Platelet activation occurs in response to vessel injury and is important for the arrest of bleeding. Platelet activation during disease states leads to vascular occlusion and ischemic damage. The P2Y12 receptor, activated by ADP, plays a central role in platelet activation and is the target of P2Y12 receptor antagonists that have proven therapeutic value.
Robert T. Dorsam, Satya P. Kunapuli
VEGF is a prototype angiogenic factor, but recent evidence indicates that this growth factor also has direct effects on neural cells. Abnormal regulation of VEGF expression has now been implicated in several neurodegenerative disorders, including motoneuron degeneration. This has stimulated an increasing interest in assessing the therapeutic potential of VEGF as a neuroprotective agent for such neurodegenerative disorders.
Erik Storkebaum, Peter Carmeliet
Epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a central mechanism for diversifying the cells found in complex tissues. This dynamic process helps organize the formation of the body plan, and while EMT is well studied in the context of embryonic development, it also plays a role in the genesis of fibroblasts during organ fibrosis in adult tissues. Emerging evidence from studies of renal fibrosis suggests that more than a third of all disease-related fibroblasts originate from tubular epithelia at the site of injury. This review highlights recent advances in the process of EMT signaling in health and disease and how it may be attenuated or reversed by selective cytokines and growth factors.
Raghu Kalluri, Eric G. Neilson
The brain shows limited ability to repair itself, but neurogenesis in certain areas of the adult brain suggests that neural stem cells may be used for structural brain repair. It will be necessary to understand how neurogenesis in the adult brain is regulated to develop strategies that harness neural stem cells for therapeutic use.
Anna F. Hallbergson, Carmen Gnatenco, Daniel A. Peterson
Leslie A. Leinwand
Mark B. Pepys, Gideon M. Hirschfield
Kathryn V. Holmes
Len A. Pennacchio, Edward M. Rubin
Margo H. Furman, Hidde L. Ploegh
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