Monocyte chemotactic and activating factor (MCAF) is a recently cloned cytokine that causes chemotaxis of basophils. In our pursuit of cytokines affecting basophil function, we studied the effect of MCAF on histamine secretion from basophils. Leukocytes from 20 donors, 10 allergic and 10 normal subjects, were studied. MCAF caused dose-dependent release of histamine at concentrations of 10(-8) and 10(-7) M, and the mean release was 31.25 +/- 2.9% at the highest concentration. In the same experiments the mean histamine release by anti-IgE and histamine releasing factor (HRF) was 27.05 +/- 4% and 32.70 +/- 2.7%, respectively. All 20 subjects responded to MCAF with significant histamine release. Allergic subjects released significantly more histamine than normals in response to anti-IgE (P less than 0.01) but not to MCAF (P = 0.2) and HRF (P = 0.1). The histamine release was significantly correlated between MCAF and HRF (P less than 0.01), but not between MCAF and anti-IgE (P greater than 0.05). The histamine release by MCAF was complete within the first 3 min. MCAF-induced degranulation was a calcium-dependent process. Leukocytes depleted of monocytes responded equally well to MCAF. Using an anti-MCAF affinity column we determined that greater than 50% of HRF activity of crude PBMC supernatant could be attributed to MCAF. Thus, we established that MCAF is a potent secretagogue for basophils.
R Alam, M A Lett-Brown, P A Forsythe, D J Anderson-Walters, C Kenamore, C Kormos, J A Grant
The immune repertoire to Haemophilus influenzae type b capsular polysaccharide (Hib PS) appears to be dominated by certain light chain variable region genes (IgVL). In order to examine the molecular basis underlying light chain bias, IgVL genes have been cloned from a panel of heterohybridomas secreting human anti-Hib PS (antibody) (anti-Hib PS Ab). One hybridoma, representative of the predominant serum clonotype of anti-Hib PS Ab in older children and adults following immunization or Hib infection, uses a V kappa II segment identical to the germline gene A2, and a JK3 segment. A second kappa hybridoma uses a member of the V kappa I family and a JK4 segment. Four lambda antibodies, all cross-reactive with the structurally related antigen Escherichia coli K100 PS, use V lambda VII segments which are 96-98% homologous to one another, and may originate from a single germline gene. Two additional lambda antibodies, not K100-cross-reactive, are encoded by members of the V lambda II family. All lambda antibodies use highly homologous J lambda 2 or J lambda 3 segments. The VJ joints of all lambda antibodies and the V kappa II-encoded antibody are notable for the presence of an arginine codon, suggesting an important role in antigen binding. Although more complex than heavy chain variable region gene usage, a significant portion of serum anti-Hib PS Ab is likely to be encoded by a limited number of V kappa and V lambda segments and VJ combinations, which may be selectively expressed during development, or following antigen exposure.
E E Adderson, P G Shackelford, R A Insel, A Quinn, P M Wilson, W L Carroll
Sequence analysis of the immunoglobulin heavy chain complementarity determining region (CDR)-III of B-lineage cells at various stages has provided important insights concerning B cell maturation and selection. Knowledge of human CDR-III sequences has been relatively limited compared with that of the murine system. We analyzed the CDR-III sequences of B cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia (pre-B ALL) cells in 23 newly diagnosed and 10 relapsed patients, in order to elucidate the organization of CDR-III in B cell precursors. We found a very low frequency of somatic mutations in D and JH regions, preferential use of DLR, DXP, DHQ52, and DN elements, and of 3' side JH segments, and no predominant usage of D coding frames. Unusual joinings such as VH-D-D-JH and VH-JH were observed in three, and one sequences, respectively. We compared the CDR-III sequences derived from 10 patients between diagnosis and relapse. Two of them had three spots of mutated nucleotides at relapse, all of which were found in the N region near the D segments. Our data showed the possibility of somatic mutation at relapse, in addition to developmentally regulated rearrangement of the immunoglobulin gene at the stage of B cell precursors.
H Kiyoi, T Naoe, K Horibe, R Ohno
We have examined the effects of repeated exposure to antigen on airway responses to cholinergic stimulation in two inbred strains of mice that are similar in underlying cholinergic airway responsiveness, yet differ in their ability to produce IgE. Both BALB/c and SJL/J mice were repeatedly exposed to ovalbumin by inhalation for a 10-d period. While the BALB/c mice developed IgE antibody to this allergen, the SJL/J strain failed to mount an appreciable IgE response. In vitro assessments of the response of tracheal smooth muscle from saline exposed mice (controls) of both strains demonstrated responses to both methacholine and electrical field stimulation that were not significantly different between the strains. Following exposure to ovalbumin, the BALB/c strain developed a significant increase in their response to electrical field stimulation, while their response to methacholine was unaltered. In contrast, the in vitro responsiveness to these stimuli did not increase in SJL/J mice following similar exposure to inhaled nebulized ovalbumin. The passive transfer of cells from the peribronchial lymph nodes of ovalbumin-sensitized BALB/c mice into syngeneic nonimmune mice also led to increases in responsiveness of tracheal smooth muscle to electrical field stimulation. In contrast, transfer of cells from nonsensitized mice did not alter responsiveness. These results suggest that murine species capable of developing an IgE response to allergen also develop alterations in the neural control of their airways. Further, this alteration appears to be lymphocyte dependent, in that cells found within peribronchial lymph nodes following allergen exposure are capable of transferring this increase in responsiveness to nonimmune mice.
G L Larsen, H Renz, J E Loader, K L Bradley, E W Gelfand
Using RNAse protection, we have made quantitative measurements of erythropoietin (EPO) mRNA in liver and kidneys of developing rats (days 1-54), to determine the relative contribution of both organs to the total EPO mRNA, to monitor changes which occur with development, and to compare the hypoxia-induced accumulation of EPO mRNA with the changes in serum EPO concentrations. To determine whether developmental and organ-specific responsiveness is related to the type of hypoxic stimulus, normobaric hypoxia was compared with exposure to carbon monoxide (functional anemia). Under both stimuli EPO mRNA concentration in liver was maximal on day 7 and declined during development. In contrast, EPO mRNA concentration in kidney increased during development from day 1 when it was 30-65% the hepatic concentration to day 54 when it was 12-fold higher than in liver. When organ weight was considered the liver was found to contain the majority of EPO mRNA in the first three to four weeks of life, and although, in stimulated animals, the hepatic proportion declined from 85-91% on day 1, it remained approximately 33% at day 54 and was similar for the two types of stimuli. When normalized for body weight the sum of renal and hepatic EPO mRNA in animals of a particular age was related linearly to serum hormone concentrations. However, the slope of this regression increased progressively with development, suggesting age-dependent alterations in translational efficiency or EPO metabolism.
K U Eckardt, P J Ratcliffe, C C Tan, C Bauer, A Kurtz
Stimulation of the release of endothelium-derived relaxing factor (EDRF) in the kidney has been shown to result in natriuresis without affecting glomerular filtration rate. This may be due to EDRF directly regulating solute transport in the cortical collecting duct (CCD). To test this hypothesis, we measured the effect of bradykinin (Bk) or acetylcholine (Ach) on short-circuit current (Isc; a measure of active transport) in a CCD cell line (M-1), in the presence or absence of cow pulmonary artery endothelial (CPAE) cells. 10(-9) M Bk or 10(-7) M Ach had no effect on M-1 Isc in which CPAE cells were absent. The addition of CPAE cells to M-1 cells also did not affect M-1 Isc. On the other hand, when 10(-9) M Bk or 10(-7) M Ach were added to M-1 cells in the presence of CPAE cells, Isc decreased from 43 +/- 4.5 to 26 +/- 4 and 64 +/- 9 to 33 +/- 4 microA/cm2, respectively (P less than 0.001). Nitroarginine (N-Arg, 10(-4) M), a competitive inhibitor of EDRF production, blocked the inhibition in M-1 Isc due to both agonists. Since cGMP is the second messenger of EDRF in vascular smooth muscle, we measured the effects of Bk on cGMP production in M-1 cells in the presence and absence of CPAE cells. Bk increased cGMP content in M-1 cells in the presence of CPAE cells from 33 +/- 3.4 to 132 +/- 11.7 fmol/10(6) M-1 cells (P less than 0.001). When cultures of M-1 and CPAE cells were treated with N-Arg and challenged with Bk, Bk's effect on cGMP was partially blocked (61.4 +/- 12 fmol/10(-6) M-1 cells; NS). These data suggest that EDRF inhibits transport and increases cGMP content in M-1 cells.
B A Stoos, O A Carretero, R D Farhy, G Scicli, J L Garvin
There is indirect evidence that unopposed human neutrophil elastase (HNE) is responsible for emphysema in patients with alpha 1-proteinase inhibitor (Pi) deficiency. To directly explore this possibility, we developed an assay for fibrinopeptide A alpha 1-21 and its degradation products and used it to measure HNE activity in 128 subjects of known Pi phenotype. The mean elastase-specific fibrinopeptide (ESF) level in 49 deficient PiZ individuals is significantly higher than that in 56 PiMZ heterozygotes (4.5 and 1.5 nM, respectively; P less than 0.01), while the mean ESF value in heterozygotes is significantly elevated over that in 23 normal PiM subjects (1.5 and 0.6 nM, respectively; P less than 0.01), consistent with increased HNE activity in those deficient in the major regulator of the enzyme. These results are not due to differences in smoking history because after correction for pack-years of smoking, ESF values in PiZ subjects are fourfold higher than those in PiMZ individuals (P = 0.005), while the ESF levels in heterozygotes are threefold higher than those in PiM subjects (P = 0.02). In addition, this analysis suggests that cigarette smoking and alpha 1-proteinase inhibitor deficiency have additive effects on ESF levels thereby explaining why PiZ and some PiMZ individuals are at especially high risk for the development of lung disease if they smoke. Finally, the observation that ESF levels in nonsmoking PiZ subjects are inversely related to the percent of predicted forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV 1%) provides direct support for the concept that unregulated HNE activity causes alveolar septal destruction in patients with alpha 1-proteinase inhibitor deficiency.
J I Weitz, E K Silverman, B Thong, E J Campbell
The development of chemotherapeutic approaches to cancer has been hampered by the toxicity of proposed agents for normal rapidly dividing cells. By using neocarzinostatin, a "pro-drug" which is activated by reduction by thiol compounds, adjunctively with 6-mercaptodopamine, a thiol-containing dopamine analogue, we have been able to enhance neocarzinostatin toxicity for cells of the neural crest tumor neuroblastoma. Thiol compounds that are not neurotransmitter analogues do not act synergistically with neocarzinostatin in this system. Since most normal rapidly dividing cells do not have surface dopamine receptors, we propose this approach for the selective targeting of toxicity for neuroblastoma cells. We further introduce cell-selective activation of prodrugs as a new chemotherapeutic strategy which demands further development.
N F Schor
Insulin resistance in non-insulin-dependent diabetes is associated with a defective insulin activation of the enzyme glycogen synthase in skeletal muscles. To investigate whether this may be a primary defect, we studied 20 young (25 +/- 1 yr) Caucasian first-degree relatives (children) of patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes, and 20 matched controls without a family history of diabetes. Relatives and controls had a normal oral glucose tolerance, and were studied by means of the euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp technique, which included performance of indirect calorimetry and muscle biopsies. Insulin-stimulated glucose disposal was decreased in the relatives (9.2 +/- 0.6 vs 11.5 +/- 0.5 mg/kg fat-free mass per (FFM) min, P less than 0.02), and was due to a decreased rate of insulin-stimulated nonoxidative glucose metabolism (5.0 +/- 0.5 vs 7.5 +/- 0.4 mg/kg fat-free mass per min, P less than 0.001). The insulin-stimulated, fractional glycogen synthase activity (0.1/10 mmol liter glucose-6-phosphate) was decreased in the relatives (46.9 +/- 2.3 vs 56.4 +/- 3.2%, P less than 0.01), and there was a significant correlation between insulin-stimulated, fractional glycogen synthase activity and nonoxidative glucose metabolism in relatives (r = 0.76, P less than 0.001) and controls (r = 0.63, P less than 0.01). Furthermore, the insulin-stimulated increase in muscle glycogen content over basal values was lower in the relatives (13 +/- 25 vs 46 +/- 9 mmol/kg dry wt, P = 0.05). We conclude that the defect in insulin activation of muscle glycogen synthase may be a primary, possibly genetically determined, defect that contributes to the development of non-insulin-dependent diabetes.
A Vaag, J E Henriksen, H Beck-Nielsen
The natriuretic effect of dopamine-1 (DA-1) agonists is reduced in spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR), partly because of defective DA-1 receptor-adenylate cyclase (AC) coupling in renal proximal convoluted tubules. To investigate this defective coupling, DA-1 dopamine receptors from renal proximal tubules were solubilized and reconstituted into phospholipid vesicles. The binding of DA-1-selective ligand [125I]SCH 23982 was specific and saturable, with no differences in receptor density or Kd between SHR and normotensive rats (Wistar-Kyoto rats; WKY). Competition experiments of the reconstituted DA-1 dopamine receptors in WKY with a DA-1-selective agonist, SKF R-38393, revealed the presence of high- (Kh = 350 +/- 209 nM) and low-affinity (Kl = 70,500 +/- 39,500 nM) binding sites. 100 microM Gpp(NH)p abolished the agonist high-affinity sites, converting them to a low-affinity state (Ki = 33,650 +/- 10,850 nM). In SHR, one affinity site was noted (Ki = 13,800 +/- 500) and was not modulated by Gpp(NH)p (Ki = 11,505 +/- 2,295). The absence of guanine nucleotide-sensitive agonist high-affinity sites may explain the defective DA-1/AC coupling mechanism in the SHR.
A Sidhu, P Vachvanichsanong, P A Jose, R A Felder
We examined the effects of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF alpha) stimulation of endothelial cells on the increase in endothelial permeability induced by H2O2. Bovine pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells (BPMVEC) were grown to confluence on a microporous filter and the 125I-albumin clearance rate across the monolayer was determined. Pretreatment with TNF alpha (100 U/ml) for 6 h had no direct effect on transendothelial 125I-albumin permeability. However, TNF alpha pretreatment enhanced the susceptibility of BPMVEC to H2O2; that is, H2O2 (10 microM) alone had no direct effect, whereas H2O2 increased 125I-albumin permeability more than threefold when added to monolayers pretreated for 6 h with TNF alpha. Determination of lactate dehydrogenase release indicated that increased permeability was not due to cytolysis. We measured the intracellular contents of GSH and catalase to determine their possible role in mediating the increased susceptibility to H2O2. TNF alpha treatment (100 U/ml for 6 h) decreased total GSH content and concomitantly increased the oxidized GSH content, but did not alter the cellular catalase activity. The role of GSH was examined by pretreating endothelial cells with 2 mM GSH for 3 h, which produced an 80% increase in intracellular GSH content. GSH repletion inhibited the increased sensitivity of the TNF alpha-treated endothelial cells to H2O2. We tested the effects of xanthine oxidase (XO) inhibition since XO activation may be a source of oxidants responsible for the decrease in cellular GSH content. Pretreatment with 0.5 mM oxypurinol attenuated the synergistic effect of TNF alpha and H2O2 on endothelial permeability. The results indicate that decreased oxidant buffering capacity secondary to TNF alpha-induced reduction in intracellular GSH content mediates the increased susceptibility of endothelial cells to H2O2. This mechanism may contribute to oxidant-dependent vascular endothelial injury in septicemia associated with TNF alpha release.
Y Ishii, C A Partridge, P J Del Vecchio, A B Malik
In order to investigate the general cause of beta-adrenergic receptor neuroeffector abnormalities in the failing human heart, we measured ventricular myocardial adrenergic receptors, adrenergic neurotransmitters, and beta-adrenergic receptor-effector responses in nonfailing and failing hearts taken from nonfailing organ donors, subjects with endstage biventricular failure due to idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy (IDC), and subjects with primary pulmonary hypertension (PPH) who exhibited isolated right ventricular failure. Relative to nonfailing PPH left ventricles, failing PPH right ventricles exhibited (a) markedly decreased beta 1-adrenergic receptor density, (b) marked depletion of tissue norepinephrine and neuropeptide Y, (c) decreased adenylate cyclase stimulation in response to the beta agonists isoproterenol and zinterol, and (d) decreased adenylate cyclase stimulation in response to Gpp(NH)p and forskolin. These abnormalities were directionally similar to, but generally more pronounced than, corresponding findings in failing IDC right ventricles, whereas values for these parameters in nonfailing left ventricles of PPH subjects were similar to values in the nonfailing left ventricles of organ donors. Additionally, relative to paired nonfailing PPH left ventricles and nonfailing right ventricles from organ donors, failing right ventricles from PPH subjects exhibited decreased adenylate cyclase stimulation by MnCl2. These data indicate that: (a) Adrenergic neuroeffector abnormalities present in the failing human heart are due to local mechanisms; systemic processes do not produce beta-adrenergic neuroeffector abnormalities. (b) Pressure-overloaded failing right ventricles of PPH subjects exhibit decreased activity of the catalytic subunit of adenylate cyclase, an abnormality not previously described in the failing human heart.
M R Bristow, W Minobe, R Rasmussen, P Larrabee, L Skerl, J W Klein, F L Anderson, J Murray, L Mestroni, S V Karwande
We have compared gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis with the Limulus amebocyte lysate (LAL) assay to quantify native meningococcal lipopolysaccharides (LPS) in five patient plasmas containing greater than 5 micrograms/liter by LAL. 3-Hydroxy lauric acid (3-OH-12:0) was used as a specific lipid A marker of neisserial LPS. The quantitative LAL results were confirmed by GC-MS (r = 0.98, P = 0.006). Seven patient plasmas were centrifuged at 103,000 g and the sedimentation behavior of native LPS compared with reference plasma proteins and with apo A1 and apo B100 representing high and low density lipoproteins. After 15 min of centrifugation, 84 +/- 2% (mean +/- SE) of the recovered LPS were found in the lower one-third of the centrifuged volume, whereas 6 +/- 1% remained in the upper one-third volume, indicating that meningococcal endotoxin circulates as complexes with high sedimentation coefficients. Bacterial outer membrane fragments were detected in the bottom fractions of three patient plasmas examined by means of electron microscopy. In three patient plasmas ultracentrifuged for 60 min at 103,000 g, the levels of apo A1 and apo B100 revealed minor changes, whereas only 1 +/- 1% of the recovered LPS remained in the upper one-third and 91 +/- 2% were found in the lower one-third volume. Few bioreactive LPS appear to be complexed with high and low density lipoproteins in meningococcal septic shock plasma.
P Brandtzaeg, K Bryn, P Kierulf, R Ovstebø, E Namork, B Aase, E Jantzen
The putative blunted thermogenesis in obesity may be related to insulin resistance, but insulin sensitivity and obesity are potentially confounding factors. To determine the independent effects of obesity and insulin resistance on the thermic effect of food, at rest and after exercise, lean and obese men were matched at two levels of insulin sensitivity determined by insulin-stimulated glucose disposal (milligrams per kilogram fat-free mass [FFM] per minute) during the euglycemic, hyperinsulinemic (40 mU/m2.min) clamp: 5.4 mg/kg FFM for the lean and obese groups with low insulin sensitivity, and 8.1 mg/kg FFM for the groups with high insulin sensitivity. The two lean groups were matched for percent fat (approximately 15 +/- 1% fat), as were the two obese groups (approximately 33 +/- 2% fat). Energy expenditure was measured for 3 h in the fasting state and for 3 h after a 720-kcal mixed meal, each at rest and immediately after 1 h of cycling at 100 W. The thermic effect of food (TEF) was calculated as the postprandial minus fasting energy expenditure (kcal/3 h) during rest and after exercise. During rest, TEF was blunted by both obesity (24 +/- 5 and 34 +/- 6 kcal/3 h for obese groups with low and high insulin sensitivity vs. 56 +/- 6 and 74 +/- 6 kcal/3 h for the lean groups with low and high insulin sensitivity; P less than 0.01 lean vs. obese) and insulin resistance (insulin-resistant less than insulin-sensitive, at both levels of obesity; P less than 0.01). After exercise, TEF was also impaired in the obese (47 +/- 6 and 44 +/- 5 kcal/3 h for the insulin-resistant and -sensitive groups) and in the lean insulin-resistant (55 +/- 5 kcal/3 h), compared with the lean insulin-sensitive men (71 +/- 3 kcal/3 h), P less than 0.01. Compared with rest, TEF after exercise was improved, but not normalized, in both obese groups (P less than 0.05), but unchanged in the lean groups. These results suggest that both insulin resistance and obesity are independently associated with impaired TEF at rest, but the responsiveness of thermogenesis to exercise before a meal is related to the obese state and not independently to insulin resistance per se.
K R Segal, J Albu, A Chun, A Edano, B Legaspi, F X Pi-Sunyer
We examined the regulation by adenosine of a 305-pS chloride (Cl-) channel in the apical membrane of a continuous cell line derived from rabbit cortical collecting duct (RCCT-28A) using the patch clamp technique. Stimulation of A1 adenosine receptors by N6-cyclohexyladenosine (CHA) activated the channel in cell-attached patches. Phorbol 12,13-didecanoate and 1-oleoyl 2-acetylglycerol, activators of protein kinase C (PKC), mimicked the effect of CHA, whereas the PKC inhibitor H7 blocked the action of CHA. Stimulation of A1 adenosine receptors also increased the production of diacylglycerol, an activator of PKC. Exogenous PKC added to the cytoplasmic face of inside-out patches also stimulated the Cl- channel. Alkaline phosphatase reversed PKC activation. These results show that stimulation of A1 adenosine receptors activates a 305-pS Cl-channel in the apical membrane by a phosphorylation-dependent pathway involving PKC. In previous studies, we showed that the protein G alpha i-3 activated the 305-pS Cl- channel (Schwiebert et al. 1990. J. Biol. Chem. 265:7725-7728). We, therefore, tested the hypothesis that PKC activates the channel by a G protein-dependent pathway. In inside-out patches, pertussis toxin blocked PKC activation of the channel. In contrast, H7 did not prevent G protein activation of the channel. We conclude that adenosine activates a 305-pS Cl- channel in the apical membrane of RCCT-28A cells by a membrane-delimited pathway involving an A1 adenosine receptor, phospholipase C, diacylglycerol, PKC, and a G protein. Because we have shown, in previous studies, that this Cl- channel participates in the regulatory volume decrease subsequent to cell swelling, adenosine release during ischemic cell swelling may activate the Cl-channel and restore cell volume.
E M Schwiebert, K H Karlson, P A Friedman, P Dietl, W S Spielman, B A Stanton
Adhesion and spreading of cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells on fibrin surfaces of varying structure were characterized to understand better the interactions occurring between endothelium and fibrin at sites of vascular injury. Fibrin prepared with reptilase, which cleaves only fibrinopeptide A from fibrinogen, and fibrin prepared with thrombin, which cleaves both fibrinopeptide A and fibrinopeptide B, equally supported endothelial cell adhesion. In contrast, only fibrin made with thrombin mediated endothelial cell spreading, as assessed by fluorescence microscopy of cells stained with rhodamine phalloidin to identify actin stress fibers or by scanning electron microscopy. Fibrin prepared with reptilase failed to support cell spreading. To further investigate the role of the amino terminus of the fibrin beta chain after fibrinopeptide B cleavage in promoting cell spreading, protease III from Crotalus atrox venom was used to specifically cleave the amino-terminal 42 residues of the fibrinogen B beta chain. After clotting with thrombin, this fibrin derivative lacking B beta 1-42 failed to support significant cell spreading. Spreading on fibrin was unaffected by depletion of Weibel-Palade bodies from endothelial cells, indicating that the spreading was independent of stimulated von Willebrand factor release. We conclude that endothelial cell spreading on fibrin requires fibrinopeptide B cleavage and involves residues 15-42 of the fibrin beta chain.
L A Bunce, L A Sporn, C W Francis
Inflammatory mediators released by macrophages (M phi) are believed to be involved in septic vasoplegia. To investigate the effect of M phi on vascular reactivity, excised rabbit carotids were exposed intraluminally either to peritoneal rabbit M phi, activated by 18 h of incubation with 1 microgram/ml lipopolysaccharide, or to the supernatants (SPN) derived from them. The contractile responses to phenylephrine (PE, 10(-6) M) were determined by measuring changes in diameter using an ultrasonic microdimensiometer 1, 2, and 3 h after the first control contraction. In control arteries (n = 12), PE-induced contractions were, respectively, 102.9 +/- 3.3%, 95.2 +/- 4.1%, and 89.7 +/- 3.8% of the first contraction, after 1, 2, and 3 h. Activated M phi significantly reduced PE-stimulated contractions after as little as 1 h of carotid exposure (percentage of controls at 1, 2, or 3 h: 74.1 +/- 5.6, 57.2 +/- 5.2, and 34.2 +/- 5.6, n = 10, P less than 0.001). The activated macrophage-derived SPN took longer to diminish carotid contractility than the M phi themselves, and became significant only after 2 h. The greater effect of M phi might be due to cooperation between M phi and vascular cells, as suggested by the amplified interleukin-1 release observed after M phi infusion. The presence of the endothelium partially protected carotid contractility from depression by activated M phi. Extraluminal addition of NG-monomethyl-L-arginine, an inhibitor of nitric oxide synthesis prevented this depression in arteries with or without endothelium. No products of the oxidative pathway of L-arginine were detected in rabbit activated M phi. These results suggest that activation of this pathway in smooth muscle cells seems to be involved in vascular hypocontractility.
C Bernard, B Szekely, I Philip, E Wollman, D Payen, A Tedgui
Seven forms of X-linked (XL) immunodeficiency have been described (XL agammaglobulinemia, XL severe combined immunodeficiency [SCID], Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome, XL chronic granulomatous disease, XL hyper-IgM syndrome with low IgG and IgA, and XL lymphoproliferative syndrome), and properdine deficiency. Although there are (some) phenotypic variants, diagnosis is relatively simple on the basis of clinical, immunological, and genetic characteristics. We studied a family in which several males were affected by severe infections and whose pedigree suggested recessive XL inheritance of an immunodeficiency. Immunologic and genetic studies (X inactivation patterns in females and restriction fragment length polymorphism [RFLP] segregation) were performed in order to characterize the immunodeficiency. The propositus, a 5-yr-old boy, was found to have a severe and progressive T- and B-cell functional immunodeficiency characterized by defective antigen-specific responses. No lymphocyte subsets or membrane anomalies were detected and the immunodeficiency did not correspond to usual XL forms. Studies of DNA from two of the informative females, the mother and one sister revealed nonrandom X chromosome inactivation of T cells and, partially, B cells but not PMN, a pattern similar to that observed in XL SCID carriers. RFLP studies identified a haplotype segregating with the abnormal locus that may be localized in the proximal part of the long arm of the X chromosome. We thus report the characterization of a new XL immunodeficiency that may correspond either to another XL locus or to an attenuated phenotype of XL SCID.
G de Saint-Basile, F Le Deist, M Caniglia, Y Lebranchu, C Griscelli, A Fischer
An interferon-gamma, tumor necrosis factor, and interleukin-1-inducible, high-output pathway synthesizing nitric oxide (NO) from L-arginine was recently identified in rodents. High-dose interleukin-2 (IL-2) therapy is known to induce the same cytokines in patients with advanced cancer. Therefore, we examined renal cell carcinoma (RCC; n = 5) and malignant melanoma (MM; n = 7) patients for evidence of cytokine-inducible NO synthesis. Activity of this pathway was evaluated by measuring serum and urine nitrate (the stable degradation product of NO) during IL-2 therapy. IL-2 administration caused a striking increase in NO generation as reflected by serum nitrate levels (10- and 8-fold increase [P less than 0.001, P less than 0.003] for RCC and MM patients, respectively) and 24-h urinary nitrate excretion (6.5- and 9-fold increase [both P less than 0.001] for RCC and MM patients, respectively). IL-2-induced renal dysfunction made only a minor contribution to increased serum nitrate levels. Metabolic tracer studies using L-[guanidino-15N2]arginine demonstrated that the increased nitrate production was derived from a terminal guanidino nitrogen atom of L-arginine. Our results showing increased endogenous nitrate synthesis in patients receiving IL-2 demonstrate for the first time that a cytokine-inducible, high-output L-arginine/NO pathway exists in humans.
J B Hibbs Jr, C Westenfelder, R Taintor, Z Vavrin, C Kablitz, R L Baranowski, J H Ward, R L Menlove, M P McMurry, J P Kushner
The effects of platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) were studied in isolated rings of rat aorta contracted submaximally to phenylephrine. The BB isoform of PDGF elicited relaxation in rings with endothelium and further contraction in rings without endothelium. Both the endothelium-dependent relaxation and endothelium-independent contraction occurred at concentrations known to induce PDGF receptor-mediated responses in cultured cells. Furthermore, the relaxation was isoform specific. This conclusion is supported by the unique ability of PDGF-BB to induce endothelium-dependent relaxations, as well as by studies showing isoform specific, concentration-dependent desensitization of PDGF-BB relaxation. The relaxation induced by PDGF-BB was prevented by N omega-nitro-L-arginine. It was also observed that endothelium-independent contractions to the AB and AA isoforms of PDGF were less than those to PDGF-BB. Contrary to the widely held view that PDGF receptors are not present on the endothelium of macrovessels, these studies provide evidence for an endothelium-dependent, nitric oxide mediated relaxation of rat aorta caused by PDGF via PDGF beta beta-receptors.
L D Cunningham, P Brecher, R A Cohen
The effect of 17 beta-estradiol on interleukin-6 (IL-6) synthesis was examined in murine bone marrow-derived stromal cell lines, normal human bone-derived cells, and nontransformed osteoblast cell lines from mice and rats. In all these cell types IL-6 production was stimulated as much as 10,000-fold in response to the combination of recombinant interleukin-1 (IL-1) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF alpha). Addition of 17 beta-estradiol in the cultures exerted a dose-dependent inhibition of IL-1-, TNF-, and IL-1 + TNF-induced production of bioassayable IL-6. Testosterone and progesterone (but not 17 alpha-estradiol) also inhibited IL-6, but their effective concentrations were two orders of magnitude higher than 17 beta-estradiol. 17 beta-estradiol also decreased the levels of the IL-6 mRNA. In addition, estradiol inhibited both TNF-induced IL-6 production and osteoclast development in primary bone cell cultures derived from neonatal murine calvaria. The TNF-stimulated osteoclast development was also suppressed by a neutralizing monoclonal anti-IL-6 antibody. This in vitro evidence suggests, for the first time, a mechanistic paradigm by which estrogens might exert at least part of their antiresorptive influence on the skeleton.
G Girasole, R L Jilka, G Passeri, S Boswell, G Boder, D C Williams, S C Manolagas
We studied nine individuals from five unrelated families with alpha I/46-50a hereditary elliptocytosis (HE) or hereditary pyropoikilocytosis (HPP), including one of the original HHP probands first reported by Zarkowsky and colleagues (1975. Br. J. Haematol. 29:537-543). Biochemical analysis of erythrocyte membrane proteins from these patients revealed, as a common abnormality, the presence of the alpha I/46-50a peptide after limited tryptic digestion of spectrin. The polymerase chain reaction was utilized to study the structure of the DNA encoding the alpha I domain of spectrin in the affected individuals. The DNA sequence of the alpha-spectrin gene encoding the region of the alpha-spectrin chain surrounding the abnormal proteolytic cleavage site was normal. We identified a point mutation causing the replacement of a highly conserved leucine residue by proline at position 207 in the alpha-spectrin chain, a site 51 residues to the amino-terminal side of the abnormal proteolytic cleavage site. Analysis of the proposed triple helical model of spectrin repeats reveals that the mutation occurs in helix 2 at a position directly opposite the abnormal proteolytic cleavage site in helix 3, making this the first report of a mutation occurring in helix 2 of a repeat in the alpha I domain of spectrin. These results add to the molecular heterogeneity of mutations associated with HE/HPP and provide further support for the proposed triple helical model of spectrin. Disruption of this proposed alpha-helical structure by helix-breaking proline substitutions may result in a functionally defective spectrin chain.
P G Gallagher, W T Tse, T Coetzer, M C Lecomte, M Garbarz, H S Zarkowsky, A Baruchel, S K Ballas, D Dhermy, J Palek
We studied the nature of insulin receptor binding in MCF-7 breast cancer cells. In both intact cells and solubilized receptor preparations, high-affinity insulin binding was seen. However, unlabeled insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) was five-fold more potent in inhibiting 125I-insulin binding than insulin itself. With monoclonal antibodies to the insulin receptor, 30% of 125I-insulin binding was inhibited. In contrast when alpha-IR3, a monoclonal antibody that recognizes typical IGF-I receptor, was employed over 60% of 125I-insulin binding was inhibited. The B29-MAB-125I-insulin photoprobe was then cross-linked to MCF-7 membranes. Cross-linking was inhibited by both unlabeled insulin and IGF-I. Further, the B29-MAB-125I-insulin photoprobe cross-linked to MCF-7 membranes was strongly immunoprecipitated by alpha-IR3. Employing sequential affinity chromatography with insulin-Affi-gel followed by insulin receptor monoclonal antibody agarose, atypical insulin binding activity was separated from insulin receptor binding activity. This atypical receptor had intrinsic tyrosine kinase activity. Both insulin and IGF-I stimulated the phosphorylation of the receptor's beta subunit. In MCF-7 cells both IGF-I and insulin stimulated [3H]thymidine incorporation; alpha-IR3 blocked all of the IGF-I effect but only 50-60% of the insulin effect. This study demonstrates in MCF-7 cells that, in addition to typical insulin and IGF-I receptors, there is another receptor that binds both insulin and IGF-I with high affinity.
G Milazzo, C C Yip, B A Maddux, R Vigneri, I D Goldfine
In vivo 31P nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy of the right ventricular (RV) free wall was employed to determine (a) whether phosphorus energy metabolites vary reciprocally with workload in the RV and (b) the mechanisms that limit RV contractile function in acute pressure overload. In 20 open-chest pigs, phosphocreatine (PCr)/ATP ratio (an index of energy metabolism inversely related to free ADP concentration), myocardial blood flow (microspheres), and segment shortening (sonomicrometry, n = 14) were measured at control (RV systolic pressure 31 +/- 1 mm Hg), and with pulmonary artery constriction to produce moderate pressure overload (RV systolic pressure 45 +/- 1 mm Hg), and maximal pressure overload before overt RV failure and systemic hypotension (RV systolic pressure 60 +/- 1 mm Hg). With moderate pressure overload, PCr/ATP declined to 89% of control (P = 0.01), while contractile function increased. Adenosine (n = 10, mean dose 0.16 mg/kg-min) increased RV blood flow by an additional 41% without increasing PCr/ATP, indicating that coronary reserve was not depleted and that the decrease in PCr/ATP from control was not due to ischemia. With maximal pressure overload and incipient RV failure, PCr/ATP fell further to 81% of control and RV blood flow did not increase further, even with adenosine. Thus: (a) The decline in PCr/ATP with moderate RV pressure overload, without evident ischemia or contractile dysfunction, supports the positive regulation of oxidative phosphorylation by ATP hydrolysis products. (b) Depletion of RV coronary flow reserve accompanies the onset of RV failure at maximal pressure overload.
G G Schwartz, S Steinman, J Garcia, C Greyson, B Massie, M W Weiner
High level expression of the nm23-H1 gene, which encodes for a nucleoside diphosphate kinase, has been found to correlate with diminished metastasis in some tumors but not in others. We have previously identified the protein product of the nm23-H1 gene in two-dimensional electrophoretic gels and have designated it p19/nm23. In neuroblastoma, higher levels of p19/nm23, which are associated with amplification of the N-myc oncogene, large tumor mass, and metastasis, were observed in advanced stage tumors compared with limited stage disease. Because of the variable expression of nm23-H1 in different tumors, we have investigated the relationship between amounts of the protein and cell proliferation. The levels of p19/nm23 were compared between resting and mitotically stimulated normal human PBLs and in leukemia cells. The amount of p19/nm23 increased in normal lymphocytes in response to mitotic stimulation and paralleled the increase in DNA synthesis. In leukemia cells obtained from patients with different subtypes of acute leukemia, p19/nm23 levels were also increased relative to resting normal lymphocytes. Treatment of mitotically stimulated lymphocytes with cyclosporin, which inhibits proliferation, blocked the increase in p19/nm23; treatment of the leukemia cell line HL-60 with dimethylsulfoxide, which induces terminal differentiation, resulted in diminished levels of p19/nm23. Our data therefore provide evidence that nm23-H1 expression is related to cell proliferative activity.
D Keim, N Hailat, R Melhem, X X Zhu, I Lascu, M Veron, J Strahler, S M Hanash
The effects of angiotensin II on total ammonia (tNH3) production and net secretion were investigated using in vitro microperfused mouse S2 proximal tubule segments incubated in Krebs-Ringer bicarbonate buffer containing 0.5 mM L-glutamine. Basolateral exposure of mouse S2 segments to 10(-11), 10(-10), and 10(-9) M angiotensin II stimulated tNH3 production rates by 23, 52, and 49%, respectively. Addition of 10(-6) M angiotensin II inhibited the tNH3 production rate by 34%. 10(-10) M angiotensin II inhibited net luminal secretion of tNH3 in the presence of enhanced luminal acidification and in the absence of altered luminal tNH3 efflux rates. Measurements of intracellular pH (pHi) and intracellular calcium concentration [( Ca2+]i) suggested that the effects of angiotensin II on tNH3 production were not mediated by changes in pHi but by the stimulatory effect of angiotensin II correlated with increased [Ca2+]i. Inhibition of the calcium-calmodulin-dependent pathway with W-7 blocked the stimulatory effect of 10(-10) M angiotensin II on tNH3 production and luminal acidification. These results indicate that angiotensin II has concentration-dependent effects on tNH3 production; that its action to stimulate tNH3 production may be mediated by rises in [Ca2+]i and the calcium-calmodulin pathway; and that angiotensin II, at concentrations that stimulate tNH3 production, inhibits net luminal ammonia secretion by a mechanism that is not mediated by diminished luminal acidification or by changes in luminal ammonia efflux rates.
G T Nagami
24 d of rapid ventricular pacing induced dilated cardiomyopathy with both systolic and diastolic dysfunction in conscious, chronically instrumented dogs. We studied mechanical properties and intracellular calcium (Ca2+i) transients of trabeculae carneae isolated from 15 control dogs (n = 32) and 11 dogs with pacing-induced cardiac failure (n = 26). Muscles were stretched to maximum length at 30 degrees C and stimulated at 0.33 Hz; a subset (n = 17 control, n = 17 myopathic) was loaded with the [Ca2+]i indicator aequorin. Peak tension was depressed in the myopathic muscles, even in the presence of maximally effective (i.e., 16 mM) [Ca2+] in the perfusate. However, peak [Ca2+]i was similar (0.80 +/- 0.13 vs. 0.71 +/- 0.05 microM; [Ca2+]o = 2.5 mM), suggesting that a decrease in Cai2+ availability was not responsible for the decreased contractility. The time for decline from the peak of the Cai2+ transient was prolonged in the myopathic group, which correlated with prolongation of isometric contraction and relaxation. However, similar end-diastolic [Ca2+]i was achieved in both groups (0.29 +/- 0.05 vs. 0.31 +/- 0.02 microM), indicating that Cai2+ homeostasis can be maintained in myopathic hearts. The inotropic response of the myopathic muscles to milrinone was depressed compared with the controls. However, when cAMP production was stimulated by pretreatment with forskolin, the response of the myopathic muscles to milrinone was improved. Our findings provide direct evidence that abnormal [Ca2+]i handling is an important cause of contractile dysfunction in dogs with pacing-induced heart failure and suggest that deficient production of cAMP may be an important cause of these changes in excitation-contraction coupling.
C L Perreault, R P Shannon, K Komamura, S F Vatner, J P Morgan
Cardiac adaptation to hemodynamic stress involves both quantitative (hypertrophy) and qualitative (pattern of gene expression) changes. Our previous studies have shown that advancing age in the rat is associated with diminished capacity to develop left ventricular hypertrophy in response to either ascending aortic constriction (AoC). In this study, we examined whether the expression of protooncogenes and contractile protein genes in response to AoC differs between adult (9-mo-old) and old (18-mo-old) rats. RNA was isolated from the left ventricles of AoC animals of both age groups subjected to a similar hemodynamic stress. Immediately after AoC, the levels of the ventricular expression of c-fos and c-jun protooncogenes were markedly lower in the old rats than in the adult animals. 5 d after the operation, the ratio of beta- to alpha-myosin heavy chain mRNAs increased significantly after AoC in both age groups. In contrast, AoC was associated with a marked reduction in the levels of mRNAs encoding sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase (by 69%) and cardiac calsequestrin (by 49%) in the old rats but not in the adults. The mRNAs encoding atrial natriuretic factor and skeletal alpha-actin increased in response to AoC only in the adult rats. There were no significant differences in expression of the cardiac alpha-actin mRNA among the experimental groups. These data suggest that (a) the expression of protooncogenes in response to acute pressure overload is significantly reduced in the aged rats and (b) the pattern of expression of the contractile protein gene in response to AoC in the old rats differs qualitatively as well as quantitatively from that in younger animals. These age-related differences may play a role in the higher frequency of heart failure in the aged during hemodynamic stress.
T Takahashi, H Schunkert, S Isoyama, J Y Wei, B Nadal-Ginard, W Grossman, S Izumo
The effects of hydration status on cerebral blood flow (CBF) and development of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) lactic acidosis were evaluated in rabbits with experimental pneumococcal meningitis. As loss of cerebrovascular autoregulation has been previously demonstrated in this model, we reasoned that compromise of intravascular volume might severely affect cerebral perfusion. Furthermore, as acute exacerbation of the inflammatory response in the subarachnoid space has been observed after antibiotic therapy, animals were studied not only while meningitis evolved, but also 4-6 h after treatment with antibiotics to determine whether there would also be an effect on CBF. To produce different levels of hydration, animals were given either 50 ml/kg per 24 h of normal saline ("low fluid") or 150 ml/kg 24 h ("high fluid"). After 16 h of infection, rabbits that were given the lower fluid regimen had lower mean arterial blood pressure (MABP), lower CBF, and higher CSF lactate compared with animals that received the higher fluid regimen. In the first 4-6 h after antibiotic administration, low fluid rabbits had a significant decrease in MABP and CBF compared with, and a significantly greater increase in CSF lactate concentration than, high fluid rabbits. This study suggests that intravascular volume status may be a critical variable in determining CBF and therefore the degree of cerebral ischemia in meningitis.
J H Tureen, M G Täuber, M A Sande
The treatment of human myeloid leukemia cell lines with phorbol esters, such as 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA), is associated with loss of proliferative capacity and induction of monocytic differentiation. The present results demonstrate that treatment of asynchronous human U-937 leukemia cells with 10 nM TPA is also associated with oligonucleosomal DNA cleavage. This pattern of DNA fragmentation, which is observed in programmed cell death, was detectable in populations of TPA-treated cells that had entered a nonproliferative G0/G1 phase. Similar findings were obtained after TPA treatment of a synchronous population of G1 cells. These cells progressed through S and G2/M phases before undergoing internucleosomal DNA cleavage during G0/G1 arrest. These G0/G1 cells displayed characteristics of monocytic differentiation, including down-regulation of c-myc expression and induction of c-fms transcripts. DNA fragmentation was also studied in cells treated with 5 nM TPA for 48 h and then monitored in drug-free long-term culture. Endonucleolytic cleavage was similarly observed in the differentiated G0/G1 population. However, longer periods of culture were associated with a decrease in DNA fragmentation to undetectable levels. This effect was followed by retrodifferentiation and reentry of cells into cycle. Taken together, these findings demonstrate that internucleosomal DNA fragmentation occurs during induction of monocytic differentiation, and that both of these events are detectable in G0/G1 cells.
H Gunji, R Hass, D Kufe
The polyunsaturated fatty acids docosahexaenoic acid (C22:6,n-3), eicosapentaenoic acid, arachidonic acid, and linoleic acid caused marked in vitro growth inhibition of Plasmodium falciparum, assessed by a radiometric assay. In contrast, negligible parasite killing was seen with oleic acid or docosanoic acid. Parasite killing was significantly increased when oxidized forms of polyunsaturated fatty acids were used. Antioxidants greatly reduced the fatty acid-induced killing. Mice infected with P. berghei and treated for 4 d with C22:6,n-3 showed marked reduction in parasitemia. The anemia associated with the infection was also alleviated by treatment with C22:6,n-3. The data provide new information that could be explored in order to develop new strategies in malaria treatment.
L M Kumaratilake, B S Robinson, A Ferrante, A Poulos
Previous studies have indicated that ketone body-mediated contractile failure in rat hearts is due to inhibition of 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase, and it has been speculated that this inhibition is due to the sequestration of intramitochondrial CoA as acetoacetyl-CoA and acetyl-CoA. These studies were performed to determine whether oxidation of acetoacetate by isolated rat heart mitochondria results in a fall in intramitochondrial nonesterified CoA [CoASH] and whether increasing the available CoA improves contractile performance in hearts oxidizing acetoacetate. The oxidation of acetoacetate by isolated rat heart mitochondria resulted in depressed state 3 respiration as well as in a decrease in [CoASH]. Increasing the tissue content of CoASH in perfused hearts by providing the precursors for CoA relieved inhibition of 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase and improved the contractile performance of isolated working hearts. In contrast, the addition of carnitine increased the tissue content of CoASH but did not improve function. These findings suggest the presence of two different pools of CoASH. We conclude that ketone body-mediated inhibition of 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase is due to decreased intramitochondrial CoASH and that this inhibition of the citric acid cycle is a plausible mechanism for concomitant contractile failure.
R R Russell 3rd, H Taegtmeyer
Epidermolysis bullosa (EB) in a group of genodermatoses characterized by the fragility of skin. Previous studies on the dystrophic (scarring) forms of EB have suggested abnormalities in anchoring fibrils, morphologically recognizable attachment structures that provide stability to the association of the cutaneous basement membrane to the underlying dermis. Since type VII collagen is the major component of the anchoring fibrils, we examined the genetic linkage of dominant dystrophic EB (EBDD) and the type VII collagen gene (COL7A1) locus, which we have recently mapped to chromosome 3p, in three large kindreds with abnormal anchoring fibrils. Strong genetic linkage of EBDD and COL7A1 loci was demonstrated with the maximum logarithm of odds (LOD) score of 8.77 at theta = 0. This linkage was further confirmed with two additional markers in this region of the short arm of chromosome 3, and these analyses allowed further refinement of the map locus of COL7A1. Since there were no recombinants between the COL7A1 and EBDD loci, our findings suggest that type VII collagen is the candidate gene that may harbor the mutations responsible for the EB phenotype in these three families.
M Ryynänen, J Ryynänen, S Sollberg, R V Iozzo, R G Knowlton, J Uitto
(TNF alpha)-induced sequestration of neutrophils (PMN) in lungs and of the resultant PMN-dependent pulmonary edema. Guinea pig lungs perfused with Ringers-albumin were challenged with TNF alpha (1,000 U/ml) for 90 min, followed by addition of fresh perfusate containing 2 x 10(7) human PMN. TNF alpha challenge caused sequestration of PMN in the pulmonary vascular bed as indicated by a threefold increase in lung tissue myeloperoxidase activity (MPO). The activation of the sequestered PMN with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA; 5 x 10(-9) M) produced threefold increases in pulmonary artery (Ppa) and pulmonary capillary hydrostatic (Pcap) pressures, and twofold increases in lung wet-to-dry weight (W/D) ratio and capillary filtration coefficient (Kf,c) over baseline. TNF alpha prestimulation was required for these responses since activation of PMN with PMA in control lungs produced smaller increases in Ppa and Pcap (P less than 0.01) and did not change the W/D and Kf,c. TNF alpha prestimulation also induced the expression of intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM-1) on pulmonary vascular endothelial cells. Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) to the neutrophil CD18 integrin (beta-chain of CD11/CD18 complex) (mAb IB4) and to its endothelial cell ligand ICAM-1 (mAb RR1/1) were used to examine the role of PMN adhesion in the TNF alpha-induced responses. Pretreatment of PMN with mAb IB4 prevented PMN uptake and increases in Ppa, Pcap, Kf,c, and W/D ratio. Addition of mAb RR1/1 to the perfusate reduced PMN uptake by 58%, and prevented the increases in Ppa, Pcap, Kf,c, and W/D ratio, as with mAb IB4. The findings indicate that TNF alpha prestimulation of lungs mediates PMN uptake and that this requires the expression of ICAM-1 and its interaction with CD18 integrin on PMN. The activation of PMN sequestered by ICAM-1-dependent mechanism contributes to the development of pulmonary vascular injury and edema.
S K Lo, J Everitt, J Gu, A B Malik
Recent in vivo studies suggest that heme Fe causes proximal tubular lipid peroxidation and cytotoxicity, thereby contributing to the pathogenesis of myoglobinuric (Mgb) acute renal failure. Because hydroxyl radical (.OH) scavengers [dimethylthiourea (DMTU), benzoate, mannitol] can mitigate this injury, it is postulated that .OH is a mediator of Mgb-induced renal damage. The present study has tested these hypotheses using an isolated rat proximal tubular segment (PTS) system. An equal mixture of Fe2+/Fe3+ (4 mM total), when added to PTS, caused marked cytotoxicity [as defined by lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release] and lipid peroxidation [assessed by malondialdehyde (MDA) increments]. Fe2+ or Fe3+ alone each induced massive MDA elevations, but only Fe2+ caused cytotoxicity. Although both DMTU and benzoate decreased LDH release during the Fe2+/Fe3+ challenge, mannitol and GSH did not, despite equivalent reductions in .OH (gauged by the salicylate trap method). GSH and catalase (but not DMTU, benzoate, or mannitol) decreased MDA concentrations, suggesting the Fe-driven lipid peroxidation was more H2O2 than .OH dependent. Deferoxamine totally blocked Fe-induced LDH release, even under conditions in which it caused an apparent increase in .OH generation. Mgb paradoxically protected against Fe-mediated PTS injury, an effect largely reproduced by albumin. In conclusion, these data suggest that: (a) Fe can cause PTS lipid peroxidation and cytotoxicity by a non-.OH-dependent mechanism; (b) Fe-mediated cytotoxicity and lipid peroxidation are not necessarily linked; and (c) Mgb paradoxically protects PTS against Fe-mediated injury, suggesting that: (i) Mgb Fe may require liberation from its porphyrin ring before exerting toxicity; and (ii) the protein residue may blunt the resulting injury.
R A Zager, C A Foerder
Members of the mammalian rab family of GTPases are associated with specific subcellular compartments, where these proteins are postulated to function in vesicular transport. By screening a human umbilical vein endothelial cell library with degenerate oligonucleotide probes, we have isolated a 1.6-kb cDNA clone encoding a 215-amino-acid protein belonging to the rab family of GTPases. This newly identified rab protein is 81% identical to human rab5, the canine counterpart of which has been localized to the plasma membrane and early endosomes. In light of this homology, we have named this new member of the GTPase superfamily "rab5b." Northern analysis using the rab5b cDNA as a probe revealed a 3.6-kb mRNA in a variety of cell types, including human umbilical vein endothelial cells, K562 erythroleukemia cells, U937 monoblastic cells, and HeLa cells. A fusion protein between glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and rab5b was expressed in bacteria and purified to homogeneity. The recombinant protein was shown to bind GTP and GDP. As is typical of other recombinant rab proteins, the rab5b-GST fusion protein displayed a low intrinsic rate of GTP hydrolysis (0.005/min). An antiserum to rab5b was prepared and used to determine the apparent molecular size and subcellular distribution of the protein. Western blotting with this antibody revealed a 25-kD protein in COS cells transfected with rab5b and in nontransfected HeLa cells. Indirect immunofluorescence and subcellular fractionation showed that rab5b localizes to the plasma membrane. We speculate that rab5b plays a role in vesicular trafficking at the plasma membrane in various cell types.
D B Wilson, M P Wilson
Insulin caused a transient increase in H2O2 accumulation in human fat cell suspensions that was observed only in the presence of an inhibitor of catalase and heme-containing peroxidases, such as azide, and reached peak levels of 30 microM within 5 min. The cells contained a plasma membrane-bound NADPH oxidase, producing 1 mol H2O2/mol of NADPH oxidation, that was activated on exposure of intact cells to insulin at contrations that are physiologically relevant (0.1-10 nM). The hormone effect was rapid and was due to a selective increase in substrate affinity. The enzyme was magnesium dependent, required a flavine nucleotide for optimal activity, and was most active at pH 5.0-6.5. In contrast to all other hormone- or cytokine-sensitive NADPH oxidases that have been characterized in sufficient detail, the human fat cell oxidase retained its hormone responsiveness after cell disruption, and only Mn2+, but no ATP, was required for a ligand-induced activation in crude plasma membranes. The results demonstrate that insulin utilizes tyrosine kinase-independent pathways for receptor signaling and strongly support the view that H2O2 contributes to the intracellular propagation of the insulin signal.
H I Krieger-Brauer, H Kather
The development of a cell culture system efficient in the establishment of lymphoma cell lines has made it possible to dissect basic biological and molecular aspects of lymphoma cells. We have established a lymphoma cell line from a patient with B cell lymphoma. The cell line has a complex karyotype with translocations involving bands 8q24, 14q32, and 18q21. Molecular analysis revealed that the Myc gene was rearranged; we were unable to demonstrate rearrangement of the Bcl-2 gene. Evaluation of the structure of the heavy chain Ig genes revealed that the cell line carried the same rearrangements as the cells from which the cell line was derived. The pattern of rearrangement, however, was unusual in that there were at least four rearranged bands when DNA cut with HindIII was probed with a fragment of the heavy chain joining region. To further characterize the cell line, subclones were derived. Individual subclones had the same pattern of rearrangement as the parent cell line. The results of these studies provide evidence that multiple rearranged Ig genes may be present in a single clone of cells.
H Chang, H A Messner, X H Wang, C Yee, L Addy, J Meharchand, M D Minden
To investigate potential mechanisms controlling protein glycosylation we have studied the interrelationship between lymphocytic galactosyltransferase (GTase) activity and serum agalactosylated immunoglobulin G levels (G(0)) in healthy individuals and patients with rheumatoid arthritis and non-autoimmune arthritis. In RA there was reduced GTase activity and increased G(0). A positive linear correlation between B and T cell GTase was found in all individuals. The relationship between GTase and G(0) was found to be positive and linear in the control population and negative and linear in the RA population. Sulphasalazine therapy maintained normal levels of GTase and caused a reduction in G(0) in the RA population. IgG anti-GTase antibodies (abs) were significantly increased in the RA population, whereas IgM anti-GTase abs were significantly decreased in both the RA and the non-autoimmune arthritis groups. These data describe a defect in RA lymphocytic GTase, with associated abnormal G(0) changes, which is corrected by sulphasalazine. A possible regulatory mechanism controlling galactosylation in normal cells is suggested, in which there is parallel control of B and T cell GTase. IgM anti-GTase abs may be integrated into this normal regulatory process. This is disrupted in RA, where the positive feedback between GTase and G(0) is lost and there is an associated increase in IgG anti-GTase abs, which may result from isotype switching as IgM anti-GTase abs are reduced. We suggest that these mechanisms are of relevance to the pathogenesis of RA, and that their manipulation may form part of a novel therapeutic approach.
J S Axford, N Sumar, A Alavi, D A Isenberg, A Young, K B Bodman, I M Roitt
Cytokines may play an important role in the regulation of host defense against local bacterial infections. We have evaluated the local production of cytokines in a BALB/c mouse model of Escherichia coli pyelonephritis. Kidneys, draining lymph nodes, and spleens, were harvested at specific time intervals after bladder inoculation with E. coli corresponding to the stages of renal infection, infiltration, and bacterial clearance seen in this model. The presence of messenger RNA for specific cytokines (interleukins 1 through 6, chemotactic factors, granulocyte and granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF), tumor necrosis factor (TNF alpha) and beta, IFN gamma, transforming growth factor (TGF beta), and cytokine synthesis inhibitory factor (CSIF)/IL-10) was determined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of reverse transcribed RNA. We have demonstrated mRNA encoding IL-1, IL-6, G-CSF, GM-CSF, TNF alpha, H400 (a protein homologous to a family of chemotactic factors and identical to MIP-1 beta), and CSIF/IL-10 in the kidney at 12 h and 1, 2, and 3 d after bacterial challenge. No signal was seen in normal animals or in mice after 5 d. This pattern of cytokine expression was observed only in renal tissues suggesting a localized response. IL-6 was present in the urine at 4 h with rapid resolution to baseline levels by 24 to 48 h. In contrast, IL-6 was not usually detectable in the serum. TNF alpha was not detectable in the serum or urine during the course of the infection. By immunohistochemical staining of kidney sections we have shown that IL-6 is produced predominantly by mesangial cells rather than by the inflammatory infiltrate. This study provides additional evidence utilizing novel techniques that specific cytokines are produced locally in response to bacterial infections. The time course of production demonstrated in this model supports the important role of cytokines in natural host resistance to local infection.
H S Rugo, P O'Hanley, A G Bishop, M K Pearce, J S Abrams, M Howard, A O'Garra
Elevated lipoprotein(a) (Lp[a]) concentrations are associated with premature coronary heart disease (CHD). In the general population, Lp(a) levels are largely determined by alleles at the hypervariable apolipoprotein(a) (apo[a]) gene locus, but other genetic and environmental factors also affect plasma Lp(a) levels. In addition, Lp(a) has been hypothesized to be an acute phase protein. It is therefore unclear whether the association of Lp(a) concentrations with CHD is primary in nature. We have analyzed apo(a) phenotypes, Lp(a) levels, total cholesterol, and HDL-cholesterol in patients with CHD, and in controls from the general population. Both samples were Chinese individuals residing in Singapore. Lp(a) concentrations were significantly higher in the patients than in the population (mean 20.7 +/- 23.9 mg/dl vs 8.9 +/- 12.9 mg/dl). Apo(a) isoforms associated with high Lp(a) levels (B, S1, S2) were significantly more frequent in the CHD patients than in the population sample (15.9% vs 8.5%, P less than 0.01). Higher Lp(a) concentrations in the patients were in part explained by this difference in apo(a) allele frequencies. Results from stepwise logistic regression analysis indicate that apo(a) type was a significant predictor of CHD, independent of total cholesterol and HDL cholesterol, but not independent of Lp(a) levels. The data demonstrate that alleles at the apo(a) locus determine the risk for CHD through their effects on Lp(a) levels, and firmly establish the role of Lp(a) as a primary genetic risk factor for CHD.
C Sandholzer, E Boerwinkle, N Saha, M C Tong, G Utermann
Endothelial dysfunction has been implicated as a cause of coronary vasospasm in patients with variant angina. This study aimed to determine if endothelium-dependent vasodilation evoked with substance P (SP) was altered at the spastic site where vasospasm was induced by acetylcholine (ACH) in patients with variant angina. It has been shown that SP evokes endothelium-dependent vasodilation with no direct effect on vascular smooth muscle in excised human coronary arteries. SP and ACH were infused into the coronary arteries in nine patients with variant angina in whom coronary arteriograms showed normal or mild atherosclerotic lesions. The vasomotor responses of coronary arteries were assessed by quantitative arteriography. ACH at a high dose (100 micrograms/min) provoked coronary vasospasm associated with anginal attack in all patients. In contrast, SP at graded doses (13.5, 40, and 135 ng/min) caused the dose-dependent and comparable increases in the coronary diameter at the spastic and control sites. ACH at a low dose (10 micrograms/min) also caused comparable vasodilation at the spastic and control sites in patients with normal coronary arteries. Coronary vasodilating responses to SP were comparable in patients with variant angina and those with atypical chest pain. The results indicate that endothelium-dependent vasodilation evoked with SP and ACH at the low dose was present at the vasospastic site in patients with variant angina. These findings suggest that the ACH-induced coronary vasospasm in patients with variant angina results from hyperreactivity of vascular smooth muscle to ACH but not from endothelial dysfunction.
K Egashira, T Inou, A Yamada, Y Hirooka, A Takeshita