R A Lewis, K F Austen
Propylthiouracil (PTU) in maximally inhibitory doses for liver and kidney iodothyronine 5'-deiodinase activity (5'D-I), reduces extrathyroidal T4 to T3 conversion by only 60-70% in euthyroid rats. A second pathway of T4 to T3 conversion (5'D-II) has been found in pituitary, central nervous system, and brown adipose tissue. 5'D-II is insensitive to PTU and increases in hypothyroidism, whereas 5'D-I decreases in hypothyroid rats. Thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3) kinetics were assessed in euthyroid and thyroidectomized rats by noncompartmental analysis after injecting [125I]T4 and [131I]T3. Neither the volume of distribution nor the rate of fractional removal of plasma T4 was affected by the thyroid status, but the fractional removal rate of T3 was approximately 50% reduced in hypothyroid rats (P less than 0.001). Fractional T4 to T3 conversion was 22% in euthyroid and 26% in hypothyroid rats. In euthyroid rats, sufficient PTU to inhibit liver and kidney 5'D-I greater than 90% reduced serum [125I]T3 after [125I]T4 (results given as percent dose per milliliter X 10(-3) +/- SEM): 4 h, control 16 +/- 2 vs. PTU 4 +/- 1, P less than 0.005, and 22 h, control 6.4 +/- 0.4 vs. PTU 3.6 +/- 0.7, P less than 0.025. In thyroidectomized rats, the same dose of PTU also inhibited 5'D-I in liver and kidney, but had no effect on the generation of serum [125I]T3 from [125I]T4. Similarly, after 1 microgram T4/100 g bw was given to thyroidectomized rats, serum T3 (radioimmunoassay) increased by 0.30 +/- 0.6 ng/ml in controls and 0.31 +/- 0.09 ng/ml in PTU-treated rats. However, when the dose of T4 was increased to 2-10 micrograms/100 g bw, PTU pretreatment significantly reduced the increment in serum T3. T3 clearance was not affected by PTU in hypothyroid rats. The 5'D-II in brain, pituitary, and brown adipose tissue was reduced to less than or equal to 60% of control by 30 micrograms/100 g bw reverse T3 (rT3), an effect that lasted for at least 3 h after rT3 had been cleared. In rT3-pretreated thyroidectomized rats, the generation of [125I]T3 from tracer [125I]T4 was reduced in the serum: 6 +/- 1 vs. 12 +/- 1 X 10(-3)% dose/ml, P less than 0.01, during this 3-h period. We conclude that virtually all the T3 produced from low doses of exogenous T4 given to hypothyroid rats is generated via a PTU-insensitive pathway, presumably catalyzed by the 5'D-II. This is a consequence of the enhanced activity of this low Km enzyme together with the concomitant decrease in the hepatic and renal 5'D-I characteristic of the hypothyroid state. The results indicate that in some circumstances, 5D-II activity may contribute to the extracellular, as well as intracellular, T3 pool.
J E Silva, M B Gordon, F R Crantz, J L Leonard, P R Larsen
The objective of this investigation was to determine if thick ascending limb (TAL) solute removal is impaired in potassium-depleted rats, in vivo. We estimated TAL NaCl concentration by measuring in situ conductivity of tubular fluid presented to the early distal site after stop-flow periods of 10-60 s, during which a proximal equilibrium solution remained in contact with the reabsorbing epithelium. This allowed us to calculate the rate constant of the decrease in tubular fluid NaCl concentration and to determine equilibrium values for control, potassium-depleted, and potassium-repleted rats. After 60 s of stop-flow, NaCl concentration of TAL fluid decreased to 18.3 +/- 2.73 mM in control rats, while potassium-depleted rats had values almost twice as high (36.5 +/- 2.97 mM, P less than 0.01). The amount of NaCl remaining after 60 s of stop-flow in K-depleted rats was highly correlated with the plasma K concentration. Calculated rates of NaCl efflux from the TAL appeared to be normal in K-depleted rats while the concentration of NaCl achieved at equilibrium was nearly twice that measured in control rats. Acute systemic administration of KCl by gavage or infusion in K-depleted rats was associated with a decrease in TAL NaCl concentration to normal values. Addition of K to the perfusate, however, did not repair the defect. Our results can best be explained by assigning a special role to the peritubular K concentration. We suggest that the defect in TAL solute removal in K-depletion can be rapidly reversed, because decreases in peritubular K concentration limit Na efflux across the peritubular membrane by decreasing the activity of the Na-K-ATPase pump. We recognize that factors such as regional renal blood flow, local angiotensin II levels, and products of the cyclo-oxygenase enzyme system may play a role.
H U Gutsche, L N Peterson, D Z Levine
To elucidate the mechanisms controlling the response of glucagon to hypoglycemia, a vital component of the counterregulatory hormonal response, the role of intraislet insulin was studied in seven normal subjects and five subjects with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) (of less than 15-mo duration). In the normal subjects, hypoglycemia (arterial plasma glucose [PG] 53 +/- 3 mg/dl) induced by an intravenous insulin infusion (30 mU/m2 X min for 1 h, free immunoreactive insulin [FIRI] 58 +/- 2 microU/ml) elicited a 100% fall in insulin secretion and an integrated rise in glucagon of 7.5 ng/ml per 120 min. When endogenous insulin secretion was suppressed by congruent to 50 or congruent to 85% by a hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp (FIRI 63 +/- 1.5 or 147 +/- 0.3 microU/ml, respectively) before hypoglycemia, the alpha cell responses to hypoglycemia were identical to those of the control study. When the endogenous insulin secretion was stimulated by congruent to 100% (hyperinsulinemic-hyperglycemic clamp, FIRI 145 +/- 1.5 microU/ml, PG 132 +/- 2 mg/dl) before hypoglycemia, the alpha cell responses to the hypoglycemia were also superimposable on those of the control study. Finally, in C-peptide negative diabetic subjects made euglycemic by a continuous overnight intravenous insulin infusion, the alpha cell responses to hypoglycemia were comparable to those of normal subjects despite absent beta cell secretion, and were not affected by antecedent hyperinsulinemia (hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp for 2 h, FIRI 61 +/- 2 microU/ml). These results indicate that the glucagon response to insulin-induced hypoglycemia is independent of the level of both endogenous intraislet and exogenous arterial insulin concentration in normal man, and that this response may be normal in the absence of endogenous insulin secretion, in contrast to earlier reports. Thus, loss of beta cell function is not responsible for alpha cell failure during insulin-induced hypoglycemia in IDDM.
G Bolli, P De Feo, G Perriello, S De Cosmo, P Compagnucci, F Santeusanio, P Brunetti, R H Unger
We previously observed that osmoregulation and the osmotic threshold for antidiuretic hormone secretion were altered during pregnancy in Sprague-Dawley rats and the present study evaluated the influence of volume on arginine vasopressin (AVP) release during gestation in this species. Basal plasma osmolality (Posm) and intravascular volume were 297 +/- 3 mosmol/kg and 16.2 +/- 1.2 ml in virgin animals compared with 290 +/- 2 mosmol/kg and 20.2 +/- 2.3 ml in 14-d pregnant rats and 287 +/- 3 mosmol/kg and 25.2 +/- 2.3 ml in 21-d (near-term) pregnant rats (P less than 0.001, each pregnant group vs. virgin). Isosmotic volume depletion was produced by intraperitoneal polyethylene glycol. Volume decreased from 1 to 26% and blood pressure remained stable during decrements as high as 16%. Plasma AVP (PAVP) did not rise significantly in either group of pregnant animals or virgin controls until blood volume depletion reached 6-7%, after which levels rose in a similar exponential manner in virgin, 14-d, and 21-d pregnant animals. In terms of absolute changes, however, PAVP in gravid rats started to increase when intravascular volume was still considerably greater than basal blood volume in the nonpregnant controls. Other experiments, where Posm was increased by intraperitoneal hypertonic saline, reconfirmed that the osmotic threshold for AVP secretion was reduced congruent to 10 mosmol/kg during pregnancy and that AVP release was stimulated by increments in body tonicity as small as 1-2%. In parallel studies, blood volume contraction and increases in Posm were evoked by intraperitoneal polyethylene glycol dissolved in hypertonic saline and results compared with animals receiving intraperitoneal saline alone. Decrements in volume (congruent to 7%), which alone would increase PAVP minimally, increased the sensitivity of the secretory response to changes in osmolality two- to three-fold, an effect which was similar in virgin and gravid animals. Finally, restricting water intake of pregnant rats to that of virgins on days 16-20 of gestation led to suboptimal volume expansion, hypertonicity, and an exaggerated increase in PAVP. These results demonstrate that despite an intravascular space which at term is nearly twice that of virgin rats, pregnant animals secrete AVP in response to fractional volume depletion in a manner similar to nonpregnant controls; that is, the relationship between total blood volume and AVP secretion is altered during gestation such that the expanded blood volume is recognized as normal.
W M Barron, B A Stamoutsos, M D Lindheimer
Protein Z was purified from human plasma by a four-step procedure which included barium citrate adsorption, ammonium sulfate fractionation, DEAE-Sepharose chromatography, and blue agarose chromatography with a yield of 20%. It is a 62,000 mol wt protein with an extinction coefficient of 12.0. The concentration of Protein Z in pooled, citrated plasma is 2.2 micrograms/ml and its half-life in patients starting warfarin anticoagulation therapy is estimated to be less than 2.5 d. The NH2-terminal sequence is Ala-Gly-Ser-Tyr-Leu-Leu-(Gla)-(Gla)-Leu-Phe-(Gla)-Gly-Asn-Leu. Neither Protein Z nor its cleavage products, which were obtained by treatment of Protein Z with thrombin or plasmin, incorporated [3H]diisopropyl fluorophosphate. The physiological function of Protein Z remains unknown.
G J Broze Jr, J P Miletich
Acidic isoferritins, which under normal conditions are released from monocytes and macrophages, have a suppressive effect in vitro on granulocyte-macrophage, erythroid, and multipotential hematopoietic progenitor cells. Cell interactions modulating the release of acidic isoferritin-inhibitory activity (AIFIA) from human monocytes were investigated using the bone marrow granulocyte-macrophage progenitor cells as a target cell assay for assessing AIFIA. Monocytes, in the absence of T lymphocytes, released AIFIA when allowed to condition culture medium at 10(4) or higher concentrations of monocytes/ml. However, subpopulations of T lymphocytes modulated the release of AIFIA from monocytes. OKT8+- and OKT4+-T lymphocytes were obtained from E-rosette-positive lymphocytes by using T lymphocyte subset-specific monoclonal antibodies in either a complement-dependent cytotoxicity test to select negatively for the cells or by selection using a "panning" procedure. OKT8+-T lymphocytes suppressed completely and OKT4+-T lymphocytes enhanced the constitutive release of AIFIA from monocytes. OKT4+ lymphocytes also induced the release of AIFIA from concentrations of 10(3) monocytes/ml which did not release measurable amounts of AIFIA by themselves. The release of AIFIA from monocytes involved HLA-DR+-monocytes and -T lymphocytes. Pulsing monocytes with monoclonal antibodies to framework determinants on HLA-DR molecules, in the absence of complement, did not influence the constitutive release of AIFIA. Pulsing monocytes or T lymphocyte subpopulations with such antibodies, in the absence of complement, blocked the suppressing and inducing activities of the appropriate subpopulations of T lymphocytes. Monoclonal antibodies to common determinants shared by HLA-A, B, and C molecules did not block these cellular interactions. Treating monocytes and T lymphocytes in a complement-dependent cytotoxicity test with dilutions of the anti-HLA-DR antibodies that did not block the cellular interactions removed the populations of monocytes constitutively releasing AIFIA and the T lymphocyte subsets modulating this release. Modulation of the release of AIFIA from monocytes by T lymphocyte subpopulations required the use of autologous cells, cells from HLA-identical siblings, or unrelated donors matched for HLA-DR. Matching for only one HLA haplotype gave partial responses and this was seen in testing cells from related individuals as well as among unrelated test combinations. These cellular interactions were not detected with HLA-DR-incompatible cells differing for two HLA-DR antigens. Admixture of such HLA-DR- incompatible allogeneic cells did not interfere with the regulation of AIFIA release in the autologous cell interactions. Thus, release of AIFIA from monocytes is restricted genetically by HLA-DR at the level of T lymphocyte-monocyte interactions. The genetic determinants on the HLA-class II molecules that induce stimulation in vitro in mixed lymphocyte culture (i.e., HLA-D), however, were not involved in this effort.
H E Broxmeyer, L Juliano, L Lu, E Platzer, B Dupont
High molecular weight kininogen (HMW)-kininogen, the cofactor of contact-activated blood coagulation, accelerates the activation of Factor XII, prekallikrein, and Factor XI on a negatively charged surface. Although prekallikrein and Factor XI circulate as a complex with HMW-kininogen, no physical association has been demonstrated between Factor XII and HMW-kininogen, nor has the order of adsorption to surfaces of these proteins been fully clarified. In this report we explore the requirements for adsorption of HMW-kininogen to a clot-promoting surface (kaolin), in purified systems, as well as in normal plasma and plasma genetically deficient in each of the proteins of the contact system. The fraction of each coagulant protein associated with the kaolin pellet was determined by measuring the difference in coagulant activity between the initial sample and supernatants after incubation with kaolin, or by directly quantifying the amount of 125I-HMW-kininogen that was associated with the kaolin pellet. In normal plasma, the adsorption of HMW-kininogen to kaolin increased as the quantity of kaolin was increased in the incubation mixture. However, the HMW-kininogen in Factor XII-deficient plasma did not absorb appreciably to kaolin. Furthermore, the quantity of HMW-kininogen from prekallikrein-deficient plasma that adsorbed to kaolin was decreased as compared with normal plasma. These observations suggested that HMW-kininogen in plasma must be altered by a reaction involving both Factor XII and prekallikrein in order for HMW-kininogen to adsorb to kaolin, and to express its coagulant activity. Subsequently, the consequence of the inability of HMW-kininogen to associate with a negatively charged surface results in decreased surface activation. This assessment was derived from the further observation of the lack of prekallikrein adsorption and the diminished Factor XI adsorption in both Factor XII-deficient and HMW-kininogen-deficient plasmas, since these two zymogens (prekallikrein and Factor XI) are transported to a negatively charged surface in complex with HMW-kininogen. The percentage of HMW-kininogen coagulant activity that adsorbed to kaolin closely correlated (r = 0.98, slope = 0.97) with the amount of 125I-HMW-kininogen adsorbed, suggesting that adsorption of HMW-kininogen results in the expression of its coagulant activity. Since kallikrein, which is known to cleave HMW-kininogen, is generated when kaolin is added to plasma, we tested the hypothesis that proteolysis by kallikrein was responsible for the enhanced adsorption of HMW-kininogen to kaolin. When purified HMW-kininogen was incubated with purified kallikrein, its ability to absorb to kaolin increased with time of digestion until a maximum was reached. Moreover, (125)I-HMW-kininogen, after cleavage by kallikrein, had markedly increased affinity for kaolin than the uncleaved starting material. Furthermore, fibrinogen, at plasma concentration (3 mg/ml), markedly curtailed the adsorption of a mixture of cleaved and uncleaved HMW-kininogen to kaolin, but was unable to prevent fully cleaved HMW-kininogen from adsorbing to the kaolin. Addition of purified kallikrein to Factor XII-deficient plasma, which bypasses Factor XII-dependent contact-activation amplified the ability of its HMW-kininogen to adsorb to kaolin. These observations indicate that HMW-kininogen is a procofactor that is activated by kallikrein, a product of a reaction which it accelerates. This cleavage, which enhances its association with a clot-promoting surface in a plasma environment, is an event that is necessary for expression of its cofactor activity. These interactions would allow coordination of HMW-kininogen adsorption with the adsorption of Factor XII, which adsorbs independently of cleavage, to the same negatively charged surface.
C F Scott, L D Silver, M Schapira, R W Colman
The effect of rabbit vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) antiserum on in vitro relaxation of the lower esophageal sphincter (LES) was studied in 10 cats. The stomach and esophagus were opened along the lesser curvature of the stomach and stripped of mucosa. Consecutive strips were cut and mounted in a 2.5-ml muscle chamber. They were perfused with Tyrode's solution and oxygenated continuously. After equilibration for 1 h, perfusion was stopped and one strip from the lower esophageal sphincter region was incubated in solution that contained 12-25 parts of VIP antiserum per 1,000 to Tyrode's solution, while a second strip was incubated in a solution of normal rabbit serum at the same concentration. A third strip was maintained in Tyrode's solution for the duration of the experiment. After a 1-h incubation, the strips were stimulated with 6-s square wave trains of 0.1-, 0.2-, 0.4-, and 0.8-ms pulses at 1, 2, and 5 Hz. These stimulation parameters produced LES relaxation that was completely blocked by tetrodotoxin but not by atropine or phentolamine. The strips incubated in Tyrode's solution or in normal serum relaxed reliably and consistently at all levels of stimulation. In the antiserum-treated strips, LES relaxation in response to all stimuli was significantly inhibited. Strips treated with normal serum were relaxed in a dose-dependent fashion by 10(-7) and 10(-6) M VIP, whereas the antiserum inhibited the relaxation induced by 10(-7) M, but not by 10(-6) M, VIP. Stimulation with two successive 15-min trains of electrical pulses (2 ms, 5 Hz) separated by 30 min of rest released increasing amounts of VIP into the bathing solution. VIP released during the second train of electrical stimulation was significantly (P less than 0.05) greater than in control conditions. In the cat LES, VIP antiserum inhibits the relaxation induced by exogenous VIP or by electric stimulation of nonadrenergic, noncholinergic inhibitory nerves at a level that causes the release of VIP. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that VIP may be an inhibitory neurotransmitter responsible for LES relaxation.
P Biancani, J H Walsh, J Behar
Protein C activation by thrombin is significantly accelerated by the endothelial cell surface protein thrombomodulin, Factor Va, or its light chain. In this study we have compared the activation of protein C in the presence of either cofactor and examined the possibility that thrombomodulin and Factor Va-light chain act together to regulate protein C activation by thrombin. At all concentrations of protein C used, thrombomodulin was 20 times more efficient than Factor Va-light chain in accelerating protein C activation by thrombin. Protein C treated with chymotrypsin to remove the amino-terminal 41 amino acids that contain the gamma-carboxyglutamyl residues was activated by the thrombin-thrombomodulin complex at an identical rate to native protein C, whereas the modified protein C was activated by Factor Va-light chain and thrombin at only 5% of the rate obtained by using native protein C. Increasing concentrations of Factor Va-light chain, greater than or equal to 30 nM, inhibited thrombin-thrombomodulin catalyzed protein C activation with complete inhibition observed at 90 nM Factor Va-light chain. On the other hand, increasing thrombomodulin concentrations did not inhibit protein C activation by Factor Va-light chain and thrombin. These reactions in solution mimic, in part, those obtained on endothelial cells where protein C lacking the gamma-carboxyglutamyl domain is activated poorly and Factor Va-light chain at concentrations greater than 50 nM inhibited the activation of native protein C. The results of this study suggest that thrombomodulin and Factor Va-light chain may act in concert to regulate protein C activation by thrombin.
H H Salem, N L Esmon, C T Esmon, P W Majerus
Restricted tryptic digestion of erythrocyte spectrin at 4 degrees C followed by two-dimensional (isoelectric-focusing/sodium dodecyl sulfate) polyacrylamide electrophoresis yields highly reproducible maps of approximately 50 peptides with molecular weights between 80,000 and 12,000. Based on molecular weight and isoelectric point (pI), each unique alpha- and beta-subunit domain can be identified and compared with spectrin peptides from other individuals. The alpha-subunit of spectrin from 60 Caucasian donors contains a 46,000-mol-wt tryptic domain, called alpha II-T46, Type 1; more extensive tryptic digestion of this domain generates peptides with molecular weights of 35,000, 30,000, 25,000, and 16,000. Spectrin from 29 of 37 black donors representing 14 kindreds shows variation in the molecular weight and/or pI of peptides from the alpha II domain. In the most common form, Type 2, alpha II tryptic peptides are increased in molecular weight by 4,000, and the pI becomes more basic. Other alpha II variants are characterized by either the 4,000 increase in molecular weight (Type 3) or by the basic shift in pI (Type 4). When limit peptide maps of intermediate-sized tryptic and CNBr peptides from the alpha II-domain Types 1 and 2 are compared, a consistent alteration in the chromatographic mobility of one limit peptide is observed. Polymorphism in the alpha II subunit of spectrin did not itself produce anemia, nor did it appear to alter the expression of an underlying hereditary spherocytosis or elliptocytosis. In six family studies, the alpha II 46,000-mol-wt variations observed were consistent with Mendelian inheritance.
W J Knowles, M L Bologna, J A Chasis, S L Marchesi, V T Marchesi
Serum ionized calcium levels are lower and immunoreactive parathyroid hormone levels are higher in the spontaneously hypertensive (SH) rat than in the normotensive Wistar-Kyoto (WKy) control. We postulated that there is either a defect in the regulation of vitamin D metabolism by parathyroid hormone or that the gut target organ for vitamin D in the SH rat is unresponsive. To test these hypotheses we measured serum concentrations of vitamin D metabolites and intestinal transport of calcium and sodium. Compared with that of WKy controls, in vitro calcium transport by duodenal sacs of the SH rat was decreased (P less than 0.001) at 5 wk, before the development of hypertension, and at 12 wk, after hypertension was well established. When measured in vivo in the most proximal 20 cm of small intestine, maximum velocity (Vmax) for calcium transport was decreased (P less than 0.05) and net absorption of sodium and water was increased (P less than 0.05) in SH rats as compared with WKy rats. Vmax for calcium transport was also decreased (P less than 0.05) in the most distal 20 cm of small intestine of SH rats, but net sodium and water transport were the same in SH and WKy rats. At 12 wk, serum concentration of 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol [1,25-(OH)2D3] was the same in both SH and WKy groups, but its precursor, 25-hydroxycholecalciferol, was increased (P less than 0.05) in the SH rat. We conclude that in the SH rat: (a) the concentration of 1,25-(OH)2D3 is inappropriately low in relation to the elevated immunoreactive parathyroid hormone and the depressed calcium absorption, suggesting a defect in the regulation of vitamin D metabolism; and (b) the depressed calcium absorption, in the setting of normal concentrations of [1,25-(OH)2D3], demonstrates unresponsiveness of the gut to vitamin D and may explain in part the low serum ionized calcium found in earlier studies. The presence of these abnormalities before we found a significant difference in blood pressure suggests that they may be causal, not secondary, to the hypertension.
H P Schedl, D L Miller, J M Pape, R L Horst, H D Wilson
Cytomegalovirus (CMV) and other viruses within the herpes group have recently been shown to induce Fc receptors in infected monolayers. We have examined the possibility that such receptors might facilitate the adherence of antibody-coated bacteria to CMV-infected cells. To do this, we infected confluent human embryonic lung (HEL) cell monolayers with CMV (strain AD 169) and then used a double radiolabel assay to measure adherence of Escherichia coli 06 to both infected and control monolayers. We examined infected monolayers 48 h after viral seeding, at which time 30-60% of the cells exhibited characteristic cytopathic changes. We compared the adherence of untreated E. coli 06 with the adherence of E. coli 06 that had been preincubated for 1 h at 37 degrees C with either nonimmune or anti-E. coli 06 antiserum. Pretreatment of the E. coli 06 with specific antiserum significantly enhanced its adherence to CMV-infected, but not to control, monolayers (P less than 0.01 by the Mann-Whitney U test). We did not see such enhancement when we used anti-E. coli 06 antiserum to treat a nontypable E. coli. The augmented adherence of antibody-coated E. coli 06 to CMV-infected monolayers was abrogated by pretreating the monolayers with nonimmune serum or purified Fc fragments, but not by pretreating with IgA, IgM, or 1 mM trypan blue. Preincubating HEL cell monolayers with 100 U/ml human leukocyte interferon for 72 h at 37 degrees C did not affect the adherence of antibody-coated E. coli 06 to the monolayers. To determine if antibody-coated bacteria that adhered to the surface of CMV-infected monolayers might themselves act as receptors for microorganisms with Fc binding potential, we compared the adherence of Cowan strain Staphylococcus aureus to CMV-infected and control monolayers that had been preincubated with antibody-coated E. coli 06. The S. aureus adhered significantly better to the former monolayers (P less than 0.001). These results illustrate a previously unrecognized mechanism by which certain herpesviruses might enhance the adherence of secondary pathogens to nonphagocytic cell populations. Such a mechanism, if active in vivo, might facilitate the colonization of mucosal surfaces by these pathogenic microorganisms, and in this way might contribute to both the reported predisposition of CMV-infected patients to secondary infections and to the high prevalence of S. aureus in the vaginal flora of women with histories of genital herpes.
P A Mackowiak, M Marling-Cason, J W Smith, J P Luby
Human low density lipoprotein (LDL, d = 1.020-1.050 g/ml) inhibits mitogen-stimulated T lymphocyte DNA synthesis. Because both LDL and transferrin bind to specific cell surface receptors and enter cells by the similar means of receptor-mediated endocytosis, and because transferrin is necessary for lymphocyte DNA synthesis, we investigated the possibility that LDL may inhibit mitogen-stimulated lymphocyte responses by interfering with transferrin metabolism. LDL inhibited mitogen-stimulated lymphocyte [3H]thymidine incorporation in a concentration-dependent manner. The degree of inhibition was most marked in serum-free cultures, but was also observed in serum-containing cultures. The addition of transferrin not only augmented mitogen-induced lymphocyte [3H]thymidine incorporation in serum-free medium but also completely reversed the inhibitory effect of LDL in both serum-free and serum-containing media. Similar results were obtained when lymphocyte proliferation was assayed by counting the number of cells in culture. Transferrin also reversed the inhibition of lymphocyte responses caused by very low density lipoproteins and by cholesterol. The ability of transferrin to reverse the inhibitory effect of lipoproteins was specific, in that native but not denatured transferrin was effective whereas a variety of other proteins were ineffective. These results indicate that LDL inhibits mitogen-stimulated lymphocyte responses by interfering with transferrin metabolism. LDL only inhibited lymphocyte responses after a 48-h incubation if present from the initiation of the culture. By contrast, transferrin reversed inhibition when added after 24 h of the 48-h incubation. LDL did not inhibit lymphocyte responses by nonspecifically associating with transferrin. In addition, the acquisition of specific lymphocyte transferrin receptors was not blocked by LDL. Moreover, transferrin did not prevent the binding and uptake of fluorescent-labeled LDL by activated lymphocytes. Furthermore, LDL did not prevent the binding of transferrin to its receptor. Finally, LDL inhibition did not require specific high affinity cell surface receptors for cholesterol transport by LDL because similar inhibition and reversal by transferrin were observed with lymphocytes from a patient with homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia. Thus, LDL alters lymphocyte responses in a non-LDL receptor-mediated way by interfering with transferrin metabolism after specific binding of transferrin to receptors on activated lymphocytes.
J A Cuthbert, P E Lipsky
The effects of chronic uremia and glucagon administration on glucagon-stimulable adenylyl cyclase in rat liver were assessed by determinations of adenylyl cyclase activities, specific iodoglucagon binding, and the activity of the stimulatory regulatory component of adenylyl cyclase. Glucagon-stimulated adenylyl cyclase was reduced in uremia to 75-80% of control levels (P less than 0.05), in the presence or absence of saturating levels of guanosine triphosphate (GTP) and 5'-guanylylimidodiphosphate [GMP-P(NH)P]. Although these changes were accompanied by a concomitant 20% reduction in sodium fluoride-stimulated activity, basal, GTP-, GMP-P(NH)P-, and manganese-dependent adenylyl cyclase activities were unchanged. Using [125I-Tyr10]monoiodoglucagon as a receptor probe, the number of high affinity glucagon-binding sites was reduced 28% (P less than 0.01) in uremic as compared with control liver membranes. However, the affinity of these binding sites was unaltered. The S49 cyc- -reconstituting activity with respect to both GMP-P(NH)P- and isoproterenol plus GTP-stimulable adenylyl cyclase was unaltered in membranes from uremic as compared with control rats. Intermittent glucagon (80-100 micrograms) injections administered at 8-h intervals to normal rats reproduced all of the above described effects of chronic experimental uremia on the adenylyl cyclase system. It is concluded that changes in the hormone-stimulable adenylyl cyclase complex in uremia and with glucagon treatment result primarily from a decrease in the number of hormone-specific receptor sites in hepatic plasma membranes. Since the changes in liver adenylyl cyclase are qualitatively and quantitatively the same in glucagon-treated and uremic rats, it is suggested that these may be the result of the hyperglucagonemia of uremia. Further, the data reveal an unexpected dissociation between guanine nucleotide and sodium fluoride stimulation of adenylyl cyclase. Possible causes for this dissociation based on the known subunit composition of cyclase coupling proteins are discussed.
R R Dighe, F J Rojas, L Birnbaumer, A J Garber
Glucagon receptor levels, glucagon-stimulated and other forms of adenylyl cyclase activity, and regulatory component activity of adenylyl cyclase were determined in hepatic plasma membranes of rats administered streptozotocin without and with insulin to produce varying degrees of hyperglycemia. Receptor levels were assayed by direct binding of the specific probe [125I-Tyr10]-iodoglucagon; regulatory component activity was assayed by the capacity to reconstitute stimulatory regulation in deficient membranes from cyc- S49 murine lymphoma cells. In rats given 150 mg streptozotocin, glucagon stimulation of adenylyl cyclase as well as basal, sodium fluoride, 5' guanylylimidodiphosphate [GMP-P(NH)P] and Mn-dependent activities were reduced 50%, glucagon receptor levels but not affinity were reduced 67%, and regulatory component activity was decreased 50%. In addition, alpha 1-adrenergic receptors and 5'-nucleotidase were similarly reduced in diabetes. However, specific ouabain-inhibitable Na+, K+, ATPase activity was not altered by streptozotocin treatment. The streptozotocin-induced changes were noted within 24 h and became maximal by 120 h after its administration. All of these decreases were partially reversed by in vivo insulin treatment. DNA, cytochrome c oxidase, glucose-6-phosphatase, and N-acetyl-beta-glucosaminidase content in hepatic plasma membrane preparations were not substantially different in diabetic as compared with control animals. The data demonstrate that glucagon-mediated regulation of cyclic AMP formation is deranged in insulin deficiency owing to a combined decrease in receptors, derangement of the coupling mechanism intervening between receptor and adenylyl cyclase, and possibly, an altered basal effector system. Some of these changes appear to reflect a "desensitization-like" phenomenon which may or may not be attributable to the hyperglucagonemia of diabetes mellitus. There also appears to be a concurrent generalized decrease in several but not all plasma membrane receptor and enzymatic proteins. This may be the result of a number of processes among which is the accelerated proteolysis of uncontrolled diabetes.
R R Dighe, F J Rojas, L Birnbaumer, A J Garber
A new apolipoprotein E (apo E) phenotype has been demonstrated in a Finnish hypertriglyceridemic subject (R.M.). At the time of this study, R.M.'s plasma triglyceride and cholesterol levels were 1,021 and 230 mg/dl, respectively. The subject's apo E isoelectric focusing pattern was characterized by two major bands, one in the E3 position and the other in the E1 position. Normally the E1 position is occupied by sialylated derivatives of apo E4, E3, or E2. The E1 band of subject R.M. is not a sialylated form, however, because it was not affected by neuraminidase digestion. The identity of the E1 variant as a genetically determined structure was established by amino acid and partial sequence analyses, confirming that the variant is an example of a previously uncharacterized apo E phenotype, E3/1. Both cysteamine modification and amino acid analysis demonstrated that this variant contains two cysteine residues per mole. Sequence analysis of two cyanogen bromide fragments and one tryptic fragment of the apo E3/1 showed that it differs from E2(Arg158----Cys) at residue 127, where an aspartic acid residue is substituted for glycine. This single amino acid interchange is sufficient to account for the one-charge difference observed on isoelectric focusing gels between E2(Arg158----Cys) and the E1 variant. The variant has been designated E1 (Gly127----Asp, Arg158----Cys). When compared with apo E3, the E1 variant demonstrated reduced ability to compete with 125I-LDL for binding to LDL (apo B,E) receptors on cultured fibroblasts (approximately 4% of the amount of binding of apo E3). This defective binding is similar to that of E2-(Arg158----Cys). Therefore, the binding defect of the variant is probably due to the presence of cysteine at residue 158, rather than aspartic acid at residue 127. In contrast, the apo E3 isoform from this subject demonstrated normal binding activity, indicating that it has a normal structure. In family studies, the vertical transmission of the apo E1 variant has been established. It is not yet clear, however, if the hypertriglyceridemia observed in the proband is associated with the presence of the E1(Gly127----Asp, Arg158----Cys) variant.
K H Weisgraber, S C Rall Jr, T L Innerarity, R W Mahley, T Kuusi, C Ehnholm
The present experiments were designed to localize the sites of carbonic anhydrase-independent bicarbonate reabsorption in the rat kidney and to examine some of its mechanisms. Young Munich-Wistar rats were studied using standard cortical and papillary free-flow micropuncture techniques. Total CO2 (tCO2) was determined using microcalorimetry. In control rats both superficial and juxtamedullary proximal nephrons reabsorbed approximately 95% of the filtered load of bicarbonate. The administration of acetazolamide (20 mg/kg body weight [bw]/h) decreased proximal reabsorption to 65.6% of the filtered load in superficial nephrons (32% was reabsorbed by the proximal convoluted tubule while 31.7% was reabsorbed by the loop segment), and to 38.4% in juxtamedullary nephrons. Absolute reabsorption of bicarbonate was also significantly higher in superficial than in juxtamedullary nephrons after administration of acetazolamide (727 +/- 82 vs. 346 +/- 126 pmol/min; P less than 0.05). The infusion of amiloride (2.5 mg/kg bw/h) to acetazolamide-treated rats increased the fractional excretion of bicarbonate as compared with animals treated with acetazolamide alone (34.9 +/- 1.9 vs. 42.9 +/- 2.1%; P less than 0.01), and induced net addition of bicarbonate between the superficial early distal tubule and the final urine (34.8 +/- 3.0 vs. 42.9 +/- 2.1%; P less than 0.05). Amiloride at this dose did not affect proximal water or bicarbonate transport; our studies localize its site of action to the terminal nephron. Vasa recta (VR) plasma and loop of Henle (LH) tubular fluid tCO2 were determined in control and acetazolamide-treated rats in order to identify possible driving forces for carbonic anhydrase-independent bicarbonate reabsorption in the rat papilla. Control animals showed a tCO2 gradient favoring secretion (LH tCO2, 7.4 +/- 1.7 mM vs. VR tCO2, 19.1 +/- 2.3 mM; P less than 0.005). Acetazolamide administration reversed this chemical concentration gradient, inducing a driving force favoring reabsorption of bicarbonate (LH tCO2, 27.0 +/- 1.4 mM vs. VR tCO2, 20.4 +/- 1.0 mM; P less than 0.005). Our study shows that in addition to the superficial proximal convoluted tubule, the loop segment and the collecting duct show acetazolamide-insensitive bicarbonate reabsorption. No internephron heterogeneity for bicarbonate transport was found in controls. The infusion of acetazolamide, however, induced significant internephron heterogeneity for bicarbonate reabsorption, with superficial nephrons reabsorbing a higher fractional and absolute load of bicarbonate than juxtamedullary nephrons. We think that the net addition of bicarbonate induced by amiloride is secondary to inhibition of voltage-dependent, carbonic anhydrase-independent bicarbonate reabsorption at the level of the collecting duct, which uncovers a greater delivery of carbonate from deeper nephrons to the collecting duct. Finally, our results suggest that carbonic anhydrase-independent bicarbonate reabsorption is partly passive, driven by favorable chemical gradients in the papillary tubular structures, and partly voltage-dependent, in the collecting duct.
J P Frommer, M E Laski, D E Wesson, N A Kurtzman
Cellular injury induced by reperfusion after myocardial ischemia is manifested by striking mitochondrial damage as well as other hallmarks such as contraction band necrosis. Calcium has been implicated as a mediator of irreversible cellular injury in several systems. To identify other potential mediators of the mitochondrial injury associated with reperfusion, interactions between inorganic phosphate, oxygen, and mitochondria harvested from rabbit hearts were evaluated in vitro. Mitochondria exhibited rapid inactivation of oxidative phosphorylation after preincubation at 25 degrees C when phosphate and oxygen were present. Inactivation was partially but not completely precluded by EDTA, EGTA, magnesium, diltiazem, or ruthenium red, results in concert with findings of others suggesting involvement of a deleterious influx of calcium into mitochondria; exogenous calcium enhanced inactivation. However, the present data indicate that inactivation is prevented by incubation of mitochondria in the absence of oxygen, and demonstrate for the first time that injury elicited by phosphate is dependent on oxygen at physiological concentrations either because calcium and/or phosphate influx is linked to aerobic metabolism or because oxygen exerts deleterious effects on mitochondria, which may render them particularly susceptible to calcium influx. Since intracellular inorganic phosphate concentration increases markedly with ischemia, reperfusion with oxygenated medium may paradoxically augment mitochondrial injury in this setting. Thus, in the presence of increased intracellular concentrations of calcium and phosphate induced by ischemia, subsequent reestablishment of physiological levels of intracellular oxygen tension may promote mitochondrial damage, which is known to increase with reperfusion.
L G Lange, M Hartman, B E Sobel
This study investigated whether charge sites in the walls of the microvasculature may play a role in maintaining the impermeability of the nonrenal capillaries to albumin. All experiments were performed in nephrectomized rats, studied in the awake state. The intravenous injection of protamine sulfate (4 mg/100 g body wt dissolved in 0.9% saline) was followed by a mean increase of 29.1% in hematocrit and a decrease of 28.4% in plasma albumin concentration over a 10-min period, indicating a significant 50-60% loss of albumin from the vascular space; a finding confirmed by studies using exogenous 125I-labeled albumin. Changes persisted for the remaining 80 min of observation, and could be reproduced by the injection of two other polycations, hexadimethrine and poly-l-lysine. These effects were not prevented by the antihistamine diphenhydramine hydrochloride. In contrast to 125I-labeled albumin, 14C-labeled neutral dextran of comparable size was not confined to the vascular space; its apparent volume of distribution progressively increased during the 90 min of observation. Intravenous injection of protamine sulfate was followed by a significantly smaller loss of 14C-dextran (36.5%) than albumin (59.1%) from the vascular space (P less than 0.01). Protamine sulfate could not be demonstrated to result in any changes in the physicochemical characteristics of albumin. These observations suggest that the negative charge sites present in nonglomerular capillary walls have functions similar to equivalent sites present in the glomerular capillaries. Thus, charge sites could contribute to the low permeability of the microvasculature to negatively charged macromolecules such as albumin. This may be an important mechanism for retaining albumin in the vascular space and preventing edema formation in health.
V M Vehaskari, C T Chang, J K Stevens, A M Robson
The alterations of stimulus-induced membrane potential changes, superoxide (O2-)-producing capacity and phagocytic activity during differentiation of human granulocytes were investigated in the human leukemia cell lines HL-60 and KG-1 differentiating in vitro and in human leukemic granulocytes obtained from chronic myelogenous leukemia patients. HL-60 cells incubated with dimethyl sulfoxide or with retinoic acid showed progressively increasing O2- production as well as membrane potential changes (depolarization) on contact with phorbol myristate acetate or the chemotactic peptide N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine, with a concomitant increase in the proportion of mature cells of the granulocytic type. Phagocytosis of latex particles, yeast, and oil droplets appeared 24 h after incubation with dimethyl sulfoxide and anteceded the increment of O2- production and membrane potential changes, both of which appeared concomitantly 3 d after incubation with dimethyl sulfoxide. Similar findings were observed when immature and mature granulocytes obtained from chronic myelogenous leukemia patients were stimulated by phorbol ester, the chemotactic peptide, or calcium ionophore A23187, and the amount of O2- production was parallel to the magnitude of membrane potential changes. HL-60 and KG-1 cells incubated for 1-6 d with phorbol myristate acetate showed neither O2- production nor membrane potential changes on contact with phorbol ester, chemotactic peptide, or A23187, although such cells resembled macrophages morphologically, and their phagocytic activity was significantly increased. O2- production and membrane potential changes in normal granulocytes induced by phorbol ester, chemotactic peptide and A23187 were inhibited by 2-deoxyglucose. These findings indicate that the O2--producing system and the system provoking membrane potential changes may develop concomitantly as human granulocytes mature and differentiate, and that the development of these systems and of phagocytic activity may be independently regulated.
S Kitagawa, M Ohta, H Nojiri, K Kakinuma, M Saito, F Takaku, Y Miura
We investigated the ability of purified, recombinant DNA-derived interferons (IFN) to induce phenotypic changes in cells of the HL-60 promyelocytic leukemia cell line. Changes in cell surface markers detected by monoclonal antibodies as well as morphologic, histochemical, and functional changes were monitored. We found that gamma-IFN, but not alpha- or beta-IFN, induced the expression of antigens characteristic of monocytes and granulocytes (AML-2-23, 63D3, and 61D3), as well as changes in morphology consistent with monocytoid differentiation. These included induction of alpha-naphthyl acetate esterase, increased cell size, and a decrease in azurophilic granules. The gamma-IFN dose dependency and time course of the effect on antigen expression suggest that de novo protein synthesis was induced by gamma-IFN. The activity of gamma-IFN and of mixed-lymphocyte culture supernatant was blocked by a monoclonal antibody to gamma-IFN. Significant augmentation in the ability of the HL-60 cells to mediate antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity was induced by gamma-IFN. These findings suggest that gamma-IFN plays a role in the regulation of hematopoiesis.
E D Ball, P M Guyre, L Shen, J M Glynn, C R Maliszewski, P E Baker, M W Fanger
The migration and concentration of lymphocytes at sites of antigenic challenge are an integral part of the expression of delayed cutaneous hypersensitivity, as well as of tumor and graft rejection. In this study, we have analyzed the migration of T lymphocytes from patients with malignancy. We used casein and concanavalin A (Con A)-stimulated mononuclear cell supernatants to stimulate T cell locomotion. Peripheral blood T lymphocytes from 30 patients with established malignancy, 10 patients with indolent malignancy or benign tumor, and 42 normal adult controls were tested. Data are expressed as a migration index (MI), which represents the difference in micrometers between the distance migrated in response to a stimulus and the distance migrated in response to media alone. We observed a marked depression in casein-stimulated T lymphocyte migration in patients with established malignancy (mean MI +/- 1 SD = 17.0 +/- 9 microns) as compared with normal adult controls (mean MI +/- 1 SD = 35.3 +/- 10 microns). Similar results were observed with migration in response to Con A supernatants. T cells from patients with established malignancy had a mean MI of 5.8 +/- 4 microns to Con A supernatants as compared with 24.5 +/- 5 for controls. This depressed migration was apparent both in the distance that cells migrated and in the number of cells that migrated into the membrane. Of 10 patients with indolent malignancy or benign tumor, T cell migration in 8 was not significantly decreased as compared with controls. When we mixed equal concentrations of normal control T lymphocytes with T lymphocytes from patients with cancer and added the mixture directly to the upper compartment of the chemotaxis chamber, the response of the normal T cells to casein was inhibited by an average of 48%. We observed inhibition of this migration of normal cells when we added as little as 10% of patient cells to normal cells. When we mixed normal control T lymphocytes from different donors and added them directly to the upper compartment of the chemotaxis chamber, T lymphocyte migration in response to casein was not significantly altered. If T cells from patients with cancer were cultured overnight, the suppressive effect on lymphocyte locomotion was lost. Our results indicate that there is a population of T lymphocytes in patients with cancer that suppress normal T lymphocyte migration. This suppressor activity may partially explain the subversion of immunosurveillance in established neoplastic states, as well as the defective inflammatory reaction to intradermal injection of antigen observed in many patients with malignancy.
D G Hesse, D J Cole, D E Van Epps, R C Williams Jr
To explore the effect of physiologic hypertrophy superimposed on pathologic hypertrophy, hearts from female control rats (C), renal hypertensive rats (H), rats conditioned with a 10-12 wk swimming program (Sw), and hypertensive rats trained by the swimming program (H-Sw) were perfused in an isolated working rat-heart apparatus. Systolic blood pressure was approximately 100 mmHg in C and Sw and was 160 mmHg in H and H-Sw. The swimming program had no effect on blood pressure. Compared with C, heart weight was increased by 30% in Sw, 47% in H, and 77% in H-Sw. At high preload and afterload, cardiac output (milliliters per gram dry LV weight) was decreased in H, increased in Sw, and partially restored towards normal in H-Sw. Ejection fraction, percent fractional shortening, and mean velocity of circumferential fiber shortening were enhanced in Sw, depressed in H, and normalized in H-Sw when compared with C. Coronary flow and myocardial oxygen consumption in this series of hearts were depressed in H, with no restoration in H-Sw, but coronary effluent lactate/pyruvate ratios were only elevated in the hearts of H-Sw. Coronary vascular responses were examined in a second series of experiments which used microspheres. In this series, the depressed coronary flow observed in H was partially restored towards normal in H-Sw and the inner/outer myocardial flow ratio was normal when hearts were perfused at 140 cm aortic pressure but was somewhat depressed in both H and H-Sw when the hearts were perfused at 80 cm aortic pressure. These studies demonstrate that hypertrophic hearts from renal hypertensive rats have diminished coronary flow and depressed cardiac function when they are studied in the isolated working heart apparatus, yet there is no evidence of myocardial ischemia. Superimposition of a chronic swimming program results in increased hypertrophy but restoration of cardiac function partially or completely to normal. Thus, pathologic and physiologic hypertrophy are biologically distinct entities. Physiologic hypertrophy may partially ameliorate the defects associated with pathologic hypertrophy.
T F Schaible, G J Ciambrone, J M Capasso, J Scheuer
Dihydrotestosterone-receptor complexes formed in human fibroblast cytosol prepared at 0 degrees C in the presence of sodium molybdate can be readily transformed to the DNA-binding state by heating at 25 degrees C. Under these conditions 50-70% of dihydrotestosterone-receptor complexes bind to DNA. We describe here studies of the transformation process in cytosols derived from normal cells and from fibroblasts propagated from subjects with syndromes of androgen resistance. In contrast to the situation with dihydrotestosterone, normal testosterone-receptor complexes are unstable under in vitro transforming conditions. Although equal amounts of hormone-receptor complex are formed at 0 degrees C, only 15% of testosterone-receptor complexes remain stable and acquire DNA-binding capacity after warming. This instability is not reversible upon lowering the temperature and is corrected by low concentrations (0.25 microM) of the protease inhibitor leupeptin. We have also identified two cousins with androgen resistance whose androgen-receptor complexes exhibit similar in vitro transformation lability with both dihydrotestosterone and testosterone. Phenotypic evidence in these subjects indicates that dihydrotestosterone-mediated processes are more completely impaired than are testosterone-mediated events. These findings suggest that dihydrotestosterone may amplify the androgenic signal at its targets not only by its higher affinity for the receptor but also by its more efficient conversion to the DNA-binding state and that such amplification may be less critical in target tissues in which testosterone suffices for androgenic effect. This offers one possible explanation of how a mutation that affects a single receptor protein may differentially impair the actions of two binding ligands of the receptor.
W J Kovacs, J E Griffin, D D Weaver, B R Carlson, J D Wilson
An important determinant of platelet-vessel wall interactions is the local balance of production of endothelial prostacyclin (PGI2) and platelet thromboxane (TX) A2, labile eicosanoids with opposing effects on hemostasis. Disputed evidence suggests that platelet-derived prostaglandin endoperoxide intermediates may be utilized as substrates for vascular PGI2 synthesis. Using several different approaches, we have found that platelets can transfer endoperoxides to cultured endothelial cells for efficient conversion to PGI2, but a reciprocal transfer of endothelial endoperoxides for utilization by platelet thromboxane synthetase does not occur under the same experimental conditions. However, platelets can utilize arachidonic acid released by endothelial cells for lipoxygenase metabolism. We have directly demonstrated the production of [3H]6-keto-PGF1 alpha (the breakdown product of [3H]PGI2) by aspirin-treated endothelial cells in the presence of platelets stimulated with [3H]arachidonic acid. In coincubation experiments using either arachidonate or ionophore A23187 as a stimulus, radioimmunoassay of the net production of arachidonic acid metabolites showed that 6-keto-PGF1 alpha generation by aspirin-treated endothelial cells in the presence of platelets may actually exceed its generation by uninhibited endothelial cells alone. In functional assays, platelet aggregation was inhibited in the presence of aspirin-treated endothelial cells after stimulation with either arachidonate or ionophore A23187. In contrast, the inverse experiments, using aspirin-treated platelets and uninhibited endothelial cells, failed to demonstrate platelet utilization of endothelial endoperoxides for TXA2 production by any of the above methods. These studies thus provide evidence that efficient unidirectional transfer and utilization of platelet-derived endoperoxides for endothelial PGI2 production can occur. This process may serve to amplify PGI2 generation adjacent to areas of vascular injury and permit tight localization of platelet plug formation at these sites.
A I Schafer, D D Crawford, M A Gimbrone Jr
Pemphigus vulgaris is an autoimmune disease associated with an autoantibody directed against a keratinocyte membrane antigen. The purpose of this study was to purify the human pemphigus vulgaris antigen, to produce an antibody to this antigen, and to use the antibody to induce pemphigus in newborn mice. Various techniques to extract the membrane-rich pellet from human epidermal homogenate were compared; 1% sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and 1% dimethylsulfoxide proved to be superior to extract the pemphigus vulgaris antigen. This antigen was identified by transfer blotting to nitrocellulose paper, incubated with pemphigus vulgaris serum, or 20 control sera, and detected with fluorescein labeled antisera to human IgG. Since concanavalin A inhibits the binding of pemphigus vulgaris antibody to tissue sections, we studied the binding of the extracted proteins to concanavalin A covalently coupled to Sepharose. Pemphigus vulgaris antigen bound to the concanavalin A column and was released by 0.02 M methyl alpha-D-mannopyranoside. The proteins thus recovered were subjected to AcA 54 gel permeation chromatography, and the pemphigus antigen was detected by the transfer blot assay. The antigen corresponded to a discrete peak at 66,000 D by gel permeation and gave one homogeneous band at 33,000 D in urea-SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Monospecific antibody to the antigen raised in rabbits stained human epidermis in the same manner as the pemphigus vulgaris autoantibody and induced pemphigus vulgaris in newborn mice when injected intraperitoneally. A pemphigus vulgaris antigen has been purified from adult human epidermis. It is a 66,000-D membrane glycoprotein that is composed of two apparently identical subunits of 33,000 D each.
L L Peterson, K D Wuepper
The relationships between fluid shear stress, a physiologically relevant mechanical force in the circulatory system, and pinocytosis (fluid-phase endocytosis) were investigated in cultured bovine aortic endothelial cells using a specially designed apparatus. Continuous exposure to steady shear stresses (1-15 dyn/cm2) in laminar flow stimulated time- and amplitude-dependent increases in pinocytotic rate which returned to control levels after several hours. After 48 h continuous exposure to steady shear stress, removal to static conditions also resulted in a transient increase in pinocytotic rate, suggesting that temporal fluctuations in shear stress may influence endothelial cell function. Endothelial pinocytotic rates remained constant during exposure to rapidly oscillating shear stress at near physiological frequency (1 Hz) in laminar flow. In contrast, however, a sustained elevation of pinocytotic rate occurred when cells were subjected to fluctuations in shear stress amplitude (3-13 dyn/cm2) of longer cycle time (15 min), suggesting that changes in blood flow of slower periodicity may influence pinocytotic vesicle formation. As determined by [3H]thymidine autoradiography, neither steady nor oscillating shear stress stimulated the proliferation of confluent endothelial cells. These observations indicate that: (a) alterations in fluid shear stress can significantly influence the rate of formation of pinocytotic vesicles in vascular endothelial cells, (b) this process is force- and time-dependent and shows accommodation, (c) certain patterns of fluctuation in shear stress result in sustained elevation of pinocytotic rate, and (d) shear stresses can modulate endothelial pinocytosis independent of growth stimulation. These findings are relevant to (i) transendothelial transport and the metabolism of macromolecules in normal endothelium and (ii) the role of hemodynamic factors in the localization of atherosclerotic lesions in vivo.
P F Davies, C F Dewey Jr, S R Bussolari, E J Gordon, M A Gimbrone Jr
To investigate the greater enzymatic activity of the alternative pathway convertase (and the subsequent greater fixation of C3b) on paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) erythrocytes, we have examined the topography of binding of C3b to PNH and normal erythrocytes. Using sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and autoradiography, the alpha-chain of C3b was found to bind via predominantly ester bonds to free hydroxyl groups on glycophorin-alpha, the major erythrocyte sialoglycoprotein. The pattern of binding of nascent C3b was the same for normal and PNH erythrocytes. Thus, although C3b binding to a different membrane constituent did not appear to account for the greater enzymatic activity of the alternative pathway convertase when affixed to PNH erythrocytes, it seemed possible that the glycoproteins to which C3b bound might be qualitatively abnormal on the PNH cells, and that structural differences in these molecules might impose modifications in the enzyme-substrate interactions of the alternative pathway convertase. Using methods for radiolabeling both protein and carbohydrate residues, we therefore compared the electrophoretic pattern of the cell-surface glycoproteins on PNH and normal erythrocytes. The glycophorin-alpha dimer was found to be qualitatively abnormal on the PNH cells as evidenced by its greater susceptibility to trypsin-mediated proteolysis. In addition, the abnormal erythrocytes from patients with PNH had fewer periodate oxidizable constituents than did normal erythrocytes, indicating a relative deficiency of cell-surface sialic acid. These investigations suggest that abnormalities in membrane glycoproteins may underlie the aberrant interactions of complement with the hematopoietic elements of PNH.
C J Parker, C M Soldato, W F Rosse
Renin biosynthesis was studied in a juxtaglomerular cell tumor. The tumoral tissue had a high renin content (180 Goldblatt Units/g of tissue), was heavily stained by immunofluorescence using human renin antiserum, and exhibited numerous characteristic secretory granules by electron microscopy. In one series of experiments, renin biosynthesis was studied in tissue slices, by following the incorporation of radiolabeled amino acids into specific immunoprecipitable renin. Time course studies showed that renin was first synthesized in a high molecular weight form, 55,000 mol wt, i.e., 10,000 mol wt higher than that of active renin, and was then converted into a 44,000-mol wt form. In a second series of experiments renin tumoral cells were cultured. Small, round, birefringent cells obtained after collagenase digestion produced renin in both primary culture and subculture media. After 5 d most of the renin found in the culture medium was inactive, but could be activated by trypsin treatment. The tumoral tissue exhibited a strong renin immunofluorescence and numerous secretory granules were observed by electron microscopy. In contrast, the renin-producing cells isolated from this tumor and grown in culture showed little renin immunofluorescence and no secretory granule could be observed. The renin-producing cells in primary culture and subculture were pulsed with radiolabeled amino acids, and immunoprecipitable radiolabeled renin was found in the culture media, thus demonstrating the actual biosynthesis of the enzyme. This renin was not stored inside cultured cells but was rapidly released into the medium and had a molecular weight of 55,000. No conversion of this inactive high molecular weight renin into the active, 44,000 mol wt form of renin was observed. We postulate the existence of two pathways for the processing, packaging, and secretion of renin in the tumoral cells: in juxtaglomerular cells of tumoral tissue renin is synthesized as a preprorenin and rapidly converted into prorenin (55,000 mol wt), which is in turn packaged in secretory granules where it is processed into active renin (44,000 mol wt) and finally secreted; in the cultured tumoral cells renin is still biosynthesized as a preprorenin molecule and then converted into prorenin, but is neither stored as granules nor processed into active renin. In this case the renin is released in an inactive form.
F X Galen, C Devaux, A M Houot, J Menard, P Corvol, M T Corvol, M C Gubler, F Mounier, J P Camilleri
The National Cooperative Gallstone Study was a double-masked trial conducted to determine the efficacy and safety of chenodeoxycholic acid (chenodiol) for dissolution of cholesterol gallstones. Patients with radiolucent gallstones were randomly allocated to either a high dose (750 mg/d, n = 305) or low dose (375 mg/d, n = 306) of chenodiol or placebo (n = 305) administered for 2 yr. Specimens of gallbladder bile were obtained for biliary lipid analysis on 50% of all white obtained for biliary lipid analysis on 50% of all white patients at base line and after 3-mo therapy, on 45% at 12 mo, and on 36% at 24 mo. Among these specimens, 20% were inadequate for analysis. For analysis of data, available values during therapy were averaged up to time of dissolution, study exit, or study termination. In the high-dose group, percent chenodiol (molar percent of all bile acids) increased markedly and remained high during the 2 yr of follow-up. Also, molar percent cholesterol decreased significantly and remained low during the 2 yr of follow-up. In the low-dose group, percent chenodiol increased and remained significantly increased. Percent cholesterol saturation decreased at 3 mo, but at 24 mo it was not different from that in the placebo group, suggesting a physiological adaptation to the low dose by 2 yr. 79% of patients on high dose had greater than 70% chenodiol. Among these, half showed unsaturated bile (less than 100% cholesterol saturation) while the remainder were supersaturated; in the former group with unsaturated bile, 23% had complete dissolution and 51% had partial (greater than 50% reduction in stone size) or complete dissolution. In contrast, those with over 70% chenodiol and supersaturated bile had only 5% complete dissolution. Thus, development of unsaturated bile was a major factor associated with gallstone dissolution. The data also indicate that values for percent cholesterol saturation were a better predictor of gallstone dissolution than molar percent chenodiol, although a high percent chenodiol usually was required to obtain unsaturation.
S M Grundy, S P Lan, J Lachin
Previously we reported that chronic renal failure in rats leads to preferential disaggregation of liver membrane-bound polysomes associated with a decrease in albumin synthesis. To determine whether reduced albumin synthesis results from reduced cellular levels of albumin messenger RNA (mRNA) or some other molecular mechanism, we have employed mRNA-DNA hybridization in conjunction with cell-free protein synthesis to determine albumin mRNA sequence content and biological activity in subcellular fractions from control and uremic rat liver. Using high specific activity albumin [3H]-complementary DNA prepared from purified-albumin mRNA, we found that total liver polysomes and albumin mRNA sequence content are increased in uremic animals. The extra polysomes are located within the membrane-bound subcellular fraction. These polysomes, however, have reduced ability to synthesize albumin in the cell-free system, and mRNA isolated from membrane-bound polysomes of uremic liver showed reduced albumin synthesis. Evaluation of albumin mRNA size by hybridization analysis revealed a reduced content of intact albumin mRNA molecules per microgram of RNA in the liver of uremic animals. This was associated with increased ribonuclease activity in uremic cytosol. The diminished albumin synthesis by membrane-bound polysomes of uremic rat liver can, therefore, be explained by enhanced degradation of albumin mRNA.
M A Zern, S H Yap, R K Strair, G A Kaysen, D A Shafritz
We have examined various biochemical parameters of pulmonary inflammation in experimental animals. Intrabronchial instillation of glucose oxidase-glucose (GO/G) to produce oxidants or formylated norleu-leu-phe (FNLP) or phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) as leukocytic stimuli induced severe acute pulmonary injury in New Zealand white rabbits. PMA also induced inflammation when administered intravenously. Each stimulus induced transudation of protein from the vascular space into the pulmonary tissues, and an influx of leukocytes during the 4-6 h period of the experiment. Pathophysiologic changes were measured by edema formation (transudation of 125I-bovine serum albumin), and histologic examination. Biochemical analysis was performed by measuring concentrations of potentially injurious agents in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid. Increased acid protease and myeloperoxidase levels were found in the BAL fluid after administration of either of the stimuli. Evidence of oxidant generation in vivo was obtained in two different ways. In the first, specific activities for catalase were measured in the BAL fluid in the presence or absence of 3-amino, 1,2,4 triazole (AT), injected at intervals before obtaining BAL fluid. In the presence of AT, specific activities for catalase dropped to 0.22 after a double instillation of FNLP and to 0.15 in the presence of GO/G. In neutrophil-depleted FNLP animals, catalase was not greatly inhibited by AT (sp act 0.90). In the second, intracellular levels of total glutathione (GSH + GSSG) in whole lung tissue and alveolar macrophages decreased when stimuli of neutrophils were administered. Intrabronchially instilled PMA, e.g., caused a drop of glutathione in whole lung tissue from the control value of 2.3 mumol GSH equivalent/100 mg dry wt to 0.54 mumol GSH equivalent/100 mg dry wt at 4 h. Neutrophil depletion and superoxide dismutase protected from this effect. From these results, we conclude that O-2 or its metabolites can initiate severe pulmonary injury as shown by the effect of GO/G and that, during development of pulmonary injury, stimulated neutrophils generate oxidants and release proteolytic enzymes into the surrounding tissues.
I U Schraufstätter, S D Revak, C G Cochrane
We have studied the relationship between in vivo insulin-mediated glucose disposal rates, muscle glycogen content, and muscle glycogen synthase activity in 25 southwest American Indians with normal glucose tolerance and with varying degrees of glucose intolerance. Insulin-mediated glucose disposal (M) was measured by using the hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp technique at plasma insulin concentrations of 134 +/- 7 and 1709 +/- 72 microU/ml, with simultaneous indirect calorimetry to assess glucose oxidation and storage rates. Muscle glycogen content and glycogen synthase activity were measured in percutaneous muscle biopsy samples obtained from the vastus lateralis muscle before and after the euglycemic clamp procedure. The results showed that muscle glycogen synthase activity at the end of the euglycemic clamp was well correlated with insulin-mediated glucose storage rates at both low (r = 0.50, P less than 0.02) and high (r = 0.78, P less than 0.0001) insulin concentrations; and also correlated with M (r = 0.66, P less than 0.001 and r = 0.76, P less than 0.0001). Similar correlations were observed between the change in muscle glycogen synthase activity and glucose storage rates and M. The change in muscle glycogen synthase activity correlated with the change in muscle glycogen content (r = 0.46, P less than 0.03) measured before and after the insulin infusions. The change in muscle glycogen content did not correlate with glucose storage rates or M. The data suggest the possible importance of glycogen synthesis in muscle in determining in vivo insulin-mediated glucose disposal rates in man.
C Bogardus, S Lillioja, K Stone, D Mott
Implanted foreign bodies are highly susceptible to pyogenic infections and represent a major problem in modern medicine. In an effort to understand the pathogenesis of these infections, we studied the phagocytic function in the vicinity of a foreign body by using a recently developed guinea pig model of Teflon tissue cages subcutaneously implanted (Zimmerli, W., F.A. Waldvogel, P. Vaudaux, and U.E. Nydegger, 1982, J. Infect. Dis., 146:487-497). Polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) purified from tissue cage fluid had poor bactericidal activity against a catalase-positive microorganism. When compared with blood or exudate PMN, they exhibited a significant reduction in their ability to generate superoxide in response to a particulate or a soluble stimulus (72 and 57%, respectively, P less than 0.001). Not only their total contents in myeloperoxidase, beta-glucuronidase, lysozyme, and B12 binding protein were significantly reduced (by 62, 21, 47, and 63%, respectively, P less than 0.01), but also their capability for further secretion of residual B12 binding protein upon stimulation. Ingestion rates of endotoxin-coated opsonized oil particles were reduced by 25% (P less than 0.05). In an effort to reproduce these abnormalities in vitro, fresh peritoneal exudate PMN were incubated with Teflon fibers in the presence of plasma. Interaction of PMN with the fibers led to significant increases in hexose monophosphate shunt activity and exocytosis of secondary granules (P less than 0.01). PMN eluted after such interaction showed defective bactericidal activity, oxidative metabolism, and granular enzyme content similar to those observed in tissue cage PMN. The local injection of fresh blood PMN into tissue cages at the time of, or 3 h after, inoculation with 100 microorganisms (Staphylococcus aureus Wood 46) reduced the infection rate from 50 to 56 cages to 1 of 21 (P less than 0.001) and 3 of 8 cages (P less than 0.001), respectively. These results suggest that the in vivo as well as in vitro interaction of PMN with a nonphagocytosable foreign body induces a complex PMN defect, which may be partly responsible for the high susceptibility to infection of foreign bodies.
W Zimmerli, P D Lew, F A Waldvogel
Dual parameter flow cytometry studies (cell DNA content and electronic cell volume) were performed in 220 cases of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. All cases were characterized as B or T cell malignancies, based on immunologic surface marker characteristics. Aneuploidy by flow cytometry was more common among the B cell lymphomas than among the T cell lymphomas, and was most common among the large B cell lymphomas and B cell lymphomas of intermediate size. Ploidy index distributions showed a prominent hyperdiploid peak, as well as tumor cell populations with near-tetraploid DNA contents. In serial studies, a decrease in ploidy index was observed in association with clinical and histologic transformation in one case. The highest S fractions were observed among the large and intermediate B cell lymphomas and among the aggressive T cell lymphomas. In clinical samples consisting of mixtures of diploid and aneuploid populations, the data on the aneuploid components could often be separated from other components of the mixture in multiparameter studies on the basis of the larger electronic cell volumes of the aneuploid cells. In each case, the aneuploid large cell component almost invariably had a higher S fraction than the residual component(s) of the mixture. Overall, the data are consistent with a model of clonal selection and clonal evolution in the lymphomas in which early cytogenetic abnormalities that involve little or no change in total cell DNA content are followed by cell tetraploidization that is associated with cytogenetic instability and chromosome loss over the course of time.
S E Shackney, A M Levine, R I Fisher, P Nichols, E Jaffe, W H Schuette, R Simon, C A Smith, S J Occhipinti, J W Parker
The guinea pig is much like humans in the cells and mediators involved in immediate hypersensitivity reactions. However, the major anaphylactic antibody in this species is IgG1, not IgE. Recently, we have been successful in producing IgE antibody in guinea pigs. The current study examined whether guinea pig IgE antibody could mediate pulmonary smooth muscle contraction. IgE antibody to picryl and oxazolone determinants was induced by immunizing Hartley strain guinea pigs pretreated with cyclophosphamide. Hyperimmune serum from these animals was passed through a heavy chain-specific anti-IgG1 affinity column. The presence of IgE anti-hapten antibody in the filtrate fraction was verified by passive cutaneous anaphylaxis (PCA) testing with a 7-d period of local passive sensitization and by heat lability (56 degrees C X 4 h) of PCA activity. This IgE-rich fraction, and purified IgG1 anti-hapten antibody were transferred to normal guinea pigs. Both fractions sensitized trachea and pulmonary parenchyma for antigen-induced smooth muscle contraction. The IgG1-mediated antigen-induced contractile response was not affected by heat (56 degrees C X 4 h) and was inhibited in a dose-dependent fashion by IgG1 blocking antibody (anti-OA). The IgE-mediated antigen-induced contractile response was significantly decreased by heat and was not affected by the anti-OA blocking antibody even at a concentration of 100 mg/kg. Thus, two antigen-specific factors in guinea pig serum can mediate antigen-induced pulmonary smooth muscle contraction: IgG1 and IgE antibodies. Our data also suggests that these antibodies mediate the contractile response through separate receptors. The finding that guinea pig IgE can mediate pulmonary smooth muscle contraction suggests this species can be a model for IgE-mediated events in the lung.
F M Graziano, L Gundersen, L A Larson, P Harley, C K Buckner
Bone that was virtually depleted of the vitamin K-dependent protein, osteocalcin, and 93% reduced in the concentration of its characteristic amino acid, gamma-carboxyglutamic acid, was obtained from rats treated with warfarin for 6 wk. Osteocalcin-deficient bone particles were resistant to resorption when implanted subcutaneously in normal rats. The relative resorption was 60% of control bone, as measured by histomorphometry as percent of bone particles in the field. Additionally, the number of multinucleated cells around the bone particles was reduced by 54%. These data suggest that osteocalcin is an essential component for bone matrix to elicit progenitor-cell recruitment and differentiation necessary for bone resorption.
J B Lian, M Tassinari, J Glowacki
The interaction of inflammatory cells and glomerular prostaglandins (PG) may be important during glomerulonephritis. We therefore examined the influence of platelet-activating factor (PAF), (a mediator of inflammation released from leukocytes) and of phagocytosis of zymosan on arachidonic acid metabolism and on cell contractility in rat glomerular mesangial cells in culture. PAF increased PGE2 synthesis (determined by radioimmunoassay) within minutes (threshold: 10(-10)M; maximal effect: 10(-7)M). Serum-treated zymosan also stimulated PGE2, but with a slower onset. In cells prelabeled with [14C]arachidonic acid both PAF and serum-treated zymosan released 14C from phospholipids and increased free [14C]arachidonate. The ratio of 14C-release to PGE2 was, however, different with PAF and serum-treated zymosan, indicating different phospholipid pools. Under phase-contrast microscopy, PAF caused contraction of mesangial cells with a dose-response and time-course parallel to that for PGE2 synthesis. Serum-treated zymosan caused no contraction. The PAF-induced contraction was enhanced by PG synthesis inhibition and was attenuated by addition of PGE2, indicating a feedback mechanism. The mesangial contraction by PAF may be important in favoring deposition of immune complexes, while the PGE2 synthesis stimulated by PAF and by phagocytosis of zymosan may counteract the deleterious effects of PAF during induction of glomerulonephritis.
D Schlondorff, J A Satriano, J Hagege, J Perez, L Baud
A 6-yr-old girl with T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is described. She had a mediastinal mass and her leukemic cells expressed T cell-associated antigens (Leu 1+, OKT3+, OKT9+, and OKT10+). When we examined genomic DNA from the leukemic cells, we detected Ig mu-chain gene rearrangement with germ-line configuration of light chain genes. As reported recently, detecting Ig gene rearrangement has become an important procedure for further classifying B cell precursor cells. This case, however, suggests that there is also heterogeneity among patients with T cell ALL, not only at the level of cell surface phenotypes, but also at the level of the Ig gene. These findings have major implications when we consider both the ontogenesis of these leukemic cells and the normal differentiation of human lymphocytes.
K Ha, M Minden, N Hozumi, E W Gelfand
The effect of human beta-endorphin (h beta E) infusion (0.2 mg/h) on glucose homeostasis was studied in 10 conscious overnight fasted dogs in which endocrine pancreatic function was fixed at basal levels with somatostatin plus intraportal replacement of basal insulin and glucagon. h beta E caused a fall in plasma glucose from 107 +/- 5 to 76 +/- 6 mg/dl by 3 h (P less than 0.01). This was due to a 25% fall in tracer-determined glucose production (Ra; P less than 0.01). A significantly larger fall in Ra was observed in four dogs in which hypoglycemia was prevented by use of an exogenous glucose infusion (45 vs. 25%, P less than 0.05). These changes occurred in the absence of changes in circulating levels of insulin, glucagon, epinephrine, norepinephrine, and cortisol. We conclude that the naturally occurring opioid peptide, beta-endorphin, inhibits glucose production by the liver in vivo. This appears to be a direct effect of the opioid on the liver, since the inhibition took place in the absence of changes in the other hormones measured. These results suggest that endorphins act on glucose homeostasis in a complex way, both by affecting other glucoregulatory hormones as demonstrated elsewhere, and by directly modulating hepatic glucose production as shown here.
P M Radosevich, P E Williams, J R McRae, W W Lacy, D N Orth, N N Abumrad