In view of the known association of vascular disease with increasing age, we have conducted an analysis of hemostatic system activity with respect to perturbations induced by aging phenomena. We have utilized an immunochemical assay for prothrombin fragment F1 + 2 to quantify Factor Xa activity upon prothrombin in the plasma of 199 healthy males between the ages of 42 and 80. The levels of F1 + 2 in this population generally increased as a function of age (P less than 0.0001). The metabolic behavior of this marker was determined in 10 individuals greater than 65 yr of age with varying levels of F1 + 2, which ranged from 1.28 to 5.85 nM. The elevations in the concentration of this component were not due to diminished clearance of the fragment. Radio-immunoassays for fibrinopeptide A (FPA) and the protein C activation peptide (PCP) were subsequently employed to measure thrombin activity upon fibrinogen and thrombin-thrombomodulin activity upon protein C, respectively, in 82 members of this population ranging in age from 42 to 80. Significant positive correlations were again observed between increasing age and the level of F1 + 2 (P less than 0.0001) as well as FPA (P less than 0.01) and PCP (P less than 0.002). The results of this cross-sectional study indicate that many apparently normal males of increasing age with normal immunologic levels of antithrombin III and protein C exhibit a biochemical defect that denotes the presence of an acquired prethrombotic state.
K A Bauer, L M Weiss, D Sparrow, P S Vokonas, R D Rosenberg
RIAs for hemostatic system activation were employed to study patients who were anticoagulated with warfarin. The mean prothrombin fragment F1 + 2 concentration in stably anticoagulated individuals without an inherited thrombotic diathesis (mean prothrombin time [PT] ratio [PT of patient/PT of normal plasma pool] = 1.74) was 0.231 nM as compared with a mean plasma F1 + 2 level of 1.68 nM for a nonanticoagulated control group (P less than 0.0001). The initiation of oral anticoagulants in two subjects who did not exhibit protein C deficiency led to a paradoxical increase in F1 + 2 levels during the first day of therapy. We have also shown that a relatively low intensity regimen of warfarin (PT ratio less than 1.2) may reduce elevated concentrations of F1 + 2 into the normal range in patients with a history of recurrent thromboembolism. The mean F1 + 2 level in antithrombin-deficient individuals on warfarin was significantly elevated (mean = 0.714 nM) as compared with that in anticoagulated subjects with protein C deficiency (mean = 0.205 nM) or in those without an inherited thrombotic disorder (P less than 0.01) at equivalent levels of intensity of oral anticoagulation. We therefore conclude that the effect of warfarin on hemostatic system activation is modulated by the endogenous heparan sulfate-antithrombin mechanism.
E M Conway, K A Bauer, S Barzegar, R D Rosenberg
The recently discovered fur gene encodes a membrane-associated protein with a recognition function. To further characterize the gene, we studied its expression by Northern blot analysis using poly(A)-selected RNA from a variety of organs of African green monkey and rat. The fur gene appeared to be differentially expressed, relatively high levels of fur mRNA being present in specimens of liver and kidney, low levels in brain, spleen, and thymus, and very low levels in heart muscle, lung, and testis. mRNA levels in specimens of human lung tissue without neoplastic lesions were also very low. Similar analyses of primary human lung carcinomas of different histopathological types revealed a highly selective and strong elevation of fur expression in nonsmall cell lung carcinomas, but not in small cell lung carcinomas. These results indicate that fur expression can be used to discriminate between these two types of human lung cancer.
J A Schalken, A J Roebroek, P P Oomen, S S Wagenaar, F M Debruyne, H P Bloemers, W J Van de Ven
Recombinant tumor necrosis factor alpha (rTNF alpha) and beta (rTNF beta) did not trigger H2O2 release from PMN in suspension. However, when PMN were plated on polystyrene surfaces coated with serum, fibronectin, vitronectin, laminin, or human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC), rTNFs induced a massive, prolonged secretory response, similar to that elicited by phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) or bacteria. On serum-coated plates, the maximum sustained rate of H2O2 release in response to rTNF alpha was 2.6 +/- 0.2 nmol/min per 10(6) PMN, the same as that with PMA; release continued for 73 +/- 4 min. On laminin-coated surfaces or HUVEC, release of H2O2 in response to rTNFs was slower, but lasted approximately 3.5 h, reaching the same total (greater than 100 nmol/10(6) PMN). Not only was this response far longer and larger than for other soluble stimuli of the respiratory burst studied with PMN in suspension, but the concentration necessary to elicit a half-maximal response (EC50) for rTNF alpha was orders of magnitude lower (55 pM). Responses were similar with FMLP, but ranged from zero to small with recombinant IFN alpha, recombinant IFN beta, recombinant IFN gamma, platelet-derived growth factor, recombinant IL-1 beta, or bacterial lipopolysaccharide. Adherent monocytes did not secrete H2O2 in response to rTNFs. H2O2 secretion by adherent PMN was first detectable 15-90 min after addition of rTNFs or FMLP. This lag period was unaffected by prior exposure of PMN to rTNF alpha in suspension, by allowing PMN to adhere before adding rTNF alpha, or by incubating adherent PMN in medium conditioned by rTNF alpha-treated PMN. Cytochalasins abolished H2O2 secretion in response to rTNFs, but not FMLP, if added during, but not after, the lag period. Thus, H2O2 secretion from rTNF alpha-treated PMN appears to be a direct but delayed response that requires assembly of microfilaments during exposure to the cytokine. These results suggest that PMN adherent to intra- or extravascular surfaces may undergo a massive, prolonged respiratory burst at the command of macrophages and lymphocytes reacting to microbial products and antigens.
C F Nathan
Several hormones induce phosphatidylinositol turnover in cell membranes and thus activate protein kinase C. Activation of protein kinase C can, in turn, have effects on epithelial transport. These experiments were designed to investigate the effects of two activators of protein kinase C, phorbol 12-myristate,13-acetate (PMA) and L-alpha-1,2-dioctanoylglycerol (L-alpha-1,2-DOG), and two inactive analogues, 4 alpha-phorbol and 4-O-methyl phorbol 12-myristate,13-acetate, on sodium, potassium, chloride, and total CO2 transport in the rabbit cortical collecting tubule. Utilizing in vitro microperfusion techniques, we found that activation of protein kinase C with either PMA or L-alpha-1,2-DOG significantly inhibited net sodium absorption, net potassium secretion and transepithelial voltage in a dose-dependent manner. There was no effect on net chloride or total CO2 transport. In contrast, the inactive phorbol analogues did not alter either sodium or potassium transport. These studies demonstrate that in the rabbit cortical collecting tubule sodium and potassium transport can be inhibited by compounds known to activate proteins kinase C. Thus, hormones that induce phosphatidylinositol turnover in the rabbit cortical collecting tubule may lead to inhibition of sodium transport by activation of protein kinase C.
S R Hays, M Baum, J P Kokko
Apolipoprotein E (apo E) plays an important role in receptor mediated clearance of lipoprotein particles from plasma. Common genetic variation in apo E exists with three alleles coding for proteins called E2, E3, and E4. In in vitro receptor binding assays, E2 binds poorly, whereas E3 and E4 function normally. Recently, the apo E phenotype has been shown to have an effect on low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels with levels in subjects with E2 lower and E4 higher than E3. We have examined the effect of the apo E polymorphism on dietary fat clearance using the vitamin A-fat loading test, which specifically labels intestinally derived lipoproteins with retinyl palmitate (RP). 27 normal subjects were studied, 10 with E3/3, 9 with E3/2, 7 with E4/3, and 1 with E4/4. After a vitamin A-containing fatty meal, postprandial RP concentrations were measured in chylomicron (Sf greater than 1,000) and nonchylomicron (Sf less than 1,000) fractions for 14 h. Compared with E3/3 subjects, E3/2 subjects had a significantly higher nonchylomicron RP concentration (P less than 0.05) (peak heights and areas below the curves) indicating slower clearance and the E4/3, E4/4 group had a significantly lower nonchylomicron RP concentration (P less than 0.05) indicating faster clearance. The clearance in the latter group was twice that of E3/2 subjects (P less than 0.01). Thus, heterozygosity for the defective form of apo E, E2, delays, and the surprising presence of a functionally normal allele, E4, increases clearance. This apo E effect on exogenous fat clearance may explain the recently described effect of the apo E phenotypes on LDL cholesterol levels.
M S Weintraub, S Eisenberg, J L Breslow
We have studied the complex interrelationships between platelets, Factor XIa, alpha 1-protease inhibitor and Factor IX activation. Platelets were shown to secrete an inhibitor of Factor XIa, and to protect Factor XIa from inactivation in the presence of alpha 1-protease inhibitor and the secreted platelet inhibitor. This protection of Factor XIa did not arise from the binding of Factor XIa to platelets, the presence of high molecular weight kininogen, or the inactivation of alpha 1-protease inhibitor by platelets. The formation of a complex between alpha 1-protease inhibitor and the active-site-containing light chain of Factor XIa was inhibited by activated platelets and by platelet releasates, but not by high molecular weight kininogen. These results support the hypothesis that platelets can regulate Factor XIa-catalyzed Factor IX activation by secreting an inhibitor of Factor XIa that may act primarily outside the platelet microenvironment and by protecting Factor XIa from inhibition, thereby localizing Factor IX activation to the platelet plug.
P N Walsh, D Sinha, F Kueppers, F S Seaman, K B Blankstein
Treatment of healthy rats and mice with a single intravenous injection of recombinant human tumor necrosis factor-alpha (rHuTNF-alpha) caused a dose-dependent gastrointestinal inflammation. Within 30 min gastric emptying was blocked and tissue edema occurred in the small and large intestine. In the cecum hemorrhage occurred after 4 h at doses greater than or equal to 250 micrograms/kg. The cecum exhibited an acute inflammatory response following rHuTNF-alpha treatment similar to that seen in tumor necrosis at the same dose. The vascular endothelium became swollen, increased numbers of neutrophils and other leukocytes attached to and penetrated the endothelium, and finally hemorrhage occurred. Treatment of rats with daily injections of rHuTNF-alpha (250 micrograms/kg per d) for 3 wk failed to produce cachexia. Within 24-48 h rats became resistant to the hemorrhagic effect of rHuTNF-alpha, however, the cytokine still caused a transitory block of gastric emptying after 10 d of treatment. Treatment at 5- or 10-d intervals produced results similar to the initial injection. These results suggest that maximum hemorrhagic response will occur when rHuTNF-alpha is administered at intervals of 5-10 d rather than daily.
J S Patton, P M Peters, J McCabe, D Crase, S Hansen, A B Chen, D Liggitt
A 60-yr-old woman and her brother, products of a consanquinous mating, were chylomicronemic. The chylomicronemia in both subjects was found to be due to the absence of functional apoCII. A mutant form, designated apoCIISt. Michael (apoCIIs), was identified by two-dimensional electrophoresis and Western blot using anti-apoCII antiserum. The isoelectric point of apoCIIs was similar to that of normal apoCII, but its apparent molecular weight was 3,000 greater. Tryptic peptides of apoCIIs were identified that had retention times in reverse-phase high pressure liquid chromatography and amino acid compositions indistinguishable from that of residues 1 to 48 and 51 to 55 of normal apoCII. The complete sequence of apoCIIs was deduced from a combination of the sequence analysis of tryptic peptides corresponding to residues 56 through 96 and the known sequence of the apoCII gene. ApoCIIs differed from apoCII at residue 70 where Gln70 was replaced by Pro70 and the sequence terminated with Pro96. This is consistent with a base insertion in the codon for Asp69 or Gln70 in the apoCII gene and a subsequent translation reading frame shift. Both patients were homozygous for apoE-4. This and the absence of normal apoCII is consistent with homozygozity at the apoE-CII gene locus on chromosome 19. Both siblings and several relatives had premature ischemic vascular disease, in contrast with its apparent absence in other apoCII-deficient families.
P W Connelly, G F Maguire, J A Little
Anti-islet cell and anti-insulin antibody production was studies over a 12-mo period in 82 recently diagnosed diabetics randomly receiving either cyclosporin or placebo. Cyclosporin had only minimal effects on the production of anti-islet cell antibodies whether directed to islet cytoplasmic (immunofluorescence) or membrane (cytotoxicity assay) antigens even in patients undergoing remission. These data suggest that these antibodies do not play a major role in the pathogenesis of the disease particularly since their (irregular) presence is not predictive of the clinical response to cyclosporin. Conversely, cyclosporin completely suppressed the synthesis of antibodies elicited by exogenous insulin irrespective of the insulin doses received, and decreased the autoantibody production against thyroid antigens, indicating that cyclosporin has variable effects on antibody production against various antigens.
C Boitard, G Feutren, L Castano, M Debray-Sachs, R Assan, J Hors, J F Bach
A shuttle vector plasmid, pZ189, was utilized to assess the types of mutations that cells from a patient with xeroderma pigmentosum, complementation group D, introduce into ultraviolet (UV) damaged, replicating DNA. Patients with xeroderma pigmentosum have clinical and cellular UV hypersensitivity, increased frequency of sun-induced skin cancer, and deficient DNA repair. In comparison to UV-treated pZ189 replicated in DNA repair-proficient cells, there were fewer surviving plasmids, a higher frequency of plasmids with mutations, fewer plasmids with two or more mutations in the marker gene, and a new mutagenic hotspot. The major type of base substitution mutation was the G:C to A:T transition with both cell lines. These results, together with similar findings published earlier with cells from a xeroderma pigmentosum patient in complementation group A, suggest that isolated G:C to A:T somatic mutations may be particularly important in generation of human skin cancer by UV radiation.
S Seetharam, M Protić-Sabljić, M M Seidman, K H Kraemer
Although antisera to specific placental folate receptors inhibits the uptake of 5-methyltetrahydrofolate into cultured malignant human cells, little is known of the functional significance of folate receptors in normal human cells. Human bone marrow cells were therefore assayed for erythropoietic burst-forming units in the presence of an antihuman placental folate receptor serum and preimmune serum to determine the role of such a receptor in erythroid differentiation. When marrow cells were assayed in the presence of anti-receptor antiserum, there was (i) a threefold increase in erythropoietic burst formation and a twofold increase in the number of cells per erythroid burst; (ii) morphological evidence for nuclear/cytoplasmic dissociation of orthochromatic normoblasts composing erythroid bursts (megaloblastic erythropoiesis); (iii) intracellular folate deficiency with a 70% reduction of intracellular folate in antiserum treated cells as compared with control cells; and (iv) complete reversal of antiserum-induced changes on preincubation of antiserum with purified human placental folate receptor. These data support the conclusion that folate receptors on marrow cells provide an important function in the cellular uptake of folates during in vitro erythropoiesis. This process of folate uptake also appears to play a pivotal role in the differentiation and proliferation of erythroid progenitor cells.
A C Antony, E Bruno, R A Briddell, J E Brandt, R S Verma, R Hoffman
Neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenic purpura associated with a new platelet-specific alloantigen Pena has been reported. We now provide direct evidence that the Pena determinant is associated with glycoprotein (GP) IIIa, but that it is distinct from epitopes that define the PlA system. By ELISA wherein monoclonal antibodies specific for GPIIb (Tab) and specific for GPIIIa (AP3) were used to capture and hold antigens from a platelet lysate prepared under conditions that generate free GPIIb and GPIIIa, anti-Pena reacted with GPIIIa held by AP3 but not with GPIIb held by Tab. In an alternative ELISA where purified GPIIIa from both PlA1-positive and PlA1-negative platelets were used individually as antigen, anti-Pena reacted with both allelic forms of GPIIIa. By radioimmuno-precipitation, anti-Pena precipitated a single surface-labeled membrane protein with electrophoretic characteristics in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gels, under nonreduced or reduced conditions, identical to those of GPIIIa. By fluorocytometry, platelets from several donors, regardless of PlA phenotype, bound an amount of anti-Pena roughly equivalent to one-half that amount of anti-PlA1 bound by PlA1 homozygous (A1/A1) platelets and roughly equal to that amount of anti-PlA1 bound by PlA1 heterozygous (A1/A2) platelets. Using platelets from donors typed homozygous for PlA1 and Pena in a quantitative indirect binding assay, 14-24,000 molecules of anti-Pena and 41-51,000 molecules of anti-PlA1 were bound per platelet at saturation. Anti-Pena completely inhibited ADP-induced aggregation of Pena-positive platelets, regardless of PlA phenotype. These results indicate that the Pena determinant is associated with GPIIIa but distinct from PlA.
K Furihata, D J Nugent, A Bissonette, R H Aster, T J Kunicki
Two alloreactive human CD4+ T cell clones, recognizing HLA-DR2 and HLA-DR1 determinants, lost their specific proliferative capacity after infection with HIV. This system was used to explore the effect of polyI.polyC12U on HIV replication and immune suppression. The mismatched double-stranded RNA blocked HIV-associated particulate reverse transcriptase activity and viral-mediated cytopathic effects. Also, polyI.polyC12U preserved the alloreactivity of T cell clones after exposure to HIV.PolyI.polyC12U appeared to act at a level subsequent to host cell infection and reverse transcription. It had no effect on the enhancement of gene expression by the HIV transcription unit tatIII. These findings indicate that early in the course of infection of CD4+ T lymphocytes, HIV can directly abrogate proliferation to specific allodeterminants, and that this function is preserved in the presence of polyI.polyC12U. They also provide insight into the mechanism of antiviral action of a class of agent with potential clinical utility in AIDS.
J Laurence, J Kulkosky, S M Friedman, D N Posnett, P O Ts'o
Hereditary angioneurotic edema (HANE) results from the deficiency of the inhibitor of the first component of human complement (C1-INH). It is inherited as an autosomal dominant trait. Heterogeneity of this defect has been shown at the protein and mRNA level. Southern blot analysis of genomic DNA was performed after digestion with six different restriction endonucleases in 24 families affected with type 1 HANE (low antigenic and functional C1-INH levels) and five with type 2 (low functional C1-INH levels and normal or elevated levels of dysmorphic C1-INH). Blots were hybridized with a C1-INH cDNA probe of 1,227 bp. With one enzyme (Pst I), two different patterns of restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) were detected. One was present in one kindred with type 1 HANE and the other appeared the same in one type 1 and in one type 2 family, thus indicating that each RFLP resulted from a different mutation. Analysis of a total of 34 members of these three families suggested that the polymorphisms are tightly linked to the mutation responsible for the disease. Using a 170-bp probe we showed that the three different mutations leading to these polymorphisms are located in the same region of the C1-INH gene. These data suggest that different mutations in the same region of the C1-INH gene are responsible for C1-INH deficiency in these families. Most of these mutations are probably point mutations or other "minor" defects and do not appear to be due to major deletions or rearrangements.
M Cicardi, T Igarashi, M S Kim, D Frangi, A Agostoni, A E Davis 3rd
Human pulmonary alveolar macrophages obtained by bronchoalveolar lavage from both normal controls and smokers secreted in vitro a neutral proteinase that degraded denatured collagens. Optimal expression of the proteinase was detected after 3-5 d of culture. The proteinase could not be detected in the media of cultures that had been treated with 0.5 micrograms/ml of cycloheximide. The gelatinase had an Mr of 90,000 and was immunologically cross-reactive with human neutrophil gelatinase. When newly synthesized 35S-methionine-labeled proteins were analyzed, the proteinase appeared to be a major secretion product of alveolar macrophages. Chromatography on gelatin-Sepharose gave a single peak of activity that was predominantly composed of the 90,000-mol-wt proteinase. The proteolytic activity in the gelatin-Sepharose-purified material was inhibited by EDTA and 1,10-phenanthroline, but not by N-ethylmaleimide or phenylmethanesulfonyl fluoride, indicating that the proteinase was a metalloproteinase. The partially purified material was also capable of degrading native type V collagen and this degradation was inhibited in the presence of an antibody to neutrophil gelatinase. The data suggest that human alveolar macrophages in culture elaborate a metalloproteinase that degrades both native type V collagen and denatured collagens.
M S Hibbs, J R Hoidal, A H Kang
The effects of streptozotocin (STZ) diabetes and insulin on regulation of renal kallikrein were studied in the rat. 1 and 2 wk after STZ injection, diabetic rats had reduced renal levels and urinary excretion of active kallikrein. Tissue and urinary prokallikrein levels were unchanged, but the rate of renal prokallikrein synthesis relative to total protein synthesis was reduced 30-45% in diabetic rats. Treatment of diabetic rats with insulin prevented or reversed the fall in tissue level and excretion rate of active kallikrein and normalized prokallikrein synthesis rate. To further examine insulin's effects, nondiabetic rats were treated with escalating insulin doses to produce hyperinsulinemia. In these rats, renal active kallikrein increased. Although renal prokallikrein was not increased significantly by hyperinsulinemia, its synthesis was increased. As this was accompanied by proportionally increased total protein synthesis, relative kallikrein synthesis rate was not changed. Excretion of active kallikrein was unchanged, but prokallikrein excretion was markedly reduced. Therefore, increased tissue active kallikrein seen with hyperinsulinemia can be explained not only by increased synthesis but also by retention and increased activation of renal prokallikrein. These studies show that STZ diabetes produces an impairment in renal kallikrein synthesis and suggest that this disease state also impairs renal prokallikrein activation. The findings also suggest that insulin modulates renal kallikrein production, activation, and excretion.
A A Jaffa, D H Miller, G S Bailey, J Chao, H S Margolius, R K Mayfield
To investigate the mechanisms responsible for urinary acidification in the terminal nephron, primary cultures of cells isolated from the renal papilla were grown as monolayers in a defined medium. Morphologically, cultured cells were epithelial in type, and similar to collecting duct principal cells. Cell pH measured fluorometrically in monolayers grown on glass slides showed recovery from acid loads in Na+-free media. Recovery was inhibited by cyanide, oligomycin A, and N-ethylmaleimide. Cyanide and oligomycin inhibited recovery less in the presence than in the absence of glucose. When cells were first acid loaded in a Na+-free medium and then exposed to external Na+, pH recovery also took place. This recovery exhibited first-order dependence on Na+ concentration and was inhibited by 5-(N-ethyl-N-isopropyl)amiloride. These studies demonstrate that in culture, collecting duct principal cells possess at least two mechanisms for acid extrusion: a proton ATP-ase and an Na+-H+ exchanger. The former may be responsible for some component of the urinary acidification observed in the papillary collecting duct in vivo; the role of the latter in acid-base transport remains uncertain.
J G Kleinman, S S Blumenthal, J H Wiessner, K L Reetz, D L Lewand, N S Mandel, G S Mandel, J C Garancis, E J Cragoe Jr
Glycoconjugate structure in upper gastrointestinal epithelium was studied using five lectins to determine the relationship between aberrant differentiation and glycoconjugate expression. Specimens of normal esophagus, stomach, and duodenum were examined and compared with specimens of columnar metaplasia in the esophagus (Barrett's esophagus) and specimens of adenocarcinoma of the esophagus and stomach. Specific terminal glycoconjugate structures were found for the esophagus, stomach, and duodenum. Minor differences were found between the antral and fundic gland mucosae, reflecting their respective cell populations. In biopsies of Barrett's esophagus, gastric-type columnar metaplasia expressed glycoconjugates indistinguishable from those in the normal stomach. In specialized-type columnar metaplasia, a more restricted expression of glycoconjugates was seen resembling the normal duodenum. The presence of low grade dysplasia in Barrett's esophagus associated with adenocarcinoma had no impact on glycoconjugate expression. However, a distinctive difference in glycosylation was seen in high grade dysplasia of the columnar-lined esophagus and in adenocarcinoma of the esophagus and stomach. Barrett's esophagus is a morphological mosaic in which the glycoconjugate expression resembles that seen in the normal stomach and duodenum. However, in high grade dysplasia and carcinoma, variable deletion of glycoconjugate expression can be found.
C Shimamoto, W M Weinstein, C R Boland
A model of stimulated bone resorption was developed using a synthetic retinoid in thyroparathyroidectomized rats. The retinoid induced an increase in bone resorption and in the number of vertebral subperiosteal osteoclasts. The resulting increase in plasma Ca could be used as an easily measured index of bone resorption. Three bisphosphonates produced a dose-related prevention and reversal of retinoid-induced hypercalcemia. Their potencies were similar to those previously obtained by histomorphometry. Irradiation (600 rad) of the rats prevented hypercalcemia but failed to reverse it, showing that proliferation of osteoclast precursor cells was important in inducing, but not in maintaining, bone resorption. Calcitonin produced similar effects on calcemia and prevented the increase in osteoclast number but failed to reverse the increase, suggesting that it inhibited precursor proliferation. This model represents a new tool to study mechanisms of bone resorption and the action of inhibitors in vivo.
U Trechsel, A Stutzer, H Fleisch
Stretching of the atrial wall is a known stimulant for atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) secretion. Little is known about other factors that may influence ANP secretion. We examined the effects of the neurotransmitters of the autonomic nervous system on ANP secretion from isolated rat left atria. Superfusion with 10 muM norepinephrine produced a biphasic rise in ANP secretion with a peak response 2.5-fold above baseline secretion. To determine whether the response to norepinephrine primarily reflected alpha- or beta-adrenergic receptor stimulation, atria were superfused with 0.1 muM isoproterenol or 10 muM phenylephrine and 1 muM propranolol. ANP secretion in response to isoproterenol was biphasic, similar to the response to norepinephrine. Phenylephrine evoked a monophasic ANP secretory response, which was delayed in onset relative to that of isoproterenol or norepinephrine. Superfusion with 10 muM methacholine alone had no effect on ANP secretion, but rapidly attenuated norepinephrine-stimulated secretion by 67%. From these observations we conclude: (a) Both alpha- and beta-adrenergic agonists directly and distinctively stimulate ANP secretion; (b) Norepinephrine stimulates ANP secretion by both alpha- and beta-adrenergic mechanisms, however the secretory response pattern of norepinephrine reflects a predominence of beta-adrenergic activity; (c) Under basal conditions, methacholine does not influence ANP secretion; and (d) Methacholine inhibits norepinephrine-stimulated ANP secretion. Thus, in vivo, activation of the sympathetic nervous system may enhance ANP secretion, whereas a rise in parasympathetic tone may lower ANP secretion.
R J Schiebinger, M Z Baker, J Linden
Cholesteryl ester storage disease (CESD) is characterized by the deficient activity of lysosomal cholesteryl ester (CE) hydrolase, accumulation of LDL-derived CE in lysosomes, and hyperlipidemia. We studied the kinetics of VLDL and LDL apolipoprotein B (apoB), using 125I-VLDL and 131I-LDL, in a 9-yr-old female with CESD and elevated total cholesterol (TC) (271.0 +/- 4.4 mg/dl), triglyceride (TG) (150.0 +/- 7.8 mg/dl), and LDL cholesterol (184.7 +/- 3.4 mg/dl). These studies demonstrated a markedly elevated production rate (PR) of apoB, primarily in LDL, with normal fractional catabolism of apoB in VLDL and LDL. Urine mevalonate levels were elevated, indicative of increased synthesis of endogenous cholesterol. Treatment with lovastatin, a competitive inhibitor of hydroxymethylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase, resulted in significant reductions in TC (196.8 +/- 7.9 mg/dl), TG (100.8 +/- 20.6 mg/dl), and LDL cholesterol (102.0 +/- 10.9 mg/dl). Therapy reduced VLDL apoB PR (5.2 vs. 12.2 mg/kg per d pretreatment) and LDL apoB PR (12.7 vs. 24.2 mg/kg per d pretreatment). Urine mevalonate levels also decreased during therapy. These results indicate that, in CESD, the inability to release free cholesterol from lysosomal CE resulted in elevated synthesis of endogenous cholesterol and increased production of apoB-containing lipoproteins. Lovastatin reduced both the rate of cholesterol synthesis and the secretion of apoB-containing lipoproteins.
H N Ginsberg, N A Le, M P Short, R Ramakrishnan, R J Desnick
To study the molecular basis of "homing" of granulocyte-macrophage progenitors (CFU-C), we synthesized probes by covalent linking of sugars to bovine serum albumin. Long-term marrow cultures were established in the presence and absence of these probes. In the presence of galactosyl and mannosyl probes, total cell and CFU-C production in the supernate as well as the adherent layer were halted, and cobblestones (representing CFU-C bound to stroma) disappeared. Fucosyl probe and diffusible sugars had no effect on these parameters. These studies suggested membrane lectins with specificity for galactosyl and mannosyl residues may be responsible for the binding of CFU-C to supporting stroma. To determine if CFU-C possesses homing receptors with these specificities, we induced agglutination in marrow cell suspensions with these neoglycoprotein probes. Selective agglutination was observed only by galactosyl and mannosyl probes. The results suggest that CFU-C homing receptors are membrane lectins with specificity for galactosyl and mannosyl residues.
S Aizawa, M Tavassoli
A Japanese family with atypical type I familial amyloidotic polyneuropathy (FAP) in Iiyama, Japan was studied. Most of the family members have dysfunctions in the central nervous system, in addition to typical symptoms of type I FAP. The transthyretin (TTR, also called prealbumin) gene of the atypical FAP(FAP-IY) was analyzed with recombinant DNA techniques and a RIA method. FAP-IY was found to have the mutation responsible for the methionine-for-valine substitution at position 30 of TTR, as in the case of typical type I FAP. However, analysis of DNA polymorphisms in the TTR locus showed that FAP-IY has a genetic background differing from that of the typical type I FAP. These observations lead to the consideration that a genetic factor(s) involved in the dysfunction of the central nervous system may locate in a chromosome region in close proximity to the TTR gene.
H Furuya, K Yoshioka, H Sasaki, Y Sakaki, M Nakazato, H Matsuo, A Nakadai, S Ikeda, N Yanagisawa
Tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA) and urokinase (u-PA), the major activators of plasminogen, are synthesized and released from endothelial cells. We previously demonstrated specific and functional binding of plasminogen to cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). In the present study we found that t-PA could bind to HUVEC. Binding of t-PA to HUVEC was specific, saturable, plasminogen-independent, and did not require lysine binding sites. The t-PA bound in a rapid and reversible manner, involving binding sites of both high (Kd, 28.7 +/- 10.8 pM; Bmax, 3,700 +/- 300) and low (Kd, 18.1 +/- 3.8 nM; Bmax 815,000 +/- 146,000) affinity. t-PA binding was 70% inhibited by a 100-fold molar excess of u-PA. When t-PA was bound to HUVEC, its apparent catalytic efficiency increased by three- or fourfold as measured by plasminogen activation. HUVEC-bound t-PA was active site-protected from its rapidly acting inhibitor: plasminogen activator inhibitor. These results demonstrate that t-PA specifically binds to HUVEC and that such binding preserves catalytic efficiency with respect to plasminogen activation. Therefore, endothelial cells can modulate hemostatic and thrombotic events at the cell surface by providing specific binding sites for activation of plasminogen.
K A Hajjar, N M Hamel, P C Harpel, R L Nachman
Under some conditions, mononuclear phagocytes spontaneously synthesize and release fibronectin, an extracellular matrix glycoprotein with versatile effects on cell-matrix interactions. To gain insight into the processes that modulate the level of fibronectin secretion by these cells, we used monocytes, in vitro matured monocytes and alveolar macrophages as models to compare fibronectin mRNA levels and fibronectin secretion in a variety of circumstances. Using Northern analysis and dot-blot analysis with a 32P-labeled human fibronectin cDNA probe, we evaluated steady-state mRNA levels and a human fibronectin-specific ELISA was used to evaluate fibronectin secretion. In all cases the amounts of fibronectin secreted paralleled fibronectin mRNA levels. Specifically (a) when fibronectin mRNA was undetectable, as in the case of normal blood monocytes, no fibronectin was secreted, but whenever fibronectin mRNA was present, as in normal alveolar macrophages, fibronectin was secreted by the cells; (b) as monocytes matured into macrophages in vitro, the cells began to express fibronectin mRNA and the cells secreted fibronectin; (c) when alveolar macrophages were activated with surface stimuli such as lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or immune complexes, fibronectin mRNA levels decreased and in parallel, the cells secreted less fibronectin; (d) in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), alveolar macrophages contained severalfold more fibronectin mRNA transcripts that normal and the cells spontaneously secreted severalfold more fibronectin than normal; and (e) when IPF alveolar macrophages were placed in culture the fibronectin mRNA levels in the cells decreased with time, and concurrently the amounts of fibronectin produced per unit time continually decreased. The observation of a strict concordance of fibronectin mRNA levels and fibronectin release by mononuclear phagocytes suggests that, at least in many circumstances, fibronectin secretion by mononuclear phagocytes is controlled by steady-state levels of fibronectin mRNA.
K Yamauchi, Y Martinet, R G Crystal
It has been proposed that oxygen free radicals mediate damage that occurs during postischemic reperfusion. Recombinant human superoxide dismutase (r-h-SOD) has been shown to be effective at reducing reperfusion injury, but it is not known if this infused enzyme actually reduces oxygen free radical concentrations in the myocardial tissue. Electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy was used to directly measure the effect of r-h-SOD on free radical concentrations in the postischemic heart. Hearts were freeze clamped at 77 degrees K after 10 min of normothermic global ischemia followed by 10 s of reflow with control perfusate (n = 7) or perfusate containing 60,000 U r-h-SOD (n = 7). The spectra of these hearts exhibited three different signals: signal A isotropic, g = 2.004, identical to the carbon-centered ubiquinone free radical; signal B anisotropic with axial symmetry, g parallel = 2.033, g perpendicular = 2.005, identical to the oxygen-centered alkyl peroxyl free radical; and the signal C an isotropic triplet, g parallel = 2.000, an = 24 G, similar to a nitrogen-centered free radical such as a peroxyl amine. With r-h-SOD administration the concentration of the oxygen free radical, signal B, was reduced 49% from 6.8 +/- 0.3 microM to 3.5 +/- 0.3 microM (P less than 0.01) and the concentration of the nitrogen free radical, signal C, was reduced 38% from 3.4 +/- 0.3 to 2.1 +/- 0.3 microM (P less than 0.01). The concentration of the carbon-centered free radical, signal A, however, was increased 51% from 3.3 +/- 0.2 to 5.0 +/- 0.2 microM (P less than 0.01). Identical reperfusion with peroxide-inactivated r-h-SOD did not alter the concentrations of free radicals indicating that the specific enzymatic activity of r-h-SOD is required to decrease the concentrations of reactive oxygen free radicals. Additional measurements performed varying the duration of reflow demonstrate a burst of oxygen free radical generation peaking at 10 s of reperfusion. r-h-SOD entirely abolished this burst. These studies demonstrate that superoxide-derived free radicals are generated during postischemic reperfusion and suggest that the beneficial effect of r-h-SOD is due to its specific enzymatic scavenging of superoxide free radicals.
J L Zweier, B K Rayburn, J T Flaherty, M L Weisfeldt
Previous clinical and experimental observations have indicated that wound healing is impaired as a result of treatment with doxorubicin, a chemotherapeutic agent. In this study, the effects of doxorubicin were examined in human skin fibroblast cultures with respect to collagen production and fibroblast proliferation. The results indicated that the synthesis of hydroxyproline as a marker of collagen production was markedly reduced, with an approximate concentration of inhibitor yielding 50% inhibition of 1 microM. This inhibition could be explained, in part, by generalized inhibition of total protein synthesis, but in addition, there was a significant inhibition of prolyl hydroxylation during collagen biosynthesis, as indicated by a reduction in the ratio of [3H]hydroxyproline/([3H]hydroxyproline + [3H]proline). The latter effect was shown to result from inhibition of prolyl hydroxylase by doxorubicin. As a consequence of reduced prolyl hydroxylation, the stability of newly synthesized procollagen triple helix was shown to be compromised. At the same time, doxorubicin significantly reduced fibroblast proliferation in vitro, as determined by [3H]thymidine incorporation. Thus, reduced collagen production and inhibition of fibroblast proliferation may explain the reduced wound healing in patients undergoing treatment with doxorubicin.
T Sasaki, K C Holeyfield, J Uitto
Tangier disease is a rare familial disorder characterized by extremely low levels of apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) and high density lipoproteins (HDL). In normal subjects, proapoA-I is secreted into plasma and converted to mature apoA-I by the cleavage of the amino-terminal six amino acids with the major isoprotein in plasma being mature apoA-I. In contrast, in Tangier disease there is a marked relative increase of proapoA-I as compared with mature apoA-I. ProapoA-I and mature apoA-I were isolated from normal and Tangier disease subjects, radio-labeled, and autologous apoA-I isoproteins injected into normal and Tangier subjects. The in vivo catabolism and conversion of proapoA-I and mature apoA-I in normal and Tangier disease subjects were quantitated. A comparison of the rate of catabolism of apoA-I isoproteins from plasma revealed a significantly faster rate of catabolism of both isoproteins of apoA-I in Tangier subjects when compared with normal subjects. The fractional conversion rate of proapoA-I to mature apoA-I was 3.9 d-1 in normal subjects and 3.6 d-1 in Tangier subjects. The results indicate that (a) apoA-I enters plasma as the pro isoprotein in both normal and Tangier subjects, (b) Tangier disease subjects have a normal fractional rate of conversion of proapoA-I to mature apoA-I, (c) proapoA-I is catabolized at the same rate as mature apoA-I in Tangier subjects, and (d) Tangier subjects catabolize both pro and mature apoA-I at a much greater rate than do normal subjects. Therefore, the relative increase in proapoA-I in Tangier disease is due to a marked decrease in mature apoA-I resulting from rapid catabolism of both pro- and mature apoA-I and not to defective conversion of proapoA-I to mature apoA-I.
D Bojanovski, R E Gregg, L A Zech, M S Meng, C Bishop, R Ronan, H B Brewer Jr
Diflunisal, 5-(2',4'-difluorophenyl)salicylic acid, excreted in urine as its glucuronide, was given to normal humans (n = 6) along with a glucose load specifically labeled with 14C. Glucuronide excreted by each subject was reduced to its glucoside and glucose from it degraded to yield the distribution of 14 C in its six carbons. Randomization of the 14C from the specifically labeled glucose was taken as a measure of the extent to which glucose was deposited indirectly (i.e., glucose----lactate----glucose----6-P----glycogen), rather than directly (i.e., glucose----glucose-6-P----glycogen). The maximum contribution to glycogen formation by the direct pathway was estimated to be 65 +/- 1%, on the assumption that glucuronide and glycogen are derived from the same hepatic pool of glucose-6-P in liver. Evidence that supports that assumption was obtained by comparing the randomization of 14C in the urinary glucuronide with that in glucose in blood from the hepatic vein of four of the subjects before and after they were given glucagon. Other evidence supporting the assumption was obtained by comparing in two subjects 3H/14C ratios in glucose from hepatic vein blood before and after glucagon administration with that in urinary glucuronide, having labeled the uridine diphosphate (UDP)-glucose in their livers with 14C by giving them 1-[14C]galactose and their circulating glucose with 3H by giving a 5-[3H]glucose-labeled load. It is concluded that glucuronide formation in humans can be used to trace glucose metabolism in the liver, and that in humans the indirect pathway of glucose metabolism is active.
I Magnusson, V Chandramouli, W C Schumann, K Kumaran, J Wahren, B R Landau
The role of adrenergic agents in augmenting proximal tubular salt and water flux, was studied in a preparation of freshly isolated rabbit renal proximal tubular cells in suspension. Norepinephrine (NE, 10(-5) M) increased sodium influx (JNa) 60 +/- 5% above control value. The alpha adrenergic antagonist, phentolamine (10(-5) M), inhibited the NE-induced enhanced JNa by 90 +/- 2%, while the beta adrenergic antagonist, propranolol, had a minimal inhibitory effect (10 +/- 2%). The alpha adrenergic subtype was further defined. Yohimbine (10(-5) M), an alpha2 adrenergic antagonist but not prazosin (10(-5) M), an alpha1 adrenergic antagonist completely blocked the NE induced increase in JNa. Clonidine, a partial alpha2 adrenergic agonist, increased JNa by 58 +/- 2% comparable to that observed with NE (10(-5) M). Yohimbine, but not prazosin, inhibited the clonidine-induced increase in JNa, confirming that alpha2 adrenergic receptors were involved. Additional alpha2 adrenergic agents, notably p-amino clonidine and alpha-methyl-norepinephrine, imparted a similar increase in JNa. The clonidine-induced increase in JNa could be completely blocked by the amiloride analogue, ethylisopropyl amiloride (EIPA, 10(-5) M). The transport pathway blocked by EIPA was partially inhibited by Li and cis H+, but stimulated by trans H+, consistent with Na+-H+ antiport. Radioligand binding studies using [3H]prazosin (alpha1 adrenergic antagonist) and [3H]rauwolscine (alpha2 adrenergic antagonist) were performed to complement the flux studies. Binding of [3H]prazosin to the cells was negligible. In contrast, [3H]rauwolscine showed saturable binding to a single class of sites, with Bmax 1678 +/- 143 binding sites/cell and KD 5.4 +/- 1.4 nM. In summary, in the isolated rabbit renal proximal tubular cell preparation, alpha2 adrenergic receptors are the predominant expression of alpha adreno-receptors, and in the absence of organic Na+-cotransported solutes, alpha2 adrenergic agonists enhance 22Na influx into the cell by stimulating the brush border membrane Na+-H+ exchange pathway.
E P Nord, M J Howard, A Hafezi, P Moradeshagi, S Vaystub, P A Insel
Angiotensin II (AII) in adrenal glomerulosa cells activates phospholipase C resulting in the formation of inositol phosphates and diacylglycerol rich in arachidonic acid (AA). Although glomerulosa cells can metabolize AA via cyclooxygenase (CO), this pathway plays little role in aldosterone synthesis. Recent evidence suggests that the lipoxygenase (LO) pathway may be important for hormonal secretion in endocrine tissues such as the islet of Langerhans. However, the capacity of the glomerulosa cell to synthesize LO products and their role in aldosterone secretion is not known. To study this, the effect of nonselective and selective LO inhibitors on AII, ACTH, and potassium-induced aldosterone secretion and LO product formation was evaluated in isolated rat glomerulosa cells. BW755c, a nonselective LO inhibitor dose dependently reduced the AII-stimulated level of aldosterone without altering AII binding (91 +/- 6 to 36 +/- 4 ng/10(6) cells/h 10(-4) M, P less than 0.001). The same effect was observed with another nonselective LO blocker, phenidone, and a more selective 12-LO inhibitor, Baicalein. In contrast U-60257, a selective 5-LO inhibitor did not change the AII-stimulated levels of aldosterone (208 +/- 11% control, AII 10(-9) M vs. 222 +/- 38%, AII + U-60257). The LO blockers action was specific for AII since neither BW755c nor phenidone altered ACTH or K+-induced aldosterone secretion. AII stimulated the formation of the 12-LO product 12-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (12-HETE) as measured by ultraviolet detection and HPLC in AA loaded cells and by a specific RIA in unlabeled cells (501 +/- 50 to 990 +/- 10 pg/10(5) cells, P less than 0.02). BW755c prevented the AII-mediated rise in 12-HETE formation. In contrast, neither ACTH nor K+ increased 12-HETE levels. The addition of 12-HETE or its unstable precursor 12-HPETE (10(-9) or 10(-8) M) completely restored AII action during LO blockade. AII also produced an increase in 15-HETE formation, but the 15-LO products had no effect on aldosterone secretion. These studies suggest that the 12-LO pathway plays a key role as a new specific mediator of AII-induced aldosterone secretion.
J L Nadler, R Natarajan, N Stern
We have analyzed T cell receptor alpha-chain gene configuration using three genomic joining (J) region probes in 64 children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). 11 out of 18 T-ALLs were T3 positive; alpha-chain gene rearrangements were demonstrated in only two of 18, indicating that the majority of T-ALLs would have rearrangements involving J alpha segments located upstream of these probes. In contrast, 15 out of 46 B-precursor ALLs showed rearrangements of the alpha-chain gene and J alpha segments located approximately 20-30 kb upstream of the constant region were involved in 13 of these patients. Nine of 15 B-precursor ALLs with rearranged alpha-chain genes had rearrangements of both gamma- and beta-chain genes, whereas the remaining six had no rearrangements of gamma- and beta-chain genes. These findings indicated that alpha-chain gene rearrangement is not specific for T lineage cells and gamma- and/or beta-chain gene rearrangement does not appear essential for alpha-chain gene rearrangement, at least in B-precursor leukemic cells.
J Hara, S H Benedict, T W Mak, E W Gelfand
The peroxisomal oxidation of the long chain fatty acid palmitate (C16:0) and the very long chain fatty acids lignocerate (C24:0) and cerotate (C26:0) was studied in freshly prepared homogenates of cultured skin fibroblasts from control individuals and patients with peroxisomal disorders. The peroxisomal oxidation of the fatty acids is almost completely dependent on the addition of ATP, coenzyme A (CoA), Mg2+ and NAD+. However, the dependency of the oxidation of palmitate on the concentration of the cofactors differs markedly from that of the oxidation of lignocerate and cerotate. The peroxisomal oxidation of all three fatty acid substrates is markedly deficient in fibroblasts from patients with the Zellweger syndrome, the neonatal form of adrenoleukodystrophy and the infantile form of Refsum disease, in accordance with the deficiency of peroxisomes in these patients. In fibroblasts from patients with X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy the peroxisomal oxidation of lignocerate and cerotate is impaired, but not that of palmitate. Competition experiments indicate that in fibroblasts, as in rat liver, distinct enzyme systems are responsible for the oxidation of palmitate on the one hand and lignocerate and cerotate on the other hand. Fractionation studies indicate that in rat liver activation of cerotate and lignocerate to cerotoyl-CoA and lignoceroyl-CoA, respectively, occurs in two subcellular fractions, the endoplasmic reticulum and the peroxisomes but not in the mitochondria. In homogenates of fibroblasts from patients lacking peroxisomes there is a small (25%) but significant deficiency of the ability to activate very long chain fatty acids. This deficient activity of very long chain fatty acyl-CoA synthetase is also observed in fibroblast homogenates from patients with X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy. We conclude that X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy is caused by a deficiency of peroxisomal very long chain fatty acyl-CoA synthetase.
R J Wanders, C W van Roermund, M J van Wijland, R B Schutgens, J Heikoop, H van den Bosch, A W Schram, J M Tager
We examined the effect of insulin and plasma amino acid concentrations on leucine kinetics in 15 healthy volunteers (age 22 +/- 2 yr) using the euglycemic insulin clamp technique and an infusion of [1-14C]leucine. Four different experimental conditions were examined: (a) study one, high insulin with reduced plasma amino acid concentrations; (b) study two, high insulin with maintenance of basal plasma amino acid concentrations; (c) study three, high insulin with elevated plasma amino acid concentrations; and (d) study four, basal insulin with elevated plasma amino acid concentrations. Data were analyzed using both the plasma leucine and alpha-ketoisocaproate (the alpha-ketoacid of leucine) specific activities. In study one total leucine flux, leucine oxidation, and nonoxidative leucine disposal (an index of whole body protein synthesis) all decreased (P less than 0.01) regardless of the isotope model utilized. In study two leucine flux did not change, while leucine oxidation increased (P less than 0.01) and nonoxidative leucine disposal was maintained at the basal rate; endogenous leucine flux (an index of whole body protein degradation) decreased (P less than 0.01). In study three total leucine flux, leucine oxidation, and nonoxidative leucine disposal all increased significantly (P less than 0.01). In study four total leucine flux, leucine oxidation, and nonoxidative leucine disposal all increased (P less than 0.001), while endogenous leucine flux decreased (P less than 0.001). We conclude that: (a) hyperinsulinemia alone decreases plasma leucine concentration and inhibits endogenous leucine flux (protein breakdown), leucine oxidation, and nonoxidative leucine disposal (protein synthesis); (b) hyperaminoacidemia, whether in combination with hyperinsulinemia or with maintained basal insulin levels decreases endogenous leucine flux and stimulates both leucine oxidation and nonoxidative leucine disposal.
P Castellino, L Luzi, D C Simonson, M Haymond, R A DeFronzo
Although the complete amino acid sequence of human apolipoprotein (apo) B100 is known (4536 amino acids), the structure of apo B48 has not been defined. The objective of our study was to define the structure of apo B48 and its relationship to apo B100. Antibodies were produced against 22 synthetic peptides corresponding to sequences in human apo B100. The levels of immunoreactivity of the antipeptides to apo B100 and apo B48 were used to define the structural relationship between these two species of apo B. Six antibodies from sequences in the amino-terminal half of apo B100, including antipeptide 2110-2129, bound to both apo B100 and apo B48. 15 other apo B-specific antipeptides from sequences carboxyl-terminal to residue 2152 bound to apo B100, but not to apo B48. Immunoblots of cyanogen bromide digests of apo B100 and apo B48 with antipeptides 2068-2091 and 2110-2129 detected a 16-KD fragment (residues 2016-2151) in the apo B100 digest and a fragment of identical size in the apo B48 digest. Because apo B48 appears to contain the apo B100 cyanogen bromide fragment 2016-2151 and because an antiserum specific for the peptide 2152-2168 does not bind to apo B48, we conclude that apo B48 represents the amino-terminal 47% of apo B100 and that the carboxyl terminus of apo B48 is in the vicinity of residue 2151 of apo B100.
T L Innerarity, S G Young, K S Poksay, R W Mahley, R S Smith, R W Milne, Y L Marcel, K H Weisgraber
Cl-impermeability in cystic fibrosis (CF) tracheal epithelium derives from a deficiency in the beta-adrenergic regulation of apical membrane Cl- channels. To test the possibility that cAMP-dependent kinase is the cause of this deficiency, we assayed this kinase in soluble fractions from cultured airway epithelial cells, including CF human tracheal epithelial cells. Varying levels of cAMP were used in these assays to derive both a Vmax and apparent dissociation constant (Kd) for the enzymes in soluble extracts. The cAMP-dependent protein kinase from CF human tracheal epithelial cells has essentially the same Vmax and apparent Kd as non-CF human, bovine, and dog tracheal epithelial cells. Thus, the total activity of the cAMP-dependent kinases and their overall responsiveness to cAMP are unchanged in CF.
R Barthelson, J Widdicombe
A variety of solid tumors secrete proteins that are immunochemically distinct from parathyroid hormone (PTH) but activate PTH-responsive adenylate cyclase. Such PTH-like proteins have been proposed as mediators of the hypercalcemia and hypophosphatemia frequently associated with malignancies. We purified to apparent homogeneity a PTH-like protein with a molecular weight of 6,000, that is produced by human renal carcinoma cells. The amino-terminal sequence of the PTH-like protein and that of human PTH were found to display at least five identities in the first 13 positions. The purified protein bound to PTH receptors, activated adenylate cyclase in renal plasma membranes, and stimulated cAMP formation in rat osteosarcoma cells. The PTH-like protein reproduced two additional effects of PTH, stimulation of bone resorption in fetal rat limb bone cultures and inhibition of phosphate uptake in cultured opossum kidney cells. These properties are consistent with a role for PTH-like proteins as mediators of the syndrome of malignancy-associated hypercalcemia.
G J Strewler, P H Stern, J W Jacobs, J Eveloff, R F Klein, S C Leung, M Rosenblatt, R A Nissenson
Atherosclerosis results in impaired relaxation to acetylcholine, thrombin, and the calcium ionophore A23187, all agents that require the presence of endothelium. We now report that dietary treatment of atherosclerosis in monkeys not only produces morphological improvement of the atherosclerotic lesion but restores endothelium-dependent vascular relaxation to normal. Because the intima remains thickened after regression of atherosclerosis, these studies suggest that intimal thickening which is present in both atherosclerotic vessels and after regression of atherosclerosis does not prevent the endothelium-derived relaxing factor from reaching the underlying vascular smooth muscle.
D G Harrison, M L Armstrong, P C Freiman, D D Heistad
The GPIIb-IIIa complex functions as a receptor for cytoadhesive proteins on the platelet surface. Both GPIIb and GPIIIa are synthesized by a human erythroleukemia (HEL) cell line. We isolated several cDNA clones by screening a HEL cell cDNA library with an oligonucleotide derived from amino acid sequence of GPIIb. Nucleotide and amino acid sequences were determined from 703 bp of one of these clones. Amino acid sequence of purified platelet GPIIb peptides confirmed the identity of the clone. The cDNA encodes the carboxyl terminus of the large (alpha) subunit of GPIIb and all of the smaller (beta) subunit of GPIIb. By hybridizing the cDNA directly to chromosomes separated by dual laser chromosome sorting, the gene for GPIIb was mapped to chromosome 17. Northern blot analysis showed a approximately 3.4-kb GPIIb mRNA in HEL cells. We also compared the amino acid sequences determined from eight additional platelet GPIIb peptides with the derived amino acids from a published HEL cell GPIIb cDNA, and the platelet and HEL cell proteins appear to be the same. Despite previous reports that vascular endothelial cells and monocytes contain GPIIb, no GPIIb mRNA was observed in either type of cell. Thus, GPIIb appears to be specific for the platelet-megakaryocyte membrane and is distinct from the alpha subunits of the adhesion receptors in other normal tissues.
P F Bray, J P Rosa, G I Johnston, D T Shiu, R G Cook, C Lau, Y W Kan, R P McEver, M A Shuman
In contrast to observations made in the human heart, hyperplasia of myocyte nuclei has never been demonstrated in experimental cardiac hypertrophy. To test the hypothesis that the duration of the mechanical load more than the magnitude of ventricular hypertrophy may be the inciting stimulus for myocyte nuclei hyperplasia, constriction of the pulmonary artery was produced in rats and the hearts were examined 6 mo later. A 76% increase in right ventricular weight was measured. This hypertrophic response was accompanied by a 41% increase in the total number of myocyte nuclei in the ventricle. Furthermore, average myocyte cell volume per nucleus increased by 28%. No changes in weight, myocyte size, and nuclear number were observed in the left ventricle. In conclusion, myocyte nuclear hyperplasia and cellular hypertrophy both participate to the adaptive response of the right ventricular myocardium in long-standing pressure overload cardiac hypertrophy.
G Olivetti, R Ricci, P Anversa