G C Weir, S Bonner-Weir
W F Benedict, H J Xu, S X Hu, R Takahashi
To determine whether long-term hypertension leads to hyperplasia of myocyte nuclei in the heart, a phenomenon suspected to occur in humans, renal hypertension was produced in rats and the animals were killed 8 mo later. Arterial blood pressure remained elevated for approximately 5 mo, but decreased progressively in the last 3 mo so that at 8 mo this parameter was practically identical to that found in controls. Moreover, left ventricular end diastolic pressure was markedly increased in experimental animals in association with a substantial decrease in left ventricular dP/dt. The alteration of these physiological measurements was indicative of severe ventricular dysfunction. Quantitative analysis of the transmural distribution of myocyte nuclei in the left ventricle showed 36 and 23% increases in myocyte nuclei concentration in the epimyocardium and endomyocardium, respectively. These changes in nuclei were accompanied by 25 and 16% reductions in myocyte cell volume per nucleus in the outer and inner layers of the wall. In conclusion, long-term hypertension leads to impairment of ventricular function and proliferation of nuclei in myocytes.
P Anversa, T Palackal, E H Sonnenblick, G Olivetti, J M Capasso
Gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP), the 27 amino acid mammalian form of bombesin, was studied in human inferior turbinate nasal mucosa. The GRP content of the mucosa measured by radioimmunoassay was 0.60 +/- 0.25 pmol/g tissue (n = 9 patients; mean +/- SEM). GRP-immunoreactive nerves detected by the immunogold method of indirect immunohistochemistry were found predominantly in small muscular arteries, arterioles, venous sinusoids, and between submucosal gland acini. 125I-GRP binding sites determined by autoradiography were exclusively and specifically localized to nasal epithelium and submucosal glands. There was no binding to vessels. The effects of GRP on submucosal gland product release were studied in short-term explant culture. GRP (10 microM) significantly stimulated the release of the serous cell-specific product lactoferrin, and [3H]glucosamine-labeled glycoconjugates which are products of epithelial goblet cells and submucosal gland cells. These observations indicate that GRP released from nerve fibers probably acts on glandular GRP receptors to induce glycoconjugate release from submucosal glands and epithelium and lactoferrin release from serous cells, but that GRP would probably not affect vascular permeability.
J N Baraniuk, J D Lundgren, J Goff, D Peden, M Merida, J Shelhamer, M Kaliner
In vitro microperfusion experiments were performed to examine the effects of peptide hormones on bicarbonate and ammonium transport by the medullary thick ascending limb (MTAL) of the rat. Arginine vasopressin (AVP; 2.8 X 10(-10) M in the bath) reduced bicarbonate absorption by 50% (from 7.8 to 3.7 pmol/min per mm). AVP caused a similar reduction in bicarbonate absorption in tubules perfused with 10(-4) M furosemide to inhibit net NaCl absorption. Glucagon (2 X 10(-9) M in the bath) also reduced bicarbonate absorption (from 11.7 to 7.6 pmol/min per mm). The inhibition of bicarbonate absorption could be reproduced with either exogenous 8-bromo-cAMP or forskolin. With 8-bromo-cAMP (10(-3) M) in the bath, addition of vasopressin to the bath did not significantly affect bicarbonate absorption. PTH significantly inhibited bicarbonate absorption, but the extent of inhibition was less than that observed with either AVP or glucagon. Vasopressin had no effect on net ammonium absorption in MTAL perfused and bathed with 4 mM NH4Cl. These findings indicate that: (a) vasopressin, glucagon, and PTH directly inhibit bicarbonate absorption in the MTAL of the rat; (b) this inhibition occurs independent of effects on net NaCl absorption and appears to be mediated in part by cAMP; and (c) HCO3- and NH4+ absorption can be regulated independently in the MTAL.
D W Good
Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) has a frequency of 0.2% in most populations of the world. In selected populations such as the Afrikaners in South Africa, the Christian Lebanese, and the French Canadians, the disease is more frequent due to the founder effect. Previous studies demonstrated that a single mutation at the LDL receptor locus, the so-called French Canadian deletion, makes up 60% of the mutant genes responsible for FH in the French Canadian population. In this study, efforts were directed to determine if there were other common LDL receptor mutations in this population. Three missense mutations were identified and each mutation was reproduced and expressed in vitro. Two of the three mutations result in the production of an LDL receptor protein that is not processed to its mature form at a normal rate. Molecular assays were developed to detect the mutations directly, and the LDL receptor genes of 130 French Canadian FH heterozygotes were screened for the presence of the three missense mutations as well as two deletions. LDL receptor mutations were detected in 76% of individuals and 14% had one of the three missense mutations.
E Leitersdorf, E J Tobin, J Davignon, H H Hobbs
Antigen-antibody complexes were made from allergens of the common house dust mite, Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Dpt) and an excess of purified autologous specific antibodies. These complexes have been used to treat Dpt-hypersensitive patients who suffered from chronic bronchial asthma. Clinical symptoms and medication intake were followed by filling in diary cards. Peak expiratory flow, measured four times a day, was also followed. Intradermal skin tests and bronchial challenge tests were performed with allergen together with an evaluation of nonspecific bronchial reactivity. Specific IgE and IgG antibodies were assayed after separation from the bulk of serum immunoglobulins by immunoadsorption. The study was carried out over two years according to a double-blind protocol. Intradermal inoculation of antigen-antibody complexes resulted in a marked reduction of both clinical and medication scores. No systemic side-effects were observed and only mild wheal and flare reactions were noted at the injection site. The treatment showed a drastic reduction of specific skin and bronchial reactivities with only marginal effects on nonspecific bronchial reactivity. Concentrations of specific IgE antibodies decreased significantly during the first weeks of treatment and remained at these lower values throughout the study. Specific IgG antibodies actually decreased in the majority of treated patients. The total amount of allergen used in this study was less than 1% of the amount currently used for conventional hyposensitization with the same allergen. These findings show that antigen-antibody complex inoculation is an efficient and safe means of treating allergic bronchial asthma and that the mechanism of action is likely to differ from conventional hyposensitization.
J J Machiels, M A Somville, P M Lebrun, S J Lebecque, M G Jacquemin, J M Saint-Remy
We developed a mouse model to compare the virulence of Campylobacter fetus strains with (S-plus) and without (S-minus) surface array protein (S-protein) capsules. In adult HA/ICR mice pretreated with ferric chloride, the LD50 for S-plus strain 84-32 was 43.3 times lower than its spontaneous S-minus mutant 84-54. Seven strains of inbred mice were no more susceptible than the outbred strain. In contrast to the findings with Salmonella typhimurium by others, 3 X 10(7) CFU of strain 84-32 caused 90% mortality in C3H/HeN (LPSn) mice and 40% mortality in C3H/HeJ (LPSd) mice. High-grade bacteremia in HA/ICR mice occurred after oral challenge with S-plus C. fetus strains and continued for at least 2 d, but was not present in any mice challenged with S-minus strains. Bacteremia at 30 min after challenge was 51.6-fold lower in mice pretreated with 10 microliters of rabbit antiserum to purified S-protein than after pretreatment with normal rabbit serum. Challenge of mice with a mixture of S-minus strain 84-54 and free S-proteins at a concentration 31.1-fold higher than found in wild-type strain 84-32 caused 30% mortality, compared with 0% with strain 84-54 or S-protein alone. These findings in a mouse model point toward the central role of the S-protein in the pathogenesis of C. fetus infection. The S-protein is not toxic per se, but enhances virulence when present on the bacterial cell surface as a capsule.
Z Pei, M J Blaser
Epidermal growth factor (EGF) exhibits specific saturable binding to cultured rat inner medullary collecting tubule cells and stimulates inositol trisphosphate (IP3) production by these cells in a dose-dependent fashion. EGF-stimulated IP3 production is enhanced by GTP gamma s or AIF4- and is inhibited by GDP beta s or pertussis toxin. Alterations in extracellular Ca2+ have no effect on either basal or EGF-stimulated IP3 production. Similarly, treatment with EGTA which decreases cytosolic Ca2+ is without effect. In contrast, treatment with ionomycin which increases cytosolic Ca2+ has no effect on basal IP3 production but enhances the response to EGF. Activation of protein kinase C inhibits IP3 production in response to either EGF or AIF4-. These studies demonstrate the occurrence of EGF-stimulated phospholipase C activity in the rat inner medullary collecting duct. Stimulation by EGF is transduced by a pertussis toxin-sensitive G protein, unaffected by alterations in extracellular Ca2+, insensitive to a decrement in cytosolic Ca2+, enhanced by an increase in cytosolic Ca2+, and inhibited by protein kinase C.
I Teitelbaum, A Strasheim, T Berl
The susceptibility to develop seropositive rheumatoid arthritis (RA) has been linked to specific genomic polymorphisms within the HLA complex. Two different haplotypes have been associated with the disease, HLA-DR1 and HLA-DR4. To investigate the link between such phenotypic disease associations and potential immune mechanisms we used alloreactive and antigen-specific human T cell clones. Here we describe a panel of alloreactive T cell clones directed to polymorphic determinants encoded by the third hypervariable region (hvr) of the HLA-DR beta 1-chain. T cell determinants defined by these clones are shared among HLA-DR1, HLA-Dw4, HLA-Dw13, HLA-Dw14, and HLA-Dw15, and are frequent in a population of RA patients. To study the role of such disease-associated epitopes in antigen-restricted T cell recognition we generated T cell clones from RA patients specific for mycobacterial antigens, Epstein-Barr virus antigens, and tetanus toxoid. In all three antigenic systems T cell clones were restricted to either HLA-DR1 or HLA-DR4. These data suggest that the polymorphisms within the first and second hvr of the HLA-DR beta 1-chain that are distinct in HLA-DR1 and HLA-DR4 and not associated with the disease are crucially involved in the recognition of antigens. Polymorphic determinants encoded by the third hvr are shared among disease-associated haplotypes and may function to mediate the interaction of alloreactive T cell receptor molecules with the HLA complex.
C M Weyand, J J Goronzy
Isovaleric acidemia (IVA) is caused by a genetic deficiency of isovaleryl-CoA dehydrogenase (IVD). At least five distinct variant IVD alleles are known. We isolated five overlapping IVD cDNA clones from a human placenta cDNA library. They covered the entire coding region, except the initiation codon, and 587 bp in the 3'-noncoding region plus the poly(A) tail. The structure of the initiation site was identified by the study of genomic DNA and by the sequence comparison with rat IVD. Human IVD shared 89.6, 35.8, and 31.6% identical amino acid residues with rat IVD and human short and medium chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenases, respectively. In the Northern blot analysis of normal human liver and fibroblast poly(A)+ RNA, three mRNA species of different sizes (4.6, 3.8, and 2.1 kb) hybridized to IVD cDNA. Three mRNA species with similar sizes were also detected in five IVA fibroblast lines of different genotypes (variants 1, 1 X 2, 2, 3, and 5), suggesting that these variants are each due to a point mutation or small deletion.
Y Matsubara, M Ito, R Glassberg, S Satyabhama, Y Ikeda, K Tanaka
Intracellular ionized calcium has been strongly implicated in mediating several responses of human neutrophils to stimulation. However, proteins that serve as effectors of these responses have not been well characterized. To identify proteins that might serve as mediators of the effects of Ca2+ in human neutrophils, we isolated proteins that bind to membrane phospholipids in a Ca2(+)-dependent manner. The most abundant of these, a protein of 33 kD, was readily purified to homogeneity, and was found to bind to phosphatidylserine vesicles in the presence of 2 microM ionized Ca2+. In addition, this purified protein promoted Ca2(+)-dependent aggregation of isolated specific granules from human neutrophils, indicating that it might mediate membrane-membrane contact during processes such as phagosome-lysosome fusion or degranulation. This protein was localized to the cytoplasm of unstimulated neutrophils and found to account for approximately 1% of the cytosol protein. Amino acid sequence of several peptides derived from the purified protein revealed that it is identical to lipocortin III, a recently described member of the annexin family that is scarce in other cells and tissues. The abundance of this protein, together with its Ca2(+)-dependent membrane effects, suggest that it mediates membrane-localized events in stimulated neutrophils, such as phagosome-lysosome fusion or degranulation.
J D Ernst, E Hoye, R A Blackwood, D Jaye
Induction of human erythroleukemia (HEL) cells with nanomolar tumor-promoting phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) diesters results in the synchronous acquisition of multiple markers of the megakaryocyte phenotype. Induced cells markedly increase their content of cytoplasm and show features of morphological maturation. At the ultrastructural level, PMA-treated cells show increases in cytoplasm, nuclear lobulation and nucleolar content, and free ribosomes. Limited numbers of cells also express alpha-granules and nascent demarcation membrane systems. Functionally, PMA-stimulated HEL cells express increased amounts of the megakaryocyte/platelet proteins: glycoprotein IIb/IIIa, platelet factor 4, von Willebrand factor, glycoprotein Ib, and thrombospondin. No changes are observed in antigenic markers of the erythroid (glycophorin A) or macrophage lineages (MO-1 or MO-2). The increases in antigenic expression are rapid, reaching maximum levels within 3-4 d under serum-free conditions. Treatment with PMA also abruptly (within 1-2 d) inhibits cellular division in these cells. Washout studies indicate that phorbols exert their effect within 18-24 h, the approximate cell cycle time for these cells. Consistent with proliferative arrest, c-myc proto-oncogene transcripts begin to decline within 8 h of PMA treatment, although transcripts of c-myb are unaffected. Importantly, megakaryocyte differentiation is associated with endomitotic DNA synthesis (i.e., continued DNA synthesis in the absence of mitosis and cytokinesis), with HEL cells reaching a DNA content of 3-12 times that of unstimulated cells. Endomitosis is coordinately regulated with changes in antigenic expression and cell size such that those cells having the highest DNA content are the largest and also express the greatest levels of antigen.
M W Long, C H Heffner, J L Williams, C Peters, E V Prochownik
Nerve growth factor (NGF) is a polypeptide that is required for normal development and maintenance of the sympathetic and sensory nervous systems. Skin has been shown to contain relatively high amounts of NGF, which is in keeping with the finding that the quantity of NGF in a tissue is proportional to the extent of sympathetic innervation of that organ. Since the keratinocyte, a major cellular constituent of the skin, is known to produce other growth factors and cytokines, our experiments were designed to determine whether keratinocytes are a source of NGF. Keratinocyte-conditioned media from the keratinocyte cell line PAM 212 contained NGF-like activity, approximately 2-3 ng/ml, as detected by the neurite outgrowth assay. Freshly isolated BALB/c keratinocytes contained approximately 0.1 ng/ml. Using a cDNA probe directed against NGF, we demonstrated the presence of a 1.3-kb NGF mRNA in both PAM 212 and BALB/c keratinocytes. Since ultraviolet radiation (UV) is a potentially important modulating factor for cytokines in skin, we examined the effect of UV on NGF mRNA expression. Although UV initially inhibited the expression of keratinocyte NGF mRNA (4 h), by 24 h an induction of NGF mRNA was seen. The NGF signal could also be induced by phorbol esters. Thus, keratinocytes synthesize and express NGF, and its expression is modulated by UVB and phorbol esters.
V A Tron, M D Coughlin, D E Jang, J Stanisz, D N Sauder
Exposure of cultured endothelium to environments with low concentrations of oxygen, in the range of those observed in pathophysiologic hypoxemic states in vivo, compromises cellular barrier and coagulant function. An atmosphere with PO2 approximately 14 mm Hg was not lethally toxic to endothelial cultures, but cells became larger and exhibited small intercellular gaps. At low oxygen concentrations, passage of macromolecular tracers through hypoxic endothelial monolayers was accelerated in a time- and dose-dependent manner, presumably by a paracellular pathway via the gaps. Cell surface coagulant properties of the endothelium were also perturbed. At PO2 approximately 14 mm Hg thrombomodulin antigen and functional activity on the cell surface were diminished by 80-90%, and Northern blots demonstrated suppression of thrombomodulin mRNA. The decrease in thrombomodulin was twice as great compared with the general decline in total protein synthesis in hypoxia. In addition, expression of a direct Factor X activator developed under hypoxic conditions; the activator was membrane-associated and expressed on the surface of intact cultures, Ca-dependent, inhibited by HgCl2 but not PMSF, and had Km approximately 25 micrograms/ml for the substrate at pH 7.4. Synthesis of the activator was blocked by inclusion of cycloheximide, but not warfarin, in the culture medium. These results demonstrate that endothelial function is perturbed in a selective manner in the presence of low concentrations of oxygen, providing insights into mechanisms which may contribute to vascular dysfunction in hypoxemic states.
S Ogawa, H Gerlach, C Esposito, A Pasagian-Macaulay, J Brett, D Stern
Both transport function and microvillus membrane physical properties evolve as the enterocyte matures and migrates up the crypt-villus axis. We isolated enriched fractions of villus tip, mid-villus, and crypt enterocytes from which microvillus membrane vesicles were prepared. Using this material we characterized the alterations that occur in microvillus membrane fluidity as the rabbit enterocyte matures and correlated these with kinetic studies of glucose transport. With increasing maturity the microvillus membrane becomes more rigid due to both an increase in the cholesterol/phospholipid ratio and alterations in individual phospholipid subclasses. Maximal rates of glucose transport were greatest in microvillus membrane vesicles prepared from mature cells. However, the glucose concentration producing half-maximal rates of transport (Km) was significantly lower in crypt microvillus membrane vesicles, suggesting that a distinct glucose transporter existed in crypt enterocytes. This distinction disappeared when differences between membrane lipid environments were removed. By fluidizing villus-tip microvillus membrane vesicles, in vitro, to levels seen in the crypt microvillus membrane, we observed a reduction in the Km of this transport system. These data suggest that the kinetic characteristics of the sodium-dependent glucose transporter are dependent upon its local membrane environment.
J B Meddings, D DeSouza, M Goel, S Thiesen
These experiments provide an explanation for the observation that two intravenous injections of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) spaced 5 h apart in rabbits cause tumor necrosis factor/cachectin (TNF) levels to rise in the blood only after the first LPS injection. Herein we show that treatment of elicited peritoneal exudate rabbit macrophages (PEM) with two doses of LPS given 9 h apart results in a marked reduction in TNF production by the second LPS exposure. This state of hyporesponsiveness is a result of adaptation to LPS, is induced by LPS concentrations that are 1,000-fold less than required to induce TNF production (picograms vs. nanograms), is characterized by a decrease in LPS-induced TNF mRNA without any change in TNF mRNA half-life, is not changed by including indomethacin in cultures, and is specific for LPS since LPS-adapted cells display a TNF response to heat-killed Staphylococcus aureus that is at least as good as that observed in control PEM.
J C Mathison, G D Virca, E Wolfson, P S Tobias, K Glaser, R J Ulevitch
Glomerular function and structure were assessed after reduction of nephron number and restriction of protein intake in rats with adriamycin nephrosis. Rats received an injection of adriamycin and were divided into three groups with similar values for albuminuria after 4 wk. Group 1 rats then served as controls, group 2 rats were subjected to four-fifths renal ablation, and group 3 rats were placed on a low protein diet (8% protein) while group 1 and group 2 rats remained on a standard diet (24% protein). Micropuncture and morphometric studies were performed 10 d later. Estimated single-nephron albuminuria (SNalb) was increased by renal ablation in group 2 and decreased by protein restriction in group 3 (group 1, 20 +/- 2 micrograms/d; group 2, 68 +/- 7 micrograms/d; group 3, 12 +/- 1 microgram/d, P less than 0.05 groups 2 and 3 vs. 1). Increased SNalb was associated with increased glomerular volume in group 2 and reduced SNalb was associated with reduced glomerular volume in group 3. (group 1, 1.44 +/- 0.04 x 10(6) microns 3; group 2, 1.66 +/- 0.08 x 10(6) microns 3; group 3, 1.26 +/- 0.03 x 10(6) microns 3, P less than 0.05 groups 2 and 3 vs. 1). Increased SNalb in group 2 was not associated with an increase in glomerular transcapillary hydraulic pressure. The area of epithelial cell detachment from the peripheral capillary wall was markedly increased in group 2 but not perceptibly altered in group 3 (group 1, 16 +/- 5 x 10(2) microns 2; group 2, 65 +/- 17 x 10(2) microns 2; group 3, 18 +/- 5 x 10(2) microns 2; P less than 0.05 group 2 vs. 1). These studies show that glomerular hypertrophy is associated with increased epithelial cell detachment from the peripheral capillary wall and with increased remnant nephron albuminuria after reduction of nephron number in rats with established nephrosis.
P L Miller, J W Scholey, H G Rennke, T W Meyer
The T84 human colonic epithelial cell line retains the ability to produce secretagogue-responsive monolayer cultures with high transepithelial resistance when grown and maintained on collagen-coated permeable supports in media supplemented with 5% newborn calf serum. The addition of highly purified insulin to the basolateral but not the apical membrane side of established monolayers caused the transepithelial resistance to decline more than eightfold over a 3-4-d period. By comparing the transepithelial flux of 22Na with that of the extracellular space marker, [3H]mannitol, the decline in electrical resistance was shown to be due solely to an effect on tight junction-mediated paracellular permeability. The effect of insulin was dose dependent with a half-maximal effect at 3.9 ng/ml (approximately 0.7 nM) and fully reversible over a 10-d time course. Simultaneous addition of 2 microM cycloheximide prevented the insulin-induced decline in resistance; in fact, this combination caused a significant increase in electrical resistance. There was no effect on the short-circuit current response of insulin-treated monolayers to secretagogues so long as media was changed daily. While no gross morphological changes were apparent, there did appear to be a subtle condensation of the perijunctional actin ring as visualized using rhodamine-labeled phalloidin. These results demonstrate that insulin modulates the permeability of the occluding junction in T84 cell monolayers through a receptor mediated process which probably involves changes in protein synthesis and cytoskeletal structure. Insulin was also shown to produce similar effects on two other intestinal epithelial cell lines.
J A McRoberts, R Aranda, N Riley, H Kang
Bacterial sepsis often precedes the development of the adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and bacterial endotoxin (LPS) produces a syndrome similar to ARDS when infused into experimental animals. We determined in isolated, buffer-perfused rabbit lungs, free of plasma and circulating blood cells that LPS synergized with platelet activating factor (PAF) to injure the lung. In lungs perfused for 2 h with LPS-free buffer (less than 100 pg/ml), stimulation with 1, 10, or 100 nM PAF produced transient pulmonary hypertension and minimal edema. Lungs perfused for 2 h with buffer containing 100 ng/ml of Escherichia coli 0111:B4 LPS had slight elevation of pulmonary artery pressure (PAP) and did not develop edema. In contrast, lungs exposed to 100 ng/ml of LPS for 2 h had marked increases in PAP and developed significant edema when stimulated with PAF. LPS treatment increased capillary filtration coefficient, suggesting that capillary leak contributed to pulmonary edema. LPS-primed, PAF-stimulated lungs had enhanced production of thromboxane B2 (TXB) and 6-keto-prostaglandin F1 alpha (6KPF). Indomethacin completely inhibited PAF-stimulated production of TXB and 6KPF in control and LPS-primed preparations, did not inhibit the rise in PAP produced by PAF in control lungs, but blocked the exaggerated rise in PAP and edema seen in LPS-primed, PAF-stimulated lungs. The thromboxane synthetase inhibitor dazoxiben, and the thromboxane receptor antagonist, SQ 29,548, similarly inhibited LPS-primed pulmonary hypertension and edema after PAF-stimulation. These studies indicate that LPS primes the lung for enhanced injury in response to the physiologic mediator PAF by amplifying the synthesis and release of thromboxane in lung tissue.
W L Salzer, C E McCall
Plasma renin activity varies with the level of dietary protein, being higher on a high protein diet. To explore the molecular mechanisms underlying this relationship we first examined the effect of dietary protein on renin and angiotensinogen gene expression at the level of steady state mRNA in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Renal renin mRNA was higher on a 50% (high) compared to a 6% (low) protein diet both 3 d (9.4 +/- 1.1 vs. 5.3 +/- 0.4 pg/micrograms of total RNA; P less than 0.02) and 21 d (6.8 +/- 1.0 vs. 3.5 +/- 0.4 pg/micrograms of total RNA; P less than 0.02) after dietary change. No change occurred in either renal or liver angiotensinogen mRNA. When three levels of dietary protein were examined, renal renin mRNA was elevated on a 50% and lowered on a 6% protein diet compared to a more standard 20% protein diet. Kidney weights and renal protein, RNA, and RNA/DNA increased with the level of dietary protein reflecting protein-induced renal hypertrophy. Uninephrectomy resulted in no change in renin mRNA compared to sham operation (3.7 +/- 0.1 vs. 3.4 +/- 0.1 pg/micrograms RNA; P = NS) despite renal growth in the uninephrectomy group implicating dietary protein and not hypertrophy as the major factor for stimulating renin mRNA. In conclusion, the level of dietary protein is a novel and specific stimulus for changes in renal renin mRNA. The increased plasma renin activity on a high protein diet is due at least in part to increased renin synthesis.
M E Rosenberg, D Chmielewski, T H Hostetter
Occupancy of specific receptors on neutrophils by adenosine or its analogues diminishes the stimulated release of toxic oxygen metabolites from neutrophils, while paradoxically promoting chemotaxis. We now report evidence that two distinct adenosine receptors are found on neutrophils (presumably the A1 and A2 receptors of other cell types). These adenosine receptors modulate chemotaxis and O2- generation, respectively. N6-Cyclopentyladenosine (CPA), a selective A1 agonist, promoted neutrophil chemotaxis to the chemoattractant FMLP as well as or better than 5'N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine (NECA). In contrast, CPA did not inhibit O2- generation stimulated by FMLP. Pertussis toxin completely abolished promotion of chemotaxis by CPA but enhanced inhibition by NECA of O2- generation. Disruption of microtubules by colchicine or vinblastine also abrogated the enhancement by NECA of chemotaxis whereas these agents did not markedly interfere with inhibition by NECA of O2- generation. FMLP receptors, once they have bound ligand, shift to a high affinity state and become associated with the cytoskeleton. NECA significantly increased association of [3H]FMLP with cytoskeletal preparations as it inhibited O2-. Disruption of microtubules did not prevent NECA from increasing association of [3H]FMLP with cytoskeletal preparations. Additionally, CPA (A1 agonist) did not increase binding of [3H]FMLP to the cytoskeleton as well as NECA (A2 agonist). These studies indicate that occupancy of one class of adenosine receptors (A1) promotes chemotaxis by a mechanism requiring intact microtubules and G proteins whereas engagement of a second class of receptors (A2) inhibits O2- generation. Signalling via A2 receptors is independent of microtubules, insensitive to pertussis toxin and is associated with binding of [3H]FMLP to cytoskeletal preparations.
B N Cronstein, L Daguma, D Nichols, A J Hutchison, M Williams
Using idiotypic analysis, we examined the variable (V) region diversity of human antibodies specific for the capsular polysaccharide of Haemophilus influenzae b (Hib PS). A goat anti-idiotypic serum (anti-Id) was prepared against anti-Hib PS antibodies isolated from the serum of an adult immunized with Hib PS. The anti-Id bound donor anti-Hib PS antibodies and inhibited Hib PS binding of donor anti-Hib PS. In contrast, the anti-Id did not bind donor or pooled Ig depleted of Hib PS antibodies, nor did it inhibit antigen binding of human antibodies to pneumococcal PS's, meningococcal A PS or diphtheria toxoid. Crossreactive idiotype (CRI), as measured by anti-Id inhibition of Hib PS binding, was found in 74 of 98 subjects (76%) vaccinated with Hib PS at 1.7-57 yr of age. 60 of these 74 subjects had greater than 50% of their serum Hib PS-binding activity inhibited by anti-Id. No correlation was found between age and CRI expression. In subjects showing both IgG1 and IgG2 antibody responses, CRI was most frequently detected in both subclasses (71% of subjects). CRI was limited to either IgG1 or IgG2 in 19% of subjects, a finding suggestive of independent B cell lineages. 13 of 15 infants less than 17 mo of age, who responded to Hib PS-outer membrane protein conjugate vaccine, had greater than 50% of their serum anti-Hib PS antibody activity inhibited by anti-Id. The ability of native Hib PS and Hib PS oligomer to partially inhibit (60 and 35%, respectively) the binding between anti-Id and heterologous anti-Hib PS, indicated that some CRI determinants are in or near the combining site. In summary, our findings demonstrate a highly penetrant and frequently predominant CRI, which is expressed in both infants and adults. The results underscore the limited V region diversity of anti-Hib PS antibodies and indicate that CRI predominance is manifest early in ontogeny and is induced by both TI and TD forms of the Hib PS antigen.
A H Lucas, D M Granoff
Exposure of skin chamber granulation tissue vessels in nondiabetic rats to 11 or 15 mM D-glucose (but not L-glucose or 3-O-methylglucose) twice daily for 10 d induces vascular functional changes (increased albumin permeation and blood flow) identical to those in animals with mild or severe streptozotocin diabetes, respectively. These vascular changes are strongly linked to increased metabolism of glucose via the sorbitol pathway and are independent of nonenzymatic glycosylation as well as systemic metabolic and hormonal imbalances associated with the diabetic milieu. (J. Clin. Invest. 1990. 85:1167-1172.)
J R Williamson, E Ostrow, D Eades, K Chang, W Allison, C Kilo, W R Sherman
To determine whether the peroxisome is responsible for hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (HETE) oxidation, 12- and 15-HETE oxidation was measured in normal and peroxisomal deficient skin fibroblasts from patients with Zellweger's (cerebrohepatorenal) syndrome. When incubated for 1 h with normal fibroblasts, reverse phase HPLC indicated that 24% of the 12-HETE radioactivity was converted to one major polar metabolite. Chemical derivatization followed by reverse phase HPLC and TLC indicated that this metabolite is 8-hydroxyhexadecatrienoic acid [16:3(8-OH)]. Similarly, 33% of the added 15-HETE was also converted to a more polar metabolite. Neither 12- nor 15-HETE were converted to any metabolites by the peroxisomal deficient (Zellweger) cells. No defect in HETE oxidation was found in other human fibroblast cell lines with diverse metabolic abnormalities. Zellweger fibroblasts accumulated increased amounts of 12-HETE, compared with normal fibroblasts. As in the normal cells, most of the 12-HETE incorporated into Zellweger fibroblasts was present in the choline and ethanolamine phosphoglycerides. Protein synthesis, lysosomal acid lipase activity, and mitochondrial butyrate oxidation were not impaired in the Zellweger fibroblasts. Since the Zellweger cells do not convert 12- and 15-HETE to oxidative metabolites, peroxisomes appear to be the cellular organelle responsible for HETE oxidation.
J A Gordon, P H Figard, A A Spector
Anti-Ro autoantibodies, found in sera of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus, Sjogren's syndrome, and related diseases, target the Ro ribonucleoprotein particles (RNPs). Although the polypeptide and RNA components of the Ro RNPs have been characterized, much less is known about the native structure of these particles. We have now characterized by biochemical techniques intact Ro ribonucleoprotein particles from cultured HeLa cells. These particles segregated in three discrete subpopulations with characteristic physicochemical properties: one containing hY5 RNA (RohY5 particles), one containing only hY4 RNA (RohY4 particles) and one with hY1, hY3, and hY4 RNAs (RohY1-hY4 particles). The RohY5 particles were purified free of contaminating ribonucleoproteins; both the La and the 60-kD Ro polypeptides were stable components of this portion of the Ro RNPs. The La RNPs co-purified with the RohY4 particles and contaminated the RohY1-hY4 RNPs. The stable association between the La and the 60-kD Ro polypeptides provides a potential macromolecular target for the linked set of anti-Ro and anti-La antibodies, and suggests a possible functional association of these polypeptides.
G Boire, J Craft
We studied the effect of the orientation of the 7-hydroxyl group in taurocholate (7 alpha) and tauroursocholate (7 beta) on the feedback regulation of bile-acid synthesis and its rate-controlling enzyme, cholesterol 7 alpha-hydroxylase, in bile-fistula rats. To ensure a constant supply of cholesterol and to label newly synthesized bile acids, RS[2-14C]mevalonolactone was infused intraduodenally at 154 mumol/h before and during bile-acid infusion. Mevalonolactone inhibited hydroxymethyl-glutaryl CoA reductase activity 90% but did not increase bile-acid synthesis and cholesterol 7 alpha-hydroxylase activity. When sodium taurocholate was infused at the rate of 27 mumol/100 g rat per h (equivalent to the hourly hepatic bile-acid flux), bile-acid synthesis decreased 82% and cholesterol 7 alpha-hydroxylase activity declined 78%. This inhibitory effect was observed in the absence of hepatic damage. In contrast, sodium tauroursocholate infused at the same rate did not decrease bile-acid synthesis nor cholesterol 7 alpha-hydroxylase activity. Hepatic cholesterol content rose 36% with sodium taurocholate but did not change during sodium tauroursocholate administration. These results demonstrate that the feedback inhibition of bile-acid synthesis is mediated through the regulation of cholesterol 7 alpha-hydroxylase. In these experiments, taurocholate was a far more potent inhibitor than its 7 beta-hydroxy epimer, tauroursocholate.
S Shefer, L Nguyen, G Salen, A K Batta, D Brooker, F G Zaki, I Rani, G S Tint
The functional heterogeneity of uridine diphosphate-glucuronosyltransferase (UDPGT) and its deficiency in human liver were investigated. The monoclonal antibody (MAb) WP1, which inhibits bilirubin and phenol-glucuronidating activity, was used to immunopurify UDPGTs from human liver. Purified UDPGTs were injected into mice to obtain new MAbs. Immunoblotting of microsomes with MAb HEB7 revealed at least three polypeptides in liver (56, 54, and 53 kD) and one in kidney (54 kD). In liver microsomes from four patients (A, B, C, and D) with Crigler-Najjar syndrome type I (CN type I), UDPGT activity towards bilirubin was undetectable (A, B, C, and D) and activity towards phenolic compounds and 5-hydroxytryptamine either reduced (A and B) or normal (C and D). UDPGT activity toward steroids was normal. Immunoblot studies revealed that the monoclonal antibody WP1 recognized two polypeptides (56 and 54 kD) in liver microsomes from patient A and none in patient B. With HEB7 no immunoreactive polypeptides were seen in these two patients. Patient C showed a normal banding pattern and in patient D only the 53-kD band showed decreased intensity. These findings suggest considerable heterogeneity with regard to the expression of UDPGT isoenzymes among CN type I patients.
H H van Es, B G Goldhoorn, M Paul-Abrahamse, R P Elferink, P L Jansen
Cardiac hypertrophy produced in vivo by pressure overload is characterized by selective up-regulation of the fetal/neonatal beta-cardiac myosin heavy chain (MHC) isogene. However, a molecular signal for beta-MHC isogene induction has not been identified. We examined cardiac MHC isogene expression in a cell culture model for hypertrophy. alpha-MHC and beta-MHC iso-protein and iso-mRNA levels in cultured cardiac myocytes were quantified during hypertrophy stimulated by the alpha 1-adrenergic agonist, norepinephrine (NE). beta-MHC iso-protein content was increased 3.2-fold vs. control (P less than 0.001), whereas alpha-MHC isoprotein content was not changed significantly (1.4-fold vs. control, P = NS). MHC iso-mRNA levels were quantified by nuclease S1 analysis, using a single oligonucleotide probe. NE increased beta-MHC iso-mRNA content by 3.9-fold vs. control (P less than 0.001), but there was no change in alpha-MHC iso-mRNA (1.1-fold vs. control, P = NS). The NE-stimulated increase in beta-MHC iso-mRNA preceded in time the increase in beta-MHC isoprotein accumulation. The EC50 for NE induction of beta-MHC was 40 nM, and pharmacologic experiments indicated alpha 1-adrenergic receptor specificity. alpha-MHC isogene expression was predominant in control myocytes (68% alpha-isoprotein and 60% alpha-iso-mRNA). In contrast, beta-MHC expression was equal to alpha-MHC or predominant after treatment with NE (51% beta-isoprotein and 69% beta-iso-mRNA). Thus, alpha 1-adrenergic receptor stimulation increases the cellular contents of beta-MHC iso-mRNA and beta-MHC isoprotein during hypertrophy of cultured neonatal rat cardiac myocytes, but does not change the levels of alpha-MHC iso-mRNA or isoprotein. The effect on beta-MHC is mediated primarily at the level of mRNA steady-state level (pretranslational). Activation of the alpha 1-adrenergic receptor is the first identified molecular signal for increased beta-MHC isogene expression in a model of cardiac hypertrophy.
L E Waspe, C P Ordahl, P C Simpson
C1- inhibitor (C1(-)-Inh) catabolism in plasma of patients with hereditary angioneurotic edema (HANE) was assessed by measuring the complexes formed by C1(-)-Inh with its target proteases (C1-s, Factor XIIa, and kallikrein) and a modified (cleaved) inactive form of C1(-)-Inh (iC1(-)-Inh). This study was performed in plasma from 18 healthy subjects and 30 patients with HANE in remission: 20 with low antigen concentration (type I) and 10 (from 5 different kindreds) with dysfunctional protein (type II). Both type-I and type-II patients had increased C1(-)-C1(-)-Inh complexes (P less than 0.0001), which in type I inversely correlated with the levels of C1(-)-Inh (P less than 0.001). iC1(-)-Inh was normal in all type-I patients and in type-II patients from three families with increased C1(-)-Inh antigen, whereas iC1(-)-Inh was higher than 20 times the normal values in patients from the remaining two families with C1(-)-Inh antigen in the normal range. None of the subjects had an increase of either Factor XIIa-C1(-)-Inh or kallikrein-C1(-)-Inh complexes. This study shows that the hypercatabolism of C1(-)-Inh in HANE patients at least in part occurs via the formation of complexes with C1- and that genetically determined differences in catabolism of dysfunctional C1(-)-Inh proteins are present in type-II patients.
M Cugno, J Nuijens, E Hack, A Eerenberg, D Frangi, A Agostoni, M Cicardi
Gastric lipase, pancreatic colipase-dependent lipase, and bile salt-stimulated lipase all have potential roles in digestion of human milk triacylglycerol. To reveal the function of each lipase, an in vitro study was carried out with purified lipases and cofactors, and with human milk as substrate. Conditions were chosen to resemble those of the physiologic environment in the gastrointestinal tract of breast-fed infants. Gastric lipase was unique in its ability to initiate hydrolysis of milk triacylglycerol. Activated bile salt-stimulated lipase could not on its own hydrolyze native milk fat globule triacylglycerol, whereas a limited hydrolysis by gastric lipase triggered hydrolysis by bile salt-stimulated lipase. Gastric lipase and colipase-dependent lipase, in combination, hydrolyzed about two thirds of total ester bonds, with monoacylglycerol and fatty acids being the end products. Addition of bile salt-stimulated lipase resulted in hydrolysis also of monoacylglycerol. When acting together with colipase-dependent lipase, bile salt-stimulated lipase contributed also to digestion of tri- and diacylglycerol. We conclude that digestion of human milk triacylglycerol depends on three lipases with unique, only partly overlapping, functions. Their concerted action results in complete digestion with free glycerol and fatty acids as final products.
S Bernbäck, L Bläckberg, O Hernell
Immediate hypersensitivity is due to the release of mediators from mast cells and basophils after the crosslinking of Fc epsilon RI. The appearance of such receptors was examined during differentiation of human and mouse bone marrow cells cultured in the presence of IL-3. As already reported, mouse bone marrow yield cultures of greater than 95% mast cells by 3 wk, whereas human bone marrow develop into cultures comprising 25% basophils by 3 wk. Here we show that transcripts for Fc epsilon RI subunits and membrane-associated receptors are apparent by 1 wk in both human and murine IL-3-dependent bone marrow cells. These cells contain few, if any, granules. The expression of transcripts and the number of receptor-positive cells continue to increase over 3 wk of culture. In parallel, a progressively larger number of cells become increasingly granulated to finally resemble either basophils or mast cells. Mature peripheral human basophils also contain transcripts for Fc epsilon RI and, therefore, may have the potential to synthesize de novo receptors. The early appearance of Fc epsilon FI during cell differentiation may be important for these cells to respond to IgE-mediated stimuli before granulation. The physiologic role of Fc epsilon RI could be to mediate lymphokine production (IL-3, IL-4, IL-6, and granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor) without inducing cellular degranulation.
H L Thompson, D D Metcalfe, J P Kinet
The effects of homologous plasma HDL and VHDL fractions on established atherosclerotic lesions were studied in cholesterol-fed rabbits. Atherosclerosis was induced by feeding the animals a 0.5% cholesterol-rich diet for 60 d (group 1). Another group of animals were maintained on the same diet for 90 d (group 2). A third group was also fed the same diet for 90 d but received 50 mg HDL-VHDL protein per wk (isolated from normolipemic rabbit plasma) during the last 30 d (group 3). Aortic atherosclerotic involvement at the completion of the study was 34 +/- 4% in group 1, 38.8 +/- 5% in group 2, and 17.8 +/- 4% in group 3 (P less than 0.005). Aortic lipid deposition was also significantly reduced in group 3 compared with group 1 (studied at only 60 d) and group 2. This is the first in vivo, prospective evidence of the antiatherogenic effect of HDL-VHDL against preexisting atherosclerosis. Our results showed that HDL plasma fractions were able to induce regression of established aortic fatty streaks and lipid deposits. Our results suggest that it may be possible not only to inhibit progression but even to reduce established atherosclerotic lesions by HDL administration.
J J Badimon, L Badimon, V Fuster
To date, testing of various cytokines for the stimulation of blood cell production has not demonstrated a consistent effect on peripheral platelet levels. In this report, we provide evidence that human recombinant IL-6 increased platelet production in mice, as measured by both peripheral platelet levels and [75Se]selenomethionine (75SeM) incorporation into newly forming platelets. Peripheral white blood cell counts also were increased, but only to a modest extent, and hematocrit values were unchanged. A dose-response relationship between the amount of IL-6 administered and platelet count, 75SeM incorporation, and white blood cell count was demonstrated. Detectable megakaryocyte and granulocyte-macrophage colony-forming cells in mice that had received IL-6 also were increased in both bone marrow and spleen. These results demonstrate the ability of a purified, recombinant protein to stimulate platelet production in vivo.
R J Hill, M K Warren, J Levin
We have investigated S. aureus adherence to human endothelial cells utilizing an in vitro model. Staphylococcus binding to confluent endothelial cell monolayers was saturable in both dose and time response studies suggesting that the binding interaction was specific. We have developed a technique, based on the pH dependent affinity of iminobiotin for streptavidin, for the isolation of an endothelial cell membrane component that binds S. aureus, in vitro. A 50-kD membrane component was isolated and purified using this approach. This component was trypsin sensitive, periodate insensitive, and did not label with [3H]glucosamine. [35S]Methionine and [125I]iodine labeling confirmed that the protein was synthesized by and expressed on the endothelial cell surface. Functional binding studies demonstrated that staphylococci, but not endothelial cells, bound to the protein when immobilized on microtiter wells. Preincubation of staphylococci with the purified protein significantly (P less than 0.001) reduced staphylococcal binding to cultured endothelial cells. The capacity of S. aureus to colonize and invade endovascular surfaces may in part be a consequence of staphylococcal interaction with this endothelial cell membrane protein.
D C Tompkins, V B Hatcher, D Patel, G A Orr, L L Higgins, F D Lowy
The hypothesis that monohydroxy bile acids exert their cholestatic and hepatotoxic effects via a sustained elevation of cytosolic [Ca2+] was tested in the isolated perfused rat liver. Infusion of the specific inhibitor of microsomal Ca2+ sequestration, 2,5-di(tert-butyl)-1,4-benzohydroquinone (tBuBHQ) (25 microM for 10 min) produced efflux of Ca2+ from the liver and a sustained (20 min) increase in cytosolic [Ca2+] as indicated by the threefold increase in hepatic glucose output. Release of the endoplasmic reticular Ca2+ pool was demonstrated by the complete abolition of vasopressin- and phenylephrine-induced Ca2+ exchange between the liver and perfusate. Despite the profound perturbation of intracellular Ca2+ homeostasis produced by tBuBHQ, there was no decrease in bile flow and no evidence of hepatocellular injury (for 60 min), as indicated by lactate dehydrogenase release. In contrast, lithocholic acid (25 microM for 10 or 30 min) or taurolithocholic acid (5 microM for 10 or 30 min) produced an 80-90% inhibition of bile flow and a progressive increase in perfusate lactate dehydrogenase activity. During and after bile acid infusion, there was no change in Ca2+ fluxes between liver and perfusate, no stimulation of glucose output from the liver, and hormone-stimulated Ca2+ responses were preserved. It is concluded that the mechanisms for bile acid-induced cholestasis and hepatotoxicity in the intact liver are not attributable to changes in intracellular Ca2+ homeostasis, and especially not to prolonged release or depletion of Ca2+ sequestered in the endoplasmic reticulum.
G C Farrell, S K Duddy, G E Kass, J Llopis, A Gahm, S Orrenius
The effect of minimally modified LDL (MM-LDL) on the ability of large vessel endothelial cells (EC) to interact with monocytes and neutrophils was examined. These LDL preparations, obtained by storage or by mild iron oxidation, were indistinguishable from native LDL to the LDL receptor and were not recognized by the scavenger receptor. Treatment of EC with as little as 0.12 micrograms/ml MM-LDL caused a significant increase in the production of chemotactic factor for monocytes (sevenfold) and increased monocyte binding (three- to fivefold). Monocyte binding was maximal after 4 h of EC exposure to MM-LDL, persisted for 48 h, and was inhibited by cycloheximide. In contrast, neutrophil binding was not increased after 1-24 h of exposure. Activity in the MM-LDL preparations was found primarily in the polar lipid fraction. MM-LDL was toxic for EC from one rabbit but not toxic for the cells from another rabbit or any human umbilical vein EC. The resistant cells became sensitive when incubated with lipoprotein in the presence of cycloheximide, whereas the sensitive strain became resistant when preincubated with sublethal concentrations of MM-LDL. We conclude that exposure of EC to sublethal levels of MM-LDL enhances monocyte endothelial interactions and induces resistance to the toxic effects of MM-LDL.
J A Berliner, M C Territo, A Sevanian, S Ramin, J A Kim, B Bamshad, M Esterson, A M Fogelman
Fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry were used to analyze bile acids in the body fluids of an infant (L.C.) whose liver contained no immunoreactive peroxisomal 3-oxoacyl-CoA thiolase. The profiles were compared with those of six patients with undetectable peroxisomes (Zellweger syndrome) and two siblings (N.B. and I.B.) whose defect of peroxisomal beta-oxidation could not be localized by morphological studies of peroxisomes or by immunoblotting of peroxisomal beta-oxidation proteins. 3 alpha, 7 alpha, 12 alpha-Trihydroxy-5 beta-cholestan-26-oic acid (THCA) was present in bile and plasma of all patients. However, bile from L.C., N.B. and I.B. contained unconjugated varanic acid (3 alpha, 7 alpha, 12 alpha, 24-tetrahydroxy-5 beta-cholestan-26-oic acid) as the major C27 bile acid, whereas bile from Zellweger patients contained only small amounts of varanic acid. In the bile from L.C. two isomers of varanic acid were present; in the bile from N.B. and I.B. a single isomer predominated. L.C., N.B., and I.B. all produced bile containing small amounts of (24E)-3 alpha, 7 alpha, 12 alpha-trihydroxy-5 beta-cholest-24-en-26-oic acid [( 24E]-delta 24-THCA), its [24Z]- isomer, 3 alpha, 7 alpha, 12 alpha-trihydroxy-5 beta-cholest-23-en-26-oic acid and 3 alpha, 7 alpha, 12 alpha-trihydroxy-27-nor-5 beta-cholestan-24-one. The results provide evidence for peroxisomal pathways for cholic acid synthesis in man via THCA, delta 24-THCA and varanic acid and show that bile acid analyses can be used to diagnose peroxisomal thiolase deficiency.
P T Clayton, E Patel, A M Lawson, R A Carruthers, J Collins
To investigate the relationship between AP, cyclic GMP, and sodium excretion, we studied the effect of a cyclic GMP phosphodiesterase inhibitor (M + B22948) on the natriuretic response to (a) an infusion of AP (103-126) and (b) acute volume expansion in rats. The phosphodiesterase inhibitor markedly potentiated the effect of low-dose AP infusions on urinary sodium and cyclic GMP excretion without potentiating the fall in blood pressure. Acute volume expansion (1% body wt) led to small but significant (P less than 0.01) rises in plasma AP and urinary cyclic GMP levels. Pretreatment with the phosphodiesterase inhibitor enhanced the natriuretic and cyclic GMP response to volume loading, an effect that was attenuated by administration of a monoclonal antibody directed against AP. These data indicate that cyclic GMP mediates the natriuretic activity of AP and AP and cyclic GMP play active roles in the natriuresis of acute volume expansion. Moreover, pharmacological manipulation of cyclic GMP levels may prove a useful therapeutic strategy for facilitating the natriuretic but not the hypotensive effects of AP.
M R Wilkins, S L Settle, P Needleman
Although Paget's disease is the most flagrant example of a primary osteoclast disorder, little is known of osteoclast biology in this disease. In this report we have studied the formation of cells with the osteoclast phenotype in long-term cultures of marrow mononuclear cells derived from patients with Paget's disease, and compared these with similar cells formed in long-term marrow cultures from normal individuals, and with osteoclasts present in pagetic bone. Osteoclasts formed in pagetic marrow cultures resembled osteoclasts present in pagetic bone, but were distinctly different from osteoclasts formed in normal marrow cultures. Osteoclast formation was 10-20-fold greater in pagetic marrow cultures than in normal cultures. The multinucleated cells formed in cultures of pagetic marrow were much larger in size, were hyperresponsive to 1,25(OH)2 vitamin D, had more nuclei per cell, had increased levels of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase activity and had ultrastructural features which were not seen in multinucleated cells formed from normal marrow mononuclear cells. These pagetic marrow-derived multinucleated cells formed large resorption lacunae on calcified matrices and cross-reacted with monoclonal antibodies which preferentially bind to osteoclasts. The multinucleated cells formed from marrow obtained from uninvolved sites in Paget's patients also displayed these abnormal features.
A Kukita, C Chenu, L M McManus, G R Mundy, G D Roodman
As a model system to explore the functional consequences of structural variants of human Fc gamma receptors (Fc gamma R), we have investigated Fc gamma R-mediated phagocytosis in relation to the NA1-NA2 polymorphism of Fc gamma RIII (CD16) on neutrophils (Fc gamma RIIIPMN). The neutrophil-specific NA antigen system is a biallelic polymorphism with codominant expression demonstrating a gene dose effect with the anti-NA1 MAb CLB-gran 11 in a large donor population. To explore the impact of this allelic variation of Fc gamma RIIIPMN on phagocytosis, we used two Fc gamma RIII-dependent probes, IgG-sensitized erythrocytes (EA) and concanavalin. A-treated erythrocytes (E-ConA). Comparison of Fc gamma R-mediated phagocytosis by PMN from NA1 subjects and from NA2 subjects showed lower levels of phagocytosis of both probes by the NA2 individuals. The difference was most pronounced with lightly opsonized EA: at the lowest level of sensitization the phagocytic index was 72% lower for NA2 donors, whereas at the highest level of sensitization it was 21% lower (P less than 0.003). Blockade of Fc gamma RII with MAb IV.3 Fab amplified by threefold the difference between NA1 and NA2 donors. NA1 and NA2 individuals had identical phagocytic capacities for the non-Fc gamma RIII probes, serum-treated and heat-treated zymosan. These individuals did not show differential quantitative cell surface expression of Fc gamma RIIIPMN measured by a panel of anti-CD16 MAb (3G8, CLB FcR-gran 1, VEP13, BW209/2) and by Scatchard analysis of 125I-IgG dimer binding. The difference in Fc gamma R-mediated phagocytosis was not explicable on the basis of differential collaboration of Fc gamma RIIIPMN alleles with Fc gamma RII, since (a) the difference in phagocytic capacity between NA1 and NA2 individuals was readily apparent with the E-ConA probe (which is independent of Fc gamma RII) and (b) the difference in phagocytosis of EA was magnified by Fc gamma RII blockade. The demonstration that allelic polymorphisms in Fc gamma R can have significant consequences for physiological functions implies that within the structural complexity of human Fc gamma Rs, including both allelic forms and cell type-specific isoforms, there will be differences in quantitative, and perhaps qualitative, function with potential importance for disease processes.
J E Salmon, J C Edberg, R P Kimberly
The hormonal form of vitamin D, 1,25(OH)2 vitamin D3 [1,25(OH)2D3], regulates colonic calcium absorption and colonocyte proliferation and differentiation. In this study, we have examined the effect of 1,25(OH)2D3 on membrane phosphoinositide turnover, protein kinase C activation, and regulation of intracellular calcium concentration [( Ca+2]i) in isolated rat colonic epithelium. In a concentration-dependent manner, 1,25(OH)2D3 stimulated breakdown of membrane phosphoinositides within 15 s, generating diacylglycerol and inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate (IP3). 1,25(OH)2D3 rapidly activated colonic protein kinase C, with maximal translocation of activity from the cytosol to the membrane occurring within 1 min of exposure to the secosteroid. Studies performed in isolated colonocytes with the fluorescent dye fura-2 demonstrated that 10(-8) M 1,25(OH)2D3 caused a rapid rise in [Ca+2]i which then transiently decreased before rising to a new plateau value. When these experiments were performed in a calcium-free buffer, an increase in [Ca+2]i was observed, but both the transient and secondary rise were diminished in magnitude, suggesting that 1,25(OH)2D3 may stimulate both release of intracellular calcium stores and calcium influx. 1,25(OH)2D3 stimulated [3H]thymidine uptake in rat colonocytes, 4 h after an in vivo injection. These studies indicate that 1,25(OH)2D3 exerts a rapid influence on membrane phosphoinositide metabolism which may mediate certain of the secosteroid's effects on colonocyte calcium transport and proliferation.
R K Wali, C L Baum, M D Sitrin, T A Brasitus
Mycobacterium leprae, an obligate intracellular pathogen, invades and multiplies within host mononuclear phagocytes. To understand M. leprae invasion better, we have investigated the role of phagocyte receptors and bacterium-bound ligands in phagocytosis of M. leprae by human monocytes. Complement receptors CR1 and CR3 mediate adherence and phagocytosis of M. leprae in nonimmune serum. Two MAbs used in combination against CR3 inhibit adherence by up to 90 +/- 3%. Two MAbs used in combination against CR1 and CR3 inhibit adherence by up to 70 +/- 1%. Single MAbs against CR1 or CR3 consistently inhibit adherence by 38-55%. In contrast, MAbs against other monocyte surface molecules, alone or in combination, do not significantly influence adherence. As studied by electron microscopy, 100% of monocyte-associated M. leprae are ingested in the presence of nonimmune serum and MAbs against CR3 markedly inhibit ingestion. Complement receptors CR1 and CR3 also mediate the low level of adherence observed in the absence of serum. Serum complement component C3 serves as a ligand on the bacterial surface in monocyte phagocytosis of M. leprae. Adherence of M. leprae to monocytes is enhanced by preopsonization (3.1 +/- 1.1-fold increase) and is markedly reduced in less than 0.5% fresh serum (66 +/- 7% reduction) or heat-inactivated serum (68 +/- 3% reduction). Adherence is also markedly reduced in C3- or factor B-depleted serum; repletion with purified C3 or factor B increases adherence 4.3 +/- 0.8- and 2.6 +/- 0.2-fold, respectively. C3 is fixed to M. leprae by the alternative pathway of complement activation, as determined by a whole bacterial cell ELISA. By electron microscopy, monocytes ingest M. leprae by conventional phagocytosis. This study demonstrates that (a) human monocyte complement receptors CR1 and CR3 mediate phagocytosis of M. leprae; (b) complement component C3 on the bacterial surface serves as a ligand for complement receptors; (c) complement component C3 binds to M. leprae by the alternative pathway of complement activation; and (d) monocytes phagocytize M. leprae by conventional phagocytosis.
L S Schlesinger, M A Horwitz
Family and population studies indicate that predisposition to insulin-dependent (type I) diabetes mellitus (IDDM) is polygenic. It has been shown that the absence of the aspartic acid in position 57 (Asp57) of the DQ beta chain is positively correlated to IDDM. However, Asp57-negative haplotypes do not always confer susceptibility and conversely, some Asp57-positive haplotypes seem to be disease associated. It has been suggested that other HLA class II sequences, probably belonging to the HLA DQA1 gene, confer susceptibility to IDDM. This report, based on extensive oligonucleotide dot blot hybridization of PCR-amplified DQA1 and DQB1 genes, reinforces the importance of the Asp57-negative DQ beta chain, but also introduces the possibility that a DQ alpha chain bearing an arginine in position 52 (Arg52) confers susceptibility to IDDM. A molecular model of susceptibility to IDDM is proposed. This model strongly suggests that the disease susceptibility correlates quantitatively with the expression at the cell surface of a heterodimer, composed of a DQ alpha-chain bearing an Arg52 and a DQ beta chain lacking an Asp57. In view of the respective positions of the two residues and their charge, we might anticipate that both residues DQ beta Asp57 and DQ alpha Arg52 are critical for modulation of susceptibility, presumably via viral-antigenic peptide and/or autoantigen presentation.
I Khalil, L d'Auriol, M Gobet, L Morin, V Lepage, I Deschamps, M S Park, L Degos, F Galibert, J Hors
Paracrine regulation is implicit in the biosynthesis and secretion of milk in the breast. An important determinant for this regulation in vivo is proximate cellular location as exemplified by stromal and epithelial cells in breast tissue. Cultured human breast epithelial cells exhibited low constitutive expression of mRNA for endothelin which was enhanced 20-fold after prolactin stimulation. Human breast stromal cells did not express measurable levels of endothelin mRNA under similar conditions. In a similar differential manner, the stimulated release of immunoreactive endothelin into medium overlay was observed only for breast epithelial and not stromal cells. Specific cell-surface receptors for endothelin and biochemical responsiveness to the peptide were observed only in the stromal cells.
P A Baley, T J Resink, U Eppenberger, A W Hahn
Measles virus (MV) encodes the fusion protein (F) that mediates cell fusion and intercellular spread of the virus, and is homologous to the carboxy terminus of the neuropeptide substance P (SP). In addition, the oligopeptide Z-D-Phe-L-Phe-Gly, also homologous to F and SP, inhibits MV fusion with target cells. These observations raise the question of whether MV uses the SP receptor (SPR) during a specific phase of its infectious cycle. In this report, we examine the structural and functional consequences of this interaction and show, using cross-linking studies, that MV and SP specifically bind to a 52-58-kD protein, previously reported to comprise the SPR on human IM-9 lymphoblasts. Moreover, bound MV and SP are shown to reciprocally displace each other from these cells. In addition, we demonstrate that anti-SP antisera inhibits the cell-to-cell spread of MV, and that SP blocks MV fusion with target cells. These results indicate the presence of MV-SPR interactions during viral fusion, and suggest possible novel mechanisms for viral entry into cells.
G Harrowe, M Mitsuhashi, D G Payan
The spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) exhibits alterations in the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system which are similar to those that characterize patients with "nonmodulating" hypertension, a common and highly heritable form of essential hypertension. Accordingly, we determined whether the inheritance of a DNA restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) marking the renin gene of the SHR was associated with greater blood pressure than inheritance of a RFLP marking the renin gene of a normotensive control rat. In an F2 population derived from inbred SHR and inbred normotensive Lewis rats, we found the blood pressure in rats that inherited a single SHR renin allele to be significantly greater than that in rats that inherited only the Lewis renin allele. To the extent that the SHR provides a suitable model of "nonmodulating" hypertension, these findings raise the possibility that a structural alteration in the renin gene, or a closely linked gene, may be a pathogenetic determinant of increased blood pressure in one of the most common forms of essential hypertension in humans.
T W Kurtz, L Simonet, P M Kabra, S Wolfe, L Chan, B L Hjelle
C.B-17 scid mice were reconstituted by intraperitoneal injection of human tonsil cells or PBL from EBV-seronegative donors. Subsequent injection of EBV resulted in the rapid development (within 19-33 d) of aggressive, fatal, lymphoproliferative disorders of human B cell origin. Autopsies revealed solid tumors in the abdomen, and occasionally in the liver, thymus, or spleen. Histopathologic analysis showed that the tumors were high-grade immunoblastic lymphomas and FACS analyses of tumor cells indicated that they were of human B-lymphoid origin. The tumor cells grew in vitro and induced new tumors on injection into severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice. Karyotypic analysis and Southern blots for c-myc or bcl-2 rearrangements revealed no chromosomal abnormalities and translocations. Southern blot analysis also showed that the cells possessed EBV DNA sequences. Although these tumors undoubtedly reflect infection of the transferred B cells with EBV in vivo, intraperitoneal transfer of short-term lymphoid cell lines transformed in vitro with EBV resulted in ascites production without evidence of tumor formation.
M J Cannon, P Pisa, R I Fox, N R Cooper