J L Madara
A family has been described in which type III hyperlipoproteinemia is associated with apo E phenotype E3/3 (Havel, R. J., L. Kotite, J. P. Kane, P. Tun, and T. Bersot. 1983. J. Clin. Invest. 72:379-387). In the current study, the structure of apo E from the propositus of this family was determined using both protein and DNA analyses. The propositus is heterozygous for two different apo E alleles, one coding for normal apo E3 and one for a previously undescribed variant apo E3 in which arginine replaces cysteine at residue 112 and cysteine replaces arginine at residue 142. Apo E gene analysis of nine other family members spanning four generations indicated that only those five members having type III hyperlipoproteinemia possess the variant apo E3. Like the propositus, all five are heterozygous for this variant, suggesting that the disorder in this family is transmitted in a dominant fashion. The variant apo E3 was defective in its ability to bind to lipoprotein receptors, and this functional defect probably contributes to the expression of type III hyperlipoproteinemia in this family.
S C Rall Jr, Y M Newhouse, H R Clarke, K H Weisgraber, B J McCarthy, R W Mahley, T P Bersot
To investigate the regulation of expression of cardiac Ca2+ + Mg2+-dependent ATPase (Ca2+-ATPase) in sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR), we isolated cDNA (pHA6) encoding a Ca2+-ATPase of rat cardiac SR. The clone consisted of 2,311 mRNA-derived nucleotides, which covered half the coding region and the entire 3'-untranslated regions. The nucleotides and deduced amino acid sequences of pHA6 showed striking homology, 89 and 98%, respectively, to those of rabbit Ca2+-ATPase of the slow-twitch form. Northern blot analyses revealed that the mRNA levels of Ca2+-ATPase were decreased by pressure overload and became 32% of sham in 1 mo. During the developmental stage the mRNA levels were very low in the fetal period and steeply increased around birth. These changes in mRNA levels were correlated with the corresponding protein levels. These results suggest that the expression of cardiac Ca2+-ATPase in SR is regulated by pressure overload and the developmental stage, at least in part, at the pretranslational level.
I Komuro, M Kurabayashi, Y Shibazaki, F Takaku, Y Yazaki
A nucleic acid amplification procedure, the polymerase chain reaction (PCR), has been used to establish a diagnostic assay for the identification of cytomegalovirus (CMV) immediate-early sequences in clinical specimens. Preliminary testing against virus-infected cell cultures indicated that the PCR assay was highly CMV-specific, recognizing both wild-type and laboratory strains of CMV. There was no cross-reactivity with human DNA or with DNA from other herpes viruses. The sensitivity of the assay, using cloned CMV AD169 Eco RI fragment-J as template, was 1 viral genome per 40,000 cells. In a prospective study of CMV infection in bone marrow transplant recipients, the PCR assay correctly identified four patients with confirmed CMV infection. In three of these patients who were followed longitudinally, correlation of DNA reactivity with CMV culture and CMV antibody status over time indicated that DNA was the most sensitive marker for the diagnosis of CMV infection.
S A Cassol, M C Poon, R Pal, M J Naylor, J Culver-James, T J Bowen, J A Russell, S A Krawetz, R T Pon, D I Hoar
Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) administration produces an increase in plasma triglycerides that may be due to inhibition of adipose lipoprotein lipase activity and/or a stimulation of hepatic lipogenesis. We now report that TNF administration to insulinopenic diabetic rats increases serum triglycerides (2 h, 2.4-fold; 17 h, 4.3-fold). Adipose tissue lipoprotein lipase activity was markedly decreased in diabetic animals compared with controls and was not further inhibited by TNF. Incorporation of tritiated water into fatty acids in the liver was increased 45% 1-2 h after TNF and 87% at 16-17 h. These results indicate that the TNF-induced increase in circulating lipid levels can occur in the absence of a TNF-induced inhibition of adipose tissue lipoprotein lipase activity. Moreover, the clearance from the circulation of triglycerides in chylomicrons was similar in control and TNF-treated animals; these results provide further evidence that the removal of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins is not altered in the TNF-treated animals. Our data suggest that the TNF-induced stimulation of hepatic lipid synthesis may play an important role in the increase in serum triglycerides. In addition, TNF administration to diabetic animals leads to an elevation in serum glucose levels (73% at 17 h) without a change in serum insulin levels. Thus, TNF stimulation of hepatic lipogenesis is independent of changes in insulin.
K R Feingold, M Soued, I Staprans, L A Gavin, M E Donahue, B J Huang, A H Moser, R Gulli, C Grunfeld
To examine the course of physiologic interactions between extravasating neutrophils and the subendothelial basement membrane, a model of the venular vessel wall was constructed by culturing human umbilical vein endothelial cells on a collagen matrix. After 21 d in culture, the endothelial cell monolayer displayed in vivo-like intercellular borders and junctions, deposited a single-layered, continuous basement membrane that was impenetrable to colloidal particles, and supported neutrophil extravasation in a physiologic manner. Using this model, we demonstrate that neutrophil transmigration in a plasma milieu was associated with a significant disruption of the retentive properties of the basement membrane in the absence of discernable morphologic changes. The loss of basement membrane integrity associated with neutrophil diapedesis was not dependent on neutrophil elastase or cathepsin G and was resistant to inhibitors directed against neutrophil collagenase, gelatinase, and heparanase. Despite the fact that this loss in matrix integrity could not be prevented, basement membrane defects were only transiently expressed before they were repaired by the overlying endothelium via a mechanism that required active protein and RNA synthesis. These data indicate that neutrophil extravasation and reversible basement membrane disruption are coordinated events that occur as a consequence of vessel wall transmigration.
A R Huber, S J Weiss
Prior studies, both in vitro and in vivo, have suggested that cutaneous porphyrin photosensitization requires the generation of superoxide anion (.O2-) and various other reactive oxygen metabolites. No unifying concept has emerged, however, that unequivocally demonstrates the source of generation of these species. Since xanthine oxidase is known to generate .O2- in reperfused ischemic tissue and in certain inflammatory disorders, we attempted to assess its role in porphyrin photosensitization. C3H mice were rendered photosensitive by the intraperitoneal administration of dihematoporphyrin ether (DHE) (5 mg/kg) followed by irradiation with visible light. Murine ear swelling was used as a marker of the acute photosensitization response and involvement of oxygen radicals was evaluated using electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy. The administration of allopurinol, a potent inhibitor of xanthine oxidase, afforded 90% protection against DHE-mediated acute photosensitivity in vivo. Furthermore, xanthine oxidase activity was twofold higher in the skin of photosensitized mice than in unirradiated animals. ESR spectra of 5,5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline N-oxide-trapped radicals from the skin of photosensitized mice verified the presence of .O2- and .OH, while neither of these species was detected in the skin of control mice or mice receiving allopurinol. The administration of a soybean trypsin inhibitor or verapamil before irradiation also partially blocked the photosensitivity response, suggesting that calcium-dependent proteases play a role in the activation of xanthine oxidase in this photodynamic process. These data provide in vivo evidence for the involvement of .O2- in DHE-mediated cutaneous photosensitization and suggest that these radicals are generated through the activation of the xanthine oxidase pathway. The administration of allopurinol and calcium channel blockers may thus offer new approaches for the treatment of cutaneous porphyrin photosensitization.
M Athar, C A Elmets, D R Bickers, H Mukhtar
alpha 1-Antitrypsin (alpha 1AT) deficiency is a hereditary disorder associated with reduced serum alpha 1AT levels and the development of pulmonary emphysema. An alpha 1AT gene is defined as "Null" when no alpha 1AT in serum is attributed to that alpha 1AT gene. Although all alpha 1AT Null genes have identical phenotypic consequences (i.e. no detectable alpha 1AT in the serum), different genotypic mechanisms can cause the Null state. This study defines the molecular basis for the alpha 1AT gene Nullmattawa, identified and cloned from genomic DNA of an individual with the Null-Null phenotype and emphysema resulting from the heterozygous inheritance of the Nullmattawa and Nullbellingham genes. Sequencing of exons Ic-V and all exon-intron junctions of the Nullmattawa gene demonstrated it was identical to the common normal M1(Val213) alpha 1AT gene except for the insertion of a single nucleotide within the coding region of exon V, causing a 3' frameshift with generation of a premature stop signal. Family analysis using oligonucleotide probes specific for the Nullmattawa sequence demonstrated the gene was inherited in an autosomal fashion. Examination of blood monocytes demonstrated that a normal-sized, 1.8-kb alpha 1AT mRNA transcript is associated with the Nullmattawa gene and in vitro translation of mRNA with the Nullmattawa mutation showed it translated at a normal rate but produced a truncated alpha 1AT protein. Additionally, retroviral transfer of the alpha 1AT Nullmattawa cDNA to murine fibroblasts demonstrated no detectable intracellular or secreted alpha 1AT, despite the presence of alpha 1AT Nullmattawa mRNA transcripts. These findings are consistent with the concept that the molecular pathophysiology of Nullmattawa is likely manifested at a posttranslational level. The identification of the Nullmattawa gene supports the concept that Null alpha 1AT alleles represent a heterogenous group in which very different mechanisms cause the identical phenotypic state.
D Curiel, M Brantly, E Curiel, L Stier, R G Crystal
We have examined the effects of menadione on porcine aortic endothelial cell prostaglandin synthesis. Addition of 1-20 microM menadione caused a dose- and time-dependent inhibition of stimulated prostaglandin synthesis with an IC50 of 5 microM at 15 min. Concentrations greater than 100 microM menadione were necessary to increase 51Cr release from prelabeled cells. Recovery of enzyme inactivated by menadione required a 6-h incubation in 1% serum. In a microsomal preparation, menadione was shown to have no direct effect on conversion of arachidonic acid to prostaglandins. In intact cells menadione caused only a 40% inhibition of the conversion of PGH2 to prostacyclin. Enzymes involved in the incorporation and the release of arachidonic acid were not affected by menadione (20 microM, 15 min). Menadione undergoes oxidation/reduction reactions in intact cells leading to partial reduction of oxygen-forming, reactive oxygen species. In our cells menadione was found to increase KCN-resistant oxygen consumption. Further, an increased accumulation of H2O2 was observed with a time course consistent with menadione-induced inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis. We conclude that menadione at sublethal doses caused inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis. The mechanism involves inactivation of PGH2 synthase by a reactive species resulting from metabolism of menadione by endothelial cells.
A Barchowsky, K Tabrizi, R S Kent, A R Whorton
Proliferation of resident glomerular cells and the accumulation of mesangial matrix are histologic abnormalities which are observed in the course of many progressive glomerular diseases. We explored the potential regulatory effects of transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) on these processes. We found that cultured mouse glomerular endothelial, mesangial, and epithelial cells as well as isolated intact rat glomeruli possess high-affinity receptors for TGF-beta. We also found that, although TGF-beta consistently inhibited the proliferation of glomerular endothelial and epithelial cells, it acted as a bifunctional regulator of mesangial cell proliferation. TGF-beta significantly increased the production of collagen and fibronectin by glomerular mesangial cells whereas only fibronectin production was augmented in glomerular epithelial cells. The presence of TGF-beta receptors on intact glomeruli and on each glomerular cell type and the demonstrated responsiveness of these cells to TGF-beta combine to suggest that potentially important interactions may occur between resident glomerular cells and TGF-beta in vivo.
K MacKay, L J Striker, J W Stauffer, T Doi, L Y Agodoa, G E Striker
In order to determine whether differences in body fat distribution result in specific abnormalities of free fatty acid (FFA) metabolism, palmitate turnover, a measure of systemic adipose tissue lipolysis, was measured in 10 women with upper body obesity, 9 women with lower body obesity, and 8 nonobese women under overnight postabsorptive (basal), epinephrine stimulated and insulin suppressed conditions. Results: Upper body obese women had greater (P less than 0.005) basal palmitate turnover than lower body obese or nonobese women (2.8 +/- 0.2 vs. 2.1 +/- 0.2 vs. 1.8 +/- 0.2 mumol.kg lean body mass (LBM)-1.min-1, respectively), but a reduced (P less than 0.05) net lipolytic response to epinephrine (59 +/- 7 vs. 79 +/- 5 vs. 81 +/- 7 mumol palmitate/kg LBM, respectively). Both types of obesity were associated with impaired suppression of FFA turnover in response to euglycemic hyperinsulinemia compared to nonobese women (P less than 0.005). These specific differences in FFA metabolism may reflect adipocyte heterogeneity, which may in turn affect the metabolic aberrations associated with different types of obesity. These findings emphasize the need to characterize obese subjects before studies.
M D Jensen, M W Haymond, R A Rizza, P E Cryer, J M Miles
Proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells (SMC) contributes to formation of the complicated human atherosclerotic plaque. These lesions also contain macrophages, known to secrete SMC mitogens, and T lymphocytes. Many of the SMC in the lesions express class II major histocompatibility antigens, an indication that activated T cells secrete immune IFN-gamma locally in the plaque. We therefore studied the effect of IFN-gamma on the proliferation of cultured SMC derived from adult human blood vessels. IFN-gamma (1,000 U/ml) reduced [3H]thymidine (TdR) incorporation into DNA by SMC stimulated with the well-defined mitogens IL 1 (from 15.3 +/- 0.7 to 6.2 +/- 0.7 dpm X 10(-3)/24 h) or platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) (from 18.5 +/- 1.0 to 7.3 +/- 0.7 dpm X 10(-3)/24 h). Kinetic and nuclear labeling studies indicated that this effect of IFN-gamma was not due to altered thymidine transport or specific radioactivity of TdR in the cell. In longer term experiments (4-16 d) IFN-gamma prevented net DNA accumulation by SMC cultures stimulated by PDGF. IFN-gamma also delayed (from 30 to 60 min) the time to peak level of c-fos RNA in IL 1-treated SMC. It is unlikely that cytotoxicity caused these effects of IFN-gamma, as the inhibition of growth was reversible and we detected no cell death in SMC cultures exposed to this cytokine. Activation of 2'-5' oligoadenylate synthetase gene expression may mediate certain antiproliferative and antiviral effects of interferons. Both IFN-gamma and type I IFNs (IFN-alpha or IFN-beta) induced 2'-5' oligoadenylate synthetase mRNA and enzyme activity in SMC cultures, but with concentration dependence and time course that may not account for all of IFN-gamma's cytostatic effect on SMC. The accumulation of SMC in human atherosclerotic lesions is a long-term process that must involve altered balance between growth stimulatory and inhibitory factors. The cytostatic effect of IFN-gamma on human SMC demonstrated here may influence this balance during human atherogenesis, because T cells present in the complicated atherosclerotic plaque likely produce this cytokine.
S J Warner, G B Friedman, P Libby
Circulating alpha 1-antitrypsin is synthesized primarily in the liver and secreted into the bloodstream, where it serves as the major protease inhibitor. The PiZ variant of alpha 1-antitrypsin is associated with decreased levels of the protein in sera as a result of its retention within hepatocytes. Homozygosity for the variant allele predisposes individuals to the development of pulmonary emphysema and an increased risk for liver disease. We and others have previously demonstrated that the normal PiM human alpha 1-antitrypsin gene can be properly expressed in the livers of transgenic mice. The PiZ variant of the human alpha 1-antitrypsin gene was introduced into the germline of mice to determine whether the mutant protein would accumulate in mouse hepatocytes and if such accumulation would result in the development of liver damage in an animal model. As expected, the mutant human protein was abundantly synthesized in the livers of the transgenic animals and accumulated within the rough endoplasmic reticulum of hepatocytes as it does in human patients. PiZ mice developed significantly more liver necrosis and inflammation than PiM transgenic mice or control littermates. The degree of liver damage was correlated with the amount of PiZ alpha 1-antitrypsin accumulated in the liver of the different pedigrees of mice. Although 40% of PiZ mice tested were seropositive for mouse hepatitis virus (MHV), the degree of liver damage was not influenced by the MHV seropositivity; rather, it was related only to the presence of accumulated PiZ protein.
J A Carlson, B B Rogers, R N Sifers, M J Finegold, S M Clift, F J DeMayo, D W Bullock, S L Woo
The pulmonary surfactant proteins SP-B (8,000 D) and SP-C (4,000 D) accelerate surface film formation by surfactant phospholipids. We used cDNA probes to examine regulation of these proteins in human fetal lung. The mRNAs were detectable at 13 wk gestation and increased to approximately 50% (SP-B) and approximately 15% (SP-C) of adult levels at 24 wk. The mRNAs were detected only in lung of 11 dog tissues examined. When human fetal lung was cultured as explants without hormones, SP-B mRNA increased and SP-C mRNA decreased. Exposure for 48 h to glucocorticoids, but not other steroids, increased both SP-B mRNA (approximately 4-fold) and SP-C mRNA (approximately 30-fold) vs. controls. Half-maximal stimulation occurred with 1 nM dexamethasone and 300 nM cortisol for SP-B mRNA and at three- to fivefold higher concentrations for SP-C mRNA. Both stimulation and its reversal on removal of hormone were more rapid for SP-B than for SP-C. Terbutaline and forskolin increased SP-B mRNA but not SP-C mRNA. Levels of both mRNAs were much higher in type II cells than fibroblasts prepared from explants. Thus, the genes for SP-B and SP-C are expressed in vivo before synthesis of both SP-A (28,000-36,000 D) and surfactant lipids. Glucocorticoid induction of SP-B and SP-C mRNAs in type II cells appears to be receptor mediated but may involve different mechanisms.
H G Liley, R T White, R G Warr, B J Benson, S Hawgood, P L Ballard
All HIV seronegative (HIV Ab-) and most HIV seropositive (HIV Ab+) individuals' lymphocytes failed to proliferate in primary cultures in response to purified HIV or to recombinant envelope and core antigens of HIV, even in the presence of recombinant interleukin 2 (rIL-2). Most HIV Ab- and HIV Ab+ individuals' lymphocytes, however, could proliferate or be induced by rIL-2 to proliferate in response to lysates of Escherichia coli or Saccharomyces cerevisiae. These findings indicate selective defects in lymphocyte proliferative responses to HIV antigens before the development of AIDS in which lymphocytes are unable to proliferate in response to any antigens. These defects in cell-mediated immune responses to HIV antigens are likely to play an important role in the pathobiology of HIV infections. Although intact HIV or glycosylated gp120 envelope protein of HIV are involved in these defects, a non-glycosylated recombinant form of the HIV gp120 envelope (ENV2-3) and p25 core proteins did not inhibit antigen- or mitogen-driven lymphocyte proliferation.
J F Krowka, D P Stites, S Jain, K S Steimer, C George-Nascimento, A Gyenes, P J Barr, H Hollander, A R Moss, J M Homsy
We have purified and further characterized a histamine releasing factor (HRF) derived from human mononuclear cells using gel-filtration HPLC, reverse-phase HPLC, anion exchange chromatography, and elution from SDS gels after electrophoresis. Considerable heterogeneity is seen, far exceeding that published in prior reports. Gel filtration HPLC yielded a major peak at molecular weight 30,000 and minor peaks at 50,000 and 12,000. Reverse-phase HPLC gave one major fraction in the void volume and an eluted peak at 50-60% acetonitrile. Accell QMA anion exchange HPLC revealed three peaks of activity; one in the void volume similar to that published previously using QAE-Sephadex, and peaks that eluted at 0.5 and 0.8 M ammonium acetate, respectively. Electroelution following SDS-PAGE yielded peaks at MW 12,000 and 15-17,000 plus variable peaks at 25-27,000, 31-34,000, and 80-90,000 D. Using a combination of the aforementioned procedures, we have purified molecular species of HRF at 41,000 and 17,000 D to apparent homogeneity, as judged by SDS PAGE and autoradiography. Since human interleukin 3 and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor possess histamine-releasing capability, it is clear that multiple cytokines can share this activity. However, the major HRF we isolate from human mononuclear cells appears, thus far, to be unique.
M L Baeza, S Reddigari, M Haak-Frendscho, A P Kaplan
Elevated serum estradiol concentrations and specific changes in the biliary excretion of some androstenedione metabolites have been reported in male rats with portal bypass produced by portal vein ligation (PVL). In this study, the hypothesis that male-specific forms of cytochrome P-450 are altered after PVL was tested by measuring microsomal steroid hydroxylase activities. Consistent with earlier findings in the intact animal, androstenedione 16 alpha-hydroxylase activity was reduced after PVL to 44% of control (P less than 0.05). Other pathways of androstenedione hydroxylation, and total estrogen formation (after androstenedione aromatization) were unchanged. Although total estrogen formation was not different, a sevenfold greater proportion of estradiol was produced in PVL rat microsomes. Additional experiments revealed that PVL selectively reduced the rate of microsomal estradiol 16 alpha-hydroxylation (to 56% of control, P less than 0.02). Levels of cytochrome P-450UT-A, the microsomal steroid 16 alpha-hydroxylase, were lower after PVL (56% of control, P less than 0.05), so that the present observations are consistent with the earlier suggestion that portal bypass is associated with the selective downregulation of this enzyme. Since downregulation of cytochrome P-450UT-A also occurs in experimental hepatic cirrhosis, portal hypertension may well contribute significantly to altered drug metabolism in liver disease. Impaired hepatic elimination of androstenedione by hydroxylation may indirectly enhance extrahepatic aromatization of the androgen. The decreased activity of hepatic estradiol 16 alpha-hydroxylation after PVL would enhance the accumulation of estradiol, the biologically more potent estrogen.
E Cantrill, M Murray, I Mehta, G C Farrell
Neuropeptide-Y (NPY), a brain peptide, is located in the walls of human coronary arteries. This study assessed the effects of NPY on the coronary circulation in 40 chloralose-anesthetized, open-chest dogs. Intracoronary NPY (42 nmol over 5.2 min) caused a 39% reduction in coronary blood flow without changing heart rate or aortic pressure. To determine whether this vasoconstriction could produce ischemia, intramyocardial pH was measured in seven dogs (group I) and decreased from 7.45 +/- 0.06 to 7.37 +/- 0.06 pH units after NPY in the subendocardium (P less than 0.0002), and from 7.45 +/- 0.06 to 7.40 +/- 0.05 pH units (P less than 0.04) in the subepicardium of the infused zone. Left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), measured by radionuclide angiography, decreased from 0.52 +/- 0.08 to 0.42 +/- 0.12 U (n = 5, P less than 0.01) during NPY. NPY-induced vasoconstriction was also associated with ST-T wave changes on the electrocardiogram (ECG) in eight of nine other animals (group V). In another group of six dogs (group IV), the change in small vessel resistance accounted for 94% of the increase in total resistance, so that the primary vasoconstrictor effect of NPY was exerted on small coronary arteries. Thus, NPY, a peptide found in human coronary arteries, caused constriction of primarily small coronary arteries that was severe enough to produce myocardial ischemia as determined by ECG ST-T wave changes, and decreases in intramyocardial pH and LVEF in dogs.
M F Maturi, R Greene, E Speir, C Burrus, L M Dorsey, D R Markle, M Maxwell, W Schmidt, S R Goldstein, R E Patterson
Primary cultures and plasma membrane vesicles were used to characterize Na+ and HCO3- transport by rat hepatocytes. Na+ uptake into hepatocytes was stimulated approximately 10-fold by 25 mM extracellular HCO3-.HCO3--stimulated Na+ uptake was saturable, abolished by 4-acetamido-4'-isothiocyano-2,2'-disulfonic acid stilbene (SITS), and unaffected by amiloride or Cl- removal. Neither propionate nor acetate reproduced this effect of HCO3-. 22Na efflux from preloaded hepatocytes was similarly increased approximately 10-fold by an in greater than out HCO3- concentration gradient. 22Na efflux was also increased by valinomycin and an in greater than out K+ concentration gradient in the presence but not absence of HCO3-. Intracellular pH (pHi) measured with the pH-sensitive fluorochrome 2',7'-bis-(2-carboxyethyl)-5-(and 6-)carboxyfluorescein (BCECF) decreased at a rate of 0.227 (+/- 0.074 SEM) pH units/min when extracellular HCO3- concentration was lowered from 25 to 5 mM at constant PCO2. This intracellular acidification rate was decreased 50-60% in the absence of Na+ or presence of SITS, and was unaffected by amiloride or Cl- removal. Membrane hyperpolarization produced by valinomycin and an in greater than out K+ concentration gradient caused pHi to fall; the rate of fall was decreased 50-70% by Na+ removal or SITS, but not amiloride. An inside positive K+ diffusion potential and a simultaneous out greater than in HCO3- gradient produced a transient 4,4'-diisothiocyano-2,2' disulfonic acid stilbene (DIDS) sensitive, amiloride-insensitive 22Na accumulation in basolateral but not canalicular membrane vesicles. Rat hepatocytes thus exhibit electrogenic basolateral Na+/HCO3- cotransport.
E L Renner, J R Lake, B F Scharschmidt, B Zimmerli, P J Meier
The kinetics of activation of the respiratory burst oxidase in the cell-free oxidase-activating system have been explained by a three-stage mechanism in which the membrane-associated oxidase components M: (a) take up a cytosolic factor S to form a complex M.S that is (b) slowly converted in the second stage to a precatalytic species [M.S]*, which finally (c) takes up two more (possibly identical) cytosolic components, C alpha and C beta, to successively generate [M.S]*C alpha, a low-activity (i.e., high Km) oxidase, and finally [M.S]*C alpha C beta, the ordinary (i.e., low Km) oxidase (Babior, B.M., R. Kuver, and J.T. Curnutte. 1988. J. Biol. Chem. 263:1713-1718). Studies with the cell-free oxidase-activating system from normal neutrophils and from neutrophils obtained from two patients with type II (autosomal recessive cytochrome-positive) chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) have suggested that (a) the defective element in the cytosol from patient neutrophils is S; (b) in normal neutrophil cytosol, S is limiting with respect to M; and (c) C alpha and C beta interact cooperatively with the activated precursor complex [M.S]*. It was further speculated that S might be identical to the nonphosphorylated progenitor of the phosphorylated 48-kD proteins that are missing in certain forms of CGD, and that other forms of type II CGD besides the one described in this report remain to be discovered.
J T Curnutte, P J Scott, B M Babior
The synthesis of Cu,Zn SOD by rat lung increases spontaneously in the fetus in late gestation and during exposure of neonatal and adult rats to greater than 95% O2. To explore the regulation of these increases, we measured rat lung Cu,Zn SOD synthesis and activity. We also cloned and sequenced a rat lung Cu,Zn SOD cDNA that was used to measure Cu,Zn SOD mRNA concentration. We found that (a) under normal gestational and postgestational conditions the synthesis of this enzyme was regulated pretranslationally; (b) the increased synthesis that occurs under hyperoxia (greater than 95% O2), was pretranslationally mediated in otherwise unmanipulated neonatal rats but translationally controlled in hyperoxic adult rats; and (c) in lungs of rats made tolerant to greater than 95% O2 by allowing 24 h rest in air after an initial 48 h in greater than 95% O2, the increased Cu,Zn SOD synthesis that occurred during the second period of hyperoxia was regulated pretranslationally. We conclude Cu,Zn SOD gene expression in the lung is developmentally regulated under normal conditions and in response to an oxidant challenge. Tolerance, whether endogenous or induced, appears to require the accumulation of increased amounts of Cu,Zn SOD mRNA.
M A Hass, J Iqbal, L B Clerch, L Frank, D Massaro
Chronic ethanol feeding to rats increases the sinusoidal component of hepatic glutathione (GSH) efflux, despite a lower steady-state GSH pool size. In the present studies, no increase of biliary GSH efflux in vivo was found in chronic ethanol-fed cells. Studies were performed on ethanol-fed and pair-fed cells to identify the kinetic parameters of cellular GSH concentration-dependent efflux. The relationship between cytosolic GSH and the rate of efflux was modeled by the Hill equation, revealing a similar Vmax, 0.22 +/- 0.013 vs. 0.20 +/- 0.014 nmol/min per 10(6) cells for ethanol-fed and pair-fed cells, respectively, whereas the Km was significantly decreased (25.3 +/- 2.3 vs. 33.5 +/- 1.4 nmol/10(6) cells) in ethanol-fed cells. The difference in Km was larger when the data were corrected for the increased water content in ethanol-fed cells. We found a direct correlation between mitochondria and cytosolic GSH, revealing that mitochondria from ethanol-fed cells have less GSH at all cytosolic GSH values. The rate of resynthesis in depleted ethanol-fed cells in the presence of methionine and serine was similar to control cells and gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase remained unaffected by chronic ethanol. However, the reaccumulation of mitochondrial GSH as the cytosolic pool increased was impaired in the ethanol cells. The earliest time change in GSH regulation was a 50% decrease in the mitochondrial GSH at 2 wk.
J C Fernandez-Checa, M Ookhtens, N Kaplowitz
Although directly microbicidal, pentavalent antimony has failed as treatment for visceral leishmaniasis in patients who also have AIDS or are receiving immunosuppressive therapy. To define the role of T cells in the successful host response to chemotherapy, we examined the efficacy of pentavalent antimony (sodium stibogluconate, Pentostam) in normal and T cell-deficient BALB/c mice infected with Leishmania donovani. In euthymic (nu/+) mice, single injections of 250 and 500 mg/kg of Pentostam induced the killing of 67% and 89% of intracellular liver amastigotes, respectively. In contrast, in athymic nude (nu/nu) mice, up to three injections of 500 mg/kg achieved no L. donovani killing and did not retard visceral parasite replication. Once nude mice were reconstituted with nu/+ spleen cells, however, Pentostam exerted strong leishmanicidal activity, an effect that appeared to be transferred by either L3T4+ or Lyt-2+ cells. Responsiveness to chemotherapy could also be induced by providing nude mice with either interferon-gamma or interleukin 2 alone. The absence of this T cell- and probably lymphokine-dependent mechanism is a likely explanation for treatment failures in immunocompromised patients infected with L. donovani and perhaps other systemic intracellular pathogens as well.
H W Murray, M J Oca, A M Granger, R D Schreiber
We have characterized a new mutant mouse that has virtually no beta-glucuronidase activity. This biochemical defect causes a murine lysosomal storage disease that has many interesting similarities to human mucopolysaccharidosis type VII (MPS VII; Sly syndrome; beta-glucuronidase deficiency). Genetic analysis showed that the mutation is inherited as an autosomal recessive that maps to the beta-glucuronidase gene complex, [Gus], on the distal end of chromosome 5. Although there is a greater than 200-fold reduction in the beta-glucuronidase mRNA concentration in mutant tissues, Southern blot analysis failed to detect any abnormalities in the structural gene, Gus-sb, or in 17 kb of 5' flanking and 4 kb of 3' flanking sequences. Surprisingly, a sensitive S1 nuclease assay indicated that the relative level of kidney gusmps mRNA responded normally to androgen induction by increasing approximately 11-fold. Analysis of this mutant mouse may offer valuable information on the pathogenesis of human MPS VII and provide a useful system in which to study bone marrow transplantation and gene transfer methods of therapy.
E H Birkenmeier, M T Davisson, W G Beamer, R E Ganschow, C A Vogler, B Gwynn, K A Lyford, L M Maltais, C J Wawrzyniak
Exuberant tumor-like synovial cell proliferation with invasion of periarticular bone is a feature of rheumatoid arthritis in humans and of streptococcal cell wall (SCW)-induced arthritis in rats. These histologic observations prompted us to examine synoviocytes from arthritic joints for phenotypic characteristics of transformed cells. The capacity to grow in vitro under anchorage-independent conditions is a characteristic that correlates closely with potential in vivo tumorigenicity. In medium supplemented with 20% serum or in basal media supplemented with platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), early passage synoviocytes from both SCW-induced and rheumatoid arthritic joints formed colonies in soft agarose. Epidermal growth factor (EGF), interleukin 1 (IL-1), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma), and transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) did not support growth, although EGF enhanced PDGF-dependent growth. On the other hand, TGF-beta, as well as all-trans-retinoic acid, inhibited colony growth. Early passage normal rat and human synoviocytes also grew under the same conditions, but lung, skin, and late-gestation embryonic fibroblast-like cells did not. Considered in the context of other published data our findings provide cogent evidence that synoviocytes, but not other types of fibroblast-like cells, readily acquire phenotypic characteristics commonly associated with transformed cells. Expression of the transformed phenotype in the inflammatory site is likely regulated by paracrine growth factors, such as PDGF and TGF-beta.
R Lafyatis, E F Remmers, A B Roberts, D E Yocum, M B Sporn, R L Wilder
Using probes recognizing variable regions (V gamma) and joining regions (J gamma) of the T cell receptor (TCR) gamma gene, we have analyzed the usage of V gamma genes in 24 patients with T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and 36 patients with B-precursor ALL. In CD3- T-ALL derived from immature T cells, V gamma genes more proximal to J gamma were frequently rearranged; V gamma 8, V gamma 9, V gamma 10, and V gamma 11 were used in 19 of 24 rearrangements. In contrast, CD3+ T-ALL derived from a more mature stage of T cell ontogeny, showed a high frequency of rearrangements involving V gamma genes distal to J gamma; V gamma 2, V gamma 3, V gamma 4, and V gamma 5 were used in 17 of 25 rearrangements. In B-precursor ALL, no notable bias of V gamma gene usage was observed. This probably reflects the possibility that TCR genes may not rearrange according to a T cell hierarchy when under control of a B cell gene program. Furthermore, deletions of those V gamma genes located 3' to rearranged V gamma genes were observed in all patients analyzed. This supports the theory that loop deletion is a major mechanism for TCR-gamma gene rearrangement.
J Hara, S H Benedict, K Yumura, K Ha-Kawa, E W Gelfand
SS-A/Ro is a nucleocytoplasmic ribonucleoprotein (RNP) particle that is a common target of autoimmune response in Sjögren's syndrome (SS) and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Previously, SS-A/Ro has been shown to be composed of at least two polypeptide antigens of 60 and 52 kD noncovalently associated with a set of small RNAs, designated Y1-Y5. A serum from an SS patient was selected to screen a lambda gt11 cDNA library constructed from human T cell lymphoblastic leukemia (MOLT-4) mRNA. An immunoreactive clone was isolated that possessed a 1.8-kb cDNA insert. In vitro transcription and translation of the cDNA resulted in the synthesis of a 57.5-kD polypeptide which was specifically immunoprecipitated by SS-A/Ro antisera. The identity of the cDNA encoded protein as the 60-kD SS-A/Ro antigen was established by proteolytic peptide mapping of the cDNA-encoded protein and the 60-kD HeLa cell antigen. The sequence of the cDNA shows that the 60-kD SS-A/Ro protein possesses both RNA binding protein consensus sequences and a single zinc-finger motif. Recombinant SS-A/Ro antigen produced in bacteria proved to be a sensitive and specific reagent for detection of anti-SS-A/Ro antibodies in patient sera. The availability of the 60-kD SS-A/Ro cDNA will enable detailed analysis of the molecular structure and function of the SS-A/Ro RNP particle and its role in autoimmune pathology.
E Ben-Chetrit, B J Gandy, E M Tan, K F Sullivan
Ro(SSA) is an intracellular ribonucleoprotein against which autoantibodies are found in a portion of patients with Sjögren's syndrome and systemic lupus erythematosus. A form of Ro(SSA) is described in red blood cells that shares a line of identity with purified Ro(SSA) from bovine spleen and human lymphocytes in counterimmunoelectrophoresis, but has different molecular properties. Ro(SSA) from red blood cells exists in association with only two small RNAs as opposed to four in other cell types, as determined by RNA extraction of protein A-assisted immunoprecipitates. In addition to the common 60-kD Ro(SSA) protein, Western blot analysis revealed an additional 52-kD protein in lymphocytes and a 54-kD protein in red blood cells. The 60-kD form of Ro(SSA) in red cells was found to be antigenically distinct from that in the lymphocyte, because sera were identified that bound each exclusively. Finally, a rabbit antibovine Ro(SSA) serum distinguished red cell from lymphocyte Ro(SSA). These results suggest two distinctive populations of Ro(SSA) proteins and distributions of Ro(SSA) RNAs in the lymphocyte and red blood cell.
M D Rader, C O'Brien, Y S Liu, J B Harley, M Reichlin
To determine the primary structure of CD13, a 150-kD cell surface glycoprotein originally identified on subsets of normal and malignant human myeloid cells, we isolated the complete sequences encoding the polypeptide in overlapping complementary DNA (cDNA) clones. The authenticity of our cDNA clones was demonstrated by the ability of the coding sequences, subcloned in a retroviral expression vector, to mediate expression of bona fide CD13 molecules at the surface of transfected mouse fibroblasts. The nucleotide sequence predicts a 967 amino acid integral membrane protein with a single, 24 amino acid hydrophobic segment near the amino terminus. Amino-terminal protein sequence analysis of CD13 molecules indicated that the hydrophobic segment is not cleaved, but rather serves as both a signal for membrane insertion and as a stable membrane-spanning segment. The remainder of the molecule consists of a large extracellular carboxyterminal domain, which contains a pentapeptide consensus sequence characteristic of members of the zinc-binding metalloprotease superfamily. Sequence comparisons with known enzymes of this class revealed that CD13 is identical to aminopeptidase N, a membrane-bound glycoprotein thought to be involved in the metabolism of regulatory peptides by diverse cell types, including small intestinal and renal tubular epithelial cells, macrophages, granulocytes, and synaptic membranes prepared from cells of the central nervous system.
A T Look, R A Ashmun, L H Shapiro, S C Peiper
Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) is known as an inducer of proliferation and functional activation of myeloid cells. This study was carried out to characterize the effects of GM-CSF on polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) more extensively. Using Northern blot analysis, we show that PMN are able to accumulate mRNAs for different cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha); G-CSF, and M-CSF, all of which are involved in inflammation and hematopoiesis. Biological assays and immunoassays demonstrate that PMN translate these mRNAs, except TNF-alpha, into secretory proteins. However, the expression of these cytokines is dependent on stimulation by exogenous signals, preferentially provided by the T cell-derived lymphokine GM-CSF. Stimulation of hematopoiesis and amplification of defense mechanisms after T cell activation thus might involve not only monocytes but also PMN, a cell type previously believed to be biosynthetically inactive.
A Lindemann, D Riedel, W Oster, H W Ziegler-Heitbrock, R Mertelsmann, F Herrmann
Metabolic clearance rates (MCR) of arginine vasopressin (AVP) were measured serially in five women starting before conception, during gestational weeks 7-8 (early), 22-24 (middle), and 36-38 (late pregnancy), and again 10-12 wk postpartum. Hormonal disposal rates were determined after water loading to suppress endogenous AVP release using a constant infusion method designed to achieve three different steady-state concentrations of plasma AVP (PAVP) on each test occasion. Dose schedules were altered in mid- and late pregnancy to obtain comparable AVP levels at each stage of the protocol. Prehydration decreased plasma osmolality sufficiently to suppress AVP release, as circulating AVP-neurophysin measured serially in three of the women was undetectable. The MCR of AVP was similar before conception (0.75 +/- 0.31, 0.79 +/- 0.34, and 0.76 +/- 0.28 liters/min at PAVP of 2.6 +/- 1.9, 4.7 +/- 2.4, and 8.3 +/- 3.9 pg/ml), in early pregnancy (0.89 +/- 0.34, 0.97 +/- 0.04, and 0.95 +/- 0.40 liters/min at PAVP of 2.2 +/- 2.1, 3.9 +/- 3.2, and 7.9 +/- 3.4 pg/ml), and postpartum (0.70 +/- 0.21, 0.69 +/- 0.24, and 0.75 +/- 0.20 liters/min at PAVP 3.5 +/- 1.8, 5.1 +/- 3.7, and 9.1 +/- 4.2 pg/ml). Values at mid-pregnancy (2.8 +/- 1.3, 3.0 +/- 1.2, and 2.7 +/- 1.2 liters/min at PAVP 2.3 +/- 2.2, 4.0 +/- 3.6, and 7.7 +/- 3.9 pg/ml) and late pregnancy (3.2 +/- 1.4, 3.3 +/- 1.4, and 2.9 +/- 1.2 liters/min at PAVP 1.9 +/- 2.0, 3.8 +/- 2.6, and 7.4 +/- 4.1 pg/ml) increased 3-4-fold (all P less than 0.01). Plasma vasopressinase, undetectable at 7-8 gestational wk, increased markedly by mid- and slightly more by late gestation. Finally, relationships between PAVP and urine osmolality were similar before, during, and after pregnancy. We conclude that marked increments in the MCR of AVP occur between gestational weeks 7 and 8 and mid-pregnancy, which parallel the period of greatest rise in both trophoblastic mass and plasma vasopressinase. There was no evidence of a renal resistance to AVP during gestation.
J M Davison, E A Sheills, W M Barron, A G Robinson, M D Lindheimer
To characterize and localize hepatic plasma membrane ATP-dependent Ca2+ transport and Na+/Ca2+ exchange, studies were performed using highly purified rat basolateral and canalicular membrane vesicles. ATP-dependent Ca2+ transport activity was present in vesicles from both domains, insensitive to azide, oligomycin, oxalate, calmodulin, and calmidazolium, and virtually abolished at pH 6.8. However, basolateral and canalicular transport differed significantly. While basolateral transport was markedly stimulated by 1 mM Mg2+, canalicular transport was Mg2+ independent. Basolateral transport was similar at pH 7.4 and 8.0 but canalicular activity was stimulated fourfold at pH 8.0. Both Ca2+ Km [1.4 +/- 0.1 (SE).10(-8) vs. 4.8 +/- 0.7.10(-8) M] and Vmax (3.6 +/- 0.1 vs. 9.0 +/- 0.6 nmol mg-1 protein min-1) were lower in basolateral than in canalicular vesicles. Basolateral transport was somewhat more nucleotide specific (for ATP) and sensitive to vanadate (IC50 130 vs. 500 microM, respectively) than was canalicular transport. Na+/Ca2+ exchange activity was not detected in membranes from either domain. These studies suggest that hepatic ATP-dependent Ca2+ transport is mediated by domain-specific carriers on the basolateral and canalicular membranes.
B L Blitzer, B R Hostetler, K A Scott
We have developed a model of reperfusion injury in Krebs buffer-perfused rabbit lungs, characterized by pulmonary vasoconstriction, microvascular injury, and marked lung edema formation. During reperfusion there was a threefold increase in lung superoxide anion (O2-) production, as measured by in vivo reduction of nitroblue tetrazolium, and a twofold increase in the release of O2- into lung perfusate, as measured by reduction of succinylated ferricytochrome c. Injury could be prevented by the xanthine oxidase inhibitor allopurinol, the O2- scavenger SOD, the hydrogen peroxide scavenger catalase, the iron chelator deferoxamine, or the thiols dimethylthiourea or N-acetylcysteine. The protective effect of SOD could be abolished by the anion channel blocker 4,4'-diisothiocyano-2,2'-stilbene disulfonic acid, indicating that SOD consumes O2- in the extracellular medium, thereby creating a concentration gradient favorable for rapid diffusion of O2- out of cells. Our results extend information about the mechanisms of reperfusion lung injury that have been assembled by studies in other organs, and offer potential strategies for improved organ preservation, for treatment of reperfusion injury after pulmonary thromboembolectomy, and for explanation and therapy of many complications of pulmonary embolism.
T P Kennedy, N V Rao, C Hopkins, L Pennington, E Tolley, J R Hoidal
An almost universal side effect of long-term therapy with procainamide is the appearance of serum autoantibodies and less frequently a syndrome resembling lupus erythematosus. Previous studies demonstrated that procainamide-hydroxylamine (PAHA), a metabolite generated by hepatic mixed function oxidases, was highly toxic to dividing cells, but evidence that PAHA could be formed in the circulation was lacking. This study examines the capacity of neutrophils to metabolize procainamide to reactive forms. Neutrophils activated with opsonized zymosan were cytotoxic only if procainamide was present, whereas N-acetyl procainamide, which does not induce autoimmunity, was inert in this bioassay. PAHA was detected by HPLC in the extracellular medium if ascorbic acid was present. Generation of PAHA and cytotoxic procainamide metabolites was inhibited by NaN3 and catalase but not by superoxide dismutase, indicating that H2O2 and myeloperoxidase were involved. Nonactivated neutrophils and neutrophils from patients with chronic granulomatous disease did not generate cytotoxic PAHA, demonstrating that H2O2 was derived from the respiratory burst accompanying neutrophil activation. These conclusions were supported by results of a cell-free system in which neutrophils were replaced by myeloperoxidase and H2O2 or an H2O2 generating system. These studies demonstrate the capacity of neutrophils to mediate metabolism of procainamide and establish the role of myeloperoxidase released during degranulation and H2O2 derived from the respiratory burst in the direct cooxidation of procainamide to PAHA. The profound biologic activity of this metabolite and its possible generation within lymphoid compartments implicate this process in the induction of autoimmunity by procainamide.
R L Rubin, J T Curnutte
A form of thyroxine-binding globulin (TBG) with reduced affinity for hormone and increased susceptibility to heat and acid denaturation has been identified in Australian Aborigines (TBG-A). Results of heat denaturation of TBG established that the TBGA allele is X linked and has a frequency of 50.9% in Western Australian Aborigines. The sequence of an isolated TBGA allele differed at two positions from that of the normal TBG allele (TBGC). One substitution was in codon 191, ACA (threonine) rather than GCA (alanine), and the other was in codon 283, TTT (phenylalanine) instead of TTG (leucine). These nucleotide substitutions resulted in the loss of sites for the enzymes Bgl 1 and Tth 111 II, respectively. The nucleotide substitutions in the TBG-A allele was confirmed by digestion of genomic DNA segments amplified using the polymerase chain reaction. The Bgl 1 and Tth 111 II sites were absent in the genes of two Aboriginal men expressing TBG-A and were present in those of three Aboriginal and six Caucasian males expressing TBG-C. The TBG gene of a seventh Caucasian male possessed the Bgl 1 site but had lost the Tth 111 II site; sequencing of this allele revealed only the substitution in codon 283 identical to that in the TBGA allele. As the biochemical properties of TBGPhe-283 expressed by this individual were indistinguishable from normal TBGLeu-283, we believe that the abnormal properties of TBG-A are due to substitution of alanine for threonine at residue 191.
K Takeda, Y Mori, S Sobieszczyk, H Seo, M Dick, F Watson, I L Flink, S Seino, G I Bell, S Refetoff
Numerous in vitro studies in experimental animals have demonstrated a direct suppressive effect of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)2D) on parathyroid hormone (PTH) synthesis. We therefore sought to determine whether such an effect could be demonstrated in uremic patients undergoing maneuvers designed to avoid changes in serum calcium concentrations. In addition, the response of the parathyroid gland in patients undergoing hypercalcemic suppression (protocol I) and hypocalcemic stimulation (protocol II) before and after 2 wk of intravenous 1,25(OH)2D was evaluated. In those enlisted in protocol I, PTH values fell from 375 +/- 66 to 294 +/- 50 pg (P less than 0.01) after 1,25(OH)2D administration. During hypercalcemic suppression, the "set point" (PTH max + PTH min/2) for PTH suppression by calcium fell from 5.24 +/- 0.14 to 5.06 +/- 0.15 mg/dl (P less than 0.05) with 1,25(OH)2D. A similar decline in PTH levels after giving intravenous 1,25(OH)2D was noted in protocol II patients. During hypocalcemic stimulation, the parathyroid response was attenuated by 1,25(OH)2D. We conclude that intravenous 1,25(OH)2D directly suppresses PTH secretion in uremic patients. This suppression, in part, appears to be due to increased sensitivity of the gland to ambient calcium levels.
J A Delmez, C Tindira, P Grooms, A Dusso, D W Windus, E Slatopolsky
Polyamines downregulate immune reactivity. RA is associated with decreased IL 2 production. In this study, we present evidence to suggest that excessive polyamines can contribute to the IL 2 deficiency in RA. Blocking polyamine production with inhibitors of ornithine decarboxylase results in increased IL 2 production by RA PBMC. Moreover, polyamine oxidase (PAO) inhibitors and catalase also increase IL 2 production by RA PBMC. This effect of PAO inhibition is monocyte mediated. After 3 d in culture, RA PBMC produce three times more IL 2 than do normal PBMC. This rise is prevented by exogenous spermidine but only in the presence of monocytes. The concentration of polyamines in RA PBMC and synovial fluid MNC is 2-20-fold higher than in normal cells. Thus, polyamines and their oxidation products downregulate IL 2 production by RA PBMC and may account for the decreased T cell effector function seen in this disease.
E Flescher, T L Bowlin, A Ballester, R Houk, N Talal
Hypertriglyceridemic (HTG) serum, lipolyzed in vitro by purified bovine milk lipoprotein lipase, was found to be cytotoxic to cultured macrophages. Surviving macrophages contained numerous lipid inclusions similar to those found in foam cells. Individual lipoprotein fractions isolated from the lipolyzed HTG serum, including HDL, were also cytotoxic. Lipolysis of isolated lipoprotein fractions (either HTG or normal) allowed localization of cytotoxicity to postlipolysis remnant VLDL and chylomicron particles. The presence of a critical concentration of HDL in either the lipolysis mixture or the culture dishes inhibited the cytotoxicity. Below this critical concentration HDL itself became cytotoxic, producing lipid inclusions in surviving macrophages. The lipid fraction of the cytotoxic remnants contained the cytotoxic factor(s); neither FFA nor lysolecithin alone could account for this cytotoxicity. Postprandial lipemic sera from subjects with a brisk chylomicron response, when lipolyzed in vitro, were cytotoxic to cultured macrophages; neither fasted sera from these subjects, nor postprandial sera from normolipidemic subjects with a normal chylomicron response, were cytotoxic. Postheparin (in vivo lipolyzed) serum and its isolated lipoprotein fractions obtained 30 min after heparin injection in subjects with HTG were shown to be cytotoxic to macrophages; by 60 min most of the cytotoxicity had disappeared. The postprandial and postheparin observations support an in vivo significance for remnant-associated cytotoxicity. We hypothesize that cytotoxic remnants of lipolyzed VLDL and chylomicrons may be one of the major atherogenic lipoproteins. Further, we suggest that inhibition of the cytotoxicity of these remnants may be one important way that HDL prevents atherosclerosis.
B H Chung, J P Segrest, K Smith, F M Griffin, C G Brouillette
We used genetically mast cell-deficient WBB6F1-W/Wv and WCB6F1-S1/S1d mice and the congenic normal (+/+) mice to investigate the effects of intravenous infusion of goat antimouse IgE on heart rate (HR), pulmonary dynamic compliance (Cdyn), pulmonary conductance (GL), and survival. In WBB6F1-+/+ and WCB6F1-+/+ mice, anti-IgE induced extensive degranulation of tracheobronchial mast cells, as well as significant elevation of HR, significant reductions in Cdyn and GL and, in some cases, death. In contrast, W/Wv and S1/S1d mice exhibited little or no pathophysiological responses and no mortality after challenge with anti-IgE. In W/Wv mice reconstituted with mast cells by intravenous administration of bone marrow cells derived from congenic +/+ mice (+/+ BM----W/Wv mice), anti-IgE induced extensive mast cell degranulation, as well as pathophysiological responses and mortality similar to those observed in WBB6F1-+/+ mice. These findings suggest a critical role for mast cells in the development of the cardiopulmonary changes and mortality associated with anti-IgE-induced anaphylaxis.
T R Martin, S J Galli, I M Katona, J M Drazen
Micropuncture studies were performed in Munich Wistar rats made diabetic with streptozotocin and in normal control rats. Diabetic rats received daily ultralente insulin to maintain moderate hyperglycemia (approximately 300 mg/dl). Group 1 diabetic rats studied after routine micropuncture preparation exhibited elevation of the single nephron glomerular filtration rate (SNGFR) due to increases in the glomerular transcapillary hydraulic pressure difference and glomerular plasma flow rate. In group 2 diabetic rats infusion of insulin to achieve acute blood glucose control normalized the glomerular transcapillary pressure gradient while increasing the glomerular ultrafiltration coefficient, so that SNGFR remained elevated. Persistent elevation of SNGFR despite normalization of the transcapillary pressure gradient was also observed in group 3 diabetic rats infused with insulin plus sufficient dextrose to maintain hyperglycemia. These studies indicate that glomerular capillary hypertension in diabetes is an acutely reversible consequence of insulin deficiency and not the result of renal hypertrophy.
J W Scholey, T W Meyer
Fabry disease, an X-linked recessive disorder of glycosphingolipid catabolism, results from the deficient activity of the lysosomal hydrolase, alpha-galactosidase. Southern hybridization analysis of the alpha-galactosidase gene in affected hemizygous males from 130 unrelated families with Fabry disease revealed six with different gene rearrangements and one with an exonic point mutation resulting in the obliteration of an Msp I restriction site. Five partial gene deletions were detected ranging in size from 0.4 to greater than 5.5 kb. Four of these deletions had breakpoints in intron 2, a region in the gene containing multiple Alu repeat sequences. A sixth genomic rearrangement was identified in which a region of about 8 kb, containing exons 2 through 6, was duplicated by a homologous, but unequal crossover event. The Msp I site obliteration, which mapped to exon 7, was detected in an affected hemizygote who had residual enzyme activity. Genomic amplification by the polymerase chain reaction and sequencing revealed that the obliteration resulted from a C to T transition at nucleotide 1066 in the coding sequence. This point mutation, the first identified in Fabry disease, resulted in an arginine356 to tryptophan356 substitution which altered the enzyme's kinetic and stability properties. The detection of these abnormalities provided for the precise identification of Fabry heterozygotes, thereby permitting molecular pedigree analysis in these families which revealed paternity exclusions and the first documented new mutations in this disease.
H S Bernstein, D F Bishop, K H Astrin, R Kornreich, C M Eng, H Sakuraba, R J Desnick
Molecular X chromosome inactivation analysis was used to characterize three females (and their families) with severe hemophilia. First, the maternal and paternal X chromosomes were distinguished by restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs). Second, the patterns of methylation of X chromosome genes using methylation-sensitive restriction endonucleases were determined. Of the six X chromosome probes tested, only the phosphoglycerol-kinase (PGK) and hypoxanthine-phosphoribosyl-transferase (HPRT) clones were informative, indicating that other X chromosome probes are not useful for X inactivation analysis. After digestion with Hpa II or Hha I, the hybridization intensity of the RFLPs of all three mothers and an unaffected sister were diminished by 50%, consistent with random X chromosome inactivation. The methylation patterns of the X chromosomes of the affected females, however, were clearly nonrandom. Depending upon the probe and the patient, HPRT and PGK sequences were either completely methylated or unmethylated. These findings are extremely suggestive that nonrandom X chromosome inactivation (lyonization) is the basis for severe hemophilia in these females.
P D Nisen, P G Waber
Hypertension causes biochemical and morphological changes in the vessel wall by unknown mechanisms. Locally produced substances may have a role in mediating these vascular changes. We have studied the expression of platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) B chain and PDGF A chain, insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I and IGF-II, endothelial cell growth factor (ECGF), basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), and transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) in aortic tissue from normotensive rats and rats made hypertensive by deoxycorticosterone (DOC)/salt treatment. Using Northern blotting, we found that genes for each of these growth factors were transcriptionally active in the aorta of both normotensive and hypertensive rats. TGF-beta aortic mRNA levels increased up to threefold as a result of DOC/salt hypertension. In contrast, no major changes in the expression of either PDGF chain, IGF-I or II, ECGF, or bFGF were detectable. The results indicate that at least seven genes coding for growth factors that were shown previously to influence growth and function of vascular cells in vitro, are expressed in rat aorta in vivo. These findings support the hypothesis that synthesis and release of growth factors in the arterial wall are involved in autocrine and/or paracrine regulatory mechanisms. In addition, the increased expression of TGF-beta in vivo may have a role in mediating the aortic changes induced by hypertension.
R Sarzani, P Brecher, A V Chobanian
Myocardial ischemia elicits an enhanced responsivity to alpha 1-adrenergic stimulation and a reversible increase in alpha 1-adrenergic receptor number. In adult cardiac myocytes, alpha 1-adrenergic receptor number increases two- to threefold after 10 min of hypoxia, an increase similar to that seen during ischemia in vivo. To determine whether this increase in alpha 1-adrenergic receptor number leads to an enhanced synthesis of inositol trisphosphate, the intracellular second messenger for the alpha 1-adrenergic receptor, the mass of inositol trisphosphate was quantified by a novel procedure developed in our laboratory that circumvents problems associated with using labeled precursors. The peak increases in inositol trisphosphate levels of three- to fourfold were measured after 30 s of norepinephrine stimulation and exhibited a 50% effective concentration (EC50) of 7.9 x 10(-8) M. Hypoxia produced a marked leftward shift in the dose-response curve for the production of inositol trisphosphate in response to norepinephrine stimulation (EC50 = 1.2 x 10(-8) M). Hypoxia also induced a 100-fold reduction in the concentration of norepinephrine required to elicit a threshold increase in inositol trisphosphate (10(-9) M), compared with control normoxic myocytes (10(-7) M). Thus, hypoxia, which increases alpha 1-adrenergic receptor density, also leads to an enhanced production of inositol trisphosphate and could account for the enhanced alpha 1-adrenergic responsivity in the ischemic heart in vivo, which is known to facilitate arrhythmogenesis.
G P Heathers, A S Evers, P B Corr
Granulocyte-macrophage progenitors (CFU-GM) from four patients with childhood onset cyclic neutropenia demonstrated abnormal in vitro proliferative responses to purified, recombinant human granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (rhGM-CSF) when examined in detailed dose-response studies. Marrow aspirate specimens were obtained for these studies from cyclic neutropenia patients (both during neutropenic nadirs and during recovery phases of cycles), from leukemia patients in remission who had received myelosuppressive chemotherapy, and from healthy normal volunteers. Nucleated marrow cells were then isolated by density-gradient centrifugation and cryopreserved to permit studies of CFU-GM from patients and controls to be carried out at the same time and in replicate. Maximum clonal growth of CFU-GM from normal subjects and from individuals recovering from drug-induced myelosuppression was elicited by 20-100 pmol/liter rhGM-CSF, and the CSF concentrations that induced half-maximal responses (ED50) were between 1.0 and 3.0 pmol/liter. In contrast, maximum growth of CFU-GM from the cyclic neutropenia patients required greater than or equal to 1.0 nmol/liter rhGM-CSF and ED50's were greater than 30.0 pmol/liter. These abnormalities in the GM-CSF responsive growth of myeloid progenitors were independent of cycle time and were most apparent with the predominantly neutrophilic 7-d CFU-GM. Moreover, differences in the growth of 14-d CFU-GM could be attributed mostly if not entirely to differences in the generation of neutrophilic colonies. These findings indicate that childhood onset cyclic neutropenia is associated with an underlying disturbance in the GM-CSF responsive growth of myeloid progenitors committed to neutrophilic differentiation.
D G Wright, V F LaRussa, A J Salvado, R D Knight
Recently, angiotensin II (Ang II) has been shown to cause hypertrophy of cultured quiescent rat aortic smooth muscle (RASM) cells. This observation along with the demonstration of angiotensinogen mRNA in the vessel wall has led us to postulate a role for vascular angiotensin in hypertensive blood vessel hypertrophy. To investigate further the possible molecular mechanisms, we examined the effect of Ang II on the expression of two genes known to be involved with cellular growth response. Near-confluent RASM cells were made quiescent by 48-h exposure to a defined serum-free medium. Ang II (10(-6) to 10(-11) M) resulted in an induction of the protooncogene c-myc mRNA within 30 min which persisted for 6 h. Interestingly, 6 h after the addition of Ang II, platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) A-chain mRNA expression was elevated, peaked in 9 h, and persisted for 11 h. This was accompanied with a 15-20-fold increase in PDGF concentration in the culture medium. These effects were dose-dependent and were blocked by saralasin. Whereas the inhibition of protein synthesis by cycloheximide resulted in a stabilization of c-myc mRNA, cycloheximide abolished the elevation of the PDGF A-chain mRNA. Taken together, our data show that exposure of RASM cells to Ang II results in the sequential activation of c-myc and PDGF A-chain mRNA expressions. This sequential activation of protooncogene and growth factor gene may be an important mechanism in angiotensin-induced smooth muscle growth and hypertrophy.
A J Naftilan, R E Pratt, V J Dzau
Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) results from a deficiency of branched chain alpha-ketoacid dehydrogenase (BCKDH). We have studied the etiology of MSUD by determining the enzyme activity, protein, and mRNA levels of BCKDH in fibroblasts from a classic MSUD patient and his parents. By enzymatic amplification of the patient's mRNA followed by cloning and DNA sequencing, we have identified a T to A transversion that alters a tyrosine to an asparagine at residue 394 of the E1 alpha subunit. Amplification of both mRNA and genomic DNA, in combination with allele-specific oligonucleotide hybridization, demonstrated that the father was heterozygous for this mutant allele. The mother was homozygous for the allele encoding the normal Tyr394, but expressed only about half of the normal level of mRNA and protein. The patient was genetically heterozygous for this altered allele, although only the abnormal allele was expressed as mRNA. We conclude that the patient was a compound heterozygote, inheriting an allele encoding an abnormal E1 alpha from the father, and an allele from the mother containing a cis-acting defect in regulation which abolished the expression of one of the E1 alpha alleles. Our results revealed for the first time that a case of MSUD was caused by structural and regulatory mutations involving the E1 alpha subunit.
B Zhang, H J Edenberg, D W Crabb, R A Harris
We previously reported the identification of highly conserved homologous regions located in the carboxy terminus of the HIV I gp41-envelope (aa 837-844), and the amino-terminal of the beta chain of all human HLA class II antigens (aa 19-25). Murine monoclonal antibodies, raised against synthetic peptides from these homologous regions, bound not only to the isolated peptides, but also to the native gp160 and class II molecules. In this study one-third of sera from HIV I-infected individuals, at different disease stages, were found to react with both the gp41 and class II-derived peptides. These sera also reacted with "native" HLA class II molecules. The potential affects of such autoantibodies on normal immune functions were examined. It was found that in the presence of class II-cross-reactive (but not control) sera, the proliferative responses of normal CD4+ T cells to tetanus toxoid and allogeneic stimuli were markedly decreased. In addition, these sera could eliminate class II-bearing cells by antibody dependent cellular cytotoxicity. Similar affects were seen with affinity-purified IgG antibodies from patients' sera. Thus, the "molecular mimicry" between HIV I and HLA class II antigens, may lead to the generation of autoantibodies in HIV I-infected individuals that may contribute to the early functional impairment of CD4+ T cell observed in many HIV I-infected individuals.
H Golding, G M Shearer, K Hillman, P Lucas, J Manischewitz, R A Zajac, M Clerici, R E Gress, R N Boswell, B Golding
We previously reported that prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) at a physiologic concentration (10(-8) M) and interferon gamma (IFN gamma), acting sequentially, were required for the differentiation of suppressor cells in mitogen-stimulated cultures. The present study was designed to test whether PGE2 might mediate IFN gamma-dependent effects on CD8+ cells by altering the number and/or affinity of their IFN gamma receptors. CD8+ and CD4+ cells when cultured for 18 h expressed comparable numbers of IFN gamma receptors of a single high affinity. Incubation with 10(-8) M PGE2 for 18 h, however, increased the number of IFN gamma receptors on CD8+ cells without affecting the binding affinity. Similar effects were not observed with CD4+ cells, nor when CD8+ cells were cultured in 10(-8) M PGD2. Concentrations of PGE2, which were ineffective in the induction of IFN gamma-dependent suppressor cell differentiation, also did not affect IFN gamma receptor expression on CD8+ cells. This observation of a specific stimulatory effect of PGE2 on the display of IFN gamma receptors of CD8+ cells suggests a novel mechanism for eicosanoid function through tissue-specific regulation of hormone receptors.
M N elMasry, R R Rich