action by endogenous IGF binding proteins in these assays, fibroblast responsiveness to [Q3,A4,Y15,L16]IGF-I, an IGF-I variant that has a 600-fold reduced affinity for serum IGF binding proteins, has been examined. The biological activity of this variant is comparable in the patient's and normal fibroblasts, suggesting that the resistance to IGF-I action cannot be attributed to a defective IGF-I receptor. To investigate directly the possibility that IGF-I sensitivity in the patient's fibroblasts is reduced by endogenous IGF binding proteins (IGFBP), binding proteins that are secreted into AIB assay buffer during a 3-h collection and that are cell-associated at the end of the collection have been analyzed. Ligand blot analysis of conditioned AIB assay buffer demonstrates that fibroblasts from the patient secrete 1.3-2.2 times more of Mr 46,400/42,900, 32,000, and 26,800 binding proteins than normal fibroblasts. The major difference between fibroblasts from the patient and from normal subjects is a striking 10-fold increase in the amount of a cell surface Mr 32,000 binding protein in the patient's fibroblasts. The Mr 32,000 binding protein is similar in size to IGFB-1 and different from IGFBP-2 and IGFBP-3, but it does not cross-react with an antibody against IGFBP-1. We conclude that the resistance to IGF-I action in the patient's fibroblasts is caused by an abnormal production and/or cell association of IGF binding proteins.
S E Tollefsen, E Heath-Monnig, M A Cascieri, M L Bayne, W H Daughaday
The demonstration that endothelin (ET) induces rat uterine contraction, coupled with the observation that ET is present in human amniotic fluid, suggests that the myometrium may be an important target organ for this hormone. We show that in quiescent human myometrial cells ET produced a dose-dependent increase in cytosolic free Ca2+ (Cai2+), which was markedly attenuated when the cells were studied in Ca2(+)-free media. Preincubation with nicardipine, diltiazem, or verapamil reduced the ET-evoked Cai2+ transient by 30, 40, and 65%, respectively. The presence of voltage sensitive Ca2+ channels was demonstrated by Mn2+ quenching of fura-2. Activation of the Na+/H+ antiport could not be demonstrated with ET stimulation. In nonquiescent cells, the ET-evoked Cai2+ transient was significantly reduced, while the response to oxytocin was retained. This is at least partially explained by a reduction in Bmax (maximal binding capacity) for ET (mean +/- SEM) from 3,506 +/- 268 binding sites/cell in quiescent cells to 2,411 +/- 300 binding sites/cell, as well as 72% increase in Kd (equilibrium dissociation constant), in the nonquiescent cells. We conclude that, in human myometrial cells, ET and oxytocin modulate Cai2+ through independent receptors and propose that ET, like oxytocin, is an important endogenous modulator of uterine contractility.
E Maher, A Bardequez, J P Gardner, L Goldsmith, G Weiss, M Mascarina, A Aviv
To discern the mechanism(s) that underlie abnormal cholesteryl ester transfer (CET) in patients with hypercholesterolemia, we have studied this dysfunctional step in reverse cholesterol transport in 13 subjects with genetically heterogeneous forms of hypercholesterolemia (HC). In all HC patients, the mass of CE transferred in whole plasma from HDL to VLDL and LDL increased rapidly initially and was significantly greater than in controls at 1, 2, and 4 h (P less than 0.005). To further characterize this disturbance, we performed a series of recombination experiments. Combining HC d less than 1.063 containing acceptor VLDL + LDL with the d greater than 1.063 fraction from controls containing donor HDL + CE-transfer protein (CETP) and not the converse combination showed the same characteristics of accelerated CET noted with intact HC plasma, indicating that abnormal transfer was associated with the HC acceptor lipoproteins. When HC VLDL and its subfractions and LDL were isolated separately and then combined with control d greater than 1.063 fractions, accelerated CET was only associated with VLDL1. Consistent with an acceleration of the neutral lipid transfer reaction occurring between HDL and VLDL1 in HC in vivo, we found that the triglyceride/CE ratio was decreased in HC VLDL1 (P less than 0.001), and increased in HDL (P less than 0.25). CETP mass was significantly increased in HC plasma (HC 2.3 +/- 4 micrograms/ml vs. control 1.3 +/- 0.3 micrograms/ml; mean +/- SD; P less than 0.025). This series of observations demonstrate that CET is accelerated in the plasma of HC patients, and this disturbance results from dysfunction of the VLDL1 subfraction rather than an elevation of CETP levels. Since an abnormality of this type in vivo can lead to the accumulation of potentially atherogenic CE-enriched apoB-containing lipoproteins in plasma, it may be an additional previously unrecognized factor that increases cardiovascular risk in HC patients.
J D Bagdade, M C Ritter, P V Subbaiah
15 immunoglobulin heavy chain constant (CH) and variable region (VH) polymorphisms were selected to span the entire length of the heavy chain cluster. These polymorphisms were examined in 34 sib pairs concordant for multiple sclerosis (MS) and in 23 sporadic MS patients. Allele frequencies were calculated for the 2 MS patient groups and compared with those found in a control population from the same geographical location and of similar ethnic background. No significant association was found between MS and the 7 CH region polymorphisms examined. However, a significant correlation between the MS phenotype and a VH2 family polymorphism was observed in both MS patient populations (familial MS patients chi 2 = 8.16, P less than 0.005; sporadic MS patients chi 2 = 8.90, P less than 0.005). One allele of the VH2-5 gene segment was found to be over-represented in both MS groups. VH2-5 has recently been physically mapped close to the CH region, between 180 and 360 kb away. These results indicate that a locus near or within the CH-proximal VH region is associated with increased susceptibility to MS.
M A Walter, W T Gibson, G C Ebers, D W Cox
Cardiovascular disease is currently the leading cause of death among women in the United States. To investigate the effect of postmenopausal hormone therapy on atherogenesis, we studied 75 cholesterol-fed female rabbits for 19 wk. The rabbits were randomly assigned to five groups. Four groups underwent bilateral ovariectomy followed by treatment with either 17 beta-estradiol, 17 beta-estradiol plus norethisterone acetate, 17 beta-estradiol plus levonorgestrel, or placebo. The fifth group had a sham operation and received placebo. The hormone groups had only one-third of the aortic accumulation of cholesterol found in the placebo groups, a difference that was highly statistically significant (P less than 0.0001). No significant differences in aortic accumulation of cholesterol were found in the hormone groups. This indicates that estrogen attenuates atherogenesis in cholesterol-fed ovariectomized rabbits and that two commonly prescribed progestogens do not counteract the effect. The beneficial effect of estradiol could only partly be explained by its lowering effects on serum total cholesterol or VLDL cholesterol, which implies that estradiol possesses additional beneficial effects, possibly a direct action on the arterial wall.
J Haarbo, P Leth-Espensen, S Stender, C Christiansen
The complex events by which digestive enzyme zymogens and lysosomal hydrolases are segregated from each other and differentially transported to their respective membrane-bound intracellular organelles in the pancreas have been noted to be disturbed during the early stages of several models of experimental pancreatitis. As a result, lysosomal hydrolases such as cathepsin B are redistributed to the subcellular zymogen granule-rich fraction and lysosomal hydrolases as well as digestive enzyme zymogens are colocalized within large cytoplasmic vacuoles. The current study was designed to create an in vitro system that would reproduce this redistribution phenomenon. Our results indicate that cathepsin B redistribution occurs when rat pancreatic fragments are incubated with a supramaximally stimulating concentration of the cholecystokinin analogue caerulein along with plasma from an animal subjected to in vivo supramaximal caerulein stimulation. Neither the plasma nor a supramaximally stimulating concentration of caerulein, alone, is sufficient to induce in vitro cathepsin B redistribution. The ability of the plasma to induce in vitro cathepsin redistribution is dependent upon its content of a 10,000-30,000-D protein and is lost by exposure to protease inhibitors. In vitro cathepsin B redistribution also occurs when rat pancreatic fragments are incubated with plasma obtained from opossums with hemorrhagic necrotizing pancreatitis caused by bile/pancreatic duct ligation.
M Saluja, A Saluja, M M Lerch, M L Steer
We have studied the effects of oral administration of vanadate, an insulinometic agent and a potent inhibitor of phosphotyrosyl protein phosphatase (PTPase) in vitro, on blood glucose and PTPase action, in two hyperinsulinemic rodent models of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). Oral administration of vanadate (0.25 mg/ml in the drinking water) to ob/ob mice for 3 wk lowered blood glucose level from 236 +/- 4 to 143 +/- 2 mg/dl without effect on body weight. Administration of vanadate to db/db mice produced a similar effect. Electron microscopic examination revealed no signs of hepatotoxicity after 47 d of treatment. There was a slight reduction in insulin receptor autophosphorylation when tested by immunoblotting with antiphosphotyrosine antibody after in vivo stimulation, and the phosphorylation of the endogenous substrate of the insulin receptor, pp185, was markedly decreased in the ob/ob mice. Both cytosolic and particulate PTPase activities in liver of ob/ob mice measured by dephosphorylation of a 32P-labeled peptide corresponding to the major site of insulin receptor autophosphorylation were decreased by approximately 50% (P less than 0.01). In db/db diabetic mice, PTPase activity in the cytosolic fraction was decreased to 53% of control values (P less than 0.02) with no significant difference in the particulate PTPase activity. Treatment with vanadate did not alter hepatic PTPase activity as assayed in vitro, or receptor and substrate phosphorylation as assayed in vivo, in ob/ob mice despite its substantial effect on blood glucose. These data indicate that vanadate is an effective oral hypoglycemic treatment in NIDDM states and suggest that its major effects occurs distal to the insulin receptor tyrosine kinase.
J Meyerovitch, P Rothenberg, Y Shechter, S Bonner-Weir, C R Kahn
We hypothesized that normal vascular reactivity could be restored in vessels from hypercholesterolemic animals by exposing them to L-arginine, the precursor of endothelium-derived relaxing factor (EDRF). Basilar arteries were harvested from New Zealand white rabbits fed normal chow or that supplemented with 2% cholesterol for 10 wk. Vessels were cannulated for perfusion at physiologic pressure. Changes in vessel diameter were monitored by videomicroscopy. In comparison to normal vessels, those from hypercholesterolemic animals vasoconstricted more to KCl, endothelin (E), and 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT). Conversely, vasodilation to acetylcholine (ACh) (but not that to verapamil) was significantly impaired in the hypercholesterolemic animals. In vitro administration of L-arginine (3 mM) for 45 min normalized vasodilation to ACh and vasoconstriction to E, 5-HT, and KCl in the isolated vessels from hypercholesterolemic animals. This effect was stereospecific, since D-arginine had no effect. To conclude, these data confirm that hypercholesterolemia attenuates endothelium-derived relaxation, and enhances the sensitivity of these vessels to vasoconstrictors. In vitro administration of L-arginine normalized vascular reactivity of isolated vessels from hypercholesterolemic animals. Thus, hypercholesterolemia induces a reversible endothelial dysfunction that may be corrected by supplying the precursor of EDRF, L-arginine.
E Rossitch Jr, E Alexander 3rd, P M Black, J P Cooke
Recent data demonstrate the existence of a vascular renin angiotensin system. In this study we examine the localization of angiotensinogen mRNA in the blood vessel wall of two rat strains, the Wistar and Wistar Kyoto (WKY), as well as the regulation of vascular angiotensinogen mRNA expression by dietary sodium. Northern blot analysis and in situ hybridization histochemistry demonstrate that in both strains angiotensinogen mRNA is detected in the aortic medial smooth muscle layer as well as the periaortic fat. In WKY rats fed a 1.6% sodium diet, angiotensinogen mRNA concentration is 2.6-fold higher in the periaortic fat than in the smooth muscle, as analyzed by quantitative slot blot hybridization. Angiotensinogen mRNA expression in the medial smooth muscle layer is sodium regulated. After 5 d of a low (0.02%) sodium diet, smooth muscle angiotensinogen mRNA levels increase 3.2-fold (P less than 0.005) as compared with the 1.6% sodium diet. In contrast, angiotensinogen mRNA level in the periaortic fat is not influenced by sodium diet. In summary, our data demonstrate regional (smooth muscle vs. periaortic fat) differential regulation of angiotensinogen mRNA levels in the blood vessel wall by sodium. This regional differential regulation by sodium may have important physiological implications.
A J Naftilan, W M Zuo, J Inglefinger, T J Ryan Jr, R E Pratt, V J Dzau
Expression of IL-1 alpha and beta genes was studied in human blood PMN with close monitoring of the effects of contaminating mononuclear leukocytes (MNL). We provide evidence that PMN both transcribe and translate IL-1 alpha and beta genes after stimulation with LPS or IL-1 alpha. A combination of mouse thymocyte comitogen proliferation assay, ELISA, and immunocytochemistry was required to establish that IL-1 alpha and beta synthesis observed in preparations of PMN could not be accounted for by the low level of contaminating MNL. Synthesis of IL-1 beta in PMN exceeded that of IL-1 alpha, but little or no IL-1 alpha was released by PMN. Although increases in IL-1 mRNA after stimulation of PMN and MNL with LPS were similar, PMN were less efficient than MNL in translating IL-1 mRNA. In contrast, PMN and MNL IL-1 alpha and beta mRNAs were translated with equal efficiency in rabbit reticulocyte lysates, suggesting that synthesis of IL-1 in PMN is subject to some form of translational control. We conclude that PMN stimulated with LPS efficiently transcribe but inefficiently translate IL-1 genes relative to MNL. IL-1 beta transcription and translation predominates over that of IL-1 alpha, and IL-1 beta is the predominant IL-1 protein released by PMN. IL-1 can induce its own synthesis in PMN.
P C Lord, L M Wilmoth, S B Mizel, C E McCall
The mechanism by which cocaine alters vascular tone is not fully understood. We determined the effects of cocaine on excitation-contraction coupling of isolated ferret aorta. Cocaine in concentrations less than or equal to 10(-4) M caused a contractile response in a dose-dependent manner. The response of control muscle was significantly larger than that in muscle from ferrets pretreated with reserpine. Cocaine-induced contraction was not affected by endothelial factors, but was significantly inhibited by prazosin 10(-7) M pretreatment. The intracellular calcium [( Ca++]i), as measured with aequorin, rose in conjunction with cocaine-induced contraction. The degree of contraction generated by 10(-4) M cocaine decreased after higher concentrations of cocaine greater than or equal to 10(-3) M, while aequorin luminescence remained elevated above the levels before 10(-6) M cocaine. The dose-response relationships of norepinephrine and sympathetic nerve stimulation were enhanced by 10(-6) M cocaine in control muscles; this did not occur in muscles from reserpine pretreated ferrets. In conclusion, (a) cocaine in concentrations less than or equal to 10(-4) M caused vascular contraction presumably by its presynaptic action with consequent alpha-1 adrenoceptor activation and consequent [Ca++]i rise; (b) high concentrations of cocaine greater than or equal to 10(-3) M reduced muscle tone by decreasing the Ca++ sensitivity of the contractile proteins; and (c) supersensitivity to norepinephrine was mediated by cocaine's action on adrenergic nerve endings.
K Egashira, K G Morgan, J P Morgan
A defective efflux of free sialic acid from the lysosomal compartment has been found in the clinically heterogeneous group of sialic acid storage disorders. Using radiolabeled sialic acid (NeuAc) as a substrate, we have recently detected and characterized a proton-driven carrier for sialic acid in the lysosomal membrane from rat liver. This carrier also recognizes and transports other acidic monosaccharides, among which are uronic acids. If no alternative routes of glucuronic acid transport exist, the disposal of uronic acids can be affected in the sialic acid storage disorders. In this study we excluded the existence of more than one acidic monosaccharide carrier by measuring uptake kinetics of labeled glucuronic acid [( 3H]GlcAc) in rat lysosomal membrane vesicles. [3H]GlcAc uptake was carrier-mediated with an affinity constant of transport (Kt) of 0.3 mM and the transport could be cis-inhibited or trans-stimulated to the same extent by sialic acid or glucuronic acid. Human lysosomal membrane vesicles isolated from cultured fibroblasts showed the existence of a similar proton-driven transporter with the same properties as the rat liver system (Kt of [3H]GlcAc uptake 0.28 mM). Uptake studies with [3H]NeuAc and [3H]GlcAc in resealed lysosome membrane vesicles from cultured fibroblasts of patients with different clinical presentation of sialic acid storage showed defective carrier-mediated transport for both sugars. Further evidence that the defective transport of acidic sugars represents the primary genetic defect in sialic acid storage diseases was provided by the observation of reduced, half-normal transport rates in lymphoblast-derived lysosomal membrane vesicles from five unrelated obligate heterozygotes. This study reports the first observation of a human lysosomal transport defect for multiple physiological compounds.
G M Mancini, C E Beerens, P P Aula, F W Verheijen
We have prepared a construct (designated CATTNF) in which the mouse TNF (cachectin) coding sequence is replaced by a sequence encoding chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT), with preservation of the TNF promoter and 3'-untranslated sequences known to be important in the regulation of gene expression. When activated by LPS, permanently transfected RAW 264.7 (mouse macrophage) cells synthesize large quantities of CAT. Unlike TNF itself, CAT is nonsecreted and quite stable in the macrophage cytoplasm. Fewer than 1,000 LPS-induced macrophages can easily be detected by CAT assay. Cells maintain the ability to respond to LPS in vivo; as such, when injected intravenously, they accurately report conditions required for the production of TNF in diverse tissues. These cells may thus be used for the detection of cachectin/TNF synthesis in mice under conditions in which endogenously produced cachectin/TNF would be undetectable. Studies of the expression of CATTNF in nonmacrophage cell lines have revealed that the modified TNF gene is constitutively expressed in L-929 cells, but that its expression is tightly suppressed in HeLa cells and in NIH 3T3 cells. This finding would suggest that certain non-macrophage cells are potentially capable of utilizing the TNF promoter and translating the TNF mRNA; however, the endogenous gene has been developmentally silenced.
B Beutler, T Brown
Resting and phorbol-activated human neutrophils were separated by treatment with Triton X-100 into detergent-extractable and cytoskeleton fractions. Respiratory burst oxidase activity was restricted entirely to the cytoskeleton. The cytoskeleton also contained approximately 15% of the neutrophil cytochrome b558, an oxidase-associated heme protein, as well as most of the oxidase-related cytosolic polypeptide p67phox. In contrast, the components of the oxidase-associated phosphoprotein family p47phox were found almost exclusively in the detergent extract, suggesting that p47phox is needed for oxidase activation but not for O2- production by the activated oxidase. Activation of the oxidase had no apparent effect on the distribution of any of these species between the cytoskeleton and the detergent extract. Our results support earlier studies implying that the cytoskeleton participates in an important way in regulating the activity of the O2(-)-forming respiratory burst oxidase of neutrophils.
R C Woodman, J M Ruedi, A J Jesaitis, N Okamura, M T Quinn, R M Smith, J T Curnutte, B M Babior
We report the immunological characteristics of five patients with Omenn's syndrome, a rare inherited immunodeficiency also known as combined immunodeficiency with hypereosinophilia. The syndrome is characterized by T cell infiltration of skin, gut, liver, and spleen leading to diffuse erythroderma, protracted diarrhea, failure to thrive, and hepatosplenomegaly. Blood T cells as well as those infiltrating the skin and gut were found to express activation markers and were partially activated by mitogens but not by antigens. Although the lesions resembled those in graft-versus-host disease, the blood T cells were shown by DNA haplotype analysis using probes revealing variable number of tandem repeats to belong to the patients as well as the T cells infiltrating the gut and skin in one patient. A given T cell subset (TCR alpha beta+, CD4+/CD8+, or TCR gamma delta+) was predominant in each patient, with a specific distribution in the skin lesions. Moreover, the study of T cell receptor beta, gamma, and delta gene rearrangements in four patients revealed oligoclonality involving C beta 1, C beta 2, or different V gamma J gamma or V delta J delta genes. This indicates that restricted heterogeneity of the T cell repertoire, previously reported in one case, is a major feature of this syndrome. The occurrence of alymphocytosis-type severe combined immunodeficiency in the brother of one of the patients suggests that the restricted heterogeneity of T cell receptor gene usage in Omenn's syndrome may arise from leakiness, within the context of a genetically determined faulty T cell differentiation.
G de Saint-Basile, F Le Deist, J P de Villartay, N Cerf-Bensussan, O Journet, N Brousse, C Griscelli, A Fischer
The diversity of infectious agents capable of inducing meningitis and blood-brain barrier (BBB) injury suggests the potential for a common host mediator. The inflammatory polypeptides, IL-1 and TNF, were tested in an experimental rat model as candidate mediators for induction of meningitis and BBB injury. Intracisternal challenge of rIL-1 beta into rats induced neutrophil emigration into cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and significantly increased BBB permeability to systemically administered 125I-BSA as early as 3 h later (P less than 0.05). This injury was reversible, dose dependent and significantly inhibited by prior induction of systemic neutropenia (via intraperitoneal cyclophosphamide) or preincubation of the rIL-1 beta inoculum (50 U) with an IgG monoclonal antibody to rIL-1 beta. Similar kinetics and reversibility of CSF inflammation and BSA permeability were observed using equivalent dose inocula of rIL-1 alpha. rTNF-alpha was less effective as an independent inducer of meningitis or BBB injury over an inoculum range of 10(1) U (0.0016 micrograms/kg)-10(6) U (160 micrograms/kg) when injected intracisternally, but inoculum combinations of low concentrations of rTNF alpha (10(3) U) and rIL-1 beta (0.0005-5.0 U) were synergistic in inducing both meningitis and BBB permeability to systemic 125I-BSA. These data suggest that in situ generation of interleukin-1 within CSF (with or without TNF) is capable of mediating both meningeal inflammation and BBB injury seen in various central nervous system infections.
V J Quagliarello, B Wispelwey, W J Long Jr, W M Scheld
Acetaldehyde, the toxic product of ethanol metabolism in the liver, covalently binds to a variety of proteins. Recent studies indicate that such binding can stimulate the production of antibodies against the acetaldehyde adducts. We raised rabbit antibodies which recognized various protein-acetaldehyde conjugates but not the corresponding control proteins. Such antibodies were used in immunohistochemical studies to find out whether acetaldehyde-generated epitopes can be detected from liver specimens of 13 human subjects with different degrees of alcohol consumption. While the specimens obtained from alcohol abusers (n = 4) and alcoholics (n = 3) exhibited marked positive staining for acetaldehyde adducts inside the hepatocytes in a granular uneven pattern, the control samples (n = 6) were almost devoid of immunoreactivity. In the alcohol abusers with an early stage of alcohol-induced liver damage, staining was detected exclusively around the central veins. The data indicate that intracellular acetaldehyde adducts occur in the centrilobular region of the liver of individuals consuming excessive amounts of alcohol. Immunohistochemical detection of such adducts may prove to be of value in the early identification of alcohol abuse and in elucidating the mechanisms of alcohol-induced organ damage.
O Niemelä, T Juvonen, S Parkkila
Crystals of monosodium urate (MSU) provide a dose-dependent stimulus for the production by human blood monocytes of tumor necrosis factor (TNF), a cytokine with proinflammatory properties; TNF activity was inhibited selectively by monoclonal antibody to TNF alpha. Biologically active cell-associated TNF activity peaked at 3 h and was exceeded at 6 h by extracellular activity, which peaked at 12-18 h. Comparable kinetics were observed with immunoreactive TNF alpha. TNF alpha mRNA accumulation in monocytes stimulated with MSU crystals appeared as a single peak at 2-4 h, kinetics compatible with rapid production of a short half-life transcript. In contrast, crystals of calcium pyrophosphate or of hydroxyapatite did not stimulate significant production of TNF or of message. Fresh tophaceous material from a patient with gout contained significant levels of TNF alpha and cells cultured from the tophus produced TNF alpha in vitro. In rheumatoid synovial cells, spontaneous release of TNF alpha was increased by in vitro exposure to MSU crystals. Taken together with earlier work, these results support an expanded view of gouty inflammation in which the crystal-stimulated production of cytokines provides a crucial link between crystal deposition and many of the clinical and pathological facts of both acute and chronic gouty arthritis.
F S di Giovine, S E Malawista, E Thornton, G W Duff
Clinical data indicate that the control of gastrin secretion from the human antrum has a beta-adrenergic component. The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether this was due to the presence of beta-adrenergic receptors on the G cells. A newly developed short-term culture system of enriched antral G cells was used to eliminate the possibility of input from factors in the circulation and the peripheral innervation. The results demonstrated that epinephrine and terbutaline (a beta 2 agonist) significantly stimulated gastrin release above basal which could be blocked by the addition of propranolol (beta-adrenergic antagonist). However, the beta 1 agonist, dobutamine, and phenylepinephrine did not stimulate gastrin release above basal. In addition, simultaneous administration of epinephrine and the neuropeptide, bombesin, resulted in a potentiation of gastrin release. It was concluded that the stimulatory effect of the sympathetic system on gastrin release was mediated through beta 2-adrenergic receptors. The data indicated that adrenaline released from the adrenal medulla and gastrin releasing peptide (the mammalian homolog of bombesin) released from the intrinsic innervation of the stomach interact with respect to the stimulation of gastrin.
A M Buchan
Washed human unactivated platelets attached and spread on thrombospondin (TSP)-coated microtiter plates. Platelet adhesion was promoted by divalent cations Mn2+, Mg2+, and Ca2+ as compared to buffer having all divalent cations complexed with EDTA. TSP-dependent adhesion was inhibited by anti-TSP fab fragments, an anti-TSP monoclonal antibody, an RGD-containing peptide, complex-specific anti-glycoprotein (GP)IIb-IIIa monoclonal antibodies (A2A9 or AP-2) and anti-VLA-2 monoclonal antibodies (6F1 and Gi9), but not by rabbit preimmune fab fragments, mouse IgG, an anti-GPIIIa monoclonal antibody, or monoclonal antibodies against either the human vitronectin receptor, glycocalicin, or GPIV. At saturating concentrations, anti-GPIIb-IIIa inhibited adhesion by 40-60%. Glanzman's thrombasthenic platelets, which lack GPIIb-IIIa, adhered to TSP to the same extent as anti-GPIIb-IIIa-treated normal platelets or 40-60% as well as untreated normal platelets. Antibody 6F1 (5-10 micrograms/ml) inhibited platelet adhesion of both normal and thrombasthenic platelets by 84-100%. Both VLA-2 antibodies also inhibited collagen-induced platelet adhesion, but had no effect on fibronectin-induced adhesion of normal platelets. These data indicate that platelets specifically adhere to TSP and that this adhesion is mediated through GPIIb-IIIa and/or VLA-2.
G P Tuszynski, M A Kowalska
To study the interaction between insulin secretion and insulin action in maintaining glucose homeostasis, we induced experimental insulin resistance in eight normal baboons, in six baboons treated with 40 mg/kg streptozocin (STZ-40), and in six baboons treated with 200 mg/kg streptozocin (STZ-200). Insulin resistance was induced by a 20-d continuous intravenous infusion of nicotinic acid (NA). Normal animals showed compensatory increases in several measures of insulin secretion (fasting insulin [FI], acute insulin response to arginine [AIRarg], acute insulin response to glucose [AIRgluc], and glucose potentiation slope [delta AIRarg/delta G]), with no net change in fasting plasma glucose (FPG) or glycosylated hemoglobin (HbAtc). STZ-40 animals showed compensatory increases in FI, AIRarg, and AIRgluc, but delta AIRarg/delta G failed to compensate. Although FPG remained normal in this group during NA infusion, HbA1c rose significantly. STZ-200 animals failed to show compensatory changes in both AIRgluc and delta AIRarg/delta G, with both HbA1c and FPG rising. These animals showed a paradoxical inhibition of insulin secretion in response to intravenous glucose during NA infusion, at a time when they were hyperglycemic. These data indicate that a significant degree of insulin resistance does not cause hyperglycemia in the presence of normal B cell function but, in animals with reduced B cell mass and superimposed insulin resistance, the degree of hyperglycemia is proportional to the degree of pancreatic B cell dysfunction.
D K McCulloch, S E Kahn, M W Schwartz, D J Koerker, J P Palmer
Using a specific radioimmunoassay for human brain natriuretic peptide (hBNP) with a monoclonal antibody, we have investigated its synthesis, secretion, and clearance in comparison with those of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) in normal subjects and patients with congestive heart failure (CHF). Mean BNP-like immunoreactivity (-LI) levels in normal atrium and ventricle were 250 and 18 pmol/g, respectively. The plasma BNP-LI level in normal subjects was 0.90 +/- 0.07 fmol/ml, which was 16% of the ANP-LI level. In contrast, the plasma BNP-LI level markedly increased in patients with CHF in proportion to its severity, and surpassed the ANP-LI level in severe cases. There was a significant step-up of the plasma BNP-LI level in the coronary sinus (CS) compared with that in the aortic root (Ao) and the difference between these BNP-LI levels, delta(CS-Ao)BNP, also increased with the severity of CHF. In addition, the step-up of the BNP-LI level in the anterior interventricular vein [delta(AIV-Ao)BNP] was comparable to delta(CS-Ao)BNP, indicating that BNP is secreted mainly from the ventricle. Predominant BNP synthesis in the ventricle was also confirmed by Northern blot analysis. Catheterization and pharmacokinetic studies revealed that hBNP is cleared from the circulation more slowly than alpha-hANP; this was in part attributed to lower (about 7%) binding affinity of hBNP to clearance receptors than that of alpha-hANP. A predominant molecular form of BNP-LI in the heart and plasma was a 3-kD form corresponding to hBNP. These results indicate that BNP is a novel cardiac hormone secreted predominantly from the ventricle, and that the synthesis, secretion and clearance of BNP differ from those of ANP, suggesting discrete physiological and pathophysiological roles of BNP in a dual natriuretic peptide system.
M Mukoyama, K Nakao, K Hosoda, S Suga, Y Saito, Y Ogawa, G Shirakami, M Jougasaki, K Obata, H Yasue
We have examined the nature of the mutant androgen receptor in a family with a severe defect in virilization associated with a qualitative defect in receptor function. The androgen receptor gene in this family contains two structural alterations: a single nucleotide substitution at position 2444 in exon 5 (adenosine----guanosine) that converts tyrosine 761 to a cysteine residue and a shortened glutamine homopolymeric segment in exon 1 that encodes 12 rather than the usual 20-22 glutamines. A family study was performed using polymerase chain reaction amplification of the glutamine-rich segment, and it was shown that the sister of the proband does not carry the mutant allele. The effects of these two mutations on the function of the androgen receptor were studied by introducing the changes, individually and in combination, into cDNAs encoding the normal human androgen receptor and analyzing the receptor protein produced after transfection of the cDNAs into eukaryotic cells. The presence of a cysteine residue at position 761 causes rapid dissociation of dihydrotestosterone from the receptor protein. Marked thermolability of the transfected receptor protein, however, was demonstrable only upon introduction of an androgen receptor cDNA containing both the partial deletion of the glutamine homopolymeric segment and a cysteine residue at position 761. Likewise, the ability of the receptor to stimulate a reporter gene is strikingly diminished only when both alterations are present, suggesting that the shortened glutamine homopolymeric segment amplifies the impairment of receptor function caused by the tyrosine to cysteine substitution.
M J McPhaul, M Marcelli, W D Tilley, J E Griffin, R F Isidro-Gutierrez, J D Wilson
To determine which parts of the cobalamin (cbl) molecule are required for enzyme activity and which parts, if altered, might inhibit cbl-dependent enzyme activity, we synthesized 16 cbl analogues and administered them to nutritionally normal rats. The cbl analogues, with either modifications of the propionamide side chains of the A-, B-, and C-rings, the acetamide side chain of the B-ring, or the nucleotide moiety, were administered to rats by continuous 14-d subcutaneous infusion. Infusion of cbl-stimulated, cbl-dependent activity. Changes in any part of the cbl molecule always abolished stimulation and, in some cases, caused potent inhibition of both cbl-dependent enzymes. The most inhibitory analogues, OH-cbl[c-lactam], a B-ring analogue, and OH-cbl[e-dimethylamide] and OH-cbl[e-methylamide], two C-ring analogues, decreased mean liver holo-L-methylmalonyl-coenzyme A mutase activity to 65% of control values and increased serum methylmalonic acid concentrations to as high as 3,200% of the control values. Liver methionine synthetase activity was decreased to approximately 20% of the control and mean serum total homocysteine concentrations were increased to 340% of control. A similar level of inhibition was demonstrated in rats who were exposed to 28 d of inhaled nitrous oxide or a prolonged period of dietary cbl deficiency. The inhibitory cbl analogues, nitrous oxide, and diet deficiency all depleted liver cbl. The naturally occurring cbl analogues with modifications of the nucleotide moiety had no effects. We conclude that all parts of the cbl molecule are necessary for in vivo cbl-dependent enzyme activity and that modifications of the side chains of the B and C rings are associated with potent in vivo inhibition of cbl-dependent enzyme activity.
S P Stabler, E P Brass, P D Marcell, R H Allen
A nonperturbing 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) method was used to monitor the equilibrium distribution of carboxyl 13C-enriched fatty acids (FA) between distinct binding sites on human serum albumin, native human lipoproteins, and/or phospholipid model membranes, under conditions that mimic the normal and diabetic human circulation. Two variables pertinent to the diabetic circulation were examined: FA/albumin mole ratio (as elevated in insulin deficiency and/or nephrosis) and pH (as decreased in acidosis). 13C NMR spectra for samples containing carboxyl 13C-enriched palmitate, human serum albumin, and phospholipid vesicles or native lipoproteins (all samples at pH 7.4, 37 degrees C) exhibited up to six carboxyl NMR resonances corresponding to FA bound to distinct binding sites on albumin and nonalbumin components. When the sample FA/albumin mole ratio was 1, three FA carboxyl resonances were observed (182.2, 181.8, and 181.6 ppm; designated peaks beta, gamma, and beta', respectively). These resonances corresponded to FA bound to three distinct high-affinity binding sites on human serum albumin. When the sample mole ratio value exceeded 1, additional carboxyl resonances corresponding to FA bound to phospholipid vesicles (179.0 ppm, peak phi), lipoproteins (180.7 ppm, peak sigma), and lower affinity sites on albumin (183.8 ppm, peak alpha; 181.9 ppm, peak gamma'), were observed. The intensity of peaks phi and sigma increased with increasing mole ratio or decreasing pH. Using Lorentzian lineshape analysis, the relative mole quantities of FA bound to albumin and nonalbumin binding sites were determined. Plots of the fraction of FA associated with nonalbumin components as a function of FA/albumin mole ratio were linear and extrapolated to the abscissa at a mole ratio value of 1. This pattern of FA distribution was observed regardless of the type of nonalbumin acceptor used (phospholipid vesicles, human high- or low-density lipoproteins) or the type of FA used (palmitate, oleate, or stearate), and provided evidence for negative cooperativity for human serum albumin upon binding of 1 mol of FA per mole albumin. These in vitro NMR results suggest that the threshold FA/albumin mole ratio value for alterations in FA distributions in the human circulation may be 1, rather than 3, as previously held. The pathophysiological implications of these findings are discussed.
D P Cistola, D M Small
Previous studies have defined a novel route of internalization for the essential vitamin 5-methyltetrahydrofolate in MA104 cells that begins with binding of the vitamin to the membrane receptor for folate. One of the critical steps in the pathway is the passage of 5-methyltetrahydrofolate through the membrane into the cytoplasm. Utilizing both probenecid and low temperature as selective inhibitors, we have successfully blocked transmembrane movement of the vitamin into the cytoplasm without affecting binding to the receptor or the internalization of the vitamin-receptor complex, which suggests that passage is through an anion carrier. This anion carrier, which mediates inward movement of 5-methyltetrahydrofolate after it dissociates from the receptor, also appears to mediate the efflux of folylmonoglutamate, but not folylpolyglutamate, when the concentration of the former in the cytoplasm is sufficiently high. Since we also found that the synthesis of folylpolyglutamates is regulated in these cells, most likely the intracellular concentration of the vitamin is controlled by regulating the flux of folylmonoglutamate through this carrier.
B A Kamen, A K Smith, R G Anderson
Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAggEC) have been associated with persistent diarrhea in young children, but little is known about its pathogenesis. We assayed for enterotoxic activity in culture filtrates (CF) of EAggEC strains in Ussing chambers mounted with rabbit ileal mucosa. CF from strain 17-2, a prototype Chilean EAggEC strain, caused a greater rise in potential difference and short circuit current (SCC) than that seen in HB101 control, and this effect was abolished by protease pretreatment and partially stable after heat treatment. Ultrafiltration of 17-2 CF preparations localized the active moiety to the 2-5 kD Mr size range. CF from HB101 transformed with the 17-2 plasmid showed Ussing chamber activity. less than 10-kD CF fractions from five of six other EAggEC strains screened in Ussing chambers gave SCC responses of similar magnitude to 17-2. The 17-2 CF activity was not neutralized after pretreatment with polyclonal anti-STa antibody. Additionally, all of the seven EAggEC strains studied were nonreactive by heat-stable enterotoxin variant STa ELISA, were negative in the suckling mouse assay, and failed to hybridize with heat-stable enterotoxin variant STh and STp DNA probes. In summary, our data indicate that 17-2 produces a low molecular weight, partially heat-stable, protease-sensitive enterotoxin which appears to be plasmid associated, and genetically and immunologically distinct from E. coli STa. Preliminary screening suggests that this tox+ phenotype may be common among EAggEC.
S J Savarino, A Fasano, D C Robertson, M M Levine
Norwalk virus, an important cause of epidemic, acute, nonbacterial gastroenteritis in adults and children, has eluded adaptation to tissue culture, the development of an animal model, and molecular cloning. In this study, a portion of the Norwalk viral genome encoding an immunoreactive region was cloned from very small quantities of infected stool using sequence-independent single primer amplification. Six overlapping complementary DNA (cDNA) clones were isolated by immunologic screening. The expressed recombinant protein from a representative clone reacted with six of seven high titer. Norwalk-specific, postinfection sera but not with corresponding preinfection sera. Nucleic acid sequence for all clones defined a single open reading frame contiguous with the lambda gt11-expressed beta-galactosidase protein. Only oligonucleotide probes specific for the positive strand (defined by the open reading frame) hybridized to an RNaseA-sensitive, DNaseI-resistant nucleic acid sequence extracted from Norwalk-infected stool. Furthermore, RNA extracted from serial postinfection, but not preinfection, stools from three of five volunteers hybridized to a Norwalk virus cDNA probe. Clone-specific oligonucleotide probes hybridized with cesium chloride gradient fractions containing purified Norwalk virion. In conclusion, an antigenic, protein-coding region of the Norwalk virus genome has been identified. This epitope has potential utility in future sero- and molecular epidemiologic studies of Norwalk viral gastroenteritis.
S M Matsui, J P Kim, H B Greenberg, W Su, Q Sun, P C Johnson, H L DuPont, L S Oshiro, G R Reyes
The extent of antiviral activity exhibited in vitro by CD8+lymphocytes from individuals infected by HIV-1 correlates significantly with their clinical status. CD8+ lymphocytes from asymptomatic subjects were found to inhibit HIV-1 replication by 90% or greater at effector/target (E/T) ratios ranging from as low as 0.05 to 0.25. CD8+ cells from 17 of 19 (89%) of these subjects suppressed replication at an E/T ratio of 0.10 or less. CD8+ lymphocytes from symptomatic patients (non-AIDS) inhibited HIV-1 replication at E/T ratios ranging from 0.05 to 1.0, and CD8+ cells from 8 of 13 (62%) required ratios greater than 0.10. As a group, patients with AIDS exhibited the lowest degree of anti-HIV activity with their CD8+ lymphocytes. The effective range of E/T ratios from AIDS patients was 0.10-2.0, and 9 of 10 (90%) required E/T ratios greater than 0.25. This anti-HIV activity exhibited by CD8+ cells also correlated significantly with the subject's peripheral blood CD4+ cell count. The relative extent of CD8+ cell anti-HIV-1 activity was not found dependent on variations in the CD4+ target cells and viruses used. These findings suggest that the decreased CD8+ cell antiviral activity is related to progression to disease in HIV-infected individuals.
C E Mackewicz, H W Ortega, J A Levy
Itraconazole is a recently developed triazole antifungal agent that inhibits cell membrane sterol biosynthesis. Itraconazole, in a dose-dependent manner, enhanced intracellular accumulation of daunorubicin and reversed the drug resistance in murine leukemia P388/ADR cells. In addition, itraconazole corrected the altered plasma membrane potentials of P388/ADR cells. The concentrations of itraconazole that reversed drug resistance are comparable to the plasma levels achieved by therapeutic dosage used in the treatment of fungal infections. Therefore, itraconazole is a potential candidate for in vivo use to reverse multidrug resistance in cancer with added benefit of its antifungal property.
S Gupta, J Kim, S Gollapudi
We have examined the effects of direct intratracheal instillation of purified eosinophil granule proteins on pulmonary function and airway responsiveness in primates. The results of this study show for the first time that installation of major basic protein (MBP) directly into the trachea of primates results in a significant and dose-related increase in airway responsiveness to inhaled methacholine. Furthermore, MBP and eosinophil peroxidase (EPO) induce a transient bronchoconstriction immediately after instillation that resolves by 1 h postinstillation. In contrast, instillation of other eosinophil granule proteins had no effect on airway responsiveness or pulmonary function. These data indicate a direct role of the eosinophil in the pathogenesis of airway hyperresponsiveness. We suggest that the MBP of human eosinophils has an effector role in the pathogenesis of airway hyperresponsiveness which may involve active interaction with resident airway tissue cells. MBP may also mediate altered lung function in various inflammatory lung diseases associated with pulmonary eosinophilia.
R H Gundel, L G Letts, G J Gleich
In order to model crypt abscesses, a histological finding which correlates with disease activity in intestinal inflammation, human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) were layered onto monolayers of the human intestinal epithelial cell line T84, a crypt-like epithelium which is capable of Cl- secretion. Such PMN-epithelial interaction had no substantial effect on monolayer integrity or function. However, when PMN were stimulated by conditions including those present naturally in the human colonic lumen, monolayers responded with a bumetanide-sensitive short circuit current (Isc) indicative of Cl- secretion, the basis of secretory diarrhea. This Isc response was induced by a neutrophil-derived secretagogue (NDS), which was only active when applied to the luminal surface of monolayers and did not require PMN-epithelial contact. NDS activity is resistant to boiling, acid, and trypsin and passes a 500 nominal mol wt cutoff filter. NDS activity is not secondary to the respiratory burst products O2- or H2O2 and does not appear to be a myeloperoxidase product. We speculate NDS elicited Cl- secretion may contribute to the secretory diarrhea seen in patients with intestinal inflammation and crypt abscesses.
S Nash, C Parkos, A Nusrat, C Delp, J L Madara