The capacity to adjust energy intake in response to changing energy requirements is a defining feature of energy homeostasis. Despite the identification of leptin as a key mediator of this process, the mechanism whereby changes of body adiposity are coupled to adaptive, short-term adjustments of energy intake remains poorly understood. To investigate the physiological role of leptin in the control of meal size and the response to satiety signals, and to identify brain areas mediating this effect, we studied Koletsky (fak/fak) rats, which develop severe obesity due to the genetic absence of leptin receptors. Our finding of markedly increased meal size and reduced satiety in response to the gut peptide cholecystokinin (CCK) in these leptin receptor–deficient animals suggests a critical role for leptin signaling in the response to endogenous signals that promote meal termination. To determine if the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ARC) (a key forebrain site of leptin action) mediates this leptin effect, we used adenoviral gene therapy to express either functional leptin receptors or a reporter gene in the area of the ARC of fak/fak rats. Restoration of leptin signaling to this brain area normalized the effect of CCK on the activation of neurons in the nucleus of the solitary tract and area postrema, key hindbrain areas for processing satiety-related inputs. This intervention also reduced meal size and enhanced CCK-induced satiety in fak/fak rats. These findings demonstrate that forebrain signaling by leptin, a long-term regulator of body adiposity, limits food intake on a meal-to-meal basis by regulating the hindbrain response to short-acting satiety signals.
Gregory J. Morton, James E. Blevins, Diana L. Williams, Kevin D. Niswender, Richard W. Gelling, Christopher J. Rhodes, Denis G. Baskin, Michael W. Schwartz
Hepatic insulin resistance is a critical component in the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus. In many cases, insulin resistance in liver is associated with reduced expression of both major insulin receptor substrate (IRS) proteins, IRS-1 and IRS-2. To investigate the specific functions of IRS-1 and IRS-2 in regulating liver function in vivo, we developed an adenovirus-mediated RNA interference technique in which short hairpin RNAs (shRNAs) are used to knock down IRS-1, IRS-2, or both, by 70–80% in livers of WT mice. The knockdown of IRS-1 resulted in an upregulation of the gluconeogenic enzymes glucose-6 phosphatase and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase, as well as a marked increase in hepatic nuclear factor–4 α. Decreased IRS-1 was also associated with a decrease in glucokinase expression and a trend toward increased blood glucose, whereas knockdown of IRS-2 resulted in the upregulation of lipogenic enzymes SREBP-1c and fatty acid synthase, as well as increased hepatic lipid accumulation. The concomitant injection of IRS-1 and IRS-2 adenoviral shRNAs resulted in systemic insulin resistance, glucose intolerance, and hepatic steatosis. The alterations in the dual-knockdown mice were associated with defective Akt activation and Foxo1 phosphorylation. Taken together, our results demonstrate that hepatic IRS-1 and IRS-2 have complementary roles in the control of hepatic metabolism, with IRS-1 more closely linked to glucose homeostasis and IRS-2 more closely linked to lipid metabolism.
Cullen M. Taniguchi, Kohjiro Ueki, C. Ronald Kahn
Insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in adipocytes is mediated by translocation of vesicles containing the glucose transporter GLUT4 from intracellular storage sites to the cell periphery and the subsequent fusion of these vesicles with the plasma membrane, resulting in the externalization of GLUT4. Fusion of the GLUT4-containing vesicles with the plasma membrane is mediated by a soluble N-ethylmaleimide–sensitive factor attachment protein receptor (SNARE) complex consisting of vesicle-associated membrane protein 2 (VAMP2), 23-kDa synaptosomal-associated protein (SNAP23), and syntaxin4. We have now generated mouse embryos deficient in the syntaxin4 binding protein Munc18c and show that the insulin-induced appearance of GLUT4 at the cell surface is enhanced in adipocytes derived from these Munc18c−/− mice compared with that in Munc18c+/+ cells. Wortmannin, an inhibitor of PI3K, inhibited insulin-stimulated GLUT4 externalization, without affecting GLUT4 translocation to the cell periphery, in Munc18c+/+ adipocytes, but it did not affect GLUT4 externalization in Munc18c−/− cells. Phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate, which induced GLUT4 translocation to the cell periphery without externalization in Munc18c+/+ cells, elicited GLUT4 externalization in Munc18c−/− cells. These findings demonstrate that Munc18c inhibits insulin-stimulated externalization of GLUT4 in a wortmannin-sensitive manner, and they suggest that disruption of the interaction between syntaxin4 and Munc18c in adipocytes might result in enhancement of insulin-stimulated GLUT4 externalization.
Hajime Kanda, Yoshikazu Tamori, Hiroaki Shinoda, Mari Yoshikawa, Motoyoshi Sakaue, Jun Udagawa, Hiroki Otani, Fumi Tashiro, Jun-ichi Miyazaki, Masato Kasuga
Juan C. Molero, Thomas E. Jensen, Phil C. Withers, Michelle Couzens, Herbert Herzog, Christine B.F. Thien, Wallace Y. Langdon, Ken Walder, Maria A. Murphy, David D.L. Bowtell, Edna Hardeman, Majid Ghoddusi, David E. James, Gregory J. Cooney
Altered regulation of insulin secretion by glucose is characteristic of individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus, although the mechanisms that underlie this change remain unclear. We have now generated mice that lack the λ isoform of PKC in pancreatic β cells (βPKCλ–/– mice) and show that these animals manifest impaired glucose tolerance and hypoinsulinemia. Furthermore, insulin secretion in response to high concentrations of glucose was impaired, whereas the basal rate of insulin release was increased, in islets isolated from βPKCλ–/– mice. Neither the β cell mass nor the islet insulin content of βPKCλ–/– mice differed from that of control mice, however. The abundance of mRNAs for Glut2 and HNF3β was reduced in islets of βPKCλ–/– mice, and the expression of genes regulated by HNF3β was also affected (that of Sur1 and Kir6.2 genes was reduced, whereas that of hexokinase 1 and hexokinase 2 genes was increased). Normalization of HNF3β expression by infection of islets from βPKCλ–/– mice with an adenoviral vector significantly reversed the defect in glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. These results indicate that PKCλ plays a prominent role in regulation of glucose-induced insulin secretion by modulating the expression of genes important for β cell function.
Naoko Hashimoto, Yoshiaki Kido, Tohru Uchida, Tomokazu Matsuda, Kazuhisa Suzuki, Hiroshi Inoue, Michihiro Matsumoto, Wataru Ogawa, Sakan Maeda, Hiroaki Fujihara, Yoichi Ueta, Yasuo Uchiyama, Kazunori Akimoto, Shigeo Ohno, Tetsuo Noda, Masato Kasuga
Concerted activation of different voltage-gated Ca2+ channel isoforms may determine the kinetics of insulin release from pancreatic islets. Here we have elucidated the role of R-type CaV2.3 channels in that process. A 20% reduction in glucose-evoked insulin secretion was observed in CaV2.3-knockout (CaV2.3–/–) islets, close to the 17% inhibition by the R-type blocker SNX482 but much less than the 77% inhibition produced by the L-type Ca2+ channel antagonist isradipine. Dynamic insulin-release measurements revealed that genetic or pharmacological CaV2.3 ablation strongly suppressed second-phase secretion, whereas first-phase secretion was unaffected, a result also observed in vivo. Suppression of the second phase coincided with an 18% reduction in oscillatory Ca2+ signaling and a 25% reduction in granule recruitment after completion of the initial exocytotic burst in single CaV2.3–/– β cells. CaV2.3 ablation also impaired glucose-mediated suppression of glucagon secretion in isolated islets (27% versus 58% in WT), an effect associated with coexpression of insulin and glucagon in a fraction of the islet cells in the CaV2.3–/– mouse. We propose a specific role for CaV2.3 Ca2+ channels in second-phase insulin release, that of mediating the Ca2+ entry needed for replenishment of the releasable pool of granules as well as islet cell differentiation.
Xingjun Jing, Dai-Qing Li, Charlotta S. Olofsson, Albert Salehi, Vikas V. Surve, José Caballero, Rosita Ivarsson, Ingmar Lundquist, Alexey Pereverzev, Toni Schneider, Patrik Rorsman, Erik Renström
Lipoprotein lipase (LPL) is thought to be the only enzyme responsible for the catabolism of triglycerides (TGs) associated with TG-rich lipoproteins in adipose tissue (AT). However, LPL deficiency in humans and induced mutant mice is not associated with decreased fat mass. We investigated whether endothelial lipase (EL), a recently discovered phospholipase, might represent an alternative mechanism for the uptake of phospholipid-derived fatty acids in murine lipoprotein-deficient AT. When LPL was expressed in AT and isolated murine adipocytes, EL mRNA was not detectable. In contrast, mouse AT and isolated adipocytes that lacked LPL expressed large amounts of EL mRNA. The cellular phospholipase activity in LPL-deficient fat pads was increased 4-fold compared with control fat pads and could be inhibited to control levels by a specific EL antibody. Fatty acids produced by EL activity were absorbed by adipocytes and incorporated into the TG moiety of AT. Our results suggest that EL activity in AT and other peripheral tissues might contribute to the tissue uptake of free fatty acids, which could have important implications for the metabolism of plasma lipoproteins.
Dagmar Kratky, Robert Zimmermann, Elke M. Wagner, Juliane G. Strauss, Weijun Jin, Gerhard M. Kostner, Guenter Haemmerle, Daniel J. Rader, Rudolf Zechner
Molecular events that result in loss of pain perception are poorly understood in diabetic neuropathy. Our results show that the receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE), a receptor associated with sustained NF-κB activation in the diabetic microenvironment, has a central role in sensory neuronal dysfunction. In sural nerve biopsies, ligands of RAGE, the receptor itself, activated NF-κBp65, and IL-6 colocalized in the microvasculature of patients with diabetic neuropathy. Activation of NF-κB and NF-κB–dependent gene expression was upregulated in peripheral nerves of diabetic mice, induced by advanced glycation end products, and prevented by RAGE blockade. NF-κB activation was blunted in RAGE-null (RAGE–/–) mice compared with robust enhancement in strain-matched controls, even 6 months after diabetes induction. Loss of pain perception, indicative of long-standing diabetic neuropathy, was reversed in WT mice treated with soluble RAGE. Most importantly, loss of pain perception was largely prevented in RAGE–/– mice, although they were not protected from diabetes-induced loss of PGP9.5-positive plantar nerve fibers. These data demonstrate, for the first time to our knowledge, that the RAGE–NF-κB axis operates in diabetic neuropathy, by mediating functional sensory deficits, and that its inhibition may provide new therapeutic approaches.
Angelika Bierhaus, Karl-Matthias Haslbeck, Per M. Humpert, Birgit Liliensiek, Thomas Dehmer, Michael Morcos, Ahmed A.R. Sayed, Martin Andrassy, Stephan Schiekofer, Jochen G. Schneider, Jörg B. Schulz, Dieter Heuss, Bernhard Neundörfer, Stefan Dierl, Jochen Huber, Hans Tritschler, Ann-Marie Schmidt, Markus Schwaninger, Hans-Ulrich Haering, Erwin Schleicher, Michael Kasper, David M. Stern, Bernd Arnold, Peter P. Nawroth
A critical defect in type 2 diabetes is impaired insulin-stimulated glucose transport and metabolism in muscle and adipocytes. To understand the metabolic adaptations this elicits, we generated mice with targeted disruption of the GLUT4 glucose transporter in both adipocytes and muscle (AMG4KO). In contrast to total body GLUT4-null mice, AMG4KO mice exhibit normal growth, development, adipose mass, and longevity. They develop fasting hyperglycemia and glucose intolerance and are at risk for greater insulin resistance than mice lacking GLUT4 in only one tissue. Hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp studies showed a 75% decrease in glucose infusion rate and markedly reduced 2-deoxyglucose uptake into skeletal muscle (85–90%) and white adipose tissue (65%). However, AMG4KO mice adapt by preferentially utilizing lipid fuels, as evidenced by a lower respiratory quotient and increased clearance of lipids from serum after oral lipid gavage. While insulin action on hepatic glucose production and gluconeogenic enzymes is impaired, hepatic glucokinase expression, incorporation of 14C-glucose into lipids, and hepatic VLDL-triglyceride release are increased. The lipogenic activity may be mediated by increased hepatic expression of SREBP-1c and acetyl-CoA carboxylase. Thus, inter-tissue communication results in adaptations to impaired glucose transport in muscle and adipocytes that involve increased hepatic glucose uptake and lipid synthesis, while muscle adapts by preferentially utilizing lipid fuels. Genetic determinants limiting this “metabolic flexibility” may contribute to insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes in humans.
Ko Kotani, Odile D. Peroni, Yasuhiko Minokoshi, Olivier Boss, Barbara B. Kahn
The apolipoprotein apoC-III plays an important role in plasma triglyceride metabolism. It is predominantly produced in liver, and its hepatic expression is inhibited by insulin. To elucidate the inhibitory mechanism of insulin in apoC-III expression, we delivered forkhead box O1 (Foxo1) cDNA to hepatocytes by adenovirus-mediated gene transfer. Foxo1 stimulated hepatic apoC-III expression and correlated with the ability of Foxo1 to bind to its consensus site in the apoC-III promoter. Deletion or mutation of the Foxo1 binding site abolished insulin response and Foxo1-mediated stimulation. Likewise, Foxo1 also mediated insulin action on intestinal apoC-III expression in enterocytes. Furthermore, elevated Foxo1 production in liver augmented hepatic apoC-III expression, resulting in increased plasma triglyceride levels and impaired fat tolerance in mice. Transgenic mice expressing a constitutively active Foxo1 allele exhibited hypertriglyceridemia. Moreover, we show that hepatic Foxo1 expression becomes deregulated as a result of insulin deficiency or insulin resistance, culminating in significantly elevated Foxo1 production, along with its skewed nuclear distribution, in livers of diabetic NOD or db/db mice. While loss of insulin response is associated with unrestrained apoC-III production and impaired triglyceride metabolism, these data suggest that Foxo1 provides a molecular link between insulin deficiency or resistance and aberrant apoC-III production in the pathogenesis of diabetic hypertriglyceridemia.
Jennifer Altomonte, Lin Cong, Sonal Harbaran, Anja Richter, Jing Xu, Marcia Meseck, Hengjiang Henry Dong